Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.607
Filtrar
1.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 591-600, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846611

RESUMO

Examination of the vaccine strategies and technical platforms used for the COVID-19 pandemic in the context of those used for previous emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and pandemics may offer some mutually beneficial lessons. The unprecedented scale and rapidity of dissemination of recent emerging infectious diseases pose new challenges for vaccine developers, regulators, health authorities and political constituencies. Vaccine manufacturing and distribution are complex and challenging. While speed is essential, clinical development to emergency use authorization and licensure, pharmacovigilance of vaccine safety and surveillance of virus variants are also critical. Access to vaccines and vaccination needs to be prioritized in low- and middle-income countries. The combination of these factors will weigh heavily on the ultimate success of efforts to bring the current and any future emerging infectious disease pandemics to a close.


Assuntos
/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Vacinas/imunologia , Vacinas contra Cólera/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra Dengue/imunologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Farmacovigilância , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/imunologia , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia
4.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(2): 193-202, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were implemented by many countries to reduce the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causal agent of COVID-19. A resurgence in COVID-19 cases has been reported in some countries that lifted some of these NPIs. We aimed to understand the association of introducing and lifting NPIs with the level of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, as measured by the time-varying reproduction number (R), from a broad perspective across 131 countries. METHODS: In this modelling study, we linked data on daily country-level estimates of R from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (London, UK) with data on country-specific policies on NPIs from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker, available between Jan 1 and July 20, 2020. We defined a phase as a time period when all NPIs remained the same, and we divided the timeline of each country into individual phases based on the status of NPIs. We calculated the R ratio as the ratio between the daily R of each phase and the R from the last day of the previous phase (ie, before the NPI status changed) as a measure of the association between NPI status and transmission of SARS-CoV-2. We then modelled the R ratio using a log-linear regression with introduction and relaxation of each NPI as independent variables for each day of the first 28 days after the change in the corresponding NPI. In an ad-hoc analysis, we estimated the effect of reintroducing multiple NPIs with the greatest effects, and in the observed sequence, to tackle the possible resurgence of SARS-CoV-2. FINDINGS: 790 phases from 131 countries were included in the analysis. A decreasing trend over time in the R ratio was found following the introduction of school closure, workplace closure, public events ban, requirements to stay at home, and internal movement limits; the reduction in R ranged from 3% to 24% on day 28 following the introduction compared with the last day before introduction, although the reduction was significant only for public events ban (R ratio 0·76, 95% CI 0·58-1·00); for all other NPIs, the upper bound of the 95% CI was above 1. An increasing trend over time in the R ratio was found following the relaxation of school closure, bans on public events, bans on public gatherings of more than ten people, requirements to stay at home, and internal movement limits; the increase in R ranged from 11% to 25% on day 28 following the relaxation compared with the last day before relaxation, although the increase was significant only for school reopening (R ratio 1·24, 95% CI 1·00-1·52) and lifting bans on public gatherings of more than ten people (1·25, 1·03-1·51); for all other NPIs, the lower bound of the 95% CI was below 1. It took a median of 8 days (IQR 6-9) following the introduction of an NPI to observe 60% of the maximum reduction in R and even longer (17 days [14-20]) following relaxation to observe 60% of the maximum increase in R. In response to a possible resurgence of COVID-19, a control strategy of banning public events and public gatherings of more than ten people was estimated to reduce R, with an R ratio of 0·71 (95% CI 0·55-0·93) on day 28, decreasing to 0·62 (0·47-0·82) on day 28 if measures to close workplaces were added, 0·58 (0·41-0·81) if measures to close workplaces and internal movement restrictions were added, and 0·48 (0·32-0·71) if measures to close workplaces, internal movement restrictions, and requirements to stay at home were added. INTERPRETATION: Individual NPIs, including school closure, workplace closure, public events ban, ban on gatherings of more than ten people, requirements to stay at home, and internal movement limits, are associated with reduced transmission of SARS-CoV-2, but the effect of introducing and lifting these NPIs is delayed by 1-3 weeks, with this delay being longer when lifting NPIs. These findings provide additional evidence that can inform policy-maker decisions on the timing of introducing and lifting different NPIs, although R should be interpreted in the context of its known limitations. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust Institutional Strategic Support Fund and Data-Driven Innovation initiative.


Assuntos
Número Básico de Reprodução , Modelos Teóricos , Quarentena , /prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
5.
In Vivo ; 35(2): 1285-1294, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622932

RESUMO

The severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 and has caused a pandemic known as corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), responsible for the death of more than 2 million people worldwide. The outbreak of COVID-19 has posed an unprecedented threat on human lives and public safety. The aim of this review is to describe key aspects of the bio-pathology of the novel disease, and discuss aspects of its spread, as well as targeted protective strategies that can help shape the outcome of the present and future health crises. Greece is used as a model to inhibit SARS-COV-2 spread, since it is one of the countries with the lowest fatality rates among nations of the European Union (E.U.), following two consecutive waves of COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, niche research technological approaches and scientific recommendations that emerged during the COVID-19 era are discussed.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , /isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , /virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Geografia , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , /fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Trends Parasitol ; 37(3): 179-181, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33487571

RESUMO

Spatiobehavioral characteristics are stable for, and hence predictive of, most cases of contagious diseases. They should be acknowledged as a formal way of defining the epidemiology of new contagious diseases at the early stage, enabling health authorities to implement precision control and prevention of the disease at the first moment possible.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Epidemiologia/tendências , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
9.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(4): 1407-1419, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512572

RESUMO

Bats as flying mammals are potent vectors and natural reservoir hosts for many infectious viruses, bacteria, and fungi, also detected in their excreta such as guano. Accelerated deforestation, urbanization, and anthropization hastily lead to overpopulation of the bats in urban areas allowing easy interaction with other animals, expansion, and emergence of new zoonotic disease outbreaks potentially harmful to humans. Therefore, getting new insights in the microbiome of bat guano from different places represents an imperative for the future. Furthermore, the use of novel high-throughput sequencing technologies allows better insight in guano microbiome and potentially indicated that some species could be typical guano-dwelling members. Bats are well known as a natural reservoir of many zoonotic viruses such as Ebola, Nipah, Marburg, lyssaviruses, rabies, henipaviruses, and many coronaviruses which caused a high number of outbreaks including ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, many bacterial and fungal pathogens were identified as common guano residents. Thus, the presence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria as environmental reservoirs of extended spectrum ß-lactamases and carbapenemase-producing strains has been confirmed. Bat guano is the most suitable substrate for fungal reproduction and dissemination, including pathogenic yeasts and keratinophilic and dimorphic human pathogenic fungi known as notorious causative agents of severe endemic mycoses like histoplasmosis and fatal cryptococcosis, especially deadly in immunocompromised individuals. This review provides an overview of bat guano microbiota diversity and the significance of autochthonous and pathogenic taxa for humans and the environment, highlighting better understanding in preventing emerging diseases. KEY POINTS: Bat guano as reservoir and source for spreading of autochthonous and pathogenic microbiota Bat guano vs. novel zoonotic disease outbreaks Destruction of bat natural habitats urgently demands increased human awareness.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/microbiologia , Fezes/química , Microbiota , Animais , Biodiversidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Reservatórios de Doenças , Humanos
10.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 40(2): 204-211, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476187

RESUMO

The US has experienced a series of epidemics during the past five decades. None has tested the nation's resilience like the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has laid bare critical weaknesses in US pandemic preparedness and domestic leadership and the nation's decline in global standing in public health. Pandemic response has been politicized, proven public health measures undermined, and public confidence in a science-based public health system reduced. This has been compounded by the large number of citizens without ready access to health care, who are overrepresented among infected, hospitalized, and fatal cases. Here, as part of the National Academy of Medicine's Vital Directions for Health and Health Care: Priorities for 2021 initiative, we review the US approach to pandemic preparedness and its impact on the response to COVID-19. We identify six steps that should be taken to strengthen US pandemic resilience, strengthen and modernize the US health care system, regain public confidence in government leadership in public health, and restore US engagement and leadership in global partnerships to address future pandemic threats domestically and around the world.


Assuntos
Defesa Civil , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Liderança , Saúde Pública , Resiliência Psicológica , Assistência à Saúde , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 151, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420058

RESUMO

Mosquito-borne viruses threaten the Caribbean due to the region's tropical climate and seasonal reception of international tourists. Outbreaks of chikungunya and Zika have demonstrated the rapidity with which these viruses can spread. Concurrently, dengue fever cases have climbed over the past decade. Sustainable disease control measures are urgently needed to quell virus transmission and prevent future outbreaks. Here, to improve upon current control methods, we analyze temporal and spatial patterns of chikungunya, Zika, and dengue outbreaks reported in the Dominican Republic between 2012 and 2018. The viruses that cause these outbreaks are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which are sensitive to seasonal climatological variability. We evaluate whether climate and the spatio-temporal dynamics of dengue outbreaks could explain patterns of emerging disease outbreaks. We find that emerging disease outbreaks were robust to the climatological and spatio-temporal constraints defining seasonal dengue outbreak dynamics, indicating that constant surveillance is required to prevent future health crises.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Febre de Chikungunya/prevenção & controle , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Dengue/transmissão , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Adulto Jovem , Zika virus/isolamento & purificação , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
12.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 21(3): 149-159, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316200

RESUMO

Objective: This review describes the current scenario of a priority group of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) listed by World Health Organization (WHO), and their main determinants and drivers for the emergence/spread of the diseases. The gaps and strategies developed by India to meet the WHO guidelines on the effective control of epidemic-prone diseases and outbreaks are also presented in the review. Methods: Epidemiologic information of EIDs, namely Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), Ebola and Marburg viruses (EboV and MarV), Zika virus (ZIKAV), Rift Valley fever (RVF), Middle East respiratory syndrome, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Nipah and Hendra virus (NiV and HeV), and Lassa fever virus (LASV), was drawn from international and national electronic databases to assess the situation. A brief view on the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in India is also included. Results: There are no reports for human infection of EboV, MarV, RVF, and LASV in India. CCHF, SARS, ZIKAV, and NiV have been involved in outbreaks in eight states of India, while COVID-19 is currently reported from majority of states. India has deeply strengthened its surveillance and response system of outbreaks and epidemic-prone diseases. Conclusions: Despite its enormous improvements made in the anticipation of such threats, still more efforts are needed in sensitization of populations as well as hospital management in the context to EIDs, as addressed in the review. Furthermore, there is still a need for more research and development activities to efficiently control EIDs.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , /epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
13.
Malar J ; 19(1): 386, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138814

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a considerable impact on other health programmes in countries, including on malaria, and is currently under much discussion. As many countries are accelerating efforts to eliminate malaria or to prevent the re-establishment of malaria from recently eliminated countries, the COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to cause major interruptions to ongoing anti-malaria operations and risk jeopardizing the gains that have been made so far. Sri Lanka, having eliminated malaria in 2012, was certified by the World Health Organization as a malaria-free country in 2016 and now implements a rigorous programme to prevent its re-establishment owing to the high receptivity and vulnerability of the country to malaria. Sri Lanka has also dealt with the COVID-19 epidemic quite successfully limiting the cumulative number of infections and deaths through co-ordinated efforts between the health sector and other relevant sectors, namely the military, the Police Department, Departments of Airport and Aviation and Foreign Affairs, all of which have been deployed for the COVID-19 epidemic under the umbrella of a Presidential Task Force. The relevance of imported infections and the need for a multi-sectoral response are features common to both the control of the COVID-19 epidemic and the Prevention of Re-establishment (POR) programme for malaria. Sri Lanka's malaria POR programme has, therefore, creatively integrated its activities with those of the COVID-19 control programme. Through highly coordinated operations the return to the country of Sri Lankan nationals stranded overseas by the COVID-19 pandemic, many from malaria endemic countries, are being monitored for malaria as well as COVID-19 in an integrated case surveillance system under quarantine conditions, to the success of both programmes. Twenty-three imported malaria cases were detected from February to October through 2773 microscopic blood examinations performed for malaria in quarantine centres, this number being not much different to the incidence of imported malaria during the same period last year. This experience highlights the importance of integrated case surveillance and the need for a highly coordinated multi-sectoral approach in dealing with emerging new infections. It also suggests that synergies between the COVID-19 epidemic control programme and other health programmes may be found and developed to the advantage of both.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Malária/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Malária/complicações , Malária/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Viagem , Doença Relacionada a Viagens
14.
Front Immunol ; 11: 583077, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101309

RESUMO

Despite the success of vaccination to greatly mitigate or eliminate threat of diseases caused by pathogens, there are still known diseases and emerging pathogens for which the development of successful vaccines against them is inherently difficult. In addition, vaccine development for people with compromised immunity and other pre-existing medical conditions has remained a major challenge. Besides the traditional inactivated or live attenuated, virus-vectored and subunit vaccines, emerging non-viral vaccine technologies, such as viral-like particle and nanoparticle vaccines, DNA/RNA vaccines, and rational vaccine design, offer innovative approaches to address existing challenges of vaccine development. They have also significantly advanced our understanding of vaccine immunology and can guide future vaccine development for many diseases, including rapidly emerging infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, and diseases that have not traditionally been addressed by vaccination, such as cancers and substance abuse. This review provides an integrative discussion of new non-viral vaccine development technologies and their use to address the most fundamental and ongoing challenges of vaccine development.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Nanopartículas , Vacinação , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia
15.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2130, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013898

RESUMO

In the last decades, a number of infectious viruses have emerged from wildlife or re-emerged, generating serious threats to the global health and to the economy worldwide. Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers, Lassa fever, Dengue fever, Yellow fever, West Nile fever, Zika, and Chikungunya vector-borne diseases, Swine flu, Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and the recent Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are examples of zoonoses that have spread throughout the globe with such a significant impact on public health that the scientific community has been called for a rapid intervention in preventing and treating emerging infections. Vaccination is probably the most effective tool in helping the immune system to activate protective responses against pathogens, reducing morbidity and mortality, as proven by historical records. Under health emergency conditions, new and alternative approaches in vaccine design and development are imperative for a rapid and massive vaccination coverage, to manage a disease outbreak and curtail the epidemic spread. This review gives an update on the current vaccination strategies for some of the emerging/re-emerging viruses, and discusses challenges and hurdles to overcome for developing efficacious vaccines against future pathogens.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Facilitadores/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunização Passiva , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia
16.
Yale J Biol Med ; 93(4): 579-585, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005122

RESUMO

Not only do epidemics such as HIV/AIDS, Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), and the current Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) cause the loss of millions of lives, but they also cost the global economy billions of dollars. Consequently, there is an urgent need to formulate interventions that will help control their spread and impact when they emerge. The education of young girls and women is one such historical approach. They are usually the vulnerable targets of disease outbreaks - they are most likely to be vehicles for the spread of epidemics due to their assigned traditional roles in resource-limited countries. Based on our work and the work of others on educational interventions, we propose six critical components of a cost-effective and sustainable response to promote girl-child education in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Infecções por Coronavirus , Identidade de Gênero , Saúde Global , Educação em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Saúde Global/economia , Saúde Global/educação , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
20.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 140, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028426

RESUMO

Most human pathogens originate from non-human hosts and certain pathogens persist in animal reservoirs. The transmission of such pathogens to humans may lead to self-sustaining chains of transmission. These pathogens represent the highest risk for future pandemics. For their prevention, the transmission over the species barrier - although rare - should, by all means, be avoided. In the current COVID-19 pandemic, surprisingly though, most of the current research concentrates on the control by drugs and vaccines, while comparatively little scientific inquiry focuses on future prevention. Already in 2012, the World Bank recommended to engage in a systemic One Health approach for zoonoses control, considering integrated surveillance-response and control of human and animal diseases for primarily economic reasons. First examples, like integrated West Nile virus surveillance in mosquitos, wild birds, horses and humans in Italy show evidence of financial savings from a closer cooperation of human and animal health sectors. Provided a zoonotic origin can be ascertained for the COVID-19 pandemic, integrated wildlife, domestic animal and humans disease surveillance-response may contribute to prevent future outbreaks. In conclusion, the earlier a zoonotic pathogen can be detected in the environment, in wildlife or in domestic animals; and the better human, animal and environmental surveillance communicate with each other to prevent an outbreak, the lower are the cumulative costs.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Animais/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Saúde Única , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...