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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 342: 109075, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550153

RESUMO

In many countries campylobacteriosis ranks as one of the most frequently reported foodborne illnesses and poultry is the commodity that is most often associated with these illnesses. Nevertheless, efforts to reduce the occurrence of pathogen contamination on poultry are often more focused on Salmonella. While some control measures are pathogen specific, such as pre-harvest vaccination for Salmonella, improvements in sanitary dressing and interventions applied during the slaughter process can be effective against all forms of microbial contamination. To investigate the potential effectiveness of these non-specific pathogen reduction strategies in the United States, it is helpful to assess if, and by how much, Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat has changed across time. This study assesses change considering data collected in both slaughter and retail establishments and comparing observed trends in contamination with trends in human surveillance data. The results support the assertion that substantial reductions in Campylobacter contamination of chicken meat in the late 1990s and early 2000s contributed to a reduction in the human case rate of campylobacteriosis. Further reductions in chicken meat contamination between 2013 and 2018 are more difficult to associate with trends in human illnesses, with one contributing factor being the inclusion of culture independent diagnostic test results in the official case counts during that time. Other contributing factors are discussed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Produtos Avícolas/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/prevenção & controle , Galinhas , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 343: 109091, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639477

RESUMO

This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance determinants, virulence factors and identified serovars in 37 Salmonella enterica strains isolated from human stool and contaminated foods linked to outbreaks that occurred in Brazil over 7 years using whole genome sequencing (WGS). Phylogenetic analysis of selected serovars (S. Typhimurium, S. Infantis, S. London, and S. Johannesburg) was performed. Ten distinct serovars were identified and, 51% of the tested strains (n = 19) showed disagreement with the previous conventional serotyping. The antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants or plasmids varied among the strains. Resistome analysis revealed the presence of resistance genes to aminoglycosides [aac (6')-laa, aph (3″)-lb, aph (6)-ld, aadA1 and aadA2], sulfonamides (sul1), trimethoprin (dfrA8), fosfomycin (fosA7) and tetracyclines (tetA, tetB, tetC), as well as point mutations in parC (T57S) and gyrA (S83F). Plasmidome showed the presence of IncHI2, IncHI2A, IncFIB (S), IncFII (S), IncI1 and p0111 plasmids. Eight Salmonella pathogenicity islands and up to 102 stress and/or virulence genes were identified in the evaluated genomes. Virulence genes of K88 fimbrial adhesin were first reported in S. enterica (S. Pomona, S. Bredeney and S. Mbandaka strains). pilW gene was first identified in S. Pomona. Phylogenetic analysis showed that some serovars circulated in Brazil for decades, primarily within the poultry production chain. Findings highlighted the virulence and AMR determinants in strains that may lead to recurring food outbreaks.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella enterica/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Adesinas Bacterianas/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Brasil , Fezes/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Ilhas Genômicas/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Plasmídeos/genética , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella enterica/patogenicidade , Sorotipagem , Virulência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e24424, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592891

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Foodborne pathogens cause diseases and death, increasing the economic burden. It needs to identify incident places, media food and pathgens. Our aim is to survey empirical data that provide a retrospective historical perspective on foodborne diseases and explore the causes and trends of outbreaks.We examined publicly available annual summary data on reported foodborne disease outbreaks in Taiwan from 2014 to 2018. We calculated the percentage of places, media food, bacteria and natural toxin sources in foodborne diseases and performed a chi-square test for difference evaluation. The higher risk of places and causes in 2018 compared with 2014 was empolyzed with univariate logistic regression.There were 26847 patients with foodborne diseases during the period from 2014 to 2018. The top 2 primary source locations of the foodborne diseases were schools and restaurants. The top 2 primary food media classifications of the foodborne diseases were boxed meals and compounded foods. The top 2 primary incident bacterial classifications of the observed foodborne diseases were Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The top 2 primary natural toxin classifications of the foodborne diseases were plants and histamines. The incidence of foodborne disease in military facilities, fruits and vegetables, and Staphylococcus aureus was increased in our study.Our study confirmed the high risk and increased incidence of foodborne diseases, food media classifications, bacterial classifications, and natural toxins in Taiwan. It is worthy of attention for the government health department-designed policy to promote disease prevention.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Bacillus cereus , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/etiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Modelos Logísticos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Taiwan/epidemiologia
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462030

RESUMO

This case represents a rare fulminant course of fried-rice associated food poisoning in an immunocompetent person due to pre-formed exotoxin produced by Bacillus cereus, with severe manifestations of sepsis, including multi-organ (hepatic, renal, cardiac, respiratory and neurological) failure, shock, metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis and coagulopathy. Despite maximal supportive measures (continuous renal replacement therapy, plasmapheresis, N-acetylcysteine infusion and blood products, and broad-spectrum antimicrobials) and input from a multidisciplinary team (consisting of infectious diseases, intensive care, gastroenterology, surgery, toxicology, immunology and haematology), mortality resulted. This case is the first to use whole genome sequencing techniques to confirm the toxigenic potential of B. cereus It has important implications for food preparation and storage, particularly given its occurrence in home isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/genética , Exotoxinas/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Acidose/fisiopatologia , Acidose/terapia , Adulto , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , Bacillus cereus/isolamento & purificação , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue , Encefalopatias , Terapia de Substituição Renal Contínua , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/terapia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Falência Hepática/fisiopatologia , Falência Hepática/terapia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/terapia , Plasmaferese , Insuficiência Renal/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Renal/terapia , Rabdomiólise/fisiopatologia , Rabdomiólise/terapia , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Sepse/terapia , Choque/fisiopatologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
5.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467103

RESUMO

Trichothecene mycotoxins are sesquiterpenoid compounds primarily produced by fungi in taxonomical genera such as Fusarium, Myrothecium, Stachybotrys, Trichothecium, and others, under specific climatic conditions on a worldwide basis. Fusarium mold is a major plant pathogen and produces a number of trichothecene mycotoxins including deoxynivalenol (or vomitoxin), nivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, and T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin. Monogastrics are sensitive to vomitoxin, while poultry and ruminants appear to be less sensitive to some trichothecenes through microbial metabolism of trichothecenes in the gastrointestinal tract. Trichothecene mycotoxins occur worldwide however both total concentrations and the particular mix of toxins present vary with environmental conditions. Proper agricultural practices such as avoiding late harvests, removing overwintered stubble from fields, and avoiding a corn/wheat rotation that favors Fusarium growth in residue can reduce trichothecene contamination of grains. Due to the vague nature of toxic effects attributed to low concentrations of trichothecenes, a solid link between low level exposure and a specific trichothecene is difficult to establish. Multiple factors, such as nutrition, management, and environmental conditions impact animal health and need to be evaluated with the knowledge of the mycotoxin and concentrations known to cause adverse health effects. Future research evaluating the impact of low-level exposure on livestock may clarify the potential impact on immunity. Trichothecenes are rapidly excreted from animals, and residues in edible tissues, milk, or eggs are likely negligible. In chronic exposures to trichothecenes, once the contaminated feed is removed and exposure stopped, animals generally have an excellent prognosis for recovery. This review shows the occurrence of trichothecenes in food and feed in 2011-2020 and their toxic effects and provides a summary of the discussions on the potential public health concerns specifically related to trichothecenes residues in foods associated with the exposure of farm animals to mycotoxin-contaminated feeds and impact to human health. Moreover, the article discusses the methods of their detection.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Fungos Mitospóricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tricotecenos/envenenamento , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/metabolismo , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/patologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos
6.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475480

RESUMO

Introduction. In May-June 2018, an outbreak of campylobacteriosis involved students and school staff from kindergartens and primary schools in Pescara, southern Italy.Aim. We present details of the epidemiological and microbiological investigation, and the findings of the analytical study, as well as the implemented control measures.Methodology. To identify possible risk factors associated with the observed outbreak, a case control study was conducted using a questionnaire to collect information on the date of symptoms onset, type and duration of symptoms, type of healthcare contact, school attendance, and food items consumed at school lunches during the presumed days of exposure. Attack rates were calculated for each date and school. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios of being a case and the odds of illness by food items consumed, respectively. Moreover, we carried out a comparative genomic analysis using whole genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) of Campylobacter jejuni strains isolated during the outbreak investigation to identify the source of the outbreak.Results. Overall, 222 probable cases from 21 schools were identified, and C. jejuni was successfully isolated from 60 patients. The meals in the schools involved were provided by two cooking centres managed by a joint venture between two food companies. Environmental and food sampling, epidemiological and microbiological analyses, as well as a case control study with 176 cases and 62 controls from the same schools were performed to identify the source of the outbreak. The highest attack rate was recorded among those having lunch at school on 29 May (7.8 %), and the most likely exposure was 'caciotta' cheese (odds ratio 2.40, 95 % confidence interval 1.10-5.26, P=0.028). C. jejuni was isolated from the cheese, and wgMLST showed that the human and cheese isolates belonged to the same genomic cluster, confirming that the cheese was the vehicle of the infection.Conclusion. It is plausible that a failure of the pasteurization process contributed to the contamination of the cheese batches. Timely suspension of the catering service and summer closure of the schools prevented further spread.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Queijo/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Adulto , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pasteurização , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 341: 109068, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498009

RESUMO

Raw vegetables are a key food for a healthy diet, but their increased consumption brings a higher risk for foodborne disease. Contamination of salad greens with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 has caused severe disease and important economic losses almost yearly in the United States over the last 10 years. To curb the risk of infections from contaminated produce, approaches based on bacterial virus - commonly known as bacteriophage or phage - have recently started to draw interest among other antimicrobial strategies. Phages enter bacterial cells to reproduce and cause cellular lysis to release their phage progeny at the end of their infection cycle. This lytic effect is caused by lysins, phage-encoded enzymes that have evolved to degrade the bacterial cell wall resulting in hypotonic lysis. When applied externally in their purified form, such enzymes are able to kill sensitive bacteria on contact in a similar way. Their unique bactericidal properties have made lysins effective antimicrobial agents in a variety of applications, from treating multidrug-resistant infections in humans to controlling bacterial contamination in several areas, including microbiological food safety. Here we describe a novel lysin, namely PlyEc2, with potent bactericidal activity against key gram-negative pathogens including E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas. PlyEc2 displayed high bactericidal activity against STEC to a concentration of 12.5 µg/ml under different pH conditions. This lysin was also able to reduce the bacterial titer of several pathogenic strains in vitro by more than 5 logarithmic units, resulting in complete sterilization. Importantly, PlyEc2 proved to be a powerful produce decontamination agent in its ability to clear 99.7% of contaminating STEC O157:H7 in our Romaine lettuce leaf model. PlyEc2 was also able to eradicate 99.8% of the bacteria contaminating the washing solution, drastically reducing the risk of cross-contamination during the washing process. A sensory evaluation panel found that treatment with PlyEc2 did not alter the visual and tactile quality of lettuce leaves compared to the untreated leaves. Our study is the first to describe a highly effective lysin treatment to control gram-negative pathogenic contamination on fresh lettuce without the addition of membrane destabilizing agents.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriófagos/enzimologia , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Alface/microbiologia , Bacteriófagos/metabolismo , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Descontaminação/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Alimentos Crus/microbiologia
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 341: 109069, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508582

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes has caused outbreaks of foodborne illness from apples in the USA, and is also a major issue for regulatory compliance worldwide. Due to apple's significance as an important export product from New Zealand, we aimed to determine the effect of long-term, low-temperature sea-freight from New Zealand to the USA (July) and Europe (March-April), two key New Zealand markets, on the survival and/or growth of L. monocytogenes on fresh apples. Temperature and humidity values were recorded during a shipment to each market (USA and Europe), then the observed variations around the 0.5 °C target temperature were simulated in laboratory trials using open ('Scired') and closed ('Royal Gala' for the USA and 'Cripps Pink' for Europe) calyx cultivars of apples inoculated with a cocktail of 107-108 cells of seven strains of L. monocytogenes. Samples were analysed for L. monocytogenes quantification at various intervals during the simulation and on each occasion, an extra set was analysed after a subsequent 8 days at 20 °C. When both the sea-freight simulations concluded, L. monocytogenes showed 5 log reductions on the equatorial surface of skin of apples, but only about 2.5 log reduction for USA and about 3.3 log reduction for Europe in the calyx. Cultivar type had no significant effect on the survival of L. monocytogenes for both sea-freight simulations, either in the calyx or on the skin (P > 0.05). Most of the reduction in the culturable cells on the skin occurred during the initial 2 weeks of the long-term storage simulations. There was also no significant difference in the reduction of L. monocytogenes at 0.5 or 20 °C. No correlation was observed between firmness or total soluble solids and survival of L. monocytogenes. Because the inoculated bacterial log reduction was lower in the calyx than on the skin, it is speculated that the risk of causing illness is higher if contaminated apple cores are eaten. The result suggested that the international sea-freight transportation does not result in the growth of L. monocytogenes irrespective of time and temperature. The results of this study provide useful insights into the survival of L. monocytogenes on different apple cultivars that can be used to develop effective risk mitigation strategies for fresh apples during long-term, low-temperature international sea-freight transportation.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Malus/microbiologia , Refrigeração/métodos , Carga Bacteriana , Temperatura Baixa , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Europa (Continente) , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Nova Zelândia
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 341: 109074, 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508583

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is one of the most common foodborne pathogens that cause human sickness mostly through the poultry food chain. Cinnamon essential oil (CEO) has excellent antibacterial ability against C. jejuni growth. This study investigated the antibacterial mechanism of CEO against C. jejuni primarily through metabolism, energy metabolism of essential enzymes (AKPase, ß-galactosidase, and ATPase), and respiration metabolism. Results showed that the hexose monophosphate pathway (HMP) was inhibited, and that the enzyme activity of G6DPH substantially decreased upon treatment with CEO. Analysis of the effect of CEO on the expression of toxic genes was performed by the real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The expression levels of the toxic genes cadF, ciaB, fliA, and racR under CEO treatment were determined. Casein/CEO nanospheres were further prepared for the effective inhibition of C. jejuni and characterized by particle-size distribution, zeta-potential distribution, fluorescence, TEM, and GC-MS methods. Finally, the efficiency of CEO and casein/CEO nanospheres in terms of antibacterial activity against C. jejuni was verified. The casein/CEO nanospheres displayed high antibacterial activity on duck samples. The population of the test group decreased from 4.30 logCFU/g to 0.86 logCFU/g and 4.30 logCFU/g to 2.46 logCFU/g at 4 °C and at 25 °C for C. jejuni, respectively. Sensory evaluation and texture analysis were also conducted on various duck samples.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Caseínas/farmacologia , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Galinhas/microbiologia , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Patos/microbiologia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Nanosferas , Via de Pentose Fosfato/efeitos dos fármacos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 338: 108995, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316593

RESUMO

Infectious human diseases acquired from bivalve shellfish consumption constitute a public health threat. These health threats are largely related to the filter-feeding phenomenon, by which bivalve organisms retain and concentrate pathogenic bacteria from their surrounding waters. Even after depuration, bivalve shellfish are still involved in outbreaks caused by pathogenic bacteria, which increases the demand for new and efficient strategies to control transmission of shellfish infection. Bacteriophage (or phage) therapy represents a promising, tailor-made approach to control human pathogens in bivalves, but its success depends on a deep understanding of several factors that include the bacterial communities present in the harvesting waters, the appropriate selection of phage particles, the multiplicity of infection that produces the best bacterial inactivation, chemical and physical factors, the emergence of phage-resistant bacterial mutants and the life cycle of bivalves. This review discusses the need to advance phage therapy research for bivalve decontamination, highlighting their efficiency as an antimicrobial strategy and identifying critical aspects to successfully apply this therapy to control human pathogens associated with bivalve consumption.


Assuntos
Bactérias/virologia , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Frutos do Mar/microbiologia , Animais , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Humanos
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 336: 108901, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075694

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is among the most common zoonotic pathogens that cause foodborne illnesses worldwide. The main objectives of the current study were therefore to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of S. aureus isolated from goats in Korea and to investigate the molecular characteristics of identified methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In the study, 481 S. aureus isolates (431 from the nasal cavity and 50 from carcass) were recovered from 1146 carcasses and nasal swabs between July 2018 and January 2019. Approximately 82% and 72.6% of nasal and carcass isolates, respectively, were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent, with the highest rate of resistance to penicillin, followed by resistance to chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Relatively small proportions of the isolates were resistant to cefoxitin, clindamycin, and erythromycin. However, all S. aureus isolates were sensitive to linezolid, rifampin, and vancomycin. Six MRSA isolates were obtained, three each from the nasal cavity and carcass. MRSA isolates were of two sequence types (ST) (ST72 and ST398), three spa types (t664, t324, and t571), and two SCCmec types (IV and V). The ST72 MRSA isolates had identical PFGE profiles. In addition, ST72 MRSA-SCCmec IV isolates carried at least six staphylococcal leukotoxin- and enterotoxin-encoding genes (lukED, seg, sei, sem, sen, seo, and seq). The remaining ST398 isolate carried only the lukED gene and was additionally resistant to eight non-ß-lactam antibiotics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of MRSA from goats in Korea. There is a possibility of transmission of MRSA from goat to human or contamination of food products. Therefore, regular microbiological investigation in goats, farms, and slaughterhouses is critical to determine the existence of virulent and multi-drug resistant (MDR) S. aureus and to implement preventive strategies.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Cabras/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Enterotoxinas , Exotoxinas , Fazendas , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Leite/microbiologia , República da Coreia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 336: 108899, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160121

RESUMO

Escherichia coli are commensal gastrointestinal microflora of humans, but few strains may cause food-borne diseases. Present study aimed to identify antimicrobial resistant (AMR), biofilm-forming E. coli from Indian dairy and meat products. A total of 32 E. coli isolates were identified and evaluated for biofilm-formation. EMC17, an E. coli isolate was established as a powerful biofilm-former that attained maximum biofilm-formation within 96 h on glass and stainless-steel surfaces. Presence and expression of virulence-associated genes (adhesins, invasins and polysaccharides) and ability to adhere and invade human liver carcinoma HepG2 cell lines implicates EMC17 to be pathotype belonging to Extra-intestinal Pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Antibiotic profiling of EMC17 identified it as multi-drug resistant (MDR) strain, possessing extended spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL's) and biofilm phenotype. Early production of quorum sensing molecules (AHLs) alongside EPS production facilitated early onset of biofilm formation by EMC17. Furthermore, the biofilm-forming genes of EMC17 were significantly upregulated 3-27 folds in the biofilm-state. This study showed prevalence of MDR, biofilm-forming, pathogenic E. coli in Indian dairy and meat products that potentially serve as reservoirs for transmission of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) genes of bacteria from food to humans and pose serious food safety threat.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Laticínios/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Biofilmes , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Índia , Fenótipo , Percepção de Quorum , Virulência/genética
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2182: 17-32, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894483

RESUMO

An outbreak is defined as the occurrence of disease cases in excess of normal expectancy within a particular area and a given time. Foodborne outbreaks caused by gastrointestinal bacteria such as Salmonella Typhimurium are among the most commonly reported and most extensively investigated. The classic outbreak investigation follows a series of well-defined steps which lead to a faster confirmation of the source and hopefully preventing of further cases. These steps are ideally undertaken using a One Health cross-sectorial collaboration approach involving partners from public health, food safety, and the veterinary and environmental sectors. In order to firmly identify the source of the outbreak, descriptive epidemiology is often combined with more robust evidence from analytical epidemiology such as a case-control study. A case-control study assesses whether a specific exposure is associated with illness, firstly by identifying cases (persons known to have been ill) and controls (persons who have not been ill, used as a reference group), and then retrospectively through interviews determining specific exposures for all persons. This information ultimately leads to the calculation of an odds ratio (see Note 3) which indicates the strength of the association between specific exposures and the outcome (illness or no illness). A well-conducted case-control study may substantiate or form core evidence as to the vehicle of a foodborne outbreak and is often a very important investigation tool, particularly in situations where microbiological proof cannot be obtained.


Assuntos
Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Humanos , Saúde Única , Saúde Pública/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidade
14.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321823

RESUMO

Non-typhoidal Salmonella present a major threat to animal and human health as food-borne infectious agents. We characterized 91 bacterial isolates from Armenia and Georgia in detail, using a suite of assays including conventional microbiological methods, determining antimicrobial susceptibility profiles, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry, serotyping (using the White-Kauffmann-Le Minor scheme) and genotyping (repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR)). No less than 61.5% of the isolates were shown to be multidrug-resistant. A new antimicrobial treatment strategy is urgently needed. Phage therapy, the therapeutic use of (bacterio-) phages, the bacterial viruses, to treat bacterial infections, is increasingly put forward as an additional tool for combatting antibiotic resistant infections. Therefore, we used this representative set of well-characterized Salmonella isolates to analyze the therapeutic potential of eleven single phages and selected phage cocktails from the bacteriophage collection of the Eliava Institute (Georgia). All isolates were shown to be susceptible to at least one of the tested phage clones or their combinations. In addition, genome sequencing of these phages revealed them as members of existing phage genera (Felixounavirus, Seunavirus, Viunavirus and Tequintavirus) and did not show genome-based counter indications towards their applicability against non-typhoidal Salmonella in a phage therapy or in an agro-food setting.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella/virologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriófagos/ultraestrutura , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Geografia Médica , República da Geórgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Filogenia , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Salmonella/transmissão
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 334: 108849, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906080

RESUMO

Frozen vegetables have previously been associated with outbreaks of listeriosis in both the USA and Europe. An outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes serogroup 4 caused 53 cases in five European countries between 2015 and 2018. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) indicated that frozen sweet corn from a producer in Hungary was the source of illness. However, limited data is available on the prevalence of Listeria in frozen produce. A study of frozen fruit and vegetables from catering and retail premises in England was therefore carried out to assess their microbiological quality with respect to Listeria and Escherichia coli. Between December 2018 and April 2019, 1050 frozen fruit and vegetable samples were collected. Of these, 99% were of a satisfactory or borderline microbiological quality. Eleven samples (1%) contained ≥100 cfu/g of Escherichia coli (considered unsatisfactory in products labelled as ready-to-eat). Listeria monocytogenes or other Listeria species were detected in six samples (2%) of fruit compared to 167 samples (24%) of vegetables and six samples (26%) of fruit and vegetable mixes, but none at a level of ≥100 cfu/g. Characterisation by WGS of 74 L. monocytogenes isolates identified ten genetic clusters indicating a common source. For 8 of the 10 clusters, the isolates came from homogenous food types: four were sweet corn, and there was one cluster each for beans, peas, peppers and broccoli. There were five genetic associations between isolates from frozen vegetables and from clinical cases of listeriosis, including two cultures from frozen beans that were indistinguishable from the 2015-2018 sweet corn outbreak strain. This study indicates that L. monocytogenes was present in 10% of frozen vegetables and even though products are generally not ready-to-eat and are intended to be cooked prior to consumption, these have the potential to cause illness. Clear cooking and handling instructions are therefore required on these products to ensure that the health of consumers is not put at risk, and appropriate Good Manufacturing Practice measures should be followed by all fruit and vegetable freezing plants in order to reduce contamination with Listeria during processing.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Alimentos em Conserva/microbiologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Listeria/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/microbiologia , Inglaterra , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Congelamento , Humanos , Listeria/classificação , Listeria/genética
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 334: 108815, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966918

RESUMO

Histamine or scombrotoxin fish poisoning is caused by ingestion of bacterially produced histamine in fish. Histamine-producing bacteria generally contain the histidine decarboxylase gene (hdc). However, some strains of Photobacterium phosphoreum are known to produce significant levels of histamine, although the hdc gene in these strains has not been recognized. The objective of this study was to investigate a previously unidentified mechanism of histamine production by P. phosphoreum. We identified a protein with histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity comparable to activity of the pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) dependent HDC from P. kishitanii and M. morganii. The newly identified protein (HDC2) in P. phosphoreum and P. kishitanii strains, was approximately 2× longer than the HDC protein from other Gram-negative bacteria and had 12% similarity to previously identified HDCs. In addition, the hdc2 gene cluster in P. phosphoreum was identical to the hdc gene cluster in P. kishitanii. HDC2 had optimal activity at 20-35 °C, at pH 4, and was not affected by 0-8% NaCl concentrations. Compared to the hdc gene from P. kishitanii, expression of the hdc2 gene was constitutive and not affected by pH or excess histidine. This newly identified protein explains possible mechanisms of histamine production in P. phosphoreum. Characterization of this protein will help in designing control measures to prevent or reduce histamine production in fish.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Histidina Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Photobacterium/enzimologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Peixes/metabolismo , Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Histamina/biossíntese , Histidina Descarboxilase/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Família Multigênica , Photobacterium/genética , Photobacterium/metabolismo , Fosfato de Piridoxal/metabolismo , Temperatura
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239599, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986741

RESUMO

The harvest of bushmeat is widespread in the tropics and sub-tropics. Often in these communities, there is a dependence on bushmeat for both food security and basic income. Despite the importance of bushmeat for households worldwide, the practice raises concern for transmission of zoonotic pathogens through hunting, food preparation, and consumption. In Uganda, harvest of wildlife is illegal, but bushmeat hunting, is commonplace. We interviewed 292 women who cook for their households and 180 self-identified hunters from 21 villages bordering Murchison Falls National Park in Uganda to gain insights into bushmeat preferences, opportunity for zoonotic pathogen transmission, and awareness of common wildlife-associated zoonoses. Both hunters and women who cook considered primates to be the most likely wildlife species to carry diseases humans can catch. Among common zoonotic pathogens, the greatest proportions of women who cook and hunters believed that pathogens causing stomach ache or diarrhea and monkeypox can be transmitted by wildlife. Neither women who cook nor hunters report being frequently injury during cooking, butchering, or hunting, and few report taking precautions while handling bushmeat. The majority of women who cook believe that hunters and dealers never or rarely disguise primate meat as another kind of meat in market, while the majority of hunters report that they usually disguise primate meat as another kind of meat. These data play a crucial role in our understanding of potential for exposure to and infection with zoonotic pathogens in the bushmeat trade. Expanding our knowledge of awareness, perceptions and risks enables us to identify opportunities to mitigate infections and injury risk and promote safe handling practices.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Conscientização , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Zoonoses/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Culinária , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parques Recreativos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
18.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 332: 108768, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623289

RESUMO

Soil-borne Salmonella is associated with a large number of food-related disease outbreaks linked to pre-harvest contamination of plants (like tomato) in agricultural fields. Controlling the spread of Salmonella at field is very important in order to prevent various food-borne illnesses. One such approach involves the utilization of antimicrobial secondary metabolite of plant origin. We screened common salad vegetables for anti-Salmonella activity. Beta vulgaris root (beetroot) had very low colonization of Salmonella under in vitro conditions. We hypothesized that beetroot can be used to reclaim the soil contaminated with Salmonella. Cultivation of B. vulgaris in Salmonella treated soil brings down its CFU significantly. Since these antimicrobial effects are non-specific, a co-cultivation system of beet and tomato (a Salmonella susceptible plant) was used to analyze the effect on soil and its microbiota. The soil physicochemical properties and bacterial diversity were unaffected when tomato and beet co-cultivation was used. However, Salmonella burden on the tomato was reduced and its yield was restored. Thus, the inclusion of these crops in the crop-rotation or as a mixed/intercrop or as a bio-control crop can be a fruitful tool to reclaim the Salmonella contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Beta vulgaris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Salmonella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Beta vulgaris/metabolismo , Beta vulgaris/microbiologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Exsudatos de Plantas/farmacologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia do Solo
19.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e215, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669142

RESUMO

In November 2017, Public Health England identified an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in England where whole genome sequencing results indicated cases were likely to be linked to a common source, and began investigations. Hypothesis generation included a review of enhanced surveillance data, a case-case study and trawling interviews. The hypothesis of interest was tested through the administration of focussed questionnaires and review of shopping history using loyalty card data. Twelve outbreak cases were detected, eight were hospitalised and four developed haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Frozen beef burgers supplied by a national retailer were identified as the vehicle of the outbreak. Testing of two left-over burger samples obtained from the freezers of two separate (unlinked) cases and a retained sample from the production premises were tested and found to be positive for the outbreak strain. A voluntary recall of the burgers was implemented by the retailer. Investigations at the production premises identified no contraventions of food safety legislation. Cooking guidance on the product packaging was deemed to be adequate and interviews with the cases/carers who prepared the burgers revealed no deficiencies in cooking practices at home. Given the long-shelf life of frozen burgers, the product recall likely prevented more cases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Escherichia coli O157/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108790, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693316

RESUMO

Salmonella, one of the most important foodborne pathogens, can be the cause of bacterial food-borne illness and is commonly associated with the consumption of retail meat. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates with high adaptability, have been responsible for many foodborne disease outbreaks. Here we present an investigation on the contamination and the antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella in retail meat obtained from supermarkets and from open markets in Guangxi, China. From the years 2009 to 2016, a total of 604 Salmonella isolates were recovered from a total of 3340 meat samples including 797 beef, 911 pork, 942 chicken and 690 duck, representing 18.08% of the samples tested. Pork was the most contaminated meat. Salmonella was detected in 322 samples from supermarkets and the positive rate of 21.03% was higher than that of 15.70% in 284 samples from open markets (P<0.05). The prevalence of Salmonella in retail meat in the summer and fall months: June (2015, 40.63%), October (2012, 34.6%; 2016, 43.75%) was higher than in other seasons of the year. One hundred and twenty-seven serotypes were identified among the 604 Salmonella enterica isolates, and S. Derby (28.48%), S. Agona (9.77%), S. London (4.97%) and S. Enteritidis (4.47%) were the most common serotypes. Tests of susceptibility to 21 antimicrobial agents showed that 87.58% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and 57.79% exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR), as they were resistant to at least three antimicrobials. The presence of most of the antimicrobial-resistant genes tested was consistent with the resistant phenotypes found. Among all the antimicrobial resistant genes (ARGs) examined in this study, blaTEM-1, aadA1, cmlA, tetA, sul1 and sul2 were the most prevalent resistant genes in the multidrug resistant isolates. Our findings show that there was a trend that the Salmonella contamination in retail meat had increased and isolates showed an MDR phenotype and that the MDR had become more and more serious. Twenty-one isolates of S. Agona were randomly analyzed by using the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR) and six different types were found, indicating the existence of cross-contamination in the food market. The results indicate that the hazard analysis of the critical control points (HACCP) system for the whole food chain of retail meat should be further analyzed and improved.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Carne/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas/microbiologia , China , Patos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Salmonella enterica/genética , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Suínos
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