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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 77, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rates of newly diagnosed cases of sexually transmitted diseases, including genital chlamydial infection and gonorrhea, are important for prevention and control of these diseases. However, nationwide rates are not reported in Japan. METHODS: We used the number of cases of sexually transmitted diseases reported by nationwide sentinel surveillance in 2015, together with the number of all disease outpatients in September 2014 at all medical institutions, drawn from the Survey of Medical Institutions of Japan. The number of cases of sexually transmitted diseases in the total population was estimated using the ratio estimation method with the number of all disease outpatients as auxiliary information. This method is currently used for estimating influenza cases from sentinel surveillance data in Japan. RESULTS: The estimated number of newly diagnosed cases per 100,000 population in 2015 in Japan was 244 (95% confidence interval 211-277) for genital chlamydial infection, 87 (95% confidence interval 74-100) for genital herpes, 61 (95% confidence interval 29-93) for condyloma acuminatum, and 89 (95% confidence interval 64-113) for gonorrhea. CONCLUSION: We estimated the nationwide number of newly diagnosed cases of sexually transmitted diseases in Japan from sentinel surveillance data. This provides useful information for public health policy-making.


Assuntos
Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Condiloma Acuminado/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Herpes Genital/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1041, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is one of the most pervasive sexually transmitted infections and has high prevalence in urogenital and extra-urogenital sites among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study investigated anatomical site-specific prevalence and genotypes of CT among MSM recruited from three geographic areas in China. METHODS: We collected urine specimens and anorectal, pharyngeal swab specimens from 379 MSM. CT infection was identified using polymerase chain reaction and CT genotyping was determined by sequences of the ompA gene. RESULTS: The results indicated that the overall prevalence of CT infection was 18.2% (95% confidence intervals [CIs], 13.9-22.5%) and significantly different between the cities (p = 0.048). The infection was most common at the anorectal site (15.6, 95%CIs 11.6-19.5%) followed by urethral (3.2, 95%CIs 1.4-5.0%) and oropharyngeal sites (1.6, 95%CIs 0.3-2.9%). Genotypes D and G were the most common CT strains in this population but genotype D was significantly predominated in Nanjing while genotype G was in Wuhan. No genotype related to lymphogranuloma venereum was found. CT infection was significantly related to the infection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 14.27, 95%CIs 6.02-33.83, p < 0.001) and age. Men older than 40 years old were less likely to have a CT infection as compared to men under 30 years old (aOR 0.37, 95% CIs 0.15-0.93, p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: The high CT infection prevalence, particularly in the anorectal site, among MSM suggests the necessity to development an integrated CT screening and treatment program specifically focusing on this high-risk population. Surveillance of CT infections should be improved by including both infection and genotype based surveys into the current surveillance programs in China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/diagnóstico , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Genótipo , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/genética , Neisseria gonorrhoeae/isolamento & purificação , Faringe/microbiologia , Prevalência , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 23(3): 49-56, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782631

RESUMO

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) during pregnancy remain a public health concern especially in developing countries including The Gambia. This study assessed the knowledge of STIs and its associated factors amongst pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in West Coast region of The Gambia. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used. Two hundred and eighty pregnant women attending antenatal care in Brikama District Hospital, Brikama, and Bandung Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Bandung, who gave their consent, participated in this study. The instrument for data collection was an interviewer administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS for Windows, version 21.0. Level of significance was set at p < 0.05. All the respondents were aware of HIV/AIDS and their main source of information was from health care providers. However, most of them 263 (93.9%) had poor knowledge of STIs. Level of education (p < 0.001) and employment status (p = 0.001) had significant association with level of knowledge of STIs. This study also identified low level of education [AOR: 0.04 (95% CI: 0.01 - 0.35)], and unemployment [AOR: 21.97 (95% CI: 1.57 - 306.65)] as statistically significant predictors of low level of knowledge of STIs amongst the respondents. There is need for mass media campaigns and other public health measures aimed at increasing knowledge of STIs as this will herald effective intervention strategies towards the prevention of STIs.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gâmbia , Humanos , Gravidez , Gestantes/etnologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/transmissão , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
6.
F1000Res ; 82019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583080

RESUMO

Trichomonas vaginalis is the most common, curable non-viral sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. Despite this burden of disease, it is not currently a reportable disease in the United States. Recent advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of T. vaginalis infection are described in this article. This includes updated global and U.S. prevalence data in women and men as well as recent epidemiological data in HIV-infected individuals and pregnant women. Advances in molecular diagnostics are also reviewed, as are data from recent clinical trials regarding the treatment of trichomonas in women.


Assuntos
Tricomoníase/diagnóstico , Tricomoníase/epidemiologia , Tricomoníase/terapia , Coinfecção , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/terapia , Trichomonas vaginalis , Estados Unidos
8.
Metas enferm ; 22(8): 21-27, oct. 2019. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184995

RESUMO

La adopción de la Convención de los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad oficializó un cambio de paradigma de un modelo biomédico a uno social en la comprensión de la discapacidad, permitiendo establecer el foco en su entorno y la importancia de adaptarlo a sus necesidades específicas. Sin embargo, este colectivo sigue haciendo frente a barreras a la hora de ejercer sus derechos. Uno de los mayores obstáculos a los que se enfrentan se produce en el ámbito de la salud, especialmente en la salud sexual y reproductiva, donde las mujeres con discapacidad intelectual conforman el grupo más vulnerable. Este trabajo tiene como propósito presentar el estado de la cuestión en lo que respecta a las desigualdades sociales en salud en materia de salud sexual y reproductiva en mujeres con discapacidad intelectual. Para ello se parte de un planteamiento de la discapacidad intelectual desde el modelo social, posteriormente se hace un análisis de los determinantes sociales en salud en la discapacidad intelectual, para llegar a exponer cuestiones concretas de la salud sexual y reproductiva en mujeres con discapacidad intelectual y que ponen de manifiesto las desigualdades sociales en salud. Ello evidencia la necesidad de generar datos sólidos acerca de su salud y de adaptar la atención sanitaria en el ámbito sexual y reproductivo de esta población


Adopting the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities formalized a change in paradigm from a biomedical to a social model in terms of understanding disability, allowing to place the focus on their setting and the importance of adapting it to their specific needs. However, this group still faces barriers at the time of exercising their rights. One of the major obstacles faced occurs in the health setting, particularly regarding sexual and reproductive health, where women with intellectual disability are the most vulnerable group. The objective of this article is to present the state of the matter regarding social inequalities in health, in the area of sexual and reproductive health in women with intellectual disability. To this aim, we have approached intellectual disability from the social model, with a subsequent analysis of the social determinants in health regarding intellectual disability, in order to finally present specific issues regarding sexual and reproductive health in women with intellectual disability, which show the social inequalities in health. This shows the need to generate solid data about their health, and adapt healthcare in the sexual and reproductive setting for this population


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Iniquidade Social , Saúde Sexual , Saúde Reprodutiva , Deficiência Intelectual , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Atenção à Saúde , Anticoncepcionais/uso terapêutico , Anticoncepcionais Femininos , Delitos Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
10.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 32(5): 440-444, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558009

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of new hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, based on their sexual orientation, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, geographical regions and coinfection with other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). METHODS: This study was carried out at the Sandoval Health Center, reference clinic of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) in Madrid. All HCV seronegative individuals who were reanalyzed for this virus were included, between January 2010 and December 2016. RESULTS: A total of 59 new diagnoses of HCV were diagnosed. The proportion of men who have sex with men (MSM) diagnosed with HCV was 37% in 2010 and 75% in 2016 and was even higher in the group of coinfected with HIV/HCV (94%). A total of 67 seroconverters for HCV were detected (1.2%) of which 100% were MSM. The proportion of HCV seroconverters with HIV was 89%. CONCLUSIONS: HCV infection continues to be a current health problem, especially in HIV-positive MSM.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 185, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497185

RESUMO

Introduction: In 2015, in Dire Dawa administration city, adult HIV prevalence was 3.26 with 9,523 HIV positive population, & 251 annual AIDS deaths. Female sex workers are one of the high-risk groups for contracting HIV. Therefore, this study has assessed the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge, risk perception and condom utilization pattern among female sex workers' in Diredawa city. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 15-June 25, 2016, in Dire Dawa among 156 female sex workers using convenient sampling method. Respondents were interviewed face-to-face using a pretested questionnaire. Training was provided to the data collectors and supervisors. Close supervision was done and double data entry was performed. Then the data were checked for completeness, consistency and entered into Epi Info v3.1 and analyzed using SPSS v20. The descriptive statistical analysis was used to compute frequency, mean, mode and proportion of the findings of this study. The results were presented using tables, charts, graphs, and texts. Results: Among the 156 female sex workers (FSWs), 99 (63.5%) had been working on commercial sex for more than one year, 92 (59%) were usually street-based, and 80 (51.3%) had partners between 2-3 per night. Only, 17 (10.9%) respondents mentioned three and above ways of HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention methods. Less than two-thirds (64.1%) of FSWs used a condom with all partners. One hundred thirty-eight (88.5%) of participants were engaged in unsafe sexual practice at least once since their engagement in sex work. Majority of FSWs (85.3%)) believed that their occupation is hazardous and 145 (92.9%) reported that they were unhappy being a commercial sex worker. Regarding risk perception, 79 (50.64%) and 37 (23.7%) of respondents perceived their chances of contracting HIV/STIs to be high and moderate respectively. Conclusion: Knowledge about HIV/STIs and magnitude of condom utilization were good. However, a high number of unsafe sex and unsatisfactory risk perception attitudes were observed. Thus, a collaborative effort is needed to create awareness regarding risk perception attitude and increase the level of their practice towards the prevention of unsafe sex.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Prevalência , Trabalho Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sexo sem Proteção/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482866

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sexual health among adolescents is crucial for their wellbeing and for global health, as reflected in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. The aim of this study is learn more about the state of sexual health of adolescents in Spain and Asturias, and how it has evolved over time. METHODS: Secondary data on sexual behavior, voluntary interruption of pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections and gender violence from 2011 to 2016 were collected and analyzed. Percentages and averages were used for sexual behavior and rates for the rest of the variables. The difference in the evolution was calculated using the differences-in-differences method and with the percentage increase or decrease for the rates. RESULTS: In the period studied there was an increase in penetrative sex among adolescents (4% in Asturias and 2% in Spain), a decrease in condom use (-5% in Asturias and -10% in Spain) and an increase in the use of the contraceptive pill (12 percentage points in Asturias and 7 in Spain). In relation to the rates, sexually transmitted infections decreased in Asturias (-4%, -18% y -33%, respectively) and gonorrhea increased in Spain (+74%). Rates of abortion (-25% in Asturias, -34% in Spain) and female victims of gender violence (-9% in Asturias, -14% in Spain) decreased in both territories. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of sexually transmitted infections and abortion show great vulnerability in adolescence. It is urgent that we defend sexual rights with comprehensive, effective and universal interventions, such as compulsory sex education in schools and health care for sexual health.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Violência de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Gravidez , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1236, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) in England is a pressing public health concern. Interventions targeting MSM, including information provision that effectively promotes sexual health, are needed. To support such intervention development, it is necessary to understand acceptable ways of delivering sexual health information. We explored the acceptability and potential uses and impacts of delivering sexual health information to MSM through social media and geosocial networking apps or dating apps. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in person or by telephone with 25 MSM resident in England recruited via dating apps and social media advertisements. Interviews explored sexual health information sources, perceptions and uses. Attitudes towards sexual health promotion through social media and dating apps were then discussed. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Sexual health information delivery through social media and dating apps was considered acceptable. Receiving information when browsing social media was viewed positively by most, as people have time to absorb information. In contrast, concerns were expressed that sharing or commenting on social media sexual health information may lead to judgements and discrimination. While social media reaches a high proportion of the population, dating apps can easily target MSM. However, tensions exist between the ability to provide information at an opportune time through dating apps, when users are connecting with new sexual partners, with the potential to adversely affect the app user's experience. Hypothetical and actual uses and impacts of sexual health information ranged from no impact to reading information, sharing with peers, and increased awareness, to influencing healthcare-seeking, decision-making and risk-taking behaviours. Ensuring that information is engaging, positive in tone, not too clinical, focused on building social norms and delivered by trusted organisations were viewed as important for supporting its use. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these findings support the development of new interventions that use dating apps and social media for sexual health promotion.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Aplicativos Móveis , Saúde Sexual , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Georgian Med News ; (292-293): 7-11, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560654

RESUMO

THE AIM OF THE STUDY: determining the features of the clinical manifestations of malassezial infection of the genital organs in men. The main research group included 148 men who revealed the malassezia genital infection. The comparison group included 126 men having been examined for STIs and diagnosed with chlamydia, mycoplasma, trichomonas infection and candidiasis and having not been diagnosed with malassezial infection. To solve the assigned task, the patients have received physical and general clinical and laboratory studies provided by the current regulations of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine, as well as comprehensive clinical and laboratory investigation on STI pathogens; comprehensive clinical and instrumental examination of the urogenital system (ultrasound, urethro- and cystoscopy, X-ray); microscopic and cultural mycological investigations on fungi of the genus Malassezia to establish the etiological diagnosis of malasseziosis. A comparative analysis of the urogenital pathology course and its clinical and morphological manifestations in the patient population has been carried out; it is found that malasseziosis in men usually proceeds chronically with a characteristic tendency of its manifestations to transformation; the clinical manifestations of urogenital malasseziosis in men have a number of features that distinguish it from the manifestations of urogenital pathology of another etiology; urogenital malasseziosis in men almost always reveal manifestations on the skin of the external genital organs and the perigenital area. Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that the malassezial infection of the genitalia in men has certain features of the clinical course and manifestations that should be considered in clinical practice. The problem of urogenital malasseziosis, taking into account the possibility of its spread, the features of diagnosis and treatment, may be considered as an urgent problem of the up-to-date clinical practice, which deserves more complete coverage and further research.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Malassezia/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Infecções Urinárias/diagnóstico , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Ucrânia/epidemiologia , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia , Sistema Urogenital
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514378

RESUMO

Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections throughout the world. Despite the serious complications associated with chronic Ct infections in sexually active women, a screening program is not yet available in Italy. Moreover, HPV/Ct co-infections are also known to occur frequently, increasing the risk of HPV-induced carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Ct infections, the distribution of Ct serovars, and the incidences of Ct/HPV co-infections among women with a recent history of abnormal cervical cytology. Cervical samples were collected from 199 women referred for a gynecological visit following an abnormal Pap test results. All samples were tested for the presence of Ct and HPV DNA using real-time PCR assays; Ct typing of positive samples was performed by PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) targeting the ompA gene. A high percentage of these women (12.8% and 21.7% with or without abnormal cytology on "retesting", respectively) were found to be Ct positive. Serovar F was the most prevalent type in Ct positive women, followed by E and K. Ct/HPV co-infections were detected in 7% (14/199) of enrolled women, with HPV-16, HPV-51, and HPV-52 being most frequently identified in co-infections. This study provides new epidemiological data on the prevalence of Ct and associated HPV infection in women with a recent history of abnormal cervical cytology in Italy, where notification of cases is not mandatory.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia/complicações , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Chlamydia trachomatis/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Displasia do Colo do Útero/microbiologia , Adulto , Chlamydia trachomatis/genética , Coinfecção , Feminino , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Papillomaviridae/genética , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Sorogrupo , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
16.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 138, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual choices and practices of adolescents living in conservative societies, including Morocco, can be influenced either positively or negatively by the prevailing contextual and social norms. These norms not only limit the access to reproductive health information and services but also lead to abstinence among devout adolescents. Thus, identifying contextual risks and protective factors of risky sexual behaviors leading to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in adolescents, as well as exploring perceptions of adolescents, parents and teachers regarding effective intervention preferences could improve the sexual health of adolescents. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs) based on the socio-ecological model as a theoretical framework. Sample groups of adolescents, parents, and teachers were selected from two public middle schools (disadvantaged and advantaged according to socio-economic level) in Taza city, Morocco, from May to July 2016. Participants were polled on protective factors and perceived facilitators of risky sexual behaviors leading to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in adolescents as well on their perception of intervention preferences to reduce the risks. Three sets of data were initially formed, coded, and analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Seventeen FGDs were conducted, including 8 groups of adolescents (28 boys and 28 girls, 14-16 years old), 5 groups of parents (21 males and 5 females), and 4 groups of teachers (13 males and 5 females). Five overall themes seemed to influence risky sexual behaviors in adolescents: (1) risky sexual practices and STIs; (2) the adolescent's social domain; (3) the role of school; (4) media, including internet and social media; and (5) socio-cultural norms. Participants also suggested a number of possible interventions to improve the sexual health of adolescents and to reduce the risk of STIs, which could be applied at multiple levels. CONCLUSIONS: Successful intervention programs should target the multifaceted factors affecting the adolescent's sexual behaviors, from the individual to the societal level. Allowing parents, teachers, and adolescents to work together could help reduce the socio-cultural and personal barriers that prevent effective communication about sexuality. Furthermore, schools can play a vital role in reducing risky sexual behaviors and STI acquisition rates in adolescents by promoting sex education in school curriculum and encouraging adolescents to engage in extracurricular activities and awareness campaigns.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Fatores de Proteção , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Saúde Sexual/educação , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gravidez na Adolescência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saúde Reprodutiva , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16401, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393348

RESUMO

Viral hepatitis is caused by different etiological agents with distinct epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics accounting for significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. Since 1996, the Brazilian Department of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Viral Hepatitis (DIAHV) in collaboration with the Ministry of Defense has been conducting periodic serosurveys of conscripts enlisted for the Brazilian army to assess STI prevalence and obtain data on knowledge and risk factors pertaining to STIs. This article aims to present the hepatitis B (hepatitis B surface antigen - HBsAg) and C (anti-HCV) seroprevalence estimates and risk factors as per the 8th edition of the Conscript Survey performed in 2016.This cross-sectional study was conducted among conscripts across Brazil aged 17 to 22 years from August to December 2016. It included a self-reported questionnaire and blood testing for syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B and C.In total 38,247 conscripts were enrolled; after applying exclusion criteria, 37,282 conscripts were included. The estimated HBsAg and anti-HCV prevalence rates were 0.22% and 0.28%, respectively. Higher HBsAg and anti-HCV prevalence rates were observed in the North Region (0.49%) and in the Central-west Region (0.65%), respectively. Regarding hepatitis B vaccination, 23.5% (n = 8412) of the individuals reported being unvaccinated and 47.4% (n = 16,970) did not know if they had been vaccinated. Among the anti-HCV positive conscripts, 53% (n = 51, 0.56%, P = .049) reported that they had never had sexual intercourse. Regarding self-reported STI status, most of the positive anti-HCV (n = 100, 0.29%, P < .01) and positive HBsAg (n = 76, 0.22%, P = .205) conscripts reported not having a STI. From those who tested positive for HBsAg, 89% (n = 42, 0.28%, P = .005) reported not making consistent use of condoms with steady partners.Our data suggest a low prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among Brazilian young men, and relatively low rates of self-reported HBV immunization. History of STIs, higher number of partners, inconsistent use of condoms, and lack of awareness of routes of transmission were significantly associated with HBV and HCV infections. To achieve the World Health Organization's goal of viral hepatitis elimination, access to hepatitis information, testing, and surveillance need to be improved.


Assuntos
Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Antígenos de Superfície da Hepatite B/sangue , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C/imunologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 120, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are a major public health challenge globally especially among adolescents and young adults in lower-middle-income countries (LMICs) in Africa including Ghana. In light of this, mobile phone innovations are advocated to enhance public health education and prevention of STIs in developing health systems. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed mobile phone usage among adolescents and young adult populations pursuing tertiary education and their use of these technologies in the education and prevention of STIs. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional analytical study among 250 adolescents and young adults aged 18-24 at Ghana's premier and biggest public University. The study was however conducted in only one public university in the Greater Accra region  which potentially poses generalizability challenges due to socio-cultural and economic differences in other regions of the country. Data was collected using structured questionnaire and data analysis done with STATA (version 12.0). Univariate probit regression (VCE, Robust) analysis was used to determine factors associated with adolescents and young adult population's usage of mobile phones in the education and prevention of STIs. RESULTS: Out of the 250 adolescents and young adults interviewed, 99% owned mobile phones. Out of this number, 58% them were smartphone users. Also, it was found that male young adults (Coef. = 1.11, p = 0.000) and young adults who owned a smartphone (Coef. = 0.46, p = 0.013) were more likely to use mobile phones for education and prevention of STIs. CONCLUSION: Mobile phone penetration among young adults is nearly 100% in line with the national trend. Additionally, these young adults largely believe in the use of mobile phone programmes for STIs education and prevention. Moreover, respondents were found to be more comfortable using mobile applications than traditional text messaging or phone calls in STIs education and prevention. Future mobile phone programmes for STIs education and prevention should consider innovating customized mobile applications to promote acceptability by the youth and enhance sustainability of such interventions on STIs in Ghana. Even though this study was conducted in only one public university in Ghana, the findings are nonetheless informative and future researchers could consider using a larger sample size across private and public universities in other regions of the country.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Política de Saúde/tendências , Educação Sexual/métodos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Mensagem de Texto/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 26(1)2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399425

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes in administrative health data are used to identify cases of disease, including sexually transmitted infections (STIs), for population health research. The purpose of this review is to examine the extant literature on the reliability of ICD codes to correctly identify STIs. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of empirical articles in which ICD codes were validated with respect to their ability to identify cases of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Articles that included sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of ICD codes were the target. In addition to keyword searches in PubMed and Scopus databases, we further examined bibliographies of articles selected for full review to maximise yield. RESULTS: From a total of 1779 articles identified, only two studies measured the reliability of ICD codes to identify cases of STIs. Both articles targeted PID, a serious complication of chlamydia and gonorrhoea. Neither article directly assessed the validity of ICD codes to identify cases of chlamydia, gonorrhoea or syphilis independent of PID. Using ICD codes alone, the positive predictive value for PID was mixed (range: 18%-79%). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: While existing studies have used ICD codes to identify STI cases, their reliability is unclear. Further, available evidence from studies of PID suggests potentially large variation in the accuracy of ICD codes indicating the need for primary studies to evaluate ICD codes for use in STI-related public health research.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Saúde da População , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gonorreia , Humanos , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sífilis
20.
Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol ; 2019: 8639510, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379424

RESUMO

Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. Genital self-sampling may facilitate the screening of STIs in hard-to-reach remote populations far from large health care centers and may increase screening rates. The cross-sectional GYNAUTO-STI study was carried out to assess the performance of a novel genital veil (V-Veil-Up Gyn Collection Device, V-Veil-Up Pharma, Ltd., Nicosia, Cyprus) as a genital self-sampling device to collect genital secretions to diagnose STIs by molecular biology as compared to reference clinician-collected genital specimens, in adult African women. Methods: Adult women living in N'Djamena, the capital city of Chad, were recruited from the community and referred to the clinic for women's sexual health "La Renaissance Plus". A clinician obtained an endocervical specimen using flocked swab. Genital secretions were also obtained by self-collection using veil. Both clinician- and self-collected specimens were tested for common curable STIs (including Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Trichomonas vaginalis) and genital Mycoplasma spp. by multiplex real-time PCR (Allplex™ STI Essential Assay, Seegene, Seoul, South Korea). Test positivities for both collection methods were compared by assessing methods agreement, sensitivity, and specificity. Results: A total of 251 women (mean age, 35.1 years) were prospectively enrolled. Only seven (2.8%) women were found to be infected with at least one common STIs [C. trachomatis: 3 (1.2%), N. gonorrhoeae: 1 (0.4%), M. genitalium: 4 (1.6%) and T. vaginalis: 1 (0.4%)], while the prevalence of genital mycoplasmas was much higher (54.2%) with a predominance of Ureaplasma parvum (42.6%). Self-collection by veil was non-inferior to clinician-based collection for genital microorganisms DNA molecular testing, with "almost perfect" agreement between both methods, high sensitivity (97.0%; 95%CI: 92.5-99.2%), and specificity (88.0%; 95%CI: 80.7-93.3%). Remarkably, the mean total number of genital microorganisms detected per woman was 1.14-fold higher in self-collected specimens compared to that in clinician-collected specimens. Conclusions: Veil-based self-collection of female genital secretions constitutes a convenient tool to collect in gentle way cervicovaginal secretions for accurate molecular detection of genital bacteria. Such sampling procedure could be easily implemented in STIs clinics in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Mycoplasma genitalium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Manejo de Espécimes/instrumentação , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma genitalium/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Adulto Jovem
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