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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237780, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845922

RESUMO

Modeling the behavior of zoonotic pandemic threats is a key component of their control. Many emerging zoonoses, such as SARS, Nipah, and Hendra, mutated from their wild type while circulating in an intermediate host population, usually a domestic species, to become more transmissible among humans, and this transmission route will only become more likely as agriculture and trade intensifies around the world. Passage through an intermediate host enables many otherwise rare diseases to become better adapted to humans, and so understanding this process with accurate mathematical models is necessary to prevent epidemics of emerging zoonoses, guide policy interventions in public health, and predict the behavior of an epidemic. In this paper, we account for a zoonotic disease mutating in an intermediate host by introducing a new mathematical model for disease transmission among three species. We present a model of these disease dynamics, including the equilibria of the system and the basic reproductive number of the pathogen, finding that in the presence of biologically realistic interspecies transmission parameters, a zoonotic disease with the capacity to mutate in an intermediate host population can establish itself in humans even if its R0 in humans is less than 1. This result and model can be used to predict the behavior of any zoonosis with an intermediate host and assist efforts to protect public health.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Vetores de Doenças , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Humanos , Taxa de Mutação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/patogenicidade , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão
3.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(3): 28, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577840

RESUMO

This is an introduction to the topical collection Microbes, Networks, Knowledge: Disease Ecology in the twentieth Century, based on a workshop held at Queen Mary, University London on July 6-7 2016. More than twenty years ago, historian of science and medicine Andrew Mendelsohn asked, "Where did the modern, ecological understanding of epidemic disease come from?" Moving beyond Mendelsohn's answer, this collection of new essays considers the global history of disease ecology in the past century and shows how epidemics and pandemics have made "microbes complex".


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Infecções por Coronavirus , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Humanos
5.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 23(2): 285-297, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327036

RESUMO

Most honeybee diseases are not newly emerging diseases; however, honeybee veterinary medicine and disease understanding are emerging concepts for veterinarians in the United States. Beekeepers in the hobby and commercial sectors need a prescription or veterinary feed directive from a veterinarian to obtain medically important antibiotics for administration to their honeybees. Medically important antibiotics such as oxytetracycline, lincomycin, and tylosin were removed from over-the-counter availability for use in honeybees. There are many other aspects of beekeeping that allow veterinarians to build a strong veterinarian-client patient relationship, and fulfill an integral role alongside apiarists.


Assuntos
Abelhas/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Nosema/fisiologia , Varroidae/fisiologia , Animais , Criação de Abelhas , Abelhas/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/parasitologia
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 92S: S46-S50, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114200

RESUMO

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous dwellers of environmental niches and are an established cause of natural and nosocomial infections. The incidence of NTM infections is rising owing to a growing population of immunocompromised and vulnerable individuals, complex medical and surgical procedures, as well as increased awareness and diagnostic capabilities. The prevalence of different NTM varies between continents, regions, and countries. The true global burden of pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease is unknown and estimates are subject to under and/or over-estimation. Diagnosis requires confirmation by isolation of NTM along with clinical and radiological criteria, which may be suboptimal at all levels. Susceptibility testing is complex and clinical breakpoints are not available for many of the drugs. Frequently, NTM infections are not considered until late in the course of disease. Improved and rapid detection of tuberculosis cases in high-burden countries has, however, also brought NTM infections into the limelight, and has identified a need for research efforts towards rapid diagnostic tests and the identification of biomarkers to monitor the treatment response in patients with NTM infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência
7.
Folia Microbiol (Praha) ; 65(2): 275-291, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026288

RESUMO

Shigella flexneri is a leading etiologic agent of diarrhea in low socioeconomic countries. Notably, various serotypes in S. flexneri are reported from different regions of the world. The precise approximations of illness and death owing to shigellosis are missing in low socioeconomic countries, although it is widespread in different regions. The inadequate statistics available reveal S. flexneri to be a significant food and waterborne pathogen. All over the world, different antibiotic-resistant strains of S. flexneri serotypes have been emerged especially multidrug-resistant strains. Recently, increased resistance was observed in cephalosporins (3rd generation), azithromycin, and fluoroquinolones. There is a need for a continuous surveillance study on antibiotic resistance that will be helpful in the update of the antibiogram. The shigellosis burden can be reduced by adopting preventive measures like delivery of safe drinking water, suitable sanitation, and development of an effective and inexpensive multivalent vaccine. This review attempts to provide the recent findings of S. flexneri related to epidemiology and the emergence of multidrug resistance.


Assuntos
Disenteria Bacilar/microbiologia , Shigella flexneri/fisiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Disenteria Bacilar/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Shigella flexneri/efeitos dos fármacos , Shigella flexneri/genética , Shigella flexneri/isolamento & purificação
9.
Infection ; 48(2): 285-288, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549360

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is increasing evidence indicating an association between invasive non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) infection in pregnancy and early pregnancy loss. As the diagnosis relies on microbiological investigation of post-mortem placental and foetal samples, a significant proportion of NTHi-related pregnancy loss remains unrecognised. To better characterise NTHi in septic abortion, we report NTHi cases associated with early pregnancy loss. METHODS: We reviewed all post-mortems at <24 weeks gestation with histologically proven acute chorioamnionitis on placental histology and enrolled cases with at least one matched foetal and placental sample culture positive for NTHi. The study was approved by the NHS Lothian Caldicott Guardian. RESULTS: In our cohort, invasive NTHi has accounted for 20% of infections associated with early pregnancy loss prior to 24 weeks gestation. All patients were young and healthy pregnant women at < 20 weeks' gestation who presented with abdominal pain, PV bleed /discharge and were septic at the time of presentation. One patient with previous history of miscarriage who presented with cervical incompetence had more severe pathology suggestive of early intrauterine pneumonia. CONCLUSION: The burden of invasive NTHi disease in early pregnancy loss is likely to be much larger than currently recognised. NTHi should be considered in pregnant women presenting with abdominal pain and PV bleed/discharge in whom clinical signs of sepsis are present. Active surveillance should be considered in this patient group including septic abortion to capture the true prevalence of this emerging pathogen to inform preventative and therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/complicações , Adulto , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por Haemophilus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/patologia , Haemophilus influenzae/classificação , Haemophilus influenzae/genética , Humanos , Escócia , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/microbiologia
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 437, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a major public health challenge globally with increasing risks for inter-transmission between pastoralists and cattle in Nigeria. This study was aimed at using molecular tools to establish zoonotic transmission of tuberculosis between pastoralists and their cattle in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Sputum (n = 149) and milk (n = 144) samples from pastoralists and cattle, respectively were screened on the assumption of subclinical infections considering unguarded human-livestock interactions. Isolates obtained were analysed using deletion typing, spoligotyping and 24-Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit-Variable Number Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR). RESULTS: Fifty-four MTC were confirmed by deletion typing and were differentiated accordingly (M. tuberculosis: pastoralists =42, cattle = 2; M. bovis: pastoralists =1; M. africanum: pastoralists =9). Spoligotyping indicated 59.2% Uganda I/SIT46 (pastoralists =28; cattle = 1), 16.3% Latin American Mediterranean/SIT61 (pastoralists =8), 2.0% T/SIT53 (pastoralists =1) strains of M. tuberculosis and new strains of M. bovis and M. africanum. The 24-MIRU-VNTR of selected predominant cluster isolates shared by cattle and pastoralists (Uganda I/SIT46: pastoralists =9; cattle = 1) showed the same number of copies at each of the repetitive loci. CONCLUSIONS: Mycobacterium bovis was confirmed in humans and a reverse zoonotic tuberculosis transmission from an emerging Uganda I M. tuberculosis strain between pastoralists and cattle in Nigeria evidenced by MIRU-VNTR. Using molecular tools will help mitigate disease burden through informed epidemiological insights.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , DNA Bacteriano , Humanos , Leite/microbiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
11.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0208969, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821326

RESUMO

Emerging infectious diseases are a growing threat to biodiversity worldwide. Outbreaks of the infectious disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), are implicated in the decline and extinction of numerous amphibian species. In Costa Rica, a major decline event occurred in 1987, more than two decades before this pathogen was discovered. The loss of many species in Costa Rica is assumed to be due to Bd-epizootics, but there are few studies that provide data from amphibians in the time leading up to the proposed epizootics. In this study, we provide new data on Bd infection rates of amphibians collected throughout Costa Rica, in the decades prior to the epizootics. We used a quantitative PCR assay to test for Bd presence in 1016 anuran museum specimens collected throughout Costa Rica. The earliest specimen that tested positive for Bd was collected in 1964. Across all time periods, we found an overall infection rate (defined as the proportion of Bd-positive individuals) of 4%. The number of infected individuals remained relatively low across all species tested and the range of Bd-positive specimens was shown to be geographically constrained up until the 1980s; when epizootics are hypothesized to have occurred. After that time, infection rate increased three-fold, and the range of specimens tested positive for Bd increased, with Bd-positive specimens collected across the entire country. Our results suggest that Bd dynamics in Costa Rica are more complicated than previously thought. The discovery of Bd's presence in the country preceding massive declines leads to a number of different hypotheses: 1) Bd invaded Costa Rica earlier than previously known, and spread more slowly than previously reported; 2) Bd invaded multiple times and faded out; 3) an endemic Bd lineage existed; 4) an earlier Bd lineage evolved into the current Bd lineage or hybridized with an invasive lineage; or 5) an earlier Bd lineage went extinct and a new invasion event occurred causing epizootics. To help visualize areas where future studies should take place, we provide a Bd habitat suitability model trained with local data. Studies that provide information on genetic lineages of Bd are needed to determine the most plausible spatial-temporal, host-pathogen dynamics that could best explain the epizootics resulting in amphibian declines in Costa Rica and throughout Central America.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/microbiologia , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Quitridiomicetos/patogenicidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/história , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Animais/história , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(12): 2226-2234, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742539

RESUMO

In 2014, antimicrobial drug-resistant Campylobacter jejuni sequence type 6964 emerged contemporaneously in poultry from 3 supply companies in the North Island of New Zealand and as a major cause of campylobacteriosis in humans in New Zealand. This lineage, not previously identified in New Zealand, was resistant to tetracycline and fluoroquinolones. Genomic analysis revealed divergence into 2 major clades; both clades were associated with human infection, 1 with poultry companies A and B and the other with company C. Accessory genome evolution was associated with a plasmid, phage insertions, and natural transformation. We hypothesize that the tetO gene and a phage were inserted into the chromosome after conjugation, leaving a remnant plasmid that was lost from isolates from company C. The emergence and rapid spread of a resistant clone of C. jejuni in New Zealand, coupled with evolutionary change in the accessory genome, demonstrate the need for ongoing Campylobacter surveillance among poultry and humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/história , Campylobacter jejuni/classificação , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Genômica/métodos , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Plasmídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/história , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 947, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the pre-vaccine era, invasive disease with Haemophilus influenzae, type b (Hib) commonly presented with osteoarticular involvement. Haemophilus influenzae, type a (Hia) sepsis is a rare but emerging problem in recent years. Here, we report a case of sepsis with concomitant osteoarthritis due to Hia that was the presenting infectious disease manifestation of isolated asplenia in a young child. This unique observation adds to our understanding of sepsis and asplenia in children. CASE PRESENTATION: A five-year-old girl developed acute Hia bacteremia and sepsis. The patient developed arthritis shortly after onset of septic shock. Arthrocentesis was culture-negative, but given the difficulty differentiating between septic and reactive arthritis, prolonged antibiotic administration was provided for presumed osteoarticular infection, and the patient had an uneventful recovery. The finding of Howell-Jolly bodies on blood smear at the time of presentation prompted an evaluation that revealed isolated congenital asplenia. Evaluation for known genetic causes of asplenia was unrevealing. Investigation by the Minnesota Department of Health revealed an emergence of Hia infections over the past 5 years, particularly in children with an American Indian background. CONCLUSIONS: Hia is an important pathogen in the differential diagnosis of invasive bacterial infections in children and shares overlap in clinical presentation and pathogenesis with Hib. Invasive Hia disease can be a presenting manifestation of asplenia in children. Hia is an emerging pathogen in American Indian children.


Assuntos
Adesinas Bacterianas/sangue , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Haemophilus influenzae/isolamento & purificação , Baço/anormalidades , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Infecções por Haemophilus/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas Anti-Haemophilus , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Minnesota , Receptores de Laminina/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Choque Séptico/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 101(6): 1249-1258, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628739

RESUMO

Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), caused by the bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is transmitted to humans by blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) in eastern North America. To assess the emergence of A. phagocytophilum in Ontario, we analyzed patient serological and clinical data in combination with pathogen detection in blacklegged ticks from 2011 to 2017. Our sample population included all patients who had Anaplasma serological testing ordered by their physicians (n = 851). Eighty-three patients (10.8%) were A. phagocytophilum seropositive (IgG titers ≥ 1:64) and 686 (89.2%) were seronegative (IgG titers < 1:64). Applying published surveillance case definitions, we classified zero as confirmed, five as probable, and 78 as suspected cases. The percentage of seropositive patients remained generally stable at 13.6%. Seropositive patients were most often adult females, 40-59 years of age, and reported nonspecific signs and symptoms, such as fatigue, headache, and fever. Higher seropositivity rates (≥ 1.5 patients per 100,000 population) occurred in eastern and northwestern Ontario. The percentage of A. phagocytophilum-positive blacklegged ticks, through passive and active surveillance, was 0.4 and 1.1%, respectively, and increased over time. Serological and entomological indicators of A. phagocytophilum activity increased in areas of the province with established blacklegged tick populations. The risk of HGA is presently low in Ontario; however, further research is required to document the epidemiology of HGA in the province. To minimize the impact of HGA emergence in Ontario, increased awareness and education of the public and health-care providers is recommended, with consideration to making HGA a reportable infection in Ontario.


Assuntos
Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Anaplasmose/imunologia , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Ixodes/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário/epidemiologia , Testes Sorológicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Future Microbiol ; 14: 1083-1085, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512518

RESUMO

In this exclusive interview, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis discusses current mycology hot topic, Candida auris. With a focus on the current knowns and unknowns for the pathogenesis, resistance and transmission of this emerging fungal pathogen, in addition to a look at therapeutics and future perspectives. This interview was conducted by Ellen Colvin, Commissioning Editor of Future Microbiology. Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis is the Texas 4000 distinguished endowed professor and deputy head in the Division of Internal Medicine at MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston (TX, USA). Dr Kontoyiannis has authored over 550 peer-reviewed manuscripts and has given over 330 lectures in national and international conferences and academic institutions in the USA and abroad. He is considered a leading mycology expert world-wide with an H index of 101 and over 43,000 citations. His research group is credited for many and sustained contributions to clinical, translational and experimental mycology. He is the recipient of many national and international awards and is the past president elect of Immunocompromised Host Society (2016-2018).


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Farmacorresistência Fúngica Múltipla , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Candidíase/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Gerenciamento Clínico , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Prevalência , Texas
16.
mBio ; 10(4)2019 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337723

RESUMO

The most enigmatic aspect of the rise of Candida auris as a human pathogen is that it emerged simultaneously on three continents, with each clade being genetically distinct. Although new pathogenic fungal species are described regularly, these are mostly species associated with single cases in individuals who are immunosuppressed. In this study, we used phylogenetic analysis to compare the temperature susceptibility of C. auris with those of its close relatives and to use these results to argue that it may be the first example of a new fungal disease emerging from climate change, with the caveat that many other factors may have contributed.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Azóis/farmacologia , Aves/microbiologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/patogenicidade , Mudança Climática , Temperatura , Animais , Candidíase/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica Múltipla , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Filogenia
17.
Dermatology ; 235(5): 434-439, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichophyton violaceumis an anthropophilic dermatophyte, endemic in Africa and recently an emerging pathogen in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To perform a retrospective analysis of dermatophytoses due to T. violaceum between 2007 and 2018, in order to evaluate epidemiological trends in Southern Switzerland (Ticino). METHODS: We reviewed all medical records of patients affected by dermatophytosis due to T. violaceum between January 2007 and December 2018 in Bellinzona (Ticino, Switzerland). RESULTS: Dermatophytoses due to T. violaceumwas diagnosed in 44 patients, 33 of which were in the last 4 years. The most affected sex was female (25/44) and the most frequent diagnosis was tinea capitis (30/44). The majority of tinea capitis patients were children younger than 13 years of age (27/30). The main source of contagion were people from endemic areas, especially from Eritrea. CONCLUSION: In Southern Switzerland T. violaceumhas been rarely diagnosed before 2014. Its increased occurrence seems linked to increased migratory flows from Eritrea. Since it is responsible mainly for tinea capitis, with most of the time no clearly defined alopecia patches, it is important to consider it as a possible diagnosis when facing scalp scaling. Tinea capitis due to T. violaceum is a benign affection, but if left untreated it can spread epidemically, especially among children in schools and kindergartens. Mycological examination is then required, not only for a correct diagnosis and epidemiological data, but also for planning the appropriate treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Tinha/epidemiologia , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antifúngicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suíça/epidemiologia , Tinha/microbiologia , Tinha/transmissão , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/terapia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(29): 14645-14650, 2019 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262813

RESUMO

Novel parasites can have wide-ranging impacts, not only on host populations, but also on the resident parasite community. Historically, impacts of novel parasites have been assessed by examining pairwise interactions between parasite species. However, parasite communities are complex networks of interacting species. Here we used multivariate taxonomic and trait-based approaches to determine how parasite community composition changed when African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) acquired an emerging disease, bovine tuberculosis (BTB). Both taxonomic and functional parasite richness increased significantly in animals that acquired BTB than in those that did not. Thus, the presence of BTB seems to catalyze extraordinary shifts in community composition. There were no differences in overall parasite taxonomic composition between infected and uninfected individuals, however. The trait-based analysis revealed an increase in direct-transmitted, quickly replicating parasites following BTB infection. This study demonstrates that trait-based approaches provide insight into parasite community dynamics in the context of emerging infections.


Assuntos
Búfalos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Parasitos/genética , Tuberculose Bovina/imunologia , Animais , Búfalos/imunologia , Búfalos/microbiologia , Bovinos , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Parasitos/imunologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , África do Sul , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia
19.
Clin Microbiol Rev ; 32(4)2019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270126

RESUMO

Campylobacter is among the four main causes of gastroenteritis worldwide and has increased in both developed and developing countries over the last 10 years. The vast majority of reported Campylobacter infections are caused by Campylobacter jejuni and, to a lesser extent, C. coli; however, the increasing recognition of other emerging Campylobacter pathogens is urgently demanding a better understanding of how these underestimated species cause disease, transmit, and evolve. In parallel to the enhanced clinical awareness of campylobacteriosis due to improved diagnostic protocols, the application of high-throughput sequencing has increased the number of whole-genome sequences available to dozens of strains of many emerging campylobacters. This has allowed for comprehensive comparative pathogenomic analyses for several species, such as C. fetus and C. concisus These studies have started to reveal the evolutionary forces shaping their genomes and have brought to light many genomic features related to pathogenicity in these neglected species, promoting the development of new tools and approaches relevant for clinical microbiology. Despite the need for additional characterization of genomic diversity in emerging campylobacters, the increasing body of literature describing pathogenomic studies on these species deserves to be discussed from an integrative perspective. This review compiles the current knowledge and highlights future work toward deepening our understanding about genome dynamics and the mechanisms governing the evolution of pathogenicity in emerging Campylobacter species, which is urgently needed to develop strategies to prevent or control the spread of these pathogens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Evolução Biológica , Campylobacter/classificação , Campylobacter/patogenicidade , Genômica , Humanos
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