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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(17): 509-514, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352955

RESUMO

To evaluate progress toward prevention of enteric illnesses, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program monitors the incidence of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by eight pathogens transmitted commonly through food at 10 U.S. sites.* This report summarizes preliminary 2019 data and describes changes in incidence compared with that during 2016-2018. The incidence of enteric infections caused by these eight pathogens reported by FoodNet sites in 2019 continued to increase or remained unchanged, indicating progress in controlling major foodborne pathogens in the United States has stalled. Campylobacter and Salmonella caused the largest proportion of illnesses; trends in incidence varied by Salmonella serotype. Widespread adoption of whole genome sequencing (WGS) of bacteria has improved the ability to identify outbreaks, emerging strains, and sources of pathogens. To maximize the potential of WGS to link illnesses to particular sources, testing of isolates by clinical and public health laboratories is needed. Reductions in Salmonella serotype Typhimurium suggest that targeted interventions (e.g., vaccinating chickens and other food animals) might decrease human infections. Reducing contamination during food production, processing, and preparation will require more widespread implementation of known prevention measures and of new strategies that target particular pathogens and serotypes.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Exp Parasitol ; 213: 107890, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272128

RESUMO

The foodborne zoonotic nematode Trichinella spp. can cause human trichinellosis when raw or undercooked contaminated meat is ingested. To date, twelve Trichinella species/genotypes have been described. According to EU regulation any Trichinella larvae detected during mandatory routine examinations need to be identified at a species level by a competent laboratory. Currently, Trichinella species identification is performed using molecular biology tools such as multiplex PCR, PCR-sequencing or PCR-RFLP. These techniques require high level of skills for good interpretation of the results. Due to its rapidness and ease of use a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) protocol was previously developed for the identification of Trichinella species. Using this method, spectra from different Trichinella species and strains were acquired allowing to generate new Main Spectra (MSP). Finally a new MSP database from Trichinella spp. Samples of different countries (France, Germany and Poland), including field samples, was generated. Comparing the different main spectra, Trichinella worms were identified at the species level and differences in the genetic diversities within the different species are discussed. In conclusion, using the previously described method on field samples is a reliable, rapid, easy-to-use and cheap tool for Trichinella species identification. The new Trichinella database could be incremented with new samples. It constitutes a tool, which could be used as an alternative method to replace the actual molecular methods for Trichinella species identification.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/veterinária , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/veterinária , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/veterinária , Animais , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , França , Alemanha , Polônia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz/métodos , Trichinella/classificação , Triquinelose/parasitologia
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 214: 107900, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335103

RESUMO

Foodborne parasites (FBP) are recognized as being a neglected pathogen group, often associated with marginalized or disadvantaged populations, especially those living in regions where water supply or sanitation are inadequate. Nevertheless, we are also increasingly recognising that FBP are not just restricted to such places, and even those that do have a circumscribed endemic area may also travel further in our globalised world; FBP are relevant everywhere, including Europe. Against this background, COST Action Euro-FBP (FA1408) was established and ran for a period of 4 years, addressing a number of different questions related to FBP, particularly in the European setting. In this special issue (SI), some of the issues and outputs associated with Euro-FBP are considered in greater depth, as an output also of the final Euro-FBP meeting. As well as more general issues regarding, for example, globalization and climate change, use of economic models, and the value of risk-based surveillance that puts the topic in perspective, individual articles are included that address specific parasites. These include protozoan parasites, such as Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Toxoplasma, as contaminants of water, shellfish, and fresh produce, fishborne parasites such as Anisakid nematodes, and meatborne parasites, such as Trichinella. Some of the works provide specific data on occurrence or outbreaks, whilst others are concerned with techniques. In addition, implementation of some of the educational and collaborative tools that are unique to COST Actions are described. COST Actions are not generally intended to deliver a scientific endpoint, and Euro-FBP does not do so. However, the articles in this SI, along with other articles published elsewhere during and subsequent to the course of the Action, as direct outputs of the Euro-FBP activities, indicate that FBP are indeed a relevant topic for European scientists.


Assuntos
Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Europa (Continente) , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia
4.
G Ital Nefrol ; 37(2)2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32281758

RESUMO

Rhabdomyolysis (R) is a complex condition involving the rapid dissolution of damaged or injured skeletal muscle. This leads to the direct release of intracellular components, including myoglobin, creatine kinase, aldolase, and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as electrolytes, into the bloodstream and extracellular space. Clinically, R shows a triad of symptoms: myalgia, limb weakness, and myoglobinuria without hematuria, while myoglobin has been recognized as playing a part in the development of acute kidney injury. Coturnism is a relatively rare disease, mostly found in the European countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea, characterized by acute R. It follows the consumption of Coturnix coturnix, a species of quails common in Europe, that have ingested the toxic substances (and especially coniine) present in the herbaceous plant called hemlock (Conium maculatum). Coniine may be lethal at a dose of 150 mg but it has neurotoxic effects at smaller doses, with acute R and acute kidney injury. Freezing and cooking the meat does not inactivate the alkaloids present in the birds' flesh and digestive tract. The clinical course of coturnism includes neurotoxicosis, tremor, vomiting, muscle paralysis, respiratory paralysis/failure, R and acute kidney injury. In appropriate geographical and temporal settings, it should be considered when diagnosing patients with acute R. The genetic, biochemical and epidemiological characteristics of coturnism are not yet fully known, while we wait reliable data from experimental studies.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/envenenamento , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/complicações , Piperidinas/envenenamento , Codorniz , Rabdomiólise/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Animais , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Intoxicação por Plantas , Codorniz/metabolismo , Rabdomiólise/diagnóstico
6.
Exp Parasitol ; 212: 107867, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199081

RESUMO

Trichinellosis is a serious foodborne zoonotic disease. It is an important threat to public health all over the world. Although anti-Trichinella IgG detection is the most widely used method for diagnosis of trichinellosis, but there is an obvious window between clinical symptoms and positive serology. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can be conjugated with antibodies affording them promising applications for bio-chemical detection. Herein, AuNPs-based ELISA was evaluated for the first time in the detection of Trichinella spiralis circulating antigen (CAg) for its potential as a diagnostic tool of experimental infection. Swiss Albino mice were orally inoculated with 100 muscle larvae/mouse. Animals were sacrificed 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 22 and 28 day-post infection (dpi). Blood samples were tested for CAg by both standard ELISA and nano-based ELISA using anti-rabbit polyclonal IgG conjugated with AuNPs. CAg was only detected by nano-based ELISA 6, 8, 10 dpi and by both formats 12-28 dpi. Nano-based assay recorded a statistically significant high sensitivity (58.33%, 91.67%) and accuracy (72.22%, 94.44%) 8 and 10 dpi, respectively in comparison to standard ELISA. Both assays showed high sensitivity and accuracy 12-28 dpi. Thus, nano-based ELISA could be considered as an early sensitive diagnostic method for experimental trichinellosis.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Trichinella spiralis/imunologia , Triquinelose/diagnóstico , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Ouro/química , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/parasitologia , Coelhos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo , Trichinella spiralis/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/transmissão , Zoonoses/parasitologia
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008152, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218570

RESUMO

Clonorchiasis is one of the most important food-borne trematodiases affecting millions of people. Strategies were recommended by different organizations and control programmes were implemented but mostly in short-time periods. It's important to assess the long-term benefits and sustainability of possible control strategies on morbidity control of the disease. We developed a multi-group transmission model to describe the dynamics of C. sinensis transmission among different groups of people with different raw-fish-consumption behaviors, based on which, a full model with interventions was proposed and three common control measures (i.e., preventive chemotherapy, information, education, and communication (IEC) and environmental modification) and their possible combinations were considered. Under a typical setting of C. sinensis transmission, we simulated interventions according to different strategies and with a series of values of intervention parameters. We found that combinations of measures were much beneficial than those singly applied; higher coverages of measures had better effects; and strategies targeted on whole population performed better than that on at-risk population with raw-fish-consumption behaviors. The strategy recommended by the government of Guangdong Province, China shows good and sustainable effects, under which, the infection control (with human prevalence <5%) could be achieved within 7.84 years (95% CI: 5.78-12.16 years) in our study setting (with original observed prevalence 33.67%). Several sustainable strategies were provided, which could lead to infection control within 10 years. This study makes the effort to quantitatively assess the long-term effects of possible control strategies against C. sinensis infection under a typical transmission setting, with application of a multi-group dynamic transmission model. The proposed model is easily facilitated with other transmission settings and the simulation outputs provide useful information to support the decision-making of control strategies on clonorchiasis.


Assuntos
Clonorquíase/epidemiologia , Clonorquíase/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos
8.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(2): 169-174, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074705

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the etiology and epidemiological characteristics of gastroenteritis virus in foodborne diseases from three cities in Shandong. Methods: From January to December 2017, six sentinel hospitals in Jinan, Yantai and Linyi city of Shandong Province were selected as the research sites. Stool samples of 1 397 diarrhea patients were collected, as well as basic information and clinical symptoms. Duplex quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect Norovirus genogroupⅠ (Nov GⅠ) and genogroupⅡ (Nov GⅡ), Sapovirus (SAV) and Human astrovirus (HAstV), respectively, quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect group A Rotavirus (RVA), and quantitative PCR was used to detect Enteric adenovirus (EAdV). The specific gene of the virus were sequenced and typed. It was compared that the gastroenteritis virus rate in cases with different characteristics and the clinical symptoms difference between the virus positive and negative cases. Results: The median age (P(25), P(75)) was 23 (1, 42) , mainly male, 57.48% with 803 cased and children under 5 years old, 36.36% with 508 cases. The positive rate of gastroenteritis virus was 33.93% (474 cases), and that of Jinan, Linyi and Yantai City were 32.03% (147/459), 41.54% (189/455) and 28.57% (138/483), respectively (P<0.001). Nov GⅡ had the highest positive rate, 16.54% (231 cases), which, mainly GⅡ.P16/GⅡ.2 (48.28%, 56/116), peaked in May (24.75%, 50/202) and June (19.59%, 38/194). In patients of gastroenteritis virus positive, 44.51% (211/474) had vomiting symptoms, higher than that of patients of gastroenteritis virus negative (34.13%, 315/923). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: In Shandong Province, the majority of gastroenteritis patients were male and children under 5 years old. Nov GⅡ possessed highest epidemic intensity, and peaked in spring and summer. Viral gastroenteritis had atypical clinical symptoms.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 226: 113490, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088598

RESUMO

The world is faced with a remarkable coronavirus outbreak with epicentre in Wuhan, China. Altogether 40554 cases have been confirmed globally with novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) until February 10, 2020. Rigorous surveillance in other countries is required to prevent further global expansion of the outbreak, but resolving the exact mechanism of the initial transmission events is crucial. Most initial cases had visited Huanan South Seafood Market in Wuhan selling also various exotic live animals. Based on the limited initial human-to-human transmission and timely clustering of cases in Huanan market among elderly men, coupled with knowledge that coronaviruses are derived from animals and relationship of SARS-CoV-2 to bat coronavirus, zoonotic transmission in the first instance is probable. To target the actions, similar epidemiological actions to human cases are needed with animal or food exposures. According to current information, an exceptionally wide contamination of seafood market might explain the initiation of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Seafood tanks, air contamination by live animals or rodents are possibilities, but sold animals normally come from various sources. The mode of transmission may become clearer in future: usually in outbreak investigations, hindsight is easy, but for now information about the initial source of this outbreak is limited.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Alimentos Marinhos , Zoonoses , Idoso , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , China/epidemiologia , Quirópteros , Comércio , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Roedores
10.
N Engl J Med ; 382(7): 632-643, 2020 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An outbreak of listeriosis was identified in South Africa in 2017. The source was unknown. METHODS: We conducted epidemiologic, trace-back, and environmental investigations and used whole-genome sequencing to type Listeria monocytogenes isolates. A case was defined as laboratory-confirmed L. monocytogenes infection during the period from June 11, 2017, to April 7, 2018. RESULTS: A total of 937 cases were identified, of which 465 (50%) were associated with pregnancy; 406 of the pregnancy-associated cases (87%) occurred in neonates. Of the 937 cases, 229 (24%) occurred in patients 15 to 49 years of age (excluding those who were pregnant). Among the patients in whom human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status was known, 38% of those with pregnancy-associated cases (77 of 204) and 46% of the remaining patients (97 of 211) were infected with HIV. Among 728 patients with a known outcome, 193 (27%) died. Clinical isolates from 609 patients were sequenced, and 567 (93%) were identified as sequence type 6 (ST6). In a case-control analysis, patients with ST6 infections were more likely to have eaten polony (a ready-to-eat processed meat) than those with non-ST6 infections (odds ratio, 8.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.66 to 43.35). Polony and environmental samples also yielded ST6 isolates, which, together with the isolates from the patients, belonged to the same core-genome multilocus sequence typing cluster with no more than 4 allelic differences; these findings showed that polony produced at a single facility was the outbreak source. A recall of ready-to-eat processed meat products from this facility was associated with a rapid decline in the incidence of L. monocytogenes ST6 infections. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation showed that in a middle-income country with a high prevalence of HIV infection, L. monocytogenes caused disproportionate illness among pregnant girls and women and HIV-infected persons. Whole-genome sequencing facilitated the detection of the outbreak and guided the trace-back investigations that led to the identification of the source.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/etiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/mortalidade , Infecções por HIV/complicações , HIV-1 , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriose/etiologia , Listeriose/mortalidade , Masculino , Produtos da Carne/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Recall e Retirada de Produto , Distribuição por Sexo , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Adulto Jovem
11.
Exp Parasitol ; 210: 107848, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004534

RESUMO

Marine bivalves are usually cultivated in shallow, estuarine waters where there is a high concentration of nutrients. Many micro-pollutants, including the protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., which also occur in such environments, may be concentrated in shellfish tissues during their feeding process. Shellfish can thus be considered as vehicles for foodborne infections, as they are usually consumed lightly cooked or raw. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the presence of both parasites in Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis that are cultivated in Thermaikos Gulf, North Greece, which is fed by four rivers that are contaminated with both protozoa. Moreover, the occurrence of these protozoa was monitored in treated wastewaters from 3 treatment plants that discharge into the gulf. In order to identify potential sources of contamination and to estimate the risk for human infection, an attempt was made to genotype Giardia and Cryptosporidium in positive samples. Immunofluorescence was used for detection and molecular techniques were used for both detection and genotyping of the parasites. In total, 120 mussel samples, coming from 10 farms, were examined for the presence of both protozoa over the 6-month farming period. None of them were found positive by immunofluorescence microscopy for the presence of parasites. Only in 3 mussel samples, PCR targeting the GP60 gene detected Cryptosporidium spp. DNA, but sequencing was not successful. Thirteen out of 18 monthly samples collected from the 3 wastewater treatment plants, revealed the presence of Giardia duodenalis cysts belonging to sub-assemblage AII, at relatively low counts (up to 11.2 cysts/L). Cryptosporidium oocysts (up to 0.9 oocysts/L) were also detected in 4 out of 8 samples, although sequencing was not successful at any of the target genes. At the studied location and under the sampling conditions described, mussels tested were not found to be harboring Giardia cysts and the presence of Cryptosporidium was found only in few cases (by PCR detection only). Our results suggest that the likelihood that mussels from these locations act as vehicles of human infection for Giardia and Cryptosporidium seems low.


Assuntos
Bivalves/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Giardia/genética , Giardíase/transmissão , Grécia , Humanos , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rios/parasitologia , Águas Residuárias/parasitologia
12.
Exp Parasitol ; 210: 107832, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004854

RESUMO

Despite food technology advancements, food safety policies and alert systems, foodborne diseases are still a relevant concern for consumers and public health authorities, with great impacts on the economy and the society. Evaluating the cost of foodborne diseases may support the design and the implementation of policy interventions. This paper proposes a simple method for cost identification of foodborne diseases, accessible to researchers and practitioners who are not specialist in economics. The method is based on the assumption that epidemiological and economic models can be integrated to understand how the burden of disease determines costs in a wider socio-economic perspective. Systems thinking and interdisciplinary approach are the pivotal conceptual tools of the method. Systems thinking allows for the understanding of the complex relationships working among the elementary units of a system (e.g. wildlife, bred animals, consumers, environment, agro-food industry) in the occurrence of a health problem such foodborne diseases. Complex systemic relationships usually cross the traditional boundaries of scientific knowledge (human medicine, veterinary science, economics) and sectoral institutional responsibilities (e.g. ministry of health, ministry of agriculture). For these reasons more scientific disciplines, institutional competences and social bodies need to work together to face complex health problems, in an interdisciplinary framework. The first step of the proposed method is the identification of the potential cost of the disease. To this aim, the authors first focus on the links between epidemiological and economic models, based on the fact that foodborne diseases, likewise other diseases, hit people's and animals' aptitude to produce utility and goods for the society (e.g. wellbeing, revenue, safe food). These utility losses are real economic costs. Then they show how simple economic models, such as the food supply chain, can help understand the way costs spread across the economic sectors and the society. It should be underlined that the authors adopt already existing and well rooted scientific tools, focusing in particular that their integration in an interdisciplinary framework can effectively contribute to increase the understanding of complex health problems in a viable way.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/economia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Econômicos , Animais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/economia , Tecnologia de Alimentos/tendências , Humanos , Pesquisa Interdisciplinar , Saúde Única/economia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Análise de Sistemas
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 107, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, Taenia solium can cause cysticercosis in humans (including neurocysticercosis) and in pigs through ingestion of eggs and taeniasis in humans through ingestion of raw/undercooked pork contaminated with mature cysts. It is now recognised globally as one of the most prevalent food-borne parasitic diseases. The majority of cases have been reported in developing countries where consumption of food produced under unhygienic conditions is prevalent, exacerbated by lack of food safety education. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and practices of consumers towards pork safety in two districts of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, where T. solium cysticercosis is endemic in pigs and humans. METHODS: Three-hundred-and-sixty-one (361) participants were conveniently interviewed on consumer knowledge (harmfulness of T. solium cysticercosis, ability to identify cysts, trustworthiness of registered butcheries and legal requirements) and practices (storage of pork and method(s) of cooking pork safely) through a structured questionnaire. Chi-square for association of variables was used to compare differences in the districts. RESULTS: Overall, 73.1% of the study group from both districts agreed that pork forms an important part of their diet. Consumers (54.2%: 189/349) agreed that pork infected with T. solium cysts could be harmful, and 57.3% (188/328) indicated their inability to identify T. solium cysts in pork when slaughtered at home. Although 69.5% (234/352) trusted pork bought from butcheries, only 52.2% (187/358) were aware that butcheries must present a registration certificate in order to operate. This coincides with the fact that very few (< 10%) were aware of the legal requirements in terms of disease control, slaughter and food preparation. Most consumers (88.7%: 268/302) kept pork in the fridge and only 11.3% (34/302) kept it in a freezer (p = 0.02). Although not significantly different between the districts (p = 0.15), consumers in Alfred Nzo (71.4%: 152/213) and OR Tambo (61.2%: 74/12) mostly cooked pork as a stew, followed by braai/barbeque and frying or baking. This was in line with the fact that consumers in Alfred Nzo (79%: 147/186) and OR Tambo (80.8%: 120) preferred well-cooked pork; the main reason for this was the belief that cooking kills germs (43.6%: 121/277) followed by rendering the meat tasty (26.4%: 73/277). CONCLUSIONS: Consumers surveyed in the two districts were somewhat aware that T. solium cysticercosis could be harmful, although some were not able to identify T. solium cysts in pork. They also lacked sufficient knowledge regarding butchery certification and other legal requirements related to disease control, slaughter and food preparation. Practices related to cooking have the potential to promote the transmission of human taeniasis and the fact that most respondents preferred stewed pork could be a positive sign, as the cysts are destroyed during the cooking process. Results from this study are useful for the development of a control and prevention strategy targeted towards consumers, and the creation of awareness of food safety, with special emphasis on T, solium cysticercosis.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Conhecimento , Carne de Porco/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Taenia solium/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Culinária , Estudos Transversais , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Cisticercose/prevenção & controle , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carne de Porco/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Teníase/parasitologia , Teníase/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049256

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to describe the microbiological characteristics and profile of genes encoding enterotoxins in 95 Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained between April 2011 and December 2014 from foodstuffs, persons and surfaces of retail food stores. After microbiological identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were performed, targeting sea, seb, sec, sed and see genes that code for classical enterotoxins (ET) A-E, and three additional genes: seg , seh and sei , coding for so-called "new enterotoxins" G, H and I. The isolates were characterized by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), and five selected isolates were further analyzed through Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). It is noteworthy that 54.7% of the examined isolates harbored one or more of the investigated ET gene types. Most positive isolates carried more than one ET gene up to five types; seg was the most frequent ET gene, followed by sei. Five enterotoxin-coding isolates also coded for some antimicrobial resistance genes. Two of them, and four additional non-enterotoxic isolates carried erm genes expressing inducible clindamycin resistance. PFGE-types were numerous and diverse, even among enterotoxin-coding strains, because most isolates did not belong to known foodborne outbreaks and the sampling period was long. MLST profiles were also varied, and a new ST 3840 was described within this species. ST 88 and ST 72 enterotoxin-coding isolates have been identified in other regions in association with foodborne outbreaks. This manuscript reports the first systematic investigation of enterotoxin genes in S. aureus isolates obtained from foodstuffs and infected people in Uruguay.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Enterotoxinas/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Enterotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Uruguai
16.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227630, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) infections cause a significant public health burden worldwide and in the UK with evidence pointing to socio-economic inequalities, particularly among children. Qualitative studies can help us understand why inequalities occur and contribute to developing more effective interventions. This study had two aims: 1. Conduct a systematic review to determine the extent and nature of UK qualitative evidence on gastrointestinal infections; 2. Use meta-ethnography to examine the influences of the differing social contexts in which people live. METHODS: MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of science, CINAHL and JSTOR were searched for UK qualitative studies engaging with the risk, diagnosis, management or consequences of gastrointestinal infections from 1980 to July 2019. Five reviewers were involved in applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracting and synthesising data (PROSPERO CRD 42017055157). RESULTS: Searches identified 4080 studies, 18 met the inclusion criteria. The majority (n = 16) contained data relating to the risk of gastrointestinal infection and these made up the main synthesis. The tenets of meta-ethnography were used to glean new understandings of the role of social and environmental contexts in shaping the risk of gastrointestinal infection, specifically with respect to foodborne GI illness. Three main explanations concerning risk emerged from the data: explanations of risk in the community were underpinned by understandings of 'bugs', dirt and where food comes from; risks were negotiated in households alongside diverse processes of decision making around food; and resources available to households shaped food practices. CONCLUSION: This systematic review highlights the scarcity of UK qualitative evidence examining gastrointestinal infections. Apart from risk, questions around diagnosis, management and consequences of illness were largely untouched. No studies investigated patterning by socio-economic status. Nevertheless, the meta-ethnography yielded wider contextual theories and explanations as to why people might not follow food hygiene guidance, giving pointers to the types of qualitative enquiry needed to develop more effective interventions.


Assuntos
Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infecções/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/etiologia , Gastroenteropatias/etnologia , Humanos , Infecções/etnologia , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/etnologia
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 25, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large number of students at a school in Guangzhou city developed a sudden onset of symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting. To help control the outbreak, we conducted an epidemiological investigation to determine the causative agent, sources, role of transmission and risk factors of the infections. METHODS: The study population consisted of probable and confirmed cases. An active search was conducted for cases among all students, teachers and other school staff members. A case control study was carried out using standardized online questionnaires. Data were obtained regarding demographic characteristics, gastrointestinal symptoms, personal hygiene habits, history of contact with a person who had diarrhea and/or vomiting and dining locations during the past 3 days. Rectal swabs or stool samples of the cases and, food handlers, as well as environmental samples were collected to detect potential intestinal viruses and bacteria. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: A total of 157 individuals fit the definition of a probable case, including 46 with laboratory-confirmed norovirus infection between March 8 and March 22, 2018. The proportion of students who had eaten delivery food 3 days before the onset of illness in the case group was 2.69 times that in the control group (95%CI: 1.88-3.85). Intake of take-out food 3 days earlier, and exposure to similar cases 72 h before onset and case in the same dormitory were risk factors. A total of 20 rectal swab samples from students, 10 rectal swabs from food handlers and 2 environmental swab samples from the out-campus restauranttested positive for norovirus (GII, genogroup II strain). CONCLUSIONS: We investigated an outbreak of norovirus infectious diarrhea. Food handling practices carry potential risk of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks owing to a lack of surveillance and supervision. Greater attention should be paid to the monitoring and supervision of food handlers in off campus restaurant to reduce the incidence of norovirus-related acute gastroenteritis associated with delivery food.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Restaurantes , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Vômito/epidemiologia , Vômito/virologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 83, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The more quickly bacterial pathogens responsible for foodborne illness outbreaks can be linked to a vehicle of transmission or a source, the more illnesses can be prevented. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) based approaches to source tracking have greatly increased the speed and resolution with which public health response can pinpoint the vehicle and source of outbreaks. Traditionally, WGS approaches have focused on the culture of an individual isolate before proceeding to DNA extraction and sequencing. For Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), generation of an individual isolate for sequencing typically takes about 6 days. Here we demonstrate that a hybrid, "quasimetagenomic" approach ie; direct sequencing of microbiological enrichments (first step in pathogen detection and recovery) can provide high resolution source tracking sequence data, 5 days earlier than response that focuses on culture and sequencing of an individual isolate. This expedited approach could save lives, prevent illnesses and potentially minimize unnecessary destruction of food. METHODS: Naturally contaminated ice cream (from a 2015 outbreak) was enriched to recover Listeria monocytogenes following protocols outlined in the Bacteriological Analytic Manual (BAM). DNA from enriching microbiota was extracted and sequenced at incremental time-points during the first 48 h of pre-enrichment using the Illumina MiSeq platform (2 by 250), to evaluate genomic coverage of target pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. RESULTS: Quasimetagenomic sequence data acquired from hour 20 were sufficient to discern whether or not Lm strain/s were part of the ongoing outbreak or not. Genomic data from hours 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, and 48 of pre-enrichments all provided identical phylogenetic source tracking utility to the WGS of individual isolates (which require an additional 5 days to culture). CONCLUSIONS: The speed of this approach (more than twice as fast as current methods) has the potential to reduce the number of illnesses associated with any given outbreak by as many as 75% percent of total cases and potentially with continued optimization of the entire chain of response, contribute to minimized food waste.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Sorvetes/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriose/microbiologia , Metagenômica , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/classificação , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Fatores de Tempo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
19.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226238, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978059

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni infection is one of the most frequently reported foodborne bacterial diseases worldwide. The main transmission route of these microorganisms to humans is consumption of contaminated food, especially of chicken origin. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic relatedness of C. jejuni from chicken sources (feces, carcasses, and meat) and from humans with diarrhea as well as to subtype the isolates to gain better insight into their population structure present in Poland. C. jejuni were genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and sequence types (STs) were assigned in the MLST database. Among 602 isolates tested, a total of 121 different STs, including 70 (57.9%) unique to the isolates' origin, and 32 STs that were not present in the MLST database were identified. The most prevalent STs were ST464 and ST257, with 58 (9.6%) and 52 (8.6%) C. jejuni isolates, respectively. Isolates with some STs (464, 6411, 257, 50) were shown to be common in chickens, whereas others (e.g. ST21 and ST572) were more often identified among human C. jejuni. It was shown that of 47 human sequence types, 26 STs (106 isolates), 23 STs (102 isolates), and 29 STs (100 isolates) were also identified in chicken feces, meat, and carcasses, respectively. These results, together with the high and similar proportional similarity indexes (PSI) calculated for C. jejuni isolated from patients and chickens, may suggest that human campylobacteriosis was associated with contaminated chicken meat or meat products or other kinds of food cross-contaminated with campylobacters of chicken origin. The frequency of various sequence types identified in the present study generally reflects of the prevalence of STs in other countries which may suggest that C. jejuni with some STs have a global distribution, while other genotypes may be more restricted to certain countries.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana/métodos , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Carne/análise , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/classificação , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Diarreia/genética , Diarreia/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Carne/microbiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência
20.
Exp Parasitol ; 208: 107809, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785242

RESUMO

The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans and cause toxoplasmosis. T. gondii has been highly prioritized among the foodborne parasites regarding its global impact on public health. Human infection can occur through multiple routes, including the ingestion of raw or undercooked food contaminated with T. gondii oocysts, such as fresh produce and bivalves. As filter-feeders, bivalves can accumulate and concentrate contaminants, including protozoan (oo)cysts. Although detection of T. gondii in different bivalves by molecular techniques (PCR and qPCR) has been achieved, routine application is currently limited by lack of sensitivity or equipment costs. Here, we describe the assessment of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-based assay to detect T. gondii oocysts in spiked mussels. Detection limit was down to 5 oocysts/g in tissue and 5 oocyst/ml in hemolymph, and, under the experimental conditions tested, LAMP was found to provide a promising alternative to qPCR.


Assuntos
Bivalves/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Toxoplasma/genética , Animais , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Hemolinfa/parasitologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose/transmissão
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