Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.218
Filtrar
1.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435521

RESUMO

Reduced magnesium (Mg) intake is a frequent cause of deficiency with age together with reduced absorption, renal wasting, and polypharmacotherapy. Chronic Mg deficiency may result in increased oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation, which may be linked to several age-related diseases, including higher predisposition to infectious diseases. Mg might play a role in the immune response being a cofactor for immunoglobulin synthesis and other processes strictly associated with the function of T and B cells. Mg is necessary for the biosynthesis, transport, and activation of vitamin D, another key factor in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. The regulation of cytosolic free Mg in immune cells involves Mg transport systems, such as the melastatin-like transient receptor potential 7 channel, the solute carrier family, and the magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1). The functional importance of Mg transport in immunity was unknown until the description of the primary immunodeficiency XMEN (X-linked immunodeficiency with Mg defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia) due to a genetic deficiency of MAGT1 characterized by chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection. This and other research reporting associations of Mg deficit with viral and bacterial infections indicate a possible role of Mg deficit in the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its complications. In this review, we will discuss the importance of Mg for the immune system and for infectious diseases, including the recent pandemic of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/metabolismo , Deficiência de Magnésio/complicações , Magnésio/metabolismo , Idoso , /imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Magnésio/imunologia , Deficiência de Magnésio/imunologia , Deficiência de Magnésio/metabolismo , Masculino , Doenças por Imunodeficiência Combinada Ligada ao Cromossomo X/metabolismo
2.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 21(2): 83-100, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353987

RESUMO

Immunization is a cornerstone of public health policy and is demonstrably highly cost-effective when used to protect child health. Although it could be argued that immunology has not thus far contributed much to vaccine development, in that most of the vaccines we use today were developed and tested empirically, it is clear that there are major challenges ahead to develop new vaccines for difficult-to-target pathogens, for which we urgently need a better understanding of protective immunity. Moreover, recognition of the huge potential and challenges for vaccines to control disease outbreaks and protect the older population, together with the availability of an array of new technologies, make it the perfect time for immunologists to be involved in designing the next generation of powerful immunogens. This Review provides an introductory overview of vaccines, immunization and related issues and thereby aims to inform a broad scientific audience about the underlying immunological concepts.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinologia/métodos , Anticorpos/imunologia , Antígenos/imunologia , Humanos , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação
4.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 329, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057040

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has ignited interest in age-specific manifestations of infection but surprisingly little is known about relative severity of infectious disease between the extremes of age. In a systematic analysis we identified 142 datasets with information on severity of disease by age for 32 different infectious diseases, 19 viral and 13 bacterial. For almost all infections, school-age children have the least severe disease, and severity starts to rise long before old age. Indeed, for many infections even young adults have more severe disease than children, and dengue was the only infection that was most severe in school-age children. Together with data on vaccine response in children and young adults, the findings suggest peak immune function is reached around 5-14 years of age. Relative immune senescence may begin much earlier than assumed, before accelerating in older age groups. This has major implications for understanding resilience to infection, optimal vaccine scheduling, and appropriate health protection policies across the life course.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Imunossenescência , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Proteome Res ; 19(11): 4339-4354, 2020 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892628

RESUMO

Emergence and re-emergence of pathogens bearing the risk of becoming a pandemic threat are on the rise. Increased travel and trade, growing population density, changes in urbanization, and climate have a critical impact on infectious disease spread. Currently, the world is confronted with the emergence of a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, responsible for yet more than 800 000 deaths globally. Outbreaks caused by viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, HIV, Ebola, influenza, and Zika, have increased over the past decade, underlining the need for a rapid development of diagnostics and vaccines. Hence, the rational identification of biomarkers for diagnostic measures on the one hand, and antigenic targets for vaccine development on the other, are of utmost importance. Peptide microarrays can display large numbers of putative target proteins translated into overlapping linear (and cyclic) peptides for a multiplexed, high-throughput antibody analysis. This enabled for example the identification of discriminant/diagnostic epitopes in Zika or influenza and mapping epitope evolution in natural infections versus vaccinations. In this review, we highlight synthesis platforms that facilitate fast and flexible generation of high-density peptide microarrays. We further outline the multifaceted applications of these peptide array platforms for the development of serological tests and vaccines to quickly encounter pandemic threats.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Mapeamento de Epitopos , Epitopos , Pandemias , Análise Serial de Proteínas/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/imunologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
6.
J Chem Phys ; 153(11): 114119, 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962383

RESUMO

The complexity associated with an epidemic defies any quantitatively reliable predictive theoretical scheme. Here, we pursue a generalized mathematical model and cellular automata simulations to study the dynamics of infectious diseases and apply it in the context of the COVID-19 spread. Our model is inspired by the theory of coupled chemical reactions to treat multiple parallel reaction pathways. We essentially ask the question: how hard could the time evolution toward the desired herd immunity (HI) be on the lives of people? We demonstrate that the answer to this question requires the study of two implicit functions, which are determined by several rate constants, which are time-dependent themselves. Implementation of different strategies to counter the spread of the disease requires a certain degree of a quantitative understanding of the time-dependence of the outcome. Here, we compartmentalize the susceptible population into two categories, (i) vulnerables and (ii) resilients (including asymptomatic carriers), and study the dynamical evolution of the disease progression. We obtain the relative fatality of these two sub-categories as a function of the percentages of the vulnerable and resilient population and the complex dependence on the rate of attainment of herd immunity. We attempt to study and quantify possible adverse effects of the progression rate of the epidemic on the recovery rates of vulnerables, in the course of attaining HI. We find the important result that slower attainment of the HI is relatively less fatal. However, slower progress toward HI could be complicated by many intervening factors.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/patologia , Imunidade Coletiva , Modelos Teóricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Probabilidade , Processos Estocásticos
8.
Pediatrics ; 145(6)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Encephalitis can result in neurologic morbidity and mortality in children. Newly recognized infectious and noninfectious causes of encephalitis have become increasingly important over the past decade. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records from pediatric patients in Houston diagnosed with encephalitis in both an urban and rural catchment area between 2010 and 2017. We conducted an investigation to understand the etiology, clinical characteristics, and diagnostic testing practices in this population. RESULTS: We evaluated 231 patients who met the case definition of encephalitis, among which 42% had no recognized etiology. Among those with an identified etiology, the most common were infectious (73; 31%), including viral (n = 51; 22%), with the most frequent being West Nile virus (WNV; n = 12), and bacterial (n = 19; 8%), with the most frequent being Bartonella henselae (n = 7). Among cases of autoimmune encephalitis (n = 60; 26%), the most frequent cause was anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis (n = 31). Autoimmune causes were seen more commonly in female (P < .01) patients. Testing for herpes simplex virus and enterovirus was nearly universal; testing for anti-NMDAR encephalitis, WNV, and Bartonella was less common. CONCLUSIONS: WNV was the most common infectious cause of encephalitis in our pediatric population despite lower testing frequency for WNV than herpes simplex virus or enterovirus. Increasing testing for anti-NMDAR encephalitis resulted in frequent identification of cases. Increased awareness and testing for WNV and Bartonella would likely result in more identified causes of pediatric encephalitis. Earlier etiologic diagnosis of encephalitides may lead to improve clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Encefalite Antirreceptor de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/epidemiologia , Doença da Arranhadura de Gato/epidemiologia , Encefalite/epidemiologia , Doença de Hashimoto/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Encefalite Antirreceptor de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/diagnóstico , Encefalite Antirreceptor de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Doença da Arranhadura de Gato/diagnóstico , Doença da Arranhadura de Gato/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Encefalite/diagnóstico , Encefalite/imunologia , Feminino , Doença de Hashimoto/diagnóstico , Doença de Hashimoto/imunologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/diagnóstico , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia
9.
Hum Genet ; 139(6-7): 681-694, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462426

RESUMO

Multicellular eukaryotes emerged late in evolution from an ocean of viruses, bacteria, archaea, and unicellular eukaryotes. These macroorganisms are exposed to and infected by a tremendous diversity of microorganisms. Those that are large enough can even be infected by multicellular fungi and parasites. Each interaction is unique, if only because it operates between two unique living organisms, in an infinite diversity of circumstances. This is neatly illustrated by the extraordinarily high level of interindividual clinical variability in human infections, even for a given pathogen, ranging from a total absence of clinical manifestations to death. We discuss here the idea that the determinism of human life-threatening infectious diseases can be governed by single-gene inborn errors of immunity, which are rarely Mendelian and frequently display incomplete penetrance. We briefly review the evidence in support of this notion obtained over the last two decades, referring to a number of focused and thorough reviews published by eminent colleagues in this issue of Human Genetics. It seems that almost any life-threatening infectious disease can be driven by at least one, and, perhaps, a great many diverse monogenic inborn errors, which may nonetheless be immunologically related. While the proportions of monogenic cases remain unknown, a picture in which genetic heterogeneity is combined with physiological homogeneity is emerging from these studies. A preliminary sketch of the human genetic architecture of severe infectious diseases is perhaps in sight.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis/patologia , Heterogeneidade Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305970

RESUMO

Vaccine development has traditionally been driven by the need to prevent high numbers of childhood deaths due to infectious disease. With few exceptions, vaccines for adults are the same as vaccines for infants, although it has long been apparent that they become less effective as age increases. It is only in the last few years that concerted efforts have commenced to develop life-long vaccination strategies through into older age. Impressive progress has been made in the field of vaccine technologies which, when they will be applied to vaccination of older adults, could change the landscape for disease prevention in this age group. The recently licensed adjuvanted herpes zoster vaccine shows that immunosenescence need not be a barrier to highly effective vaccination, and that highly effective vaccines for older adults can be achieved with good vaccine design. One of the greatest public health challenges of the 21st century is ensuring the health and well-being of the aged. New or improved vaccines targeting pathogens with a high disease burden in older adults have the potential to major contributions to the longevity and productivity of the older aged population.


Assuntos
Imunossenescência/imunologia , Vacinas/normas , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Herpes Zoster/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Herpes Zoster/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinação
12.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(5): e80-e89, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278359

RESUMO

This Review updates the scientific evidence assessing possible causal associations of adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) compiled in the 2012 report from the Institute of Medicine and the 2014 report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. For 12 of 46 AEFI examined, a causal relationship has been established with at least one vaccine currently routinely recommended to the general USA population: anaphylaxis, arthralgia or arthritis (mild, acute, and transient, not chronic), deltoid bursitis (when vaccine is administered improperly), disseminated varicella infection (in immune deficient individuals for whom the varicella vaccine is contraindicated), encephalitis, febrile seizures, Guillain-Barré syndrome, hepatitis (in immune deficient individuals for whom the varicella vaccine is contraindicated), herpes zoster, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, meningitis, and syncope. Other than mild acute and transient arthralgia or arthritis, which is very common in adult women after rubella vaccine, these adverse reactions are rare or very rare. Vaccines have an excellent safety profile overall and provide protection against infectious diseases to individuals and the general population.


Assuntos
Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas/efeitos adversos , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Humanos , Segurança , Vacinas/imunologia
13.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 98(4): 305-317, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142167

RESUMO

Antibody-dependent complement activity is associated not only with autoimmune morbidity, but also with antitumor efficacy. In infectious disease, both recombinant monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal antibodies generated in natural adaptive responses can mediate complement activity to protective, therapeutic or disease-enhancing effect. Recent advances have contributed to the structural resolution of molecular complexes involved in antibody-mediated complement activation, defining the avid nature of participating interactions and pointing to how antibody isotype, subclass, hinge flexibility, glycosylation state, amino acid sequence and the contextual nature of the cognate antigen/epitope are all factors that can determine complement activity through impact on antibody multimerization and subsequent recruitment of complement component 1q. Beyond the efficiency of activation, complement activation products interact with various cell types that mediate immune adherence, trafficking, immune education and innate functions. Similarly, depending on the anatomical location and extent of activation, complement can support homeostatic restoration or be leveraged by pathogens or neoplasms to enhance infection or promote tumorigenic microenvironments, respectively. Advances in means to suppress complement activation by intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), IVIG mimetics and complement-intervening antibodies represent proven and promising exploratory therapeutic strategies, while antibody engineering has likewise offered frameworks to enhance, eliminate or isolate complement activation to interrogate in vivo mechanisms of action. Such strategies promise to support the optimization of antibody-based drugs that are able to tackle emerging and difficult-to-treat diseases by improving our understanding of the synergistic and antagonistic relationships between antibody mechanisms mediated by Fc receptors, direct binding and the products of complement activation.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Ativação do Complemento/imunologia , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Antígenos/imunologia , Antígenos/metabolismo , Autoanticorpos/efeitos adversos , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Engenharia Biomédica , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/patologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Complemento C1q/química , Complemento C1q/imunologia , Complemento C1q/metabolismo , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/química , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento/metabolismo , Humanos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/química , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/ultraestrutura , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptores Fc/imunologia , Receptores Fc/metabolismo
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940870

RESUMO

Background: The study of the immune system has been approached using two separate paths, the biological immune system and the behavioral immune system. Recently, Gangestad and Grebe proposed a unique integrated compensatory immune system, where both systems work together and one of them could compensate for the other when necessary. However, few studies have confirmed the existence of this integrated compensatory immune system. Our study represents an attempt to explore the existence of this unique immune system, investigating if the behavioral immune system variables increase when the biological immune system weakens with age. Material and Methods. The cross-sectional design study was made up of a final sample of 1108 participants (45.2% men and 54.2 women) aged 18-64 years. The younger group (18-21 years) was made up of students, whilst the older groups (22 to 64 years) were composed by their relatives and acquaintances, following the snow ball process. The participants completed the Perceived Vulnerability to Disease Questionnaire that assesses perceived infectability and germ aversion. Correlations, analyses of variance (ANOVAs), and independent group comparisons were performed. These analyses showed the relationships between the variables studied, the effects of age and gender in perceived infectability and germ aversion, and the differences that perceived infectability and germ aversion presented in different age-groups separated by gender. Results: A pattern emerged where germ aversion increases as both men and women get older, but perceived infectability decreases up to the age of 50, and then it increases in women from that age onward. Gender differences are only significant in younger participants, with women having higher scores than men in both variables. Conclusion: The results partially support the existence of a unique integrated compensatory biological/behavioral immune system.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/psicologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963293

RESUMO

Immune support by micronutrients is historically based on vitamin C deficiency and supplementation in scurvy in early times. It has since been established that the complex, integrated immune system needs multiple specific micronutrients, including vitamins A, D, C, E, B6, and B12, folate, zinc, iron, copper, and selenium, which play vital, often synergistic roles at every stage of the immune response. Adequate amounts are essential to ensure the proper function of physical barriers and immune cells; however, daily micronutrient intakes necessary to support immune function may be higher than current recommended dietary allowances. Certain populations have inadequate dietary micronutrient intakes, and situations with increased requirements (e.g., infection, stress, and pollution) further decrease stores within the body. Several micronutrients may be deficient, and even marginal deficiency may impair immunity. Although contradictory data exist, available evidence indicates that supplementation with multiple micronutrients with immune-supporting roles may modulate immune function and reduce the risk of infection. Micronutrients with the strongest evidence for immune support are vitamins C and D and zinc. Better design of human clinical studies addressing dosage and combinations of micronutrients in different populations are required to substantiate the benefits of micronutrient supplementation against infection.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/terapia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Estado Nutricional , Recomendações Nutricionais , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco
18.
Immunology ; 159(2): 142-155, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630388

RESUMO

Inflammation is a part of the body's immune response for protection against pathogenic infections and other cellular damages; however, chronic inflammation is a major cause of various diseases. One key step in the inflammatory response is the activation of inflammasomes, intracellular protein complexes comprising pattern recognition receptors and other inflammatory molecules. The role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in inflammatory responses has been extensively investigated; however, the caspase-11 inflammasome has been recently identified and has been classified as a 'non-canonical' inflammasome, and emerging studies have highlighted its role in inflammatory responses. Because the ligands and the mechanisms for the activation of these two inflammasomes are different, studies to date have separately described their roles, although recent studies have reported the functional cooperation between these two inflammasomes during an inflammatory response. This review discusses the studies investigating the functional crosstalk between non-canonical caspase-11 and canonical NLRP3 inflammasomes in the context of inflammatory responses; moreover, it provides insight for the development of novel anti-inflammatory therapeutics to prevent and treat infectious and inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Caspases/metabolismo , Doenças Transmissíveis/enzimologia , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamação/enzimologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Animais , Caspases/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Inflamassomos/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais
19.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 174: 113672, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634458

RESUMO

Macrophages and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are tissue-resident cells that play important roles in organ homeostasis and tissue immunity. Their intricate relationship with the organs they reside in allows them to quickly respond to perturbations of organ homeostasis and environmental challenges, such as infection and tissue injury. Macrophages and ILCs have been extensively studied in mice, yet important species-specific differences exist regarding innate immunity between humans and mice. Complementary to ex-vivo studies with human cells, humanized mice (i.e. mice with a human immune system) offer the opportunity to study human macrophages and ILCs in vivo within their surrounding tissue microenvironments. In this review, we will discuss how humanized mice have helped gain new knowledge about the basic biology of these cells, as well as their function in infectious and malignant conditions. Furthermore, we will highlight active areas of investigation related to human macrophages and ILCs, such as their cellular heterogeneity, ontogeny, tissue residency, and plasticity. In the near future, we expect more fundamental discoveries in these areas through the combined use of improved humanized mouse models together with state-of-the-art technologies, such as single-cell RNA-sequencing and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Linfócitos/imunologia , Tecido Linfoide/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Modelos Animais , Animais , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR/genética , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edição de Genes , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Tecido Linfoide/citologia , Camundongos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 98(4): 276-286, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785006

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin (Ig) A is the most abundant antibody isotype present at mucosal surfaces and the second most abundant in human serum. In addition to preventing pathogen entry at mucosal surfaces, IgA can control and eradicate bacterial and viral infections through a variety of antibody-mediated innate effector cell mechanisms. The role of mucosal IgA in infection (e.g. neutralization) and in inflammatory homeostasis (e.g. allergy and autoimmunity) has been extensively investigated; by contrast, serum IgA is comparatively understudied. IgA binding to fragment crystallizable alpha receptor plays a dual role in the activation and inhibition of innate effector cell functions. Mounting evidence suggests that serum IgA induces potent effector functions against various bacterial and some viral infections including Neisseria meningitidis and rotavirus. Furthermore, in the era of immunotherapy, serum IgA provides an interesting alternative to classical IgG monoclonal antibodies to treat cancer and infectious pathogens. Here we discuss the role of serum IgA in infectious diseases with reference to bacterial and viral infections and the potential for IgA as a monoclonal antibody therapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptores Fc/fisiologia , Motivos de Aminoácidos/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/química , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/fisiologia , Receptores Fc/sangue , Receptores Fc/química , Receptores Fc/imunologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA