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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206864

RESUMO

Campylobacter is not routinely tested in foodborne disease investigations in Brazil. Here, we studied the occurrence of Campylobacter among other food-related bacteria commonly found in foodborne disease outbreaks reported in Rio Grande do Sul State, Southern Brazil. Seventy-two food samples were analyzed by using culture-based detection methods during the 18-month investigation of 36 foodborne disease outbreaks. The sampled foods from the foodborne disease outbreaks were all negative for Campylobacter . However, at least one of other routinely investigated foodborne-related bacteria was detected in 29.17% (21/72) of the samples. Taken together, these results suggest the need to monitor Campylobacter in foodborne diseases to detect sporadic cases caused by Campylobacter that might go unnoticed in Rio Grande do Sul.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239599, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986741

RESUMO

The harvest of bushmeat is widespread in the tropics and sub-tropics. Often in these communities, there is a dependence on bushmeat for both food security and basic income. Despite the importance of bushmeat for households worldwide, the practice raises concern for transmission of zoonotic pathogens through hunting, food preparation, and consumption. In Uganda, harvest of wildlife is illegal, but bushmeat hunting, is commonplace. We interviewed 292 women who cook for their households and 180 self-identified hunters from 21 villages bordering Murchison Falls National Park in Uganda to gain insights into bushmeat preferences, opportunity for zoonotic pathogen transmission, and awareness of common wildlife-associated zoonoses. Both hunters and women who cook considered primates to be the most likely wildlife species to carry diseases humans can catch. Among common zoonotic pathogens, the greatest proportions of women who cook and hunters believed that pathogens causing stomach ache or diarrhea and monkeypox can be transmitted by wildlife. Neither women who cook nor hunters report being frequently injury during cooking, butchering, or hunting, and few report taking precautions while handling bushmeat. The majority of women who cook believe that hunters and dealers never or rarely disguise primate meat as another kind of meat in market, while the majority of hunters report that they usually disguise primate meat as another kind of meat. These data play a crucial role in our understanding of potential for exposure to and infection with zoonotic pathogens in the bushmeat trade. Expanding our knowledge of awareness, perceptions and risks enables us to identify opportunities to mitigate infections and injury risk and promote safe handling practices.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Conscientização , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Zoonoses/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Culinária , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parques Recreativos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
3.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e206, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867880

RESUMO

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a well-established cause of traveller's diarrhoea and occasional domestic foodborne illness outbreaks in the USA. Although ETEC are not detected by conventional stool culture methods used in clinical laboratories, syndromic culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) capable of detecting ETEC have become increasingly prevalent in the last decade. This study describes the epidemiology of ETEC infections reported to the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) during 2016-2017. ETEC-positive stool specimens were submitted to MDH to confirm the presence of ETEC DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cases were interviewed to ascertain illness and exposures. Contemporaneous Salmonella cases were used as a comparison group in a case-case comparison analysis of risk factors. Of 222 ETEC-positive specimens received by MDH, 108 (49%) were concordant by PCR. ETEC was the sixth most frequently reported bacterial enteric pathogen among a subset of CIDT-positive specimens. Sixty-nine (64%) laboratory-confirmed cases had an additional pathogen codetected with ETEC, including enteroaggregative E. coli (n = 40) and enteropathogenic E. coli (n = 39). Although travel is a risk factor for ETEC infection, only 43% of cases travelled internationally, providing evidence for ETEC as an underestimated source of domestically acquired enteric illness in the USA.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780775

RESUMO

Ghana Health Service (GHS) has strengthened community-based surveillance (CBS) to facilitate early detection and rapid reporting of health events of all origins. Since June 2017, GHS has employed an event-based surveillance approach at the community level in a phased manner. CBS coverage has broadened from 2 to 30 districts across Ghana. Through this effort, capacity was built across all administrative levels in these districts to detect, report, triage, and verify signals, and to perform risk assessment and investigate events. Data were collected and analyzed during an evaluation of initial 2-district implementation in March 2018 and during expanded 30-district implementation in March 2019. Between September 2018 and March 2019, 317 health events were detected through CBS. These events included vaccine-preventable disease cases, acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreaks, clusters of unexpected animal deaths, and foodborne illness clusters. Eighty-nine percent of the 317 events were reported to district-level public health staff within 24 hours of detection at the community level, and 87% of all detected events were responded to within 48 hours of detection. CBS detected 26% of all suspected vaccine-preventable disease cases that were reported from implementing districts through routine disease surveillance. GHS strengthened CBS in Ghana to function as an early warning system for health events of all origins, advancing the Global Health Security Agenda.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade , Saúde Global , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Conjuntivite Hemorrágica Aguda/epidemiologia , Conjuntivite Hemorrágica Aguda/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Gana , Humanos , Governo Local , Medição de Risco/métodos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235440, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholera remains a significant public health problem in more than one-third of the countries of the world. Cholera outbreak has become more common in Addis Ababa particularly in the rainy seasons; however, there is a paucity of data on risk factors associated with cholera outbreaks rendering interventions difficult. We investigated the outbreak to identify its etiology, source, risk factors and in order to control the outbreak. METHODS: We compared cases with health center-based unmatched controls (1:2). Cases were patients aged ≥5 years with acute watery diarrhea, with or without vomiting while controls were persons aged ≥5 years without history of acute watery diarrhea. We interviewed our study participants using structured questionnaire to collect demographic and cholera risk factors data. We described the outbreak over time, and then tested our hypotheses using unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: The outbreak began on 7 September, 2017 reaching its peak on 23 September, 2017 and ended on 01 October, 2017. We identified a total of 25 cases (Median age: 38 years; IQR: 20 years) and recruited 50 controls (Median age: 35 years; IQR: 29 years). All case-patients had acute watery diarrhea and dehydration requiring intravenous fluids. All cases were admitted to cholera treatment center but there were no deaths. Stool and water samples yielded isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 of serological subtype Ogawa. Consumption of contaminated holy water (AOR: 20.5, 95%CI: 3.50, 119.61) and raw vegetables (AOR: 15.3, 95%CI: 3, 81.51) were independent risk factors whereas washing hands with soap after visiting latrine (AOR: 0.04, 95%CI: 0.01, 0.25) was independent protective factor. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated cholera foodborne transmission via consumption of raw vegetables, and its waterborne transmission via consumption of contaminated holy water. Washing hands with soap after visiting latrine was protective. We recommended cooking of vegetables and promoting hand washing.


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Vibrio cholerae O1/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Água Potável/microbiologia , Etiópia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Desinfecção das Mãos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toaletes , Verduras/microbiologia , Verduras/envenenamento , Vômito/epidemiologia , Microbiologia da Água
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 140795, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-cholera Vibrio bacteria are a major cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Raw oysters are commonly implicated in gastroenteritis caused by pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In response to outbreaks in 1997-1998, the US Food and Drug Administration developed a nation-wide quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of V. parahaemolyticus in raw oysters in 2005. The QMRA identified information gaps that new research may address. Incidence of sporadic V. parahaemolyticus illness has recently increased and, as oyster consumption increases and sea temperatures rise, V. parahaemolyticus outbreaks may become more frequent, posing health concerns. Updated and region-specific QMRAs will improve the accuracy and precision of risk of infection estimates. OBJECTIVES: We identify research to support an updated QMRA of V. parahaemolyticus from oysters harvested in Chesapeake Bay and Puget Sound, focusing on observational and experimental research on post-harvest practices (PHPs) published from 2004 to 2019. METHODS: A predefined search strategy was applied to PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Science.gov, NAL Agricola, and Google Scholar. Study eligibility criteria were defined using a population, intervention, comparator, and outcome statement. Reviewers independently coded abstracts for inclusion/exclusion using predefined criteria. Data were extracted and study quality and relevance evaluated based on published guidance for food safety risk assessments. Findings were synthesized using a weight of evidence approach. RESULTS: Of 12,174 articles retrieved, 93 were included for full-text review. Twenty-seven studies were found to be high quality and high relevance, including studies on cold storage, high hydrostatic pressure, depuration, and disinfectant, and other PHPs. High hydrostatic pressure consistently emerged as the most effective PHP in reducing abundance of V. parahaemolyticus. DISCUSSION: Limitations of the knowledge base and review approach involve the type and quantity of data reported. Future research should focus on PHPs for which few or no high quality and high relevance studies exist, such as irradiation and relaying.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Ostreidae , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 401-405, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taeniasis, caused by two major Taenia species, T. solium and T. saginata, is a worldwide foodborne zoonotic disease. T. solium is found in people who habitually eat raw or undercooked pork, while T. saginata is found in people who habitually eat raw or undercooked beef. Cattle rearing and beef consumption is an important socio-cultural feature in the Kashmir valley, India. This study's objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of foodborne taeniasis in Kashmir and explore the various risk factors for its transmission. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A detailed survey of the population in selected rural and semi-urban sites of Kashmir valley was carried out based on previous information. A total of 12,404 subjects (males=6364; females=6040) ranging from one to 85 years of age (mean age: 28.96±17.68) were included in this study. The parasite diagnosis was made through stool analysis (egg morphology) and anatomical characteristics of gravid proglottids obtained from infected cases. The data obtained were compiled for the parameters studied and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The observations as estimated coprologically and based on gravid proglottids' anatomy revealed the presence of T. saginata infection. The prevalence was 2.74% with males significantly (p<0.01) more infected (3.40%) than females (2.05%). Similarly, the age group of >60 years showed greater prevalence (7.21% among males and 2.68% among females) at a significance value of p<0.05. Rural populatios were slightly more infected (2.84%) than semi-urban populations (2.36%) with a statistically significant difference (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the Kashmiri population who consume raw or undercooked beef, harbor T. saginata infection; its prevalence was influenced by food eating habits, age, sex, and living conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Taenia saginata/fisiologia , Teníase/transmissão , Teníase/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Taenia saginata/genética , Taenia saginata/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/epidemiologia , Teníase/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e215, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669142

RESUMO

In November 2017, Public Health England identified an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in England where whole genome sequencing results indicated cases were likely to be linked to a common source, and began investigations. Hypothesis generation included a review of enhanced surveillance data, a case-case study and trawling interviews. The hypothesis of interest was tested through the administration of focussed questionnaires and review of shopping history using loyalty card data. Twelve outbreak cases were detected, eight were hospitalised and four developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Frozen beef burgers supplied by a national retailer were identified as the vehicle of the outbreak. Testing of two left-over burger samples obtained from the freezers of two separate (unlinked) cases and a retained sample from the production premises were tested and found to be positive for the outbreak strain. A voluntary recall of the burgers was implemented by the retailer. Investigations at the production premises identified no contraventions of food safety legislation. Cooking guidance on the product packaging was deemed to be adequate and interviews with the cases/carers who prepared the burgers revealed no deficiencies in cooking practices at home. Given the long-shelf life of frozen burgers, the product recall likely prevented more cases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Escherichia coli O157/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 841, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bats serve as an important reservoir for emerging infectious diseases. Bat contact and consumption, which persists in Asia, poses risks for the transmission of bat-borne infections. METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional survey for risk factors associated with bat contact and consumption behaviors was conducted in ten provinces of Thailand from May 2016 to December 2017. A standardized questionnaire administered through face-to-face interviews was used to collect information from 626 villagers who lived in or nearby areas of high bat density. The questionnaire contained 23 independent variables related to sociodemographic, knowledge, attitudes, practices, and perceptions. RESULTS: The respondents (n = 626) were 285 females and 341 males, mean age of respondents was 47.58 years-old and lived in rural setting. Our results showed that 36.42% of respondents (n1 = 228) in 10 provinces reported bat contact during the past 6 months. Furthermore, 15.34% of respondents (n2 = 96) in 9 out of 10 provinces reported of having consumed bat meat in the past 6 months. Risk factors for bat contact included sex (male) (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.09-2.28), educational attainment (lower than secondary school) (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.02-2.18), and the consideration of bats as being economically beneficial to the community (OR = 3.18, 95% CI 2.03-4.97), while agriculture-related occupation (OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.37-0.79), knowledge that it is safe to eat bats (OR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.37-0.93), practice of allowing children to play with bats (OR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.96), and attitude of feeling safe in areas where bats live (OR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.38-0.86) were statistically significant protective factors against bat contact. Risk factors for bat consumption included sex (male) (OR = 2.48, 95% CI 1.49-4.11) and educational attainment (lower than secondary school) (OR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.27-3.85), while knowledge of whether bats are safe to eat (OR = 0.04, 95% CI 0.01-0.25), knowledge of whether there are laws pertaining to hunting bats for consumption (OR = 0.35, 95% CI 0.18-0.71), and the practice of allowing children to play with bats (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.31-0.81) were statistically significant protective factors against bat consumption. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a better understanding of the sociodemographic factors, knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices that might influence bat contact and bat consumption behaviors. Information on risk factors can be used for the development of appropriate education and communication interventions to promote proper knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding bats and bat-borne zoonotic diseases in Thailand and other areas in the Southeast Asia region with similar environmental and cultural characteristics.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/etiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/etiologia , Carne/efeitos adversos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/etiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
11.
Environ Res ; 188: 109773, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559686

RESUMO

Campylobacter is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States. Campylobacter infections have most often been associated with food-related risk factors, such as the consumption of poultry and raw milk. Socioeconomic, agricultural and environmental factors, including drinking water source, can also influence the risk of campylobacteriosis. Approximately 19% of Maryland residents rely on private wells as their sole source of water. Given that the federal Safe Drinking Water Act does not regulate the water quality of private wells, these could be important non-foodborne transmission pathways for Campylobacter. To address this issue, data on the number of culture-confirmed cases of Campylobacter infection in Maryland between 2007 and 2016 were obtained from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network. Cases were linked by zip code with data from the Maryland well permits registry, the 2010 U.S. Census, the 2016 American Community Survey, and the USDA Agricultural Census. Campylobacteriosis incidence rates and well prevalence were calculated by zip code. Negative binomial regression models were then constructed to evaluate the association between the prevalence of private wells, presence/absence of animal feeding operations and the incidence of campylobacteriosis across the physiographic provinces in Maryland. From 2007 to 2016, a total of 5746 cases of campylobacteriosis were reported in Maryland, and annual incidence rates ranged from 6.65 to 11.59 per 100,000 people. In our statewide analysis, a significant positive association was observed between well prevalence and increased campylobacteriosis incidence at the zip code level (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) = 1.35, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.11, 1.63). A significant positive association was also observed between well prevalence and increased campylobacteriosis incidence in the Appalachian and Coastal provinces of Maryland (IRR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.11, 7.76 and IRR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.25, 2.31, respectively). The presence of broiler chicken operations, increasing median age and percentage of residents living in poverty were also significantly associated with campylobacteriosis incidence at the zip code level in some physiographic provinces in Maryland. To our knowledge, these are the first US data to demonstrate an association between prevalence of private wells and campylobacteriosis incidence at the zip code level.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter , Água Potável , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Galinhas , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Maryland/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Conduta Expectante
12.
Environ Health ; 19(1): 58, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vibrio growth in the environment is related to sea surface temperature (SST). The incidence of human Vibrio illness increased sharply in British Columbia (BC) between 2008 and 2015 for unknown reasons, culminating in the largest outbreak of shellfish-associated Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) in Canadian history in 2015. Our objective was to assess the relationship between SST and Vibrio illness in BC, Canada during 1992-2017 and assess the role of SST and other environmental factors in the 2015 Vp outbreak. METHODS: Cases of Vibrio infection reported to the BC Centre for Disease Control during 1992-2017 were used. SST data were obtained from NOAA and NASA. We assessed changes in incidence trend of annual Vibrio cases during 1992-2017 using a Poisson regression. We assessed the correlation between annual Vibrio cases and the average annual maximum SST using a Spearman rank-order correlation. We modeled the association between weekly Vp case counts, SST and other environmental factors during 2007-2017 using a Poisson regression. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in Vibrio cases between 2008 and 2015 (annual slope = 0.163, P < 0.001). Increased Vibrio incidence was observed in most El Niño years. There was a significant correlation between annual Vibrio cases and maximum SST from 1992 to 2017 (r = 0.46, P = 0.018). Our model captured observed seasonal variation in shellfish-associated Vp in most years, but underestimated the 2015 Vp outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: Vibrio incidence has been increasing concurrently with increasing SST in BC during 2008-2015. The 2015 Vp outbreak was not fully explained by climatic factors and may in part have been associated with other factors. Vp subtyping would be useful in the future to understand the combined effects of SST changes and strain emergence.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Água do Mar/química , Temperatura , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Alimentos Marinhos/microbiologia , Estações do Ano , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/fisiologia
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(17): 509-514, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352955

RESUMO

To evaluate progress toward prevention of enteric illnesses, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program monitors the incidence of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by eight pathogens transmitted commonly through food at 10 U.S. sites.* This report summarizes preliminary 2019 data and describes changes in incidence compared with that during 2016-2018. The incidence of enteric infections caused by these eight pathogens reported by FoodNet sites in 2019 continued to increase or remained unchanged, indicating progress in controlling major foodborne pathogens in the United States has stalled. Campylobacter and Salmonella caused the largest proportion of illnesses; trends in incidence varied by Salmonella serotype. Widespread adoption of whole genome sequencing (WGS) of bacteria has improved the ability to identify outbreaks, emerging strains, and sources of pathogens. To maximize the potential of WGS to link illnesses to particular sources, testing of isolates by clinical and public health laboratories is needed. Reductions in Salmonella serotype Typhimurium suggest that targeted interventions (e.g., vaccinating chickens and other food animals) might decrease human infections. Reducing contamination during food production, processing, and preparation will require more widespread implementation of known prevention measures and of new strategies that target particular pathogens and serotypes.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(4): e0008263, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352962

RESUMO

Clonorchiasis is caused by raw-freshwater fish-eating practice and causes high burden in Asia. Transmission mechanism of this behavior hasn't been illuminated, which hinders the adoption of sustainable control activities. A cross-sectional survey was implemented in students from four endemic provinces in China. Data with 23,222 students aged 9-18 and their parents were eligible. Familial clustering of raw-eating practice, impact of parents' practice on children, interaction of spouses' practice was analyzed. Raw-eating practice met ß-binomial distribution (χ2 = 0.8, p>0.05). Clustering coefficient increased by students' age (R2 = 0.82, p<0.001) and was higher in those families with boys compared to girls (t = 4.1, p<0.01). The proportion of students with raw-eating practice increased yearly by 8.9% in girls and 10.5% in boys. Compared to those without parents' raw-eating practice, adjusted odds ratio of students' raw-eating practice was 10.5 (95% confidential intervals (95% CI): 9.4-11.7) in those with fathers' practice, 33.6 (95% CI: 26.3-42.9) in those with mothers' practice and 47.1 (95% CI: 42.0-52.8) in those with both parents' practice. There existed interaction between spouses' practice (χ2 = 6713.1, p<0.001) and the impact from husband on his wife was higher than that from wife on her husband. Familial assimilation characterizes the transmission of raw-freshwater fish-eating practice, consisted of vertical intergenerational assimilation from parents to their children and horizontal martial assimilation between spouses. A sustainable strategy against clonorchiasis should interrupt the transmission of raw-freshwater fish-eating practice. Additionally, further studies are expected to explore more information, e.g. the frequency in raw-eating practice and type of raw freshwater fish, infection status of C. sinensis in participants, as well as direct collection of parents' eating information from themselves.


Assuntos
Clonorquíase/epidemiologia , Saúde da Família , Comportamento Alimentar , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Alimentos Crus/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Terapia Comportamental , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Clonorquíase/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Appl Microbiol ; 129(5): 1120-1132, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471014

RESUMO

Food contaminated by hepatitis A virus (HAV) is responsible of the 2-7% of all HAV outbreaks worldwide. This review provides a description of the HAV characteristics, its infectivity and epidemiological features. In addition, this review compiles existing original papers reporting HAV prevalence, viral titres in foodstuffs and the risk associated with food contamination. The purpose of this revision is to conduct a structured and systematic review of the published molecular procedures for HAV detection in food, including the assessment of its infectivity.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Hepatite A/fisiologia , Hepatite A/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/virologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Medição de Risco
16.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e180, 2020 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364094

RESUMO

Raw milk cheeses are commonly consumed in France and are also a common source of foodborne outbreaks (FBOs). Both an FBO surveillance system and a laboratory-based surveillance system aim to detect Salmonella outbreaks. In early August 2018, five familial FBOs due to Salmonella spp. were reported to a regional health authority. Investigation identified common exposure to a raw goats' milk cheese, from which Salmonella spp. were also isolated, leading to an international product recall. Three weeks later, on 22 August, a national increase in Salmonella Newport ST118 was detected through laboratory surveillance. Concomitantly isolates from the earlier familial clusters were confirmed as S. Newport ST118. Interviews with a selection of the laboratory-identified cases revealed exposure to the same cheese, including exposure to batches not included in the previous recall, leading to an expansion of the recall. The outbreak affected 153 cases, including six cases in Scotland. S. Newport was detected in the cheese and in the milk of one of the producer's goats. The difference in the two alerts generated by this outbreak highlight the timeliness of the FBO system and the precision of the laboratory-based surveillance system. It is also a reminder of the risks associated with raw milk cheeses.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella/classificação , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , França/epidemiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia
17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e93, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312351

RESUMO

In foodborne outbreak investigations, case-control and cohort studies are used to test hypotheses and identify a source, but these studies are resource-intensive and may have challenges of representativeness, temporality or accessibility. We used online surveys to collect population control data for two foodborne outbreaks and compared the data collected to our cases and existing population exposure data. Online survey population controls were comparable to cases based on age and sex. Exposure data collected through online surveys were more precise than existing control data, represented the disease-specific exposure period and could be easily modified. In one outbreak the online control exposure data differed from established population data. In both outbreaks, the information from the online population control survey supported the hypothesis of the investigation. Our findings demonstrate that online surveys were a rapid and representative way to collect responses from controls during outbreak investigations.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Internet , Adulto , Idoso , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
18.
Exp Parasitol ; 214: 107900, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335103

RESUMO

Foodborne parasites (FBP) are recognized as being a neglected pathogen group, often associated with marginalized or disadvantaged populations, especially those living in regions where water supply or sanitation are inadequate. Nevertheless, we are also increasingly recognising that FBP are not just restricted to such places, and even those that do have a circumscribed endemic area may also travel further in our globalised world; FBP are relevant everywhere, including Europe. Against this background, COST Action Euro-FBP (FA1408) was established and ran for a period of 4 years, addressing a number of different questions related to FBP, particularly in the European setting. In this special issue (SI), some of the issues and outputs associated with Euro-FBP are considered in greater depth, as an output also of the final Euro-FBP meeting. As well as more general issues regarding, for example, globalization and climate change, use of economic models, and the value of risk-based surveillance that puts the topic in perspective, individual articles are included that address specific parasites. These include protozoan parasites, such as Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Toxoplasma, as contaminants of water, shellfish, and fresh produce, fishborne parasites such as Anisakid nematodes, and meatborne parasites, such as Trichinella. Some of the works provide specific data on occurrence or outbreaks, whilst others are concerned with techniques. In addition, implementation of some of the educational and collaborative tools that are unique to COST Actions are described. COST Actions are not generally intended to deliver a scientific endpoint, and Euro-FBP does not do so. However, the articles in this SI, along with other articles published elsewhere during and subsequent to the course of the Action, as direct outputs of the Euro-FBP activities, indicate that FBP are indeed a relevant topic for European scientists.


Assuntos
Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Europa (Continente) , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia
19.
J Food Prot ; 83(5): 874-880, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330935

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In April 2017, an outbreak of histamine fish poisoning causing illness in nine victims associated with consumption of milkfish surimi products (fish ball) occurred in Kaohsiung City, southern Taiwan. Of the two suspected frozen milkfish surimi samples, one sample contained 91.06 mg/100 g of histamine, levels that are greater than the potential hazard action level (50 mg/100 g) in most illness cases. Moreover, 28 frozen milkfish surimi samples from retail stores were collected and tested to determine the occurrence of histamine. One (3.6%) of 28 commercial surimi samples had histamine levels greater than the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guideline for decomposition of 5 mg/100 g for scombroid fish and/or products. Thirteen histamine-producing bacterial strains isolated from suspected and commercial surimi samples were identified as prolific histamine formers, able to produce 98.4 to 121.8 mg/100 mL of histamine in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% l-histidine. In addition, milkfish surimi was inoculated with Raoultella ornithinolytica at 5.0 log CFU/g and stored at 4, 15, 25, and 37°C to investigate bacterial growth and formation of histamine. The histamine contents quickly increased to more than 50 mg/100 g in samples stored at 37 and 25°C within 12 and 24 h, respectively, as well those stored at 15°C within 96 h. To our knowledge, this is the first report in Taiwan to demonstrate that milkfish surimi products could cause histamine intoxication.


Assuntos
Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Histamina , Animais , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Histamina/análise , Histamina/envenenamento , Taiwan
20.
Public Health ; 182: 19-25, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120067

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe a cross-border foodborne outbreak of Shigella sonnei that occurred in Ireland and Northern Ireland (NI) in December 2016 whilst also highlighting the valuable roles of sales data and international collaboration in the investigation and control of this outbreak. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-border outbreak control team was established to investigate the outbreak. METHODS: Epidemiological, microbiological, and environmental investigations were undertaken. Traditional analytical epidemiological studies were not feasible in this investigation. The restaurant chain provided sales data, which allowed assessment of a possible increased risk of illness associated with exposure to a particular type of heated food product (product A). RESULTS: Confirmed cases demonstrated sole trimethoprim resistance: an atypical antibiogram for Shigella isolates in Ireland. Early communication and the sharing of information within the outbreak control team facilitated the early detection of the international dimension of this outbreak. A joint international alert using the European Centre for Disease Control's confidential Epidemic Intelligence Information System for Food- and Waterborne Diseases and Zoonoses (EPIS-FWD) did not reveal further cases outside of the island of Ireland. The outbreak investigation identified that nine of thirteen primary case individuals had consumed product A from one of multiple branches of a restaurant chain located throughout the island of Ireland. Product A was made specifically for this chain in a food production facility in NI. S. sonnei was not detected in food samples from the food production facility. Strong statistical associations were observed between visiting a branch of this restaurant chain between 5 and 9 December 2016 and eating product A and developing shigellosis. CONCLUSIONS: This outbreak investigation highlights the importance of international collaboration in the efficient identification of cross-border foodborne outbreaks and the value of using sales data as the analytical component of such studies.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Shigella sonnei , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Comércio/economia , Surtos de Doenças/economia , Disenteria Bacilar/economia , Disenteria Bacilar/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/economia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Irlanda do Norte/epidemiologia , Restaurantes , Adulto Jovem
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