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1.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 62(8): 1296-1301, 2021.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497219

RESUMO

Hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV infections are well-known infectious diseases caused by blood products, but recently there have been almost no reports. In 2011, hepatitis E virus (HEV) antibody test was covered by insurance in Japan, and certain numbers of transfusion-transmitted HEV were reported, and five cases were recognized in 2019. As the Japanese Red Cross has started to examine individual NAT of HEV for all blood donors since August 2020, and the number of transfusion-transmitted HEV will decrease. In addition, Trypanosoma cruzi antibody test for selective blood donors has been examined since August 2016, and the risk of Chagas disease infection by blood transfusion will be decreased. In the future, it is important for protecting against the transfusion-transmitted infection to inspect bacterial tests and know the information of emerging infectious disease occurring overseas. When the emerging infectious diseases such as DENV (dengue virus), WNV (West Nile virus), Zika (Zika virus) and CHIKV (chikungunya virus) occur in Japan, it is necessary to stimulate countermeasures and prepare what kind of tests should be performed for blood donors or criteria for blood donation.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Infecções por HIV , Reação Transfusional , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Doadores de Sangue , Transfusão de Sangue , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Humanos , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
3.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(8)2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431761

RESUMO

Acinetobacter variabilis (formerly genospecies 15 sensu Tjernberg and Ursing) has been isolated from humans and animals and was proposed to be a novel species in 2015. A multidrug-resistant A. variabilis isolate, RYU24, was obtained in 2012 from an inpatient in Okinawa, Japan, with no record of overseas travel. The isolate was resistant to carbapenems, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 32 µg ml-1 for imipenem and meropenem; > 1024 µg ml-1 for amikacin, arbekacin, gentamicin and tobramycin; and 8 µg ml-1 for ciprofloxacin. The isolate was found to harbour a 68-kbp plasmid carrying bla NDM-1, which encodes New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase-1 (NDM-1); bla OXA-420, which encodes an OXA-58-like carbapenemase and; armA, which encodes ArmA 16S rRNA methylase conferring pan-aminoglycoside resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a plasmid harbouring the three major drug-resistance genes, bla NDM-1, bla OXA-420 and armA.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Acinetobacter/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , beta-Lactamases/genética , Acinetobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Metiltransferases/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
4.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452296

RESUMO

Over a year into the COVID-19 pandemic, there is growing evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infections among dogs are more common than previously thought. In this study, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was investigated in two dog populations. The first group was comprised of 1069 dogs admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for any given reason. The second group included dogs that shared households with confirmed COVID-19 cases in humans. This study group numbered 78 dogs. In COVID-19 infected households, 43.9% tested ELISA positive, and neutralising antibodies were detected in 25.64% of dogs. Those data are comparable with the secondary attack rate in the human population. With 14.69% of dogs in the general population testing ELISA positive, there was a surge of SARS-CoV-2 infections within the dog population amid the second wave of the pandemic. Noticeably seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in the dog and the human population did not differ at the end of the study period. Male sex, breed and age were identified as significant risk factors. This study gives strong evidence that while acute dog infections are mostly asymptomatic, they can pose a significant risk to dog health. Due to the retrospective nature of this study, samples for viral isolation and PCR were unavailable. Still, seropositive dogs had a 1.97 times greater risk for developing central nervous symptoms.


Assuntos
COVID-19/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/sangue , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Croácia/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444315

RESUMO

In mountain communities like Sebei, Uganda, which are highly vulnerable to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, community-based surveillance plays an important role in the monitoring of public health hazards. In this survey, we explored capacities of village health teams (VHTs) in Sebei communities of Mount Elgon in undertaking surveillance tasks for emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in the context of a changing climate. We used participatory epidemiology techniques to elucidate VHTs' perceptions on climate change and public health and assessed their capacities to conduct surveillance for emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Overall, VHTs perceived climate change to be occurring with wider impacts on public health. However, they had inadequate capacities in collecting surveillance data. The VHTs lacked transport to navigate through their communities and had insufficient capacities in using mobile phones for sending alerts. They did not engage in reporting other hazards related to the environment, wildlife, and domestic livestock that would accelerate infectious disease outbreaks. Records were not maintained for disease surveillance activities and the abilities of VHTs to analyze data were also limited. However, VHTs had access to platforms that could enable them to disseminate public health information. The VHTs thus need to be retooled to conduct their work effectively and efficiently through equipping them with adequate logistics and knowledge on collecting, storing, analyzing, and relaying data, which will improve infectious disease response and mitigation efforts.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Humanos , Uganda/epidemiologia
6.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208667

RESUMO

Dengue fever, caused by the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV), has been endemic in Myanmar since 1970 and it has become a significant public health burden. It is crucial that circulating DENV strains are identified and monitored, and that their transmission efficiency and association with disease severity is understood. In this study, we analyzed DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 serotypes in 1235 serum samples collected in Myanmar between 2017 and 2019. Whole-genome sequencing of DENV-1-4 demonstrated that most DENV-1-4 strains had been circulating in Myanmar for several years. We also identified the emergence of DENV-3 genotype-I in 2017 samples, which persisted through 2018 and 2019. The emergence of the strain coincided with a period of increased DENV-3 cases and marked changes in the serotype dynamics. Nevertheless, we detected no significant differences between serum viral loads, disease severity, and infection status of individuals infected with different DENV serotypes during the 3-year study. Our results not only identify the spread of a new DENV-3 genotype into Yangon, Myanmar, but also support the importance of DENV evolution in changing the epidemic dynamics in endemic regions.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/classificação , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/virologia , Genótipo , Adolescente , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/história , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Mianmar , Filogenia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sorogrupo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
7.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 39(3): 453-465, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215396

RESUMO

The role of the emergency provider lies at the forefront of recognition and treatment of novel and re-emerging infectious diseases in children. Familiarity with disease presentations that might be considered rare, such as vaccine-preventable and non-endemic illnesses, is essential in identifying and controlling outbreaks. As we have seen thus far in the novel coronavirus pandemic, susceptibility, severity, transmission, and disease presentation can all have unique patterns in children. Emergency providers also have the potential to play a public health role by using lessons learned from the phenomena of vaccine hesitancy and refusal.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Pediatria , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/transmissão , Varicela/diagnóstico , Varicela/terapia , Varicela/transmissão , Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Febre de Chikungunya/terapia , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/imunologia , Árvores de Decisões , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/terapia , Dengue/transmissão , Medicina de Emergência , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/diagnóstico , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/transmissão , Humanos , Incidência , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/terapia , Malária/transmissão , Sarampo/diagnóstico , Sarampo/terapia , Sarampo/transmissão , Papel do Médico , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Vacinação , Recusa de Vacinação , Coqueluche/diagnóstico , Coqueluche/terapia , Coqueluche/transmissão , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/terapia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
8.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199978

RESUMO

Rotavirus A (RVA) has been considered the main cause of diarrheal disease in children under five years in emergency services in both developed and developing countries. RVA belongs to the Reoviridae family, which comprises 11 segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as a genomic constellation that encodes for six structural and five to six nonstructural proteins. RVA has been classified in a binary system with Gx[Px] based on the spike protein (VP4) and the major outer capsid glycoprotein (VP7), respectively. The emerging equine-like G3P[8] DS-1-like strains reported worldwide in humans have arisen an important concern. Here, we carry out the complete genome characterization of a previously reported G3P[8] strain in order to recognize the genetic diversity of RVA circulating among infants in Colombia. A near-full genome phylogenetic analysis was done, confirming the presence of the novel equine-like G3P[8] with a Wa-like backbone for the first time in Colombia. This study demonstrated the importance of surveillance of emerging viruses in the Colombian population; furthermore, additional studies must focus on the understanding of the spread and transmission dynamic of this important RVA strain in different areas of the country.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus , Criança , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Genes Virais , Genoma Viral , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 579, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM) is an emerging tick-born pathogen and usually causes symptomatic infection only in immunocompromised patients. Apart from one described case found in the literature where cultivation was successful, all cases so far were diagnosed by using broad-range 16S rDNA PCR. CASE PRESENTATION: Our patient presented with a prolonged febrile state of unknown origin. Clinical presentation, extensive medical workup and classic microbiologic testing were non-conclusive. Several infectious agents and other causes for the febrile state were excluded. In the end, a broad-range 16S rDNA PCR was to be performed to confirm the diagnosis of CNM infection. Treatment was successful with doxycycline. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the obscurity of the pathogen, diagnostic workup in CNM is prolonged and challenging. More awareness is need about this emerging infectious disease in countries with high prevalence of tick-borne diseases as standard microbiological methods are not successful in confirming the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/diagnóstico , Anaplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Anaplasmataceae/genética , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Ixodes/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S/isolamento & purificação , Eslovênia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 577, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging infections, the lack of effective drugs and vaccines increases reliance on non-pharmacologic public health interventions and behavior change to limit human-to-human transmission. Interventions that increase the speed with which infected individuals remove themselves from the susceptible population are paramount, particularly isolation and hospitalization. Ebola virus disease (EVD), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) are zoonotic viruses that have caused significant recent outbreaks with sustained human-to-human transmission. METHODS: This investigation quantified changing mean removal rates (MRR) and days from symptom onset to hospitalization (DSOH) of infected individuals from the population in seven different outbreaks of EVD, SARS, and MERS, to test for statistically significant differences in these metrics between outbreaks. RESULTS: We found that epidemic week and viral serial interval were correlated with the speed with which populations developed and maintained health behaviors in each outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight intrinsic population-level changes in isolation rates in multiple epidemics of three zoonotic infections with established human-to-human transmission and significant morbidity and mortality. These data are particularly useful for disease modelers seeking to forecast the spread of emerging pathogens.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Previsões , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
11.
J Gen Virol ; 102(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166178

RESUMO

Mosquito-transmitted arboviruses constitute a large proportion of emerging infectious diseases that are both a public health problem and a threat to animal populations. Many such viruses were identified in East Africa, a region where they remain important and from where new arboviruses may emerge. We set out to describe and review the relevant mosquito-borne viruses that have been identified specifically in Uganda. We focused on the discovery, burden, mode of transmission, animal hosts and clinical manifestation of those previously involved in disease outbreaks. A search for mosquito-borne arboviruses detected in Uganda was conducted using search terms 'Arboviruses in Uganda' and 'Mosquitoes and Viruses in Uganda' in PubMed and Google Scholar in 2020. Twenty-four mosquito-borne viruses from different animal hosts, humans and mosquitoes were documented. The majority of these were from family Peribunyaviridae, followed by Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, Phenuiviridae and only one each from family Rhabdoviridae and Reoviridae. Sixteen (66.7 %) of the viruses were associated with febrile illnesses. Ten (41.7 %) of them were first described locally in Uganda. Six of these are a public threat as they have been previously associated with disease outbreaks either within or outside Uganda. Historically, there is a high burden and endemicity of arboviruses in Uganda. Given the many diverse mosquito species known in the country, there is also a likelihood of many undescribed mosquito-borne viruses. New generation diagnostic platforms have great potential to identify new viruses. Indeed, four novel viruses, two of which were from humans (Ntwetwe and Nyangole viruses) and two from mosquitoes (Kibale and Mburo viruses) including the 2010 yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreak were identified in the last decade using next generation sequencing. Given the unbiased approach of detection of viruses by this technology, its use will undoubtedly be critically important in the characterization of mosquito viromes which in turn will inform other diagnostic efforts.


Assuntos
Infecções por Arbovirus , Arbovírus , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Infecções por Arbovirus/veterinária , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Arbovírus/classificação , Arbovírus/genética , Arbovírus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Culicidae/virologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Uganda/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/transmissão , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/veterinária
12.
J Biol Dyn ; 15(1): 342-366, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182892

RESUMO

We propose two models inspired by the COVID-19 pandemic: a coupled disease-human behaviour (or disease-game theoretic), and a coupled disease-human behaviour-economic model, both of which account for the impact of social-distancing on disease control and economic growth. The models exhibit rich dynamical behaviour including multistable equilibria, a backward bifurcation, and sustained bounded periodic oscillations. Analyses of the first model suggests that the disease can be eliminated if everybody practices full social-distancing, but the most likely outcome is some level of disease coupled with some level of social-distancing. The same outcome is observed with the second model when the economy is weaker than the social norms to follow health directives. However, if the economy is stronger, it can support some level of social-distancing that can lead to disease elimination.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Teoria do Jogo , Pandemias/economia , Distanciamento Físico , COVID-19 , Humanos
13.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(1): 119-129, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140736

RESUMO

In this paper, the authors: (a) list methods used to diagnose zoonotic diseases in humans and animals; (b) identify between-species differences in diagnostic approaches, providing commentary on the benefits that might arise from simultaneous interpretation of data from human and animal health surveillance systems; and (c) reiterate the importance of using species-specific, validated diagnostic tests for surveillance and disease outbreak investigations. Emerging and endemic zoonotic diseases are likely to provide a continued threat to global health in the short- to medium-term future. A good deal of knowledge about the drivers of infectious disease emergence has been developed based on numerous examples from the recent past. Sharing of diagnostic resources across human and animal health sectors, sharing of human and animal health surveillance data, development of skills in the interpretation of that data and awareness of issues related to the validation and interpretation of diagnostic test data are necessary prerequisites for an effective endemic disease surveillance system. A good understanding of the epidemiological patterns of endemic disease will allow human and animal health professionals be able to more quickly detect the presence of emerging disease threats.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Doenças Transmissíveis , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Saúde Global , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(6): e1009583, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081744

RESUMO

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic reveals a major gap in global biosecurity infrastructure: a lack of publicly available biological samples representative across space, time, and taxonomic diversity. The shortfall, in this case for vertebrates, prevents accurate and rapid identification and monitoring of emerging pathogens and their reservoir host(s) and precludes extended investigation of ecological, evolutionary, and environmental associations that lead to human infection or spillover. Natural history museum biorepositories form the backbone of a critically needed, decentralized, global network for zoonotic pathogen surveillance, yet this infrastructure remains marginally developed, underutilized, underfunded, and disconnected from public health initiatives. Proactive detection and mitigation for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) requires expanded biodiversity infrastructure and training (particularly in biodiverse and lower income countries) and new communication pipelines that connect biorepositories and biomedical communities. To this end, we highlight a novel adaptation of Project ECHO's virtual community of practice model: Museums and Emerging Pathogens in the Americas (MEPA). MEPA is a virtual network aimed at fostering communication, coordination, and collaborative problem-solving among pathogen researchers, public health officials, and biorepositories in the Americas. MEPA now acts as a model of effective international, interdisciplinary collaboration that can and should be replicated in other biodiversity hotspots. We encourage deposition of wildlife specimens and associated data with public biorepositories, regardless of original collection purpose, and urge biorepositories to embrace new specimen sources, types, and uses to maximize strategic growth and utility for EID research. Taxonomically, geographically, and temporally deep biorepository archives serve as the foundation of a proactive and increasingly predictive approach to zoonotic spillover, risk assessment, and threat mitigation.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Biodiversidade , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/normas , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/provisão & distribuição , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/tendências , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/normas , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Redes Comunitárias/normas , Redes Comunitárias/provisão & distribuição , Redes Comunitárias/tendências , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Planejamento em Desastres/normas , Geografia , Saúde Global/normas , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Contramedidas Médicas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
15.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 134, 2021 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016998

RESUMO

Dengue virus (DENV) transmission occurs primarily in tropical and subtropical climates, but within the last decade it has extended to temperate regions. Santa Fe, a temperate province in Argentina, has experienced an increase in dengue cases and virus circulation since 2009, with the recent 2020 outbreak being the largest in the province to date. The aim of this work is to describe spatio-temporal fluctuations of dengue cases from 2009 to 2020 in Santa Fe Province. The data presented in this work provide a detailed description of DENV transmission for Santa Fe Province by department. These data are useful to assist in investigating drivers of dengue emergence in Santa Fe Province and for developing a better understanding of the drivers and the impacts of ongoing dengue emergence in temperate regions across the world. This work provides data useful for future studies including those investigating socio-ecological, climatic, and environmental factors associated with DENV transmission, as well as those investigating other variables related to the biology and the ecology of vector-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009288, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is re-emerging in Armenia since 1999 with 167 cases recorded until 2019. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine for the first time the genetic diversity and population structure of the causative agent of VL in Armenia; (ii) to compare these genotypes with those from most endemic regions worldwide; (iii) to monitor the diversity of vectors in Armenia; (iv) to predict the distribution of the vectors and VL in time and space by ecological niche modeling. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human samples from different parts of Armenia previously identified by ITS-1-RFLP as L. infantum were studied by Multilocus Microsatellite Typing (MLMT). These data were combined with previously typed L. infantum strains from the main global endemic regions for population structure analysis. Within the 23 Armenian L. infantum strains 22 different genotypes were identified. The combined analysis revealed that all strains belong to the worldwide predominating MON1-population, however most closely related to a subpopulation from Southeastern Europe, Maghreb, Middle East and Central Asia. The three observed Armenian clusters grouped within this subpopulation with strains from Greece/Turkey, and from Central Asia, respectively. Ecological niche modeling based on VL cases and collected proven vectors (P. balcanicus, P. kandelakii) identified Yerevan and districts Lori, Tavush, Syunik, Armavir, Ararat bordering Georgia, Turkey, Iran and Azerbaijan as most suitable for the vectors and with the highest risk for VL transmission. Due to climate change the suitable habitat for VL transmission will expand in future all over Armenia. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic diversity and population structure of the causative agent of VL in Armenia were addressed for the first time. Further genotyping studies should be performed with samples from infected humans, animals and sand flies from all active foci including the neighboring countries to understand transmission cycles, re-emergence, spread, and epidemiology of VL in Armenia and the entire Transcaucasus enabling epidemiological monitoring.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/diagnóstico , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Repetições de Microssatélites , Armênia/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/parasitologia , Ecossistema , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem Molecular , Projetos Piloto , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Medição de Risco
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009289, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chikungunya is an arbovirus, transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which emerged in the Americas in 2013 and spread rapidly to almost every country on this continent. In Brazil, where the first cases were detected in 2014, it currently has reached all regions of this country and more than 900,000 cases were reported. The clinical spectrum of chikungunya ranges from an acute self-limiting form to disabling chronic forms. The purpose of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of chikungunya infection in a large Brazilian city and investigate the association between viral circulation and living condition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based ecological study in selected Sentinel Areas (SA) through household interviews and a serologic survey in 2016/2017. The sample was of 1,981 individuals randomly selected. The CHIKV seroprevalence was 22.1% (17.1 IgG, 2.3 IgM, and 1.4 IgG and IgM) and varied between SA from 2.0% to 70.5%. The seroprevalence was significantly lower in SA with high living conditions compared to SA with low living condition. There was a positive association between CHIKV seroprevalence and population density (r = 0.2389; p = 0.02033). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The seroprevalence in this city was 2.6 times lower than the 57% observed in a study conducted in the epicentre of the CHIKV epidemic of this same urban centre. So, the herd immunity in this general population, after four years of circulation of this agent is relatively low. It indicates that CHIKV transmission may persist in that city, either in endemic form or in the form of a new epidemic, because the vector infestation is persistent. Besides, the significantly lower seroprevalences in SA of higher Living Condition suggest that beyond the surveillance of the disease, vector control and specific actions of basic sanitation, the reduction of the incidence of this infection also depends on the improvement of the general living conditions of the population.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/imunologia , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Coletiva , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(3): 264-271, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906988

RESUMO

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and its rapid spread globally emphasizes the ever-present threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. In this review, the pathogen pyramid framework was utilized to identify the "unknown unknowns" associated with the emergence and rapid transmission of novel infectious disease agents. Given that the evolutionary origin of most of the emerging infectious disease agents can be traced to an animal source, we argue the need to integrate the "One Health" approach as a part of surveillance activities. The need for focusing on undertaking global and regional mapping activities to identify novel pathogens is discussed, given that there are an estimated 1.67 million unknown viruses, of which around 631,000 to 827,000 unknown viruses have the capacity to infect human beings. The emerging risks due to the ever-expanding interface between human, animals, both domestic and wildlife, and the environment are highlighted, these are largely driven by the need for safe habitation, growing food, developing infrastructure to support the increasing human population and desire for economic growth. The One Health approach provides a holistic way to address these cross-sectoral issues, by bridging institutional gaps, enumerating priority risk areas and pathogens, and highlighting putative risk factors for subsequent spillover events involving emerging and re-emerging infectious disease pathogens at the human-animal-environment interface.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Saúde Única , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
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