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2.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(3): 28, 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577840

RESUMO

This is an introduction to the topical collection Microbes, Networks, Knowledge: Disease Ecology in the twentieth Century, based on a workshop held at Queen Mary, University London on July 6-7 2016. More than twenty years ago, historian of science and medicine Andrew Mendelsohn asked, "Where did the modern, ecological understanding of epidemic disease come from?" Moving beyond Mendelsohn's answer, this collection of new essays considers the global history of disease ecology in the past century and shows how epidemics and pandemics have made "microbes complex".


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Infecções por Coronavirus , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Humanos
3.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 6-17, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532933

RESUMO

Since December 2019, the emergence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been reported unexpectedly in Wuhan, China, with staggering infection speed across China and around the world. To date, seven known strains of HCoVs belonging to four genera (i.e., α?, ß?, γ, and δ-CoV) have been recognized; the latest one has been identified as the SARS-CoV-2. Although the common transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 is the respiratory tract, it seems that other routes such as the gastrointestinal tract may be effective for the entry of the virus in the body. Although there are no biological markers to predict the susceptibility of humans to COVID-19, several risk factors have been identified to predict the susceptibility of patients to COVID-19. Initial data revealed that males, pregnant women, elderly, and underlying conditions predispose patients to higher morbidity or mortality and also might be at risk for a severe infection of COVID-19. There is a greater need to better understand the mechanisms and risk factors of transmission routes. To date, despite the whole world effort to review various aspects of SARS-CoV-2, including epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment options, there are still gaps in the knowledge of this disease and many issues remain unclear. Therefore, there is an urgent need for update data on SARS-CoV-2. Here, this study provide the current epidemiological status (transmission routes and risk of transmission, possible origins and source, mortality and morbidity risk, and geographical distribution) of the SARS-CoV-2 in the world in 2020.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Saúde Global , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Masculino , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/transmissão , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Fatores Sexuais , Zoonoses
4.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 18(8): 461-471, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528128

RESUMO

Most viral pathogens in humans have animal origins and arose through cross-species transmission. Over the past 50 years, several viruses, including Ebola virus, Marburg virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2, have been linked back to various bat species. Despite decades of research into bats and the pathogens they carry, the fields of bat virus ecology and molecular biology are still nascent, with many questions largely unexplored, thus hindering our ability to anticipate and prepare for the next viral outbreak. In this Review, we discuss the latest advancements and understanding of bat-borne viruses, reflecting on current knowledge gaps and outlining the potential routes for future research as well as for outbreak response and prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Quirópteros/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Viroses/virologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pesquisa/tendências , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(4): e1008409, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287326

RESUMO

The continual emergence of novel influenza A strains from non-human hosts requires constant vigilance and the need for ongoing research to identify strains that may pose a human public health risk. Since 1999, canine H3 influenza A viruses (CIVs) have caused many thousands or millions of respiratory infections in dogs in the United States. While no human infections with CIVs have been reported to date, these viruses could pose a zoonotic risk. In these studies, the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS) network collaboratively demonstrated that CIVs replicated in some primary human cells and transmitted effectively in mammalian models. While people born after 1970 had little or no pre-existing humoral immunity against CIVs, the viruses were sensitive to existing antivirals and we identified a panel of H3 cross-reactive human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs) that could have prophylactic and/or therapeutic value. Our data predict these CIVs posed a low risk to humans. Importantly, we showed that the CEIRS network could work together to provide basic research information important for characterizing emerging influenza viruses, although there were valuable lessons learned.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Furões , Cobaias , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Estados Unidos , Zoonoses/transmissão
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008146, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidiosis is an emerging infectious disease of public health significance worldwide. The burden of disease caused by Cryptosporidium varies between and within countries/areas. To have a comprehensive understanding of epidemiological status and characteristics of human Cryptosporidium infection in China since the first report in 1987, a retrospective epidemiological analysis was conducted by presenting differences in the prevalence of Cryptosporidium by province, year, population, living environment and season and possible transmission routes and risk factors as well as genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A systematic search was conducted to obtain epidemiological papers of human Cryptosporidium infection/cryptosporidiosis from PubMed and Chinese databases. Finally, 164 papers were included in our analysis. At least 200,054 people from 27 provinces were involved in investigational studies of Cryptosporidium, with an average prevalence of 2.97%. The prevalence changed slightly over time. Variable prevalences were observed: 0.65-11.15% by province, 1.89-47.79% by population, 1.77-12.87% and 0-3.70% in rural and urban areas, respectively. The prevalence peak occurred in summer or autumn. Indirect person-to-person transmission was documented in one outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in a pediatric hospital. 263 Cryptosporidium isolates were obtained, and seven Cryptosporidium species were identified: C. hominis (48.3%), C. andersoni (22.43%), C. parvum (16.7%), C. meleagridis (8.36%), C. felis (3.04%), C. canis (0.76%) and C. suis (0.38%). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCES: This systematic review reflects current epidemiological status and characteristics of Cryptosporidium in humans in China. These data will be helpful to develop efficient control strategies to intervene with and prevent occurrence of human Cryptosporidium infection/cryptosporidiosis in China as well as have a reference effect to other countries. Further studies should focus on addressing a high frequency of C. andersoni in humans and a new challenge with respect to cryptosporidiosis with an increasing population of elderly people and patients with immunosuppressive diseases.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(3): e1007679, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150536

RESUMO

Despite medical advances, the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases continue to pose a public health threat. Low-dimensional epidemiological models predict that epidemic transitions are preceded by the phenomenon of critical slowing down (CSD). This has raised the possibility of anticipating disease (re-)emergence using CSD-based early-warning signals (EWS), which are statistical moments estimated from time series data. For EWS to be useful at detecting future (re-)emergence, CSD needs to be a generic (model-independent) feature of epidemiological dynamics irrespective of system complexity. Currently, it is unclear whether the predictions of CSD-derived from simple, low-dimensional systems-pertain to real systems, which are high-dimensional. To assess the generality of CSD, we carried out a simulation study of a hierarchy of models, with increasing structural complexity and dimensionality, for a measles-like infectious disease. Our five models included: i) a nonseasonal homogeneous Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model, ii) a homogeneous SEIR model with seasonality in transmission, iii) an age-structured SEIR model, iv) a multiplex network-based model (Mplex) and v) an agent-based simulator (FRED). All models were parameterised to have a herd-immunity immunization threshold of around 90% coverage, and underwent a linear decrease in vaccine uptake, from 92% to 70% over 15 years. We found evidence of CSD prior to disease re-emergence in all models. We also evaluated the performance of seven EWS: the autocorrelation, coefficient of variation, index of dispersion, kurtosis, mean, skewness, variance. Performance was scored using the Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) statistic. The best performing EWS were the mean and variance, with AUC > 0.75 one year before the estimated transition time. These two, along with the autocorrelation and index of dispersion, are promising candidate EWS for detecting disease emergence.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Epidemias , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Modelos Biológicos , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Epidemias/classificação , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/transmissão
12.
Int Health ; 12(2): 77-85, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strategies are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of zoonotic disease emergence in southern China, where pathogens with zoonotic potential are known to circulate in wild animal populations. However, the risk factors leading to emergence are poorly understood, which presents a challenge in developing appropriate mitigation strategies for local communities. METHODS: Residents in rural communities of Yunnan, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces were recruited and enrolled in this study. Data were collected through ethnographic interviews and field observations, and thematically coded and analysed to identify both risk and protective factors for zoonotic disease emergence at the individual, community and policy levels. RESULTS: Eighty-eight ethnographic interviews and 55 field observations were conducted at nine selected sites. Frequent human-animal interactions and low levels of environmental biosecurity in local communities were identified as risks for zoonotic disease emergence. Policies and programmes existing in the communities provide opportunities for zoonotic risk mitigation. CONCLUSIONS: This study explored the relationship among zoonotic risk and human behaviour, environment and policies in rural communities in southern China. It identifies key behavioural risk factors that can be targeted for development of tailored risk-mitigation strategies to reduce the threat of novel zoonoses.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , População Rural , Viroses/transmissão , Zoonoses/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Viroses/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 906, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060265

RESUMO

Numerous epidemic models have been developed to capture aspects of human contact patterns, making model selection challenging when they fit (often-scarce) early epidemic data equally well but differ in predictions. Here we consider the invasion of a novel directly transmissible infection and perform an extensive, systematic and transparent comparison of models with explicit age and/or household structure, to determine the accuracy loss in predictions in the absence of interventions when ignoring either or both social components. We conclude that, with heterogeneous and assortative contact patterns relevant to respiratory infections, the model's age stratification is crucial for accurate predictions. Conversely, the household structure is only needed if transmission is highly concentrated in households, as suggested by an empirical but robust rule of thumb based on household secondary attack rate. This work serves as a template to guide the simplicity/accuracy trade-off in designing models aimed at initial, rapid assessment of potential epidemic severity.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos
16.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 68-76, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036774

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are the well-known cause of severe respiratory, enteric and systemic infections in a wide range of hosts including man, mammals, fish, and avian. The scientific interest on coronaviruses increased after the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) outbreaks in 2002-2003 followed by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV). This decade's first CoV, named 2019-nCoV, emerged from Wuhan, China, and declared as 'Public Health Emergency of International Concern' on January 30th, 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). As on February 4, 2020, 425 deaths reported in China only and one death outside China (Philippines). In a short span of time, the virus spread has been noted in 24 countries. The zoonotic transmission (animal-to-human) is suspected as the route of disease origin. The genetic analyses predict bats as the most probable source of 2019-nCoV though further investigations needed to confirm the origin of the novel virus. The ongoing nCoV outbreak highlights the hidden wild animal reservoir of the deadly viruses and possible threat of spillover zoonoses as well. The successful virus isolation attempts have made doors open for developing better diagnostics and effective vaccines helping in combating the spread of the virus to newer areas.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Quirópteros/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
17.
Euro Surveill ; 25(3)2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992388

RESUMO

A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) causing severe acute respiratory disease emerged recently in Wuhan, China. Information on reported cases strongly indicates human-to-human spread, and the most recent information is increasingly indicative of sustained human-to-human transmission. While the overall severity profile among cases may change as more mild cases are identified, we estimate a risk of fatality among hospitalised cases at 14% (95% confidence interval: 3.9-32%).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/transmissão , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Coronavirus/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco
19.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(1): 33-45, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461573

RESUMO

Multiple species of viruses circulate in wild mammals, some of them potentially causing zoonosis. Most of the suspected viral zoonotic diseases affecting human patients remain unidentified with regard to their aetiological agent. The aim of this study is to summarize the state of knowledge of the viral richness associated with wild mammals in Mexico throughout 1900-2018 and their relationship with human cases. We compiled two databases, one of them containing all available published studies on potentially zoonotic viruses in wild mammals and another with human cases related to zoonotic viruses. The database on wild mammals covers the period of 1900-2018; the human case database spans 2000-2013. We calculated the richness of viral potential zoonotic agents and evaluated their geographical distribution. We found 262 records of 42 potential zoonotic viral species associated with 92 wild mammal species in 28 states across Mexico. Records of human viral cases were only found in 29 states, which did not overlap with the reports in wild mammals. We detected 25.6% (42/164) of viral zoonotic agents reported worldwide. This analysis opens a relevant topic of discussion for public health attention.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Mamíferos/virologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Humanos , Registros Médicos , México/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
20.
Can J Microbiol ; 66(2): 87-98, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682478

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from Zika forest, Uganda, in 1947. Since its inception, major and minor outbreaks have been documented from several parts of world. Aedes spp. mosquitoes are the primary vectors of ZIKV, but the virus can also be transmitted through sexual practices, materno-fetal transmission, and blood transfusion. The clinical presentations of symptomatic ZIKV infections are similar to dengue and chikungunya, including fever, headache, arthralgia, retro-orbital pain, conjunctivitis, and rash. ZIKV often causes mild illness in the majority of cases, but in some instances, it is linked with congenital microcephaly and autoimmune disorders like Guillain-Barré syndrome. The recent Indian ZIKV outbreak suggests that the virus is circulating in the South East Asian region and may cause new outbreaks in future. At present, no specific vaccines or antivirals are available to treat ZIKV, so management and control of ZIKV infections rely mostly on preventive measures.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Zika virus/fisiologia , Animais , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Feminino , Saúde Global , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré , Humanos , Microcefalia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Gravidez , Saúde Pública , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
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