Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.674
Filtrar
1.
Nursing ; 51(3): 48-52, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674536

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Bacterial vaginosis increases the risk of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, and treatment is crucial to avoid complications. This article reviews the evidence-based options for treating bacterial vaginosis to improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Vaginose Bacteriana/enfermagem , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/complicações , Vaginose Bacteriana/fisiopatologia
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 172, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Swingers are members of a heterosexual couple who, as a couple, have sex with others. They constitute a hidden subpopulation that is at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study aimed to determine swingers' level of awareness about the STI risk (indicators: bisexual behaviour, number of sex partners, and STI status) of their swing sex partners (i.e. alters). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data were collected from a convenience sample of swingers who visited our STI clinic. The sample consisted of 70 participants (i.e. egos) and their 299 swing sex partners (i.e. alters) who had undergone an STI test at our clinic. We compared network data (i.e. information that egos provided about alters) and data stored in the electronic patient record (EPR) in our clinic (i.e. information provided by alters themselves). We assessed the agreement (correct estimation, overestimation and underestimation) between the network data and EPR data using chi-squared tests. RESULTS: Egos underestimated the bisexual behaviours of 37% of their male alters and overestimated the number of sex partners of 54 and 68% of their male and female alters, respectively. Egos correctly estimated the STI statuses of only 22% of the alters who had an STI during the past six months. CONCLUSIONS: The participating swingers underestimated the bisexual behaviours of their male swing sex partners, overestimated their number of sex partners, and underestimated their positive STI status. Underestimating their alters' STI statuses can cause swingers to underestimate their own STI risk and fail to implement preventive measures. The latter finding has implications for STI prevention. Therefore, more attention should be paid to swingers in general and the promotion of actual partner notification and STI testing among swingers in specific.


Assuntos
Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sexualidade , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle
3.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 16(2): 115-120, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625042

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review considers the potential and demonstrated impacts of SARS-CoV-2 on the sexually transmissible infection (STI)/HIV transmission. RECENT FINDINGS: COVID-19 increases the vulnerability of those at highest risk of acquiring STI/HIV. Altered health-seeking behaviour, reductions in STI/HIV clinic capacity, service disruptions and redeployment of human resources to assist COVID-19 control efforts have impacted on STI/HIV control programmes. Reports of reduced STI incidence are emerging, but it is hard to determine whether this is real or due to decreased testing during COVID-19 lockdown periods. Fear of COVID-19 and implemented control measures have altered STI/HIV transmission dynamics. Sexual health services adapted to the pandemic by reducing face-to-face patient encounters in favour of telehealth and mail-based initiatives as well as more stringent triage practice. Many sexual health and HIV treatment services now operate at reduced capacity and experience ongoing service disruptions, which necessarily translates into poorer outcomes for patients and their communities. SUMMARY: In the short-term, COVID-19 related sexual behaviour change is driving STI/HIV transmission downwards. However, the impacts of the global COVID-19 response on sexual health-seeking behaviour and STI/HIV services threaten to drive STI/HIV transmission upwards. Ultimately, the expected rebound in STI/HIV incidence will require an appropriate and timely public health response. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/COID/A31.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Incidência , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão
5.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 25(1): 101044, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical improvements following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may increase high-risk behaviors resulting in sexually transmitted infections (STI). Optimism related to the success of HAART in slowing disease progression, reducing viral load, and improving health status might be important factors for increasing sexual risk behaviors such as less use of condoms. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, syphilis, hepatitis B and C, high-risk HPV, and cervical cytological abnormalities among women living with HIV (WLHIV) who attended a Reference Center for STI/AIDS in Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 151 WLHIV attending an STI Clinic in Vitória city, Brazil. A structured questionnaire, including demographic, behavioral, and clinical information, was used for data collection. Serological tests for HIV, syphilis, hepatitis C and B, CD4 counts, and viral load determination were performed. Cervical samples were collected for cytology and real-time PCR for HPV,Chlamydia, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. RESULTS: In this study, 59% of women had at least one diagnosed STI at the time of the first clinic visit; 31% had clinical forms of anogenital HPV, 10% syphilis, 8%Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 5.0% trichomoniasis, 3% Chlamydia trachomatis, 1% hepatitis B, and 1% hepatitis C; 6.7% of the women presented with cervical cytological abnormalities. Furthermore, 46.3% of women had HR-HPV, and 17.6% had HPV 16/18. Only 5% of the women had a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3, 61.6% had undetectable HIV viral load, and 81.3% were currently on HAART. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of STI and HR-HPV infections were observed among HIV-infected women in this investigation. Prevention programs need to focus on counseling WLHIV and their regular partners with focused interventions such as couples counseling and education programs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Infecções por HIV , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Papillomavirus Humano 16 , Papillomavirus Humano 18 , Humanos , Prevalência , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503149

RESUMO

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a global health problem with variable prevalence depending on the geographical region and the type of population. Human papillomavirus (HPV) encompasses widespread virus types related to cervical carcinogenesis. The present study investigated the molecular prevalence of HPV and seven other important STIs in asymptomatic women working or studying at a Brazilian university. A secondary aim was to assess cytological abnormalities associated with HPV and other STIs coinfections. We recruited 210 women from a Brazilian university. HPV was detected using a single-round polymerase chain reaction (sPCR) followed by a viral genotyping by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR). The presence of seven STIs: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma genitalium, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2 was detected by multiplex PCR (M-PCR). Furthermore, cytological findings and epidemiological characteristics were evaluated.The mean age of the participants was 27.1 years old. HPV prevalence was 33.8%, and HPV16 was the most frequently detected papillomavirus genotype. Moreover, multiple HPV infections were common (42.2%). We detected at least one STI agent in 11.4% of the tested women, most frequently C. trachomatis (6.7%). Among HPV-positive women, 14.1% were coinfected with other STI agents. Cytological abnormalities were observed in 9.5% of smears, and HPV-DNA, high-risk HPV (HR-HPV), HPV16 and HPV multiple infections were associated with abnormal cytological findings. There was a high prevalence of HPV, and C. trachomatis was the most prevalent STI agent, with low rates of cytological abnormalities. These findings highlight the need of timely STI diagnosis in young asymptomatic women and of a public policy design for STI prevention.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Alphapapillomavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genes Virais , Genótipo , Humanos , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Prevalência , Universidades
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 59, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female adolescents and young women have the highest risk of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) globally. Data on the prevalence of STIs among young women in Uganda are limited. In this study, we investigated the time trends and correlates of STIs among adolescent girls and young women (15-24 years) in Uganda. METHODS: We estimated the percentage of women 15-24 years from three recent consecutive Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys (2006, 2011, and 2016), who reported suffering from genital sores, and or genital discharge or any other varginal complaints acquired after sexual intercourse within 12 months of the studies and examined the changes over time. A pooled multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the correlates of reporting an STI in the last 12 months preceding the study. Svyset command in Stata was used to cater for the survey sample design. RESULTS: The pooled self-reported STI prevalence was 26.0%. Among these young women, 22.0, 36.3, and 23.1% reported a sexually transmitted infection in 2006, 2011, and 2016 respectively. Between 2006 and 2011, there was evidence of change (+ 14.3%, p < 0.001) in STI prevalence before a significant reduction (- 12.0%, p< 0.001) in 2016. Youths aged 20-24 years reported a higher STI prevalence (27.3%) compared to young participants (23.6%). Correlates of reporting an STI among rural and urban young women were: having multiple total lifetime partners (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4-1.6), being sexually active in the last 4 weeks (aOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6), and being affiliated to Muslim faith (aOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.6) or other religions (aOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.9) as compared to Christian were more likely to report an STI. Living in Northern Uganda compared to living in Kampala city was found protective against STIs (aOR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.7). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of STIs was high among female youths, 15-24 years. This highlights the need for a comprehensive STIs screening, surveillance, and treatment programme to potentially reduce the burden of STIs in the country.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Programas de Rastreamento , Prevalência , Autorrelato , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 98, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study estimated the prevalence of curable sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections (STIs/RTIs) among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) in rural Zambia, evaluated the effectiveness of syndromic management of STIs/RTIs versus reference-standard laboratory diagnoses, and identified determinants of curable STIs/RTIs during pregnancy. METHODS: A total of 1086 pregnant women were enrolled at ANC booking, socio-demographic information and biological samples were collected, and the provision of syndromic management based care was documented. The Piot-Fransen model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of syndromic management versus etiological testing, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify determinants of STIs/RTIs. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 25.6 years and a mean gestational age of 22.0 weeks. Of 1084 women, 700 had at least one STI/RTI (64.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 61.7, 67.4). Only 10.2% of infected women received any treatment for a curable STI/RTI (excluding syphilis). Treatment was given to 0 of 56 women with chlamydia (prevalence 5.2%; 95% CI, 4.0, 6.6), 14.7% of participants with gonorrhoea (prevalence 3.1%; 95% CI, 2.2, 4.4), 7.8% of trichomoniasis positives (prevalence 24.8%; 95% CI, 22.3, 27.5) and 7.5% of women with bacterial vaginosis (prevalence 48.7%; 95% CI, 45.2, 51.2). An estimated 7.1% (95% CI, 5.6, 8.7) of participants had syphilis and received treatment. Women < 20 years old were more likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.01; 95% CI: 1.23, 19.44) to have gonorrhoea compared to women ≥30. The odds of trichomoniasis infection were highest among primigravidae (aOR = 2.40; 95% CI: 1.69, 3.40), decreasing with each subsequent pregnancy. Women 20 to 29 years old were more likely to be diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis compared to women ≥30 (aOR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.10). Women aged 20 to 29 and ≥ 30 years had higher odds of infection with syphilis, aOR = 3.96; 95% CI: 1.40, 11.20 and aOR = 3.29; 95% CI: 1.11, 9.74 respectively, compared to women under 20. CONCLUSIONS: Curable STIs/RTIs were common and the majority of cases were undetected and untreated. Alternative approaches are urgently needed in the ANC setting in rural Zambia.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multivariada , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Infecções do Sistema Genital/diagnóstico , Infecções do Sistema Genital/parasitologia , População Rural , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/parasitologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Tricomoníase/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 95, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recommendations for sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening vary significantly across countries. This study evaluated the prevalence of urogenital and extragenital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) in patients visiting a French STI clinic in the Indian Ocean region to determine whether current STI screening practices should be updated. METHODS: This cross-sectional study examined all patients who visited the STI clinic between 2014 and 2015. Triplex polymerase chain reaction screening for CT, NG, and MG was performed on urine, vaginal, pharyngeal, and anal specimens (FTD Urethritis Basic Kit, Fast Track Diagnostics, Luxembourg). RESULTS: Of the 851 patients enrolled in the study, 367 were women (367/851, 43.2%) and 484 were men (484/851, 56.0%). Overall, 826 urogenital specimens (826/851, 97.1%), 606 pharyngeal specimens (606/851, 71.2%), and 127 anal specimens (127/851, 14.9%) were taken from enrolled patients. The prevalence of urogenital CT and MG was high in women ≤25 years (19/186, 10.21%; 5/186, 2.69%) and in men who have sex with women ≤30 years (16/212, 7.54%; 5/212, 2.36%). Among patients with urogenital CT infection, 13.7% (7/51) had urethritis. All patients with urogenital MG infection were asymptomatic. Men who have sex with men had a high prevalence of pharyngeal CT (2/45, 4.44%) and NG (3/44, 6.81%) and a high prevalence of anal CT (2/27, 7.41%), NG (2/27, 7.40%), and MG (1/27, 3.70%). After excluding patients with concomitant urogenital infection, extragenital infections with at least 1 of the 3 pathogens were found in 20 swabs (20/91, 21.9%) taken from 16 patients (16/81, 19.7%), all of them asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS: Routine multisite screening for CT, NG, and MG should be performed to mitigate the transmission of STIs in high-risk sexually active populations.


Assuntos
Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Canal Anal/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Faringe/microbiologia , Prevalência , Reunião/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Sistema Urogenital/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 35(1): 15-22, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400589

RESUMO

Prior sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are associated with higher rates of subsequent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but the influence of prior STIs on perceived vulnerability to HIV remains unclear. We aimed to assess this relationship, hypothesizing that a prior STI diagnosis is associated with higher self-assessed vulnerability to HIV. We performed a cross-sectional study of men and transgender individuals who have sex with men screening for HIV prevention trials in Philadelphia. An unadjusted regression analysis found no significant association between prior STI and HIV risk perception (p = 0.71) or HIV anxiety (p = 0.32). Multivariate logistic regression models that controlled for predetermined potential cofounders known to impact HIV risk-such as condom use, preexposure prophylaxis use, and demographics-also failed to show statistically significant associations between prior STI and HIV risk perception (p = 0.87) or HIV anxiety (p = 0.10). Furthermore, there was no effect modification by HIV preventive behaviors on the relationship between prior STI and HIV vulnerability. These data suggest that a gap exists between how clinicians may attribute individual HIV risk and how individuals view their own vulnerability at a given moment in time. Future research should focus on the dynamic relationship between perceived HIV vulnerability, STI diagnosis, and adoption of preventive behavior to determine better, individualized targets for HIV prevention interventions.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto , Preservativos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero
13.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(1): 56-61, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315752

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review considers the potential and demonstrated impacts of SARS-CoV-2 on the sexually transmissible infection (STI)/HIV transmission. RECENT FINDINGS: COVID-19 increases the vulnerability of those at highest risk of acquiring STI/HIV. Altered health-seeking behaviour, reductions in STI/HIV clinic capacity, service disruptions and redeployment of human resources to assist COVID-19 control efforts have impacted on STI/HIV control programmes. Reports of reduced STI incidence are emerging, but it is hard to determine whether this is real or due to decreased testing during COVID-19 lockdown periods. Fear of COVID-19 and implemented control measures have altered STI/HIV transmission dynamics. Sexual health services adapted to the pandemic by reducing face-to-face patient encounters in favour of telehealth and mail-based initiatives as well as more stringent triage practice. Many sexual health and HIV treatment services now operate at reduced capacity and experience ongoing service disruptions, which necessarily translates into poorer outcomes for patients and their communities. SUMMARY: In the short-term, COVID-19 related sexual behaviour change is driving STI/HIV transmission downwards. However, the impacts of the global COVID-19 response on sexual health-seeking behaviour and STI/HIV services threaten to drive STI/HIV transmission upwards. Ultimately, the expected rebound in STI/HIV incidence will require an appropriate and timely public health response. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/COID/A31.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Incidência , Comportamento Sexual , Saúde Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(12): e2030806, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355675

RESUMO

Importance: There have been concerns that HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may be associated with increases in sexually transmitted infections (STIs) because of subsequent reductions in condom use and/or increases in sexual partners. Objective: To determine trends in STI test positivity among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM) before and after the start of HIV PrEP. Design, Setting, and Participants: A before-after analysis was conducted using a subcohort of a single-group PrEP implementation study cohort in New South Wales, Australia (Expanded PreEP Implementation in Communities in New South Wales [EPIC-NSW]), from up to 1 year before enrollment if after January 1, 2015, and up to 2 years after enrollment and before December 31, 2018. STI testing data were extracted from a network of 54 sexual health clinics and 6 primary health care clinics Australia-wide, using software to deidentify, encrypt, and anonymously link participants between clinics. A cohort of MSM dispensed PrEP for the first time during the study, with 2 or more STI tests in the prior year and who tested during follow-up, were included from the EPIC-NSW cohort of HIV-negative participants with high-risk sexual behavior. Data analysis was performed from June to December 2019. Exposures: Participants were dispensed coformulated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg) and emtricitabine (200 mg) as HIV PrEP. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was STI, measured using test positivity, defined as the proportion of participants testing positive for an STI at least once per quarter of follow-up. Outcomes were calculated for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea by site of infection (anorectal, pharyngeal, urethral, or any) and for syphilis. Results: Of the EPIC-NSW cohort of 9709 MSM, 2404 were included in the before-after analysis. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 36 (10.4) years, and 1192 (50%) were Australia-born. STI positivity was 52% in the year after PrEP (23.3% per quarter; 95% CI, 22.5%-24.2% per quarter) with no significant trend (mean rate ratio [RR] increase of 1.01 per quarter [95% CI, 0.99-1.02]; P = .29), compared with 50% positivity in the year prior to PrEP (20.0% per quarter [95% CI, 19.04%-20.95% per quarter]; RR for overall STI positivity, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.10-1.24]; P < .001), with an increase in quarterly STI positivity (mean RR of 1.08 per quarter, or an 8% increase per quarter [95% CI, 1.05-1.11]; P < .001; RR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.90-0.96]; P < .001). Findings were similar when stratified by specific STIs and anatomical site. Conclusions and Relevance: STI rates were high but stable among high-risk MSM while taking PrEP, compared with a high but increasing trend in STI positivity before commencing PrEP. These findings suggest the importance of considering trends in STIs when describing how PrEP use may be associated with STI incidence.


Assuntos
Emtricitabina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374820

RESUMO

With the introduction of fentanyl to illegal markets in 2013 and an overall rise in rates of synthetic opioid use, opioid-related deaths have increased significantly. A similar trend has been observed for sexually transmitted infections, homicides, and poor mental health outcomes. In this paper, we explore the spatiotemporal relationship between opioid death rates and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates in counties from the Northeast region of the United States between the years 2012-2017. We hypothesized that rates for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) would all be positively associated with opioid death rates and that there would be a similar association between the STI rates and later time periods relative to earlier time periods. A negative binomial mixed-effects regression model was employed to assess these associations. Contrary to the study hypothesis, opioid death rates were not found to be significantly associated with the STI rates after accounting for other demographic and socioeconomic variables, with the exception of opioid deaths and gonorrhea in urban counties. Additionally, the regression demonstrated a significant association between infection rate and time period beyond the included socioeconomic variables and opioid deaths. Overall, this study indicates that declining sexual health outcomes may parallel rising opioid death, though both trends may be explained by similar underlying factors related to time period.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Infecções por Chlamydia , Gonorreia , Infecções por HIV , Humanos , New England/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espaço-Temporal
17.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 274, 2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are the most common communicable diseases that affect the health and life of people. Even though there is little information on the prevalence of STIs in Ethiopia, the problem is likely similar to other developing countries. Therefore, the objective of this study was to measure STIs related care-seeking behavior and associated factors among reproductive-age women in Ethiopia. METHODS: The study was based on the data from the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). Information on STIs related care-seeking was extracted from the individual women dataset. A total of 474 (weighted) reproductive age women (15-49 years) who reported STIs or STI symptoms were included in the study. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to assess factors associated with STIs related care-seeking behavior. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) was used to show the strength of associations between the outcome and independent variables. Variables with a p value of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The prevalence of STIs related care-seeking behavior among women was 33.3% (95% CI 29.2-37.3%). STIs related care-seeking behavior was significantly associated with higher women educational status (AOR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.03, 0.87), having a husband working an unskilled job (AOR = 6.99, 95% CI 1.34, 36.48), women who did not know their husband's job (AOR = 12.79, 95% CI 2.24, 73.11), having an educated husband (AOR = 5.66, 95% CI 1.36, 23.51), being currently pregnant (AOR = 4.87, 95% CI 1.93, 12.28), being in the richer (AOR = 4.68, 95% CI 1.52, 14.39) and richest (AOR = 6.89, 95% CI 1.90, 24.81) wealth index. CONCLUSION: STIs related care-seeking behavior was significantly low among Ethiopian women. Surprisingly, STIs related care-seeking behavior was lower among an educated woman. In contrast, having an educated husband, women who didn't know their husband's job, a husband working an unskilled job, being pregnant, and high wealth status were positively associated with STIs related care-seeking behavior.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Adolescente , Adulto , Demografia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/terapia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 105, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B infection among women deprived of liberty in the state of Roraima, Brazil, and its correlation with perceptions, knowledge and behavioral factors. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study, with simple systematic sampling, conducted at the Public Female Prison in Boa Vista, State of Roraima, in 2017. A total of 168 inmates (93.8% of the population) were evaluated by in-person interviews and rapid tests. RESULTS: The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) was 20.2%, being 4.7% HIV, 15.5% syphilis, and 0.0% hepatitis B. Multivariate analysis confirmed as risk factors for acquiring an STI: being over 30 years of age [adjusted odds ratio (OR): 2.57; 95%CI 1.03-6.40); low schooling (adjusted OR: 2.77; 95%CI 1.08-5.05); little knowledge about condom use (adjusted OR: 2.37; 95%CI 1.01-7.31); and believing that there is no risk of contracting syphilis (adjusted OR: 2.36; 95%CI 1.08-6.50). CONCLUSION: The population deprived of liberty is a group of highly vulnerable to STI. The high prevalence of these infections can be explained by knowledge deficits on the subject, distorted perceptions and conditions peculiar to imprisonment, which result in risky behavior. We emphasize the need to implement educational programs for preventing, diagnosing and treating STI for this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
19.
Skinmed ; 18(4): 210-212, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032683

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an infectious disease of recent origin with high transmissibility and mortality. The resulting COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the United States the most, in terms of the number of confirmed cases and fatalities. How other aspects of public health will be impacted by this disease has yet to be fully realized. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), already a major public health crisis, will likely be significantly affected by this pandemic. We address some of the potential implications for STDs in the setting of widespread COVID-19, discussing the sexual transmission of COVID-19 itself, STD co-infection with COVID-19, and changes in STD prevalence secondary to COVID-19. (SKINmed. 2020;18:210-212).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(9): 1509-1513, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076608

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the detection capacities of the laboratories in medical institutions in national sexually transmitted disease (STD) surveillance areas in China. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the applications of STD tests in laboratories of the medical institutions in 105 STD surveillance areas in China, the proportion of each STD test application was calculated and the differences among medical institutions were compared. Results: In 752 medical institutions, the proportions of Treponema pallidum serological test and non-Treponema pallidum serological test applications were 97.5% (733/752) and 91.4% (687/752), respectively. The proportions of gonococcal culture and Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acid test applications were 48.4% (364/752) and 23.4% (176/752), respectively. The application proportions of all tests for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) were less than 40%. In medical institutions at provincial, prefectural and county levels, the application proportions of serological tests of Treponema and non-Treponema were all more than 90%, and the application proportions of gonococcal culture were 66.9% (83/124), 46.9% (197/420) and 47.4% (82/173) respectively, the application proportions of Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acid test were 29.0% (36/124), 25.0% (105/420) and 19.7% (34/173) respectively. The application proportions of syphilis and gonorrhea tests and chlamydia nucleic acid test in public medical institutions were higher than those in private/joint venture medical institutions and higher in dermatological specialized hospitals than those in general hospitals and maternal and child health centers. The application proportions of STD tests in medical institutions in eastern China and central southern China were generally higher than those in other areas, and the lowest was found in northwestern China. Conclusions: Serological tests for syphilis have been carried out widely in medical institutions in all STD surveillance areas in China, but there were insufficient use of tests for gonococcal culture and Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acid. The application proportions of STD tests vary in medical institutions at different levels and with different types and ownerships, and the development of STD testing is unbalanced in different areas. It is necessary to strengthen the capacity building of gonococcal culture and Chlamydia trachomatis nucleic acid test, and strengthen the capacity building of STD testing in grassroots, private/joint venture medical institutions and those in underdeveloped western areas.


Assuntos
Laboratórios , Vigilância da População , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , China/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...