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1.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20203100. 14 p.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1050131

RESUMO

El protocolo contiene definiciones de casos sospechosos, manejo de pacientes con sospecha de infección por Coronavirus, tratamiento específicos anti-Novel CoV e investigación clínica y las consideraciones especiales para pacientes embarazadas.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Doenças Transmissíveis , Coronavirus
2.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46983

RESUMO

Considerada a enfermidade mais antiga da humanidade, a hanseníase tem cura, mas ainda hoje representa um problema de saúde pública no Brasil. Doença tropical negligenciada, infectocontagiosa de evolução crônica, se manifesta principalmente por meio de lesões na pele e sintomas neurológicos como dormências e diminuição de força nas mãos e nos pés.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis , Hanseníase
5.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(676-7): 55-58, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961085

RESUMO

Among carefully selected patients, an early oral antibiotic switch is safe and efficient in severe bacterial infections. New data are available on dual antibiotherapy in severe Staphylococcus aureus infections. Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains resistant to ceftriaxone emerge, highlighting the necessity to develop new therapeutic strategies. Alongshan virus is a new tick-borne virus discovered in China. Ebola continues to rage in Democratic Republic of Congo, while Europe and Switzerland face measles outbreaks. North american guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Influenza have been updated, shortly before the FDA approval of baloxavir marboxil, a new antiviral treatment for Influenza infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Doenças Transmissíveis , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , China , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Congo , Surtos de Doenças , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Suíça
6.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974703

RESUMO

Digital epidemiology is a new and rapidly growing field. The technological revolution we have been witnessing during the last decade, the global rise of the Internet, the emergence of social media and social networks that connect individuals worldwide for information exchange and social interactions, and the almost complete social penetration of mobile devices such as smartphones provide access to data on individual behavior with unprecedented resolution and precision. In digital epidemiology, this type of high-resolution behavioral data is analyzed to advance our understanding of, for example, infectious disease dynamics and improve our abilities to forecast epidemic outbreaks and related phenomena.This article provides an overview on the topic. Different aspects of digital epidemiology are alluded to. Based on examples, I will explain how epidemiological data is integrated on new comprehensive and interactive websites, how the analysis of interactions and activities on social media platforms can yield answers to epidemiological questions, and finally how individual-based data collected by smartphones or wearable sensors in natural experiments can be used to reconstruct contact and physical proximity networks the knowledge of which substantially improves the predictive power of computational models for transmissible infectious diseases.The challenges posed in terms of privacy protection and data security will be discussed. Concepts and solutions will be explained that may help to improve public health by leveraging the new data while at the same time protecting the individual's data sovereignty and personal dignity.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Mídias Sociais , Coleta de Dados , Alemanha , Humanos , Saúde Pública
7.
São Paulo; SES/SP; 2020. 13 p. tab.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-CTDPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1049840
8.
Lancet ; 395(10218): 156-164, 2020 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852601

RESUMO

Observations from many countries indicate that multiple forms of malnutrition might coexist in a country, a household, and an individual. In this Series, the double burden of malnutrition (DBM) encompasses undernutrition in the form of stunting, and overweight and obesity. Health effects of the DBM include those associated with both undernutrition, such as impaired childhood development and greater susceptibility to infectious diseases, and overweight, especially in terms of increased risk of added visceral fat and increased risk of non-communicable diseases. These health effects have not been translated into economic costs for individuals and economies in the form of lost wages and productivity, as well as higher medical expenses. We summarise the existing approaches to modelling the economic effects of malnutrition and point out the weaknesses of these approaches for measuring economic losses from the DBM. Where population needs suggest that nutrition interventions take into account the DBM, economic evaluation can guide the choice of so-called double-duty interventions as an alternative to separate programming for stunting and overweight. We address the evidence gap with an economic analysis of the costs and benefits of an illustrative double-duty intervention that addresses both stunting and overweight in children aged 4 years and older by providing school meals with improved quality of diet. We assess the plausibility of our method and discuss how improved data and models can generate better estimates. Double-duty interventions could save money and be more efficient than single-duty interventions.


Assuntos
Custos e Análise de Custo/métodos , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis/etiologia , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Transtornos do Crescimento/complicações , Transtornos do Crescimento/economia , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Desnutrição/complicações , Desnutrição/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/economia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/economia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Prevalência
9.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105219, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614120

RESUMO

As the only specialized institution for research and control of parasitic diseases at the national level in China for almost 70 years, the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases (NIPD) at the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC) has been instrumental in supporting the remarkable progress from high prevalence to transmission interruption or low endemicity of several diseases, lymphatic filariasis, malaria and schistosomiasis in particular. This has taken place through technical guidance, emergency response and scientific research as well as providing technical service, education, training, health promotion and international cooperation. With China's increasing involvement in international cooperation and the increased risk for (re)emerging tropical diseases in mind, the Chinese Government designated in 2017 a new Chinese Center for Tropical Disease Research to NIPD. Responding to the expanded responsibilities, the institute is scaling up its activities in several ways: from parasitic diseases to the wider area of tropical diseases; from disease control to disease elimination; from biological research to policy evidences accumulation; and from public health to global health. Based on this new vision and China's previous accomplishments in the areas mentioned, the institute is in a position to move forward with respect to global health and equitable development according to the central principles of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals.


Assuntos
/organização & administração , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/normas , Cooperação Internacional , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública/normas , Medicina Tropical/normas , Academias e Institutos , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Objetivos Organizacionais , Estados Unidos
10.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 10(41): 14-21, 29/12/2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1047825

RESUMO

En Argentina, más de la mitad de la población adulta tiene sobrepeso y más del 95% no llega a consumir las cinco porciones diarias recomendadas de frutas y verduras (FV). El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar los determinantes sociales del consumo de FV entre la población adulta en el Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires (AMBA). MÉTODOS: Se realizaron grupos focales con 40 hombres y mujeres de 25 a 60 años de edad en AMBA. El análisis y la comparación constante se utilizaron para identificar temas y subtemas. RESULTADOS: Las principales barreras percibidas para aumentar el consumo de vegetales fueron las limitaciones de tiempo en la preparación de las comidas, el conocimiento insuficiente sobre la preparación de comidas a base de vegetales, la habituación y la exposición a publicidades de alimentos ultraprocesados. Los costos fueron una preocupación principalmente para las compras de fruta. Las iniciativas dirigidas a aumentar la disponibilidad de FV en entornos escolares y laborales y proporcionar FV listas para comer fueron los principales facilitadores identificados para aumentar el consumo de FV. Las sugerencias incluyen programas educativos en la escuela y la restricción de la publicidad de alimentos poco saludables, entre otras. CONCLUSIONES: Es necesario diseñar políticas que promuevan el consumo


Assuntos
Política Pública , Verduras , Doenças Transmissíveis , Frutas
11.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 19(19): 1560-1563, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833463

RESUMO

This work discusses the idea that drug discovery, instead of being performed through a series of filtering-based stages, should be viewed as a multi-scale optimization problem. Here, the most promising multi-scale models are analyzed in terms of their applications, advantages, and limitations in the search for more potent and safer chemicals against infectious diseases. Multi-scale de novo drug design is highlighted as an emerging paradigm, able to accelerate the discovery of more effective antimicrobial agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Desenho de Drogas , Modelos Biológicos , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis/patologia , Humanos , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade
12.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856574

RESUMO

A 80-year-old man was transferred to our hospital for hemoptysis caused by erosion(perforation) of thoracic aortic stent graft infection into the airway. Blood cultures on admission detected Gram-positive rods, and a microarray-based, multiplexed, automated molecular diagnosis instrument (Verigene® system) identified Listeria spp. Although Listeria monocytogenes is rare organism of stent graft infection, we were able to start appropriate antibiotic therapy on the second hospital day due to rapid identification of bacteria. Verigene® system is considered to be useful in severe infectious diseases including stent graft infections, even if the causative organism is rare.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Listeria monocytogenes , Listeriose , Stents , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos , Hemocultura , Humanos , Listeriose/tratamento farmacológico , Listeriose/etiologia , Masculino , Transplantes
13.
Clín. investig. ginecol. obstet. (Ed. impr.) ; 46(4): 154-158, oct.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184303

RESUMO

Introducción: La mujer inmigrante presenta unas características específicas desde el punto de vista sanitario, debido a su procedencia, diferencias culturales y estrato social, que pueden afectar a sus consultas de salud. El ámbito ginecológico y la salud reproductiva son áreas de frecuente consulta en este grupo poblacional. Objetivo: Describir la enfermedad ginecológica por la que consultan las mujeres inmigrantes y definir posibles factores de riesgo. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo y transversal sobre las consultas de salud en la esfera ginecológica de las mujeres de origen inmigrante atendidas en la consulta de atención primaria. Estudio comparativo con una muestra de mujeres de origen nacional. Resultados: La mayoría de las pacientes inmigrantes del estudio eran de origen magrebí. La consulta de salud más habitual fueron las vaginitis de origen infeccioso. Hasta un 19% presentaban multiparidad (3 o más embarazos). Estos 2 procesos fueron significativamente mayores que en el colectivo de mujeres de origen nacional con quienes se comparó la muestra. Conclusiones: Las mujeres inmigrantes presentan, en general, una paridad elevada y más infecciones de la esfera ginecológica. Estos factores pueden causar una mayor vulnerabilidad en este colectivo


Introduction: Immigrant women have specific characteristics from the health point of view, due to their origin, cultural differences and social status, which can affect their health consultations. The gynaecological field and reproductive health are areas of frequent consultation by this population group. Objectives: To describe the gynaecological disorders for which immigrant women consult, and to define possible risk factors. Material and methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted on gynaecological health consultations by women of immigrant origin seen in the primary care clinic. A comparative study was performed with a sample of women of Spanish origin. Results: The majority of the immigrant patients in the study were of Maghrebi origin. The most common health consultation was vaginitis of infectious origin. Up to 19% were multiparous (3 or more pregnancies) and these 2 processes were significantly greater than in the group of women of national origin in whom the sample was compared. Conclusions: Immigrant women have a high parity, in general, and have more gynaecological infections. These factors can cause greater vulnerability in this group


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Saúde Reprodutiva , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Doenças Urogenitais Femininas/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Vaginite/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Infertilidade Feminina , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(100): 15020-15032, 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782426

RESUMO

With the rapid spread of resistance among parasites and bacterial pathogens, antibiotic-resistant infections have drawn much attention worldwide. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop new strategies to treat neglected diseases and drug-resistant infections. Here, we outline several new strategies that have been developed to counter pathogenic microorganisms by designing and constructing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). In addition to traditional discovery and design mechanisms guided by chemical biology, synthetic biology and computationally-based approaches offer useful tools for the discovery and generation of bioactive peptides. We believe that the convergence of such fields, coupled with systematic experimentation in animal models, will help translate biological peptides into the clinic. The future of anti-infective therapeutics is headed towards specifically designed molecules whose form is driven by computer-based frameworks. These molecules are selective, stable, and active at therapeutic doses.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Algoritmos , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/genética , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/uso terapêutico , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Transmissíveis/patologia , Desenho de Drogas , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Engenharia de Proteínas , Pseudomonas/fisiologia
15.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 108(15): 1007-1011, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771496

RESUMO

Medical Daily Routine in the Tropics: A Case-Based Overview Abstract. When we speak about «medicine in the tropics¼ it is malaria epidemics, diarrheal diseases and worm infections that come to mind. A lesser-known fact is the impact of the new epidemic of non-communicable diseases, which are currently responsible for about half of all deaths occurring in the tropical world regions. Changing demographic, social and economic factors are the drivers for diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and obesity. The observed increase in non-communicable diseases coupled with the persistence of classic infectious tropical diseases creates a double medical burden and presents a great challenge in these low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Diabetes Mellitus , Epidemias , Humanos
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 970, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute febrile illness (AFI) is characterized by malaise, myalgia and a raised temperature that is a nonspecific manifestation of infectious diseases in the tropics. The lack of appropriate diagnostics for the evaluation of AFI leads to increased morbidity and mortality in resource-limited settings, specifically low-income countries like India. The review aimed to identify the number, type and quality of diagnostics used for AFI evaluation during passive case detection at health care centres in South India. METHODS: A scoping review of peer-reviewed English language original research articles published between 1946-July 2018 from four databases was undertaken to assess the type and number of diagnostics used in AFI evaluation in South India. Results were stratified according to types of pathogen-specific tests used in AFI management. RESULTS: The review included a total of 40 studies, all conducted in tertiary care centres (80% in private settings). The studies demonstrated the use of 5-22 tests per patient for the evaluation of AFI. Among 25 studies evaluating possible causes of AFI, 96% tested for malaria followed by 80% for dengue, 72% for scrub typhus, 68% for typhoid and 60% for leptospirosis identifying these as commonly suspected causes of AFI. 54% studies diagnosed malaria with smear microscopy while others diagnosed dengue, scrub typhus, typhoid and leptospirosis using antibody or antigen detection assays. 39% studies used the Weil-Felix test (WFT) for scrub typhus diagnosis and 82% studies used the Widal test for diagnosing typhoid. CONCLUSIONS: The review demonstrated the use of five or more pathogen-specific tests in evaluating AFI as well as described the widespread use of suboptimal tests like the WFT and Widal in fever evaluation. It identified the need for the development of better-quality tests for aetiological diagnosis and improved standardised testing guidelines for AFI.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Anticorpos/sangue , Antígenos/análise , Dengue/diagnóstico , Humanos , Índia , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Malária/diagnóstico , Tifo por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Centros de Atenção Terciária
19.
Prev Vet Med ; 173: 104777, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731037

RESUMO

Information about infectious diseases at the global level relies on effective, efficient and sustainable national and international surveillance systems. Surveillance systems need to be regularly evaluated to ensure their performance, the quality of the data and information provided, as well as to allocate resources efficiently. Currently available frameworks for evaluation of surveillance systems in animal or human health often treat technical, process and socio-economic aspects separately instead of integrating them. The surveillance evaluation (EVA) tool, a support tool for the evaluation of animal health surveillance systems, was developed to provide guidance for integrated evaluation of animal health surveillance including economic evaluation. The tool was developed by international experts in surveillance and evaluation in an iterative process of development, testing and revision taking into account existing frameworks and guidance, scientific literature and expert opinion. The EVA tool encompasses a web interface for users to develop an evaluation plan, a Wiki classroom to provide theoretical information on all required concepts and a generic evaluation work plan to facilitate implementation and reporting of outputs to decision makers. The tool was tested by planning and conducting epidemiological and economic evaluations of surveillance for classical and African swine fever, bovine virus diarrhoea, avian influenza, and Salmonella Dublin in five European countries. These practical applications highlighted the importance of a comprehensive evaluation approach to improve the quality of the evaluation outputs (economic evaluation; multiple attributes assessment) and demonstrated the usefulness of the guidance provided by the EVA tool. At the same time they showed that comprehensive evaluations might be constrained by practical issues (e.g. confidentiality concerns, data availability) and resource scarcity. In the long term, the EVA tool is expected to increase professional evaluation capacity and help optimising animal health surveillance system efficiency and resource allocation for both public and private actors of the surveillance systems.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Análise Custo-Benefício , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Doenças dos Animais/economia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , Vigilância da População/métodos
20.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 137(1): 23-31, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777396

RESUMO

Southern right whales Eubalaena australis (SRWs) migrate to southern Brazil for breeding and calving from June through November. Overall, there is scarce knowledge on health status and pathologic conditions in SRWs. We report the pathologic and molecular investigation results of 8 SRWs that were necropsied between 2010 and 2017 within a breeding and calving ground in Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The animals were of various ages (7 newborns/calves, 1 adult) and sex (3 females, 5 males). Five whales stranded dead; 3 stranded alive and died shortly after (n = 2) or were euthanized (n = 1). The causes of stranding and/or death were neonatal respiratory distress syndrome with meconium aspiration (n = 3) with concomitant congenital hepatopathy in one of them; trauma of unknown origin (n = 3), infectious renal and lung disease with presumed sepsis (n = 1), and euthanasia (n = 1). Three animals were PCR-positive for cetacean morbillivirus; one of them also had morbilliviral antigen in kidney via immunohistochemical analysis. These results, integrating novel findings and a published report, contribute to the pathology knowledge of this species.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Síndrome de Aspiração de Mecônio , Animais , Brasil , Causas de Morte , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Síndrome de Aspiração de Mecônio/veterinária , Baleias
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