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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(50): 1889-1894, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332289

RESUMO

Harmful algal bloom events can result from the rapid growth, or bloom, of photosynthesizing organisms in natural bodies of fresh, brackish, and salt water. These events can be exacerbated by nutrient pollution (e.g., phosphorus) and warming waters and other climate change effects (1); have a negative impact on the health of humans, animals, and the environment; and damage local economies (2,3). U.S. harmful algal bloom events of public health concern are centered on a subset of phytoplankton: diatoms, dinoflagellates, and cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae). CDC launched the One Health Harmful Algal Bloom System (OHHABS) in 2016 to inform efforts to prevent human and animal illnesses associated with harmful algal bloom events. A total of 18 states reported 421 harmful algal bloom events, 389 cases of human illness, and 413 cases of animal illness that occurred during 2016-2018. The majority of harmful algal bloom events occurred during May-October (413; 98%) and in freshwater bodies (377; 90%). Human and animal illnesses primarily occurred during June-September (378; 98%) and May-September (410; 100%). Gastrointestinal or generalized illness signs or symptoms were the most frequently reported (>40% of human cases and >50% of animal cases); however, multiple other signs and symptoms were reported. Surveillance data from harmful algal bloom events, exposures, and health effects provide a systematic description of these occurrences and can be used to inform control and prevention of harmful algal bloom-associated illnesses.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Proliferação Nociva de Algas , Saúde Única , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(2): 625-635, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046914

RESUMO

Livestock production systems and the societies in which they are embedded face a set of risks presented by infectious diseases and natural and human-made disasters which compromise animal health. Within this set, threats are posed by natural, deliberate and accidental actions that can cause sudden changes in animal health status, requiring the allocation of additional resources to manage animal health. Determining the benefit of preparing for such emergencies is a challenge when the total set of risks includes the unknown. Any method for analysing the economic costs and benefits of animal health emergencies must not only accommodate this uncertainty, but make it a central feature of the analysis. Cost-benefit analysis is a key approach to economically evaluating animal health interventions. However, the value of this approach in dealing with uncertainty is often called into question. This paper makes the case that, by restricting the outcomes of an emergency event to specified states of nature, boundaries can be placed on the uncertainty space, allowing cost-benefit analysis to be performed. This method, which merges state-contingent analysis with cost-benefit analysis, is presented here. Further discussion on the economic characteristics of emergency events, and the nature of the threats posed to animal health systems, is also provided.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Desastres , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Análise Custo-Benefício , Emergências/veterinária , Humanos , Gado
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239060, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941511

RESUMO

Quokkas (Setonix brachyurus) are small macropodid marsupials from Western Australia, which are identified as of conservation concern. Studies on their blood analytes exist but involve small sample sizes and are associated with very little information concerning the health of the animals. Blood was collected from free-ranging quokkas from Rottnest Island (n = 113) and mainland (n = 37) Western Australia, between September 2010 and December 2011, to establish haematology and blood chemistry reference intervals. Differences in haematology and blood chemistry between sites (Rottnest Island v mainland) were significant for haematology (HMT, p = 0.003), blood chemistry (BLC, p = 0.001) and peripheral blood cell morphology (PBCM, p = 0.001). Except for alkaline phosphatase, all blood chemistry analytes were higher in mainland animals. There were also differences with time of year in HMT (p = 0.001), BLC (p = 0.001) and PBCM (p = 0.001) for Rottnest Island quokkas. A small sample of captive animals (n = 8) were opportunistically sampled for plasma concentrations of vitamin E and were found to be deficient compared with wild-caught animals. Fifty-eight of the 150 quokkas were also tested for the presence of Salmonella, microfilariae, Macropodid herpesvirus-6, Theileria spp., Babesia spp., trypanosomes, Cryptococcus spp. and other saprophytic fungi. All eight infectious agents were detected in this study. Infectious agents were detected in 24 of these 58 quokkas (41%), with more than one infectious agent detected for all 24 individuals. Salmonella were detected concurrently with microfilariae in 8 of these 24 quokkas, and this mixed infection was associated with lower values across all haematological analytes, with Salmonella having the greater involvement in the decreased haematological values (p < 0.05). There was no evidence for an effect of sex on HMT, BLC and PBCM. Our data provide important haematological and blood chemistry reference intervals for free-ranging quokkas. We applied novel methods of analyses to HMT and BLC that can be used more broadly, aiding identification of potential disease in wildlife.


Assuntos
Macropodidae/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Animais , Animais Selvagens/sangue , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Análise Química do Sangue , Doenças Transmissíveis/sangue , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos , Macropodidae/microbiologia , Macropodidae/virologia , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Vitamina E/sangue , Austrália Ocidental
5.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1932): 20201039, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781952

RESUMO

The 'social distancing' that occurred in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in humans provides a powerful illustration of the intimate relationship between infectious disease and social behaviour in animals. Indeed, directly transmitted pathogens have long been considered a major cost of group living in humans and other social animals, as well as a driver of the evolution of group size and social behaviour. As the risk and frequency of emerging infectious diseases rise, the ability of social taxa to respond appropriately to changing infectious disease pressures could mean the difference between persistence and extinction. Here, we examine changes in the social behaviour of humans and wildlife in response to infectious diseases and compare these responses to theoretical expectations. We consider constraints on altering social behaviour in the face of emerging diseases, including the lack of behavioural plasticity, environmental limitations and conflicting pressures from the many benefits of group living. We also explore the ways that social animals can minimize the costs of disease-induced changes to sociality and the unique advantages that humans may have in maintaining the benefits of sociality despite social distancing.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Comportamento Social , Isolamento Social , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Doenças Transmissíveis/psicologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/psicologia , Comunicação , Extinção Biológica , Gorilla gorilla/psicologia , Gorilla gorilla/virologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Marsupiais , Xenofobia/psicologia
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(4): 1127-1136, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131464

RESUMO

The urgency of the studied problem is due to the need for epizootic monitoring of equine infectious diseases in the Altai Krai and the lack of basic information on the relative and absolute parameters of changes in the epizootic process, scientific, methodological and practical aspects of the assessment of potential risks. The purpose of the article is to study the epizootic process for each nosological form of equine infectious diseases in the Altai Krai based on statistical information over the period from 1964 to 2017. Epizootic method is a leading method of the study of this problem, which allows the identification and discussion of the association of equine infectious diseases with natural and geographical conditions in the Altai Krai. The article presents data on intensive parameters of the epizootic process of equine infectious diseases and their changes with a description of periodic changes in the Altai Krai. The materials of the article provide veterinary and biology specialists with information on the epizootics of various nosological forms of equine infectious diseases in the Altai Krai.(AU)


A urgência do problema estudado é devida à necessidade de monitoramento epizoótico de doenças infecciosas equinas no Krai de Altai, e a falta de informação básica sobre os parâmetros relativos e absolutos de mudanças no processo epizoótico, e aspectos científicos, metodológicos e práticos da avaliação de potenciais riscos. O propósito do artigo é estudar o processo epizoótico para cada forma nosológica de doenças infecciosas equinas no Krai de Altai, baseado em informação estatística no período de 1964 a 2017. O método epizoótico é o principal método de estudo deste problema, que permite a identificação e discussão da associação entre doenças infecciosas equinas e condições naturais e geográficas do Krai de Altai. Este artigo apresenta dados dos parâmetros intensivos do processo epizoótico de doenças infecciosas bovinas e suas mudanças com uma descrição de mudanças periódicas no Krai de Altai. Os materiais do artigo fornecem informações para especialistas na veterinária e biologia com relação aos epizoóticos de diversas formas nosológicas de doenças infecciosas equinas no Krai de Altai.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
7.
Can Vet J ; 61(5): 534-536, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32355355

RESUMO

A 3-year-old spayed female Labrador retriever dog was presented with clinical signs of lethargy, vomiting, hyporexia, and increased respiratory effort. An exploratory laparotomy was conducted and a liver biopsy submitted for histopathologic evaluation revealed moderate multifocal coalescing pyogranulomatous hepatitis. Clinical signs, hematological parameters, and liver histopathology suggested an infectious etiology, such as leptospirosis, mycobacteriosis, or fungal infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for leptospirosis were negative. The infectious etiology was not identified, but leptospirosis may have played a role in the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Hepatite , Leptospirose/complicações , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/veterinária , Micoses/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Feminino
8.
Vet Rec ; 186(15): 482-484, 2020 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358115

RESUMO

This focus article has been prepared by Susanna Williamson, Camilla Brena, Cornelia Bidewell, Ed Fullick, Alastair George, Livio Pittalis and Lévon Stephan.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Notificação de Doenças , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Feminino , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Suínos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5975, 2020 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249775

RESUMO

The first signs of sea star wasting disease (SSWD) epidemic occurred in just few months in 2013 along the entire North American Pacific coast. Disease dynamics did not manifest as the typical travelling wave of reaction-diffusion epidemiological model, suggesting that other environmental factors might have played some role. To help explore how external factors might trigger disease, we built a coupled oceanographic-epidemiological model and contrasted three hypotheses on the influence of temperature on disease transmission and pathogenicity. Models that linked mortality to sea surface temperature gave patterns more consistent with observed data on sea star wasting disease, which suggests that environmental stress could explain why some marine diseases seem to spread so fast and have region-wide impacts on host populations.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/transmissão , Organismos Aquáticos , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Modelos Teóricos , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Oceanografia , Temperatura
10.
Vet Rec ; 186(8): 241-243, 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108062

RESUMO

Fleur Whitlock of the Animal Health Trust takes a look at equine infectious disease surveillance initiatives in action in the UK.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela/veterinária , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(2): 769-777, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648411

RESUMO

Over the last few years, the interest of decision-makers and control agencies in biosecurity (BS), aiming at preventing and controlling the introduction and spread of infectious diseases, has considerably increased. Nevertheless, previous studies highlighted a low implementation level of biosecurity measures (BSM), especially in cattle farms; different reasons were identified such as perceived costs, utility, importance, increased workload and lack of knowledge. In order to convince cattle farmers to adopt BSM, it is necessary to gather more information and evidence on their cost-effectiveness and their importance or utility in terms of disease prevention and control. The objectives of this study were to determine whether the farm or farmers' profile correlated with the implementation level of BSM and if there was a positive correlation between the BSM implementation and the farm production and health parameters. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews conducted in 100 Belgian farms as part of a stratified and randomized survey. The Regional Animal Health Services provided the farm health status and production data. A general BS score and five sub-scores related to the five BS compartments (bio-exclusion, bio-compartmentation, bio-containment, bio-prevention and bio-preservation) were calculated for each farm based on the implementation level of different BSM grouped in 16 domains. The study highlighted a significant and negative correlation between the mortality rates in adult cattle (over 24 months of age) and young calves (aged 0-7 days) and different BS compartment scores. The study also demonstrated that the farms having a higher general BS score were indeed more likely to have a BVD-free status. These evidence-based findings are encouraging as they demonstrate the benefits of implementing BSM and could promote their adoption by farmers.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/organização & administração , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Animais , Bélgica , Bovinos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Fazendeiros , Fazendas , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Braz J Microbiol ; 51(1): 357-368, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650465

RESUMO

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, Pestivirus) causes significant economic losses to the livestock industry worldwide. Although serological surveys show that BVDV exposure is widespread in cattle in Uruguay, BVDV-associated diseases are greatly underreported. The aim of this work is to describe the epidemiological, clinical, pathological, and virological findings from spontaneous outbreaks of BVDV-associated diseases in cattle in Uruguay. Diagnostic investigations were performed during 6 spontaneous disease outbreaks on beef and dairy cattle farms in the departments of Colonia, Rio Negro, and Soriano between November 2016 and April 2018. Carcasses of 8 naturally deceased cattle from these outbreaks were necropsied and subjected to histological examination and immunohistochemistry to detect BVDV antigen in the tissues. Reverse transcription real-time PCR and genomic sequencing were also performed to identify BVDV at the species and subtype levels. Other ancillary diagnostic tests, including bacterial cultures, were performed on a case-by-case basis to rule in/out differential diagnoses based on initial clinicopathological presumptive diagnoses. BVDV-associated conditions that were diagnosed in the 8 cases included mucosal disease, transient postnatal BVDV infections associated with digestive/septicemic salmonellosis by Salmonella serovar typhimurium, Histophilus somni bronchopneumonia, urinary tract coinfections with Escherichia coli and Streptococcus sp., enteric coinfection with coccidia, and transplacental fetal infections and abortions with Neospora caninum coinfection. BVDV-1a and BVDV-2b were each identified in four of the eight cases. We conclude that BVDV-1a and BVDV-2b contribute significantly to disease and mortality in cattle in Uruguay. Future research should estimate the economic impact of BVDV in the Uruguayan livestock sector.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/complicações , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Coinfecção , Pestivirus , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Anticorpos Antivirais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Broncopneumonia/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccídios/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/complicações , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 1/genética , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 1/imunologia , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 1/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 2/genética , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 2/imunologia , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 2/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Intestinos/patologia , Intestinos/virologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Mortalidade , Neospora/imunologia , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Pasteurellaceae/isolamento & purificação , Pestivirus/genética , Pestivirus/imunologia , Pestivirus/isolamento & purificação , Pestivirus/patogenicidade , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/parasitologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/veterinária , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Sepse/veterinária , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Sistema Urinário/microbiologia , Sistema Urinário/patologia , Uruguai/epidemiologia
13.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(3): 1152-1163, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785089

RESUMO

This study uses network analysis to evaluate how swine movements in Argentina could contribute to disease spread. Movement data for the 2014-2017 period were obtained from Argentina's online livestock traceability registry and categorized as follows: animals of high genetic value sent to other farms, animals to or from markets, animals sent to finisher operations and slaughterhouse. A network analysis was carried out considering the first three movement types. First, descriptive, centrality and cohesion measures were calculated for each movement type and year. Next, to determine whether networks had a small-world topology, these were compared with the results from random Erdös-Rényi network simulations. Then, the basic reproductive number (R0 ) of the genetic network, the group of farms with higher potential for disease spread standing at the top of the production chain, was calculated to identify farms acting as super-spreaders. Finally, their external biosecurity scores were evaluated. The genetic network in Argentina presented a scale-free and small-world topology. Thus, we estimate that disease spread would be fast, preferably to highly connected nodes and with little chances of being contained. Throughout the study, 31 farms were identified as super-spreaders in the genetic network for all years, while other 55 were super-spreaders at least once, from an average of 1,613 farms per year. Interestingly, removal of less than 5% of higher degree and betweenness farms resulted in a >90% reduction of R0 indicating that few farms have a key role in disease spread. When biosecurity scores of the most relevant super-spreaders were examined, it was evident that many were at risk of introducing and disseminating new pathogens across the whole of Argentina's pig production network. These results highlight the usefulness of establishing targeted surveillance and intervention programmes, emphasizing the need for better biosecurity scores in Argentinean swine production units, especially in super-spreader farms.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Transportes , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Fazendas , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(3): 1231-1246, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880086

RESUMO

When assessing the role of live animal trade networks in the spread of infectious diseases in livestock, attention has focused mainly on direct movements of animals between premises, whereas the role of haulage vehicles used during transport, an indirect route for disease transmission, has largely been ignored. Here, we have assessed the impact of sharing haulage vehicles from livestock transport service providers on the connectivity between farms as well as on the spread of swine infectious diseases in Great Britain (GB). Using all pig movement records between April 2012 and March 2014 in GB, we built a series of directed and weighted static multiplex networks consisting of two layers of identical nodes, where nodes (farms) are linked either by (a) the direct movement of pigs and (b) the shared use of haulage vehicles. The haulage contact definition integrates the date of the move and the duration Δ s that lorries are left contaminated by pathogens, hence accounting for the temporal aspect of contact events. For increasing Δ s , descriptive network analyses were performed to assess the role of haulage on network connectivity. We then explored how viruses may spread throughout the GB pig sector by computing the reproduction number R . Our results showed that sharing haulage vehicles increases the number of contacts between farms by >50% and represents an important driver of disease transmission. In particular, sharing haulage vehicles, even if Δ s  < 1 day, will limit the benefit of the standstill regulation, increase the number of premises that could be infected in an outbreak, and more easily raise R above 1. This work confirms that sharing haulage vehicles has significant potential for spreading infectious diseases within the pig sector. The cleansing and disinfection process of haulage vehicles is therefore a critical control point for disease transmission risk mitigation.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Transportes , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Reino Unido
17.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 137(1): 23-31, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777396

RESUMO

Southern right whales Eubalaena australis (SRWs) migrate to southern Brazil for breeding and calving from June through November. Overall, there is scarce knowledge on health status and pathologic conditions in SRWs. We report the pathologic and molecular investigation results of 8 SRWs that were necropsied between 2010 and 2017 within a breeding and calving ground in Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The animals were of various ages (7 newborns/calves, 1 adult) and sex (3 females, 5 males). Five whales stranded dead; 3 stranded alive and died shortly after (n = 2) or were euthanized (n = 1). The causes of stranding and/or death were neonatal respiratory distress syndrome with meconium aspiration (n = 3) with concomitant congenital hepatopathy in one of them; trauma of unknown origin (n = 3), infectious renal and lung disease with presumed sepsis (n = 1), and euthanasia (n = 1). Three animals were PCR-positive for cetacean morbillivirus; one of them also had morbilliviral antigen in kidney via immunohistochemical analysis. These results, integrating novel findings and a published report, contribute to the pathology knowledge of this species.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Síndrome de Aspiração de Mecônio , Animais , Brasil , Causas de Morte , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Síndrome de Aspiração de Mecônio/veterinária , Baleias
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17494, 2019 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767897

RESUMO

Koalas are an iconic Australian marsupial undergoing precipitous population reduction in South-East Queensland from complex interacting threats. To investigate the causes of death and the interaction of comorbidities with demography in South-East Queensland koalas, a large scale, high-throughput prospective necropsy survey was conducted spanning 2013-2016. During this period, 519 necropsies were conducted in 155 young/subadult koalas, 235 mature, 119 old koalas and 10 of unknown age. Similar numbers of males and females were assessed. Trauma and infectious disease at were the most common single diagnoses. However, comorbidity was frequent, including multicentric infection or infectious disease in combination with trauma or senescence. Female koalas had proportionally more reproductive chlamydiosis compared to males in which the ocular and urinary systems were more commonly affected. Comorbidity and disease were strongly associated with poor body condition, and trauma was associated with good body condition. Animals affected by motor vehicle trauma were often in better body condition than those affected by animal attack, tree fall or other causes of trauma. This study identified a higher frequency of infections and comorbidity then previously reported, confirming the complex nature of interacting threats to the koala population.


Assuntos
Autopsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Phascolarctidae , Ferimentos e Lesões/veterinária , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Feminino , Masculino , Mortalidade , Dinâmica Populacional , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
19.
20.
Prev Vet Med ; 173: 104777, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731037

RESUMO

Information about infectious diseases at the global level relies on effective, efficient and sustainable national and international surveillance systems. Surveillance systems need to be regularly evaluated to ensure their performance, the quality of the data and information provided, as well as to allocate resources efficiently. Currently available frameworks for evaluation of surveillance systems in animal or human health often treat technical, process and socio-economic aspects separately instead of integrating them. The surveillance evaluation (EVA) tool, a support tool for the evaluation of animal health surveillance systems, was developed to provide guidance for integrated evaluation of animal health surveillance including economic evaluation. The tool was developed by international experts in surveillance and evaluation in an iterative process of development, testing and revision taking into account existing frameworks and guidance, scientific literature and expert opinion. The EVA tool encompasses a web interface for users to develop an evaluation plan, a Wiki classroom to provide theoretical information on all required concepts and a generic evaluation work plan to facilitate implementation and reporting of outputs to decision makers. The tool was tested by planning and conducting epidemiological and economic evaluations of surveillance for classical and African swine fever, bovine virus diarrhoea, avian influenza, and Salmonella Dublin in five European countries. These practical applications highlighted the importance of a comprehensive evaluation approach to improve the quality of the evaluation outputs (economic evaluation; multiple attributes assessment) and demonstrated the usefulness of the guidance provided by the EVA tool. At the same time they showed that comprehensive evaluations might be constrained by practical issues (e.g. confidentiality concerns, data availability) and resource scarcity. In the long term, the EVA tool is expected to increase professional evaluation capacity and help optimising animal health surveillance system efficiency and resource allocation for both public and private actors of the surveillance systems.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/veterinária , Análise Custo-Benefício , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Doenças dos Animais/economia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente) , Vigilância da População/métodos
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