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1.
Exp Parasitol ; 210: 107848, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004534

RESUMO

Marine bivalves are usually cultivated in shallow, estuarine waters where there is a high concentration of nutrients. Many micro-pollutants, including the protozoan parasites Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp., which also occur in such environments, may be concentrated in shellfish tissues during their feeding process. Shellfish can thus be considered as vehicles for foodborne infections, as they are usually consumed lightly cooked or raw. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the presence of both parasites in Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis that are cultivated in Thermaikos Gulf, North Greece, which is fed by four rivers that are contaminated with both protozoa. Moreover, the occurrence of these protozoa was monitored in treated wastewaters from 3 treatment plants that discharge into the gulf. In order to identify potential sources of contamination and to estimate the risk for human infection, an attempt was made to genotype Giardia and Cryptosporidium in positive samples. Immunofluorescence was used for detection and molecular techniques were used for both detection and genotyping of the parasites. In total, 120 mussel samples, coming from 10 farms, were examined for the presence of both protozoa over the 6-month farming period. None of them were found positive by immunofluorescence microscopy for the presence of parasites. Only in 3 mussel samples, PCR targeting the GP60 gene detected Cryptosporidium spp. DNA, but sequencing was not successful. Thirteen out of 18 monthly samples collected from the 3 wastewater treatment plants, revealed the presence of Giardia duodenalis cysts belonging to sub-assemblage AII, at relatively low counts (up to 11.2 cysts/L). Cryptosporidium oocysts (up to 0.9 oocysts/L) were also detected in 4 out of 8 samples, although sequencing was not successful at any of the target genes. At the studied location and under the sampling conditions described, mussels tested were not found to be harboring Giardia cysts and the presence of Cryptosporidium was found only in few cases (by PCR detection only). Our results suggest that the likelihood that mussels from these locations act as vehicles of human infection for Giardia and Cryptosporidium seems low.


Assuntos
Bivalves/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Giardia/genética , Giardíase/transmissão , Grécia , Humanos , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rios/parasitologia , Águas Residuárias/parasitologia
2.
Exp Parasitol ; 208: 107809, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785242

RESUMO

The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii can infect humans and cause toxoplasmosis. T. gondii has been highly prioritized among the foodborne parasites regarding its global impact on public health. Human infection can occur through multiple routes, including the ingestion of raw or undercooked food contaminated with T. gondii oocysts, such as fresh produce and bivalves. As filter-feeders, bivalves can accumulate and concentrate contaminants, including protozoan (oo)cysts. Although detection of T. gondii in different bivalves by molecular techniques (PCR and qPCR) has been achieved, routine application is currently limited by lack of sensitivity or equipment costs. Here, we describe the assessment of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-based assay to detect T. gondii oocysts in spiked mussels. Detection limit was down to 5 oocysts/g in tissue and 5 oocyst/ml in hemolymph, and, under the experimental conditions tested, LAMP was found to provide a promising alternative to qPCR.


Assuntos
Bivalves/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Toxoplasma/genética , Animais , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Hemolinfa/parasitologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose/transmissão
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 209: 107813, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830462

RESUMO

The European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) is a funding organization for the creation of research networks. These networks support collaboration and networking among scientists across Europe and thereby give impetus to research advancements and innovation. One of the most important mechanisms of COST actions are the short-term scientific missions (STSM), which are a funding mechanism that enables scientists, particularly those earlier in their careers, to visit an institution or laboratory in another COST Member state in order to learn techniques that will enhance their skills and improve the scientific knowledge of their institution. The European Network for Foodborne Parasites (Euro-FBP; FA1408) was a COST Action that ended in early 2019, which brought together different experts with knowledge and interest on a broad spectrum of different foodborne parasites of relevance in Europe. In the course of the Euro-FBP COST Action, 32 such STSM occurred. This article provides a short overview of the short-term scientific missions that were approved during this action, as well as the relation of these actions to several relevant socio-economic parameters. The subjects of these STSM, the majority of which were concerned with detection techniques, probably reflect the priorities for research skills on foodborne parasites in Europe.


Assuntos
Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Serviços de Informação , Doenças Parasitárias , Pesquisa , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Parasitologia de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Serviços de Informação/economia , Serviços de Informação/tendências , Masculino , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Doenças Parasitárias/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Pesquisa/economia
4.
Acta Trop ; 201: 105210, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600520

RESUMO

Foodborne intestinal flukes are highly diverse consisting of at least 74 species with a diverse global distribution. Taxonomically they include 28 species of heterophyids, 23 species of echinostomes, and 23 species of miscellaneous groups (amphistomes, brachylaimids, cyathocotylids, diplostomes, fasciolids, gymnophallids, isoparorchiids, lecithodendriid-like group, microphallids, nanophyetids, plagiorchiids, and strigeids). The important heterophyid species (15 species) include Metagonimus yokogawai, M. takahashii, M. miyatai, Heterophyes heterophyes, H. nocens, Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Heterophyopsis continua, Centrocestus formosanus, Pygidiopsis genata, P. summa, Stellantchasmus falcatus, Stictodora fuscata, and S. lari. The echinostome species of public health significance (15 species) include Echinostoma revolutum, E. cinetorchis, E. lindoense, E. ilocanum, Isthmiophora hortensis, Echinochasmus japonicus, E. perfoliatus, E. liliputanus, E. fujianensis, E. caninus, Acanthoparyphium tyosenense, Artyfechinostomum malayanum, A. sufrartyfex, A. oraoni, and Hypoderaeum conoideum. Among the other zoonotic intestinal flukes, Gastrodiscoides hominis, Brachylaima cribbi, Neodiplostomum seoulense, Fasciolopsis buski, Gymnophalloides seoi, Caprimolgorchis molenkampi, Phaneropsolus bonnei, Microphallus brevicaeca, Nanophyetus salmincola, and N. schikhobalowi (10 species) have drawn considerable medical attention causing quite a fair number of human infection cases. The principal mode of human infections include ingestion of raw or improperly cooked fish (heterophyids and echinostomes), snails including oysters (echinostomes and G. seoi), amphibians and reptiles (N. seoulense), aquatic vegetables (amphistomes and F. buski), and insect larvae or adults (C. molenkampi and P. bonnei). Epidemiological characteristics such as the prevalence, geographical distribution, and clinical and public health significance are poorly known in many of these species. Praziquantel has been proved to be highly effective against most species of intestinal fluke infections. Surveys and detection of human infection cases are urgently required for better understanding of the global status and public health significance of each species.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Animais , Geografia , Humanos , Prevalência
5.
N Engl J Med ; 381(26): 2569-2580, 2019 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881145

RESUMO

Rapid advances in DNA sequencing technology ("next-generation sequencing") have inspired optimism about the potential of human genomics for "precision medicine." Meanwhile, pathogen genomics is already delivering "precision public health" through more effective investigations of outbreaks of foodborne illnesses, better-targeted tuberculosis control, and more timely and granular influenza surveillance to inform the selection of vaccine strains. In this article, we describe how public health agencies have been adopting pathogen genomics to improve their effectiveness in almost all domains of infectious disease. This momentum is likely to continue, given the ongoing development in sequencing and sequencing-related technologies.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Genômica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/microbiologia , Metagenômica , Parasitos/genética , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Vírus/genética
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 308: 108306, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442713

RESUMO

Despite increases in the annual consumption of seafood in Australia, studies on the occurrence and prevalence of zoonotic parasites in fish and the risk they may pose to human health are limited. The present study was aimed at determining the occurrence of zoonotic nematodes in commonly consumed fish in New South Wales, Australia's most populous state. Three species of fish, including the Australian pilchard, Australian anchovy, and eastern school whiting, were purchased from a fish market and examined for the presence of nematode parasites. All Australian pilchards examined in this study were infected (100%; n = 19), followed by the eastern school whiting (70%; n = 20) and Australian anchovy (56%; n = 70). Nematodes were in the larval stage and, therefore, classified by morphotype, followed by specific identification through sequencing of their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Seven different larval types with zoonotic potential, belonging to the families Anisakidae (Contracaecum type II and Terranova type II) and Raphidascarididae (Hysterothylacium types IV [genotypes A and B], VIII, XIV and a novel Hysterothylacium larval type, herein assigned as type XVIII), were found. The new larval type was identified as Hysterothylacium thalassini, based on ITS sequence data. The presence of the infective stage of a range of zoonotic parasites in fish commonly consumed in New South Wales is important, particularly as, in some dishes, these fish are used whole, raw or undercooked. This study provides the basis for future research on other aspects of these parasites, in regards to public health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Ascaridida/epidemiologia , Ascaridoidea/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Peixes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Animais , Infecções por Ascaridida/parasitologia , Ascaridoidea/genética , Austrália/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , New South Wales/epidemiologia
8.
J Helminthol ; 94: e76, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434586

RESUMO

Dracunculiasis is the first parasitic disease set for eradication. However, recent events related to the Dracunculus medinensis epidemiology in certain African countries are apparently posing new challenges to its eradication. Two novel facts have emerged: the existence of animal reservoirs (mainly dogs but also cats and baboons), and possibly a new food-borne route of transmission by the ingestion of paratenic (frogs) or transport (fish) hosts. Therefore, instead of being exclusively a water-borne anthroponosis, dracunculiasis would also be a food-borne zoonosis. The existence of a large number of infected dogs, mainly in Chad, and the low number of infected humans, have given rise to this potential food-borne transmission. This novel route would concern not only reservoirs, but also humans. However, only animals seem to be affected. Dracunculus medinensis is on the verge of eradication due to the control measures which, classically, have been exclusively aimed at the water-borne route. Therefore, food-borne transmission is probably of secondary importance, at least in humans. In Chad, reservoirs would become infected through the water-borne route, mainly in the dry season when rivers recede, and smaller accessible ponds, with a lower water level containing the infected copepods, appear, whilst humans drink filtered water and, thus, avoid infection. The total absence of control measures aimed at dogs (or at other potential reservoirs) up until the last years, added to the stimulating reward in cash given to those who find parasitized dogs, have presumably given rise to the current dracunculiasis scenario in Chad.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Dracunculíase/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Água/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Gatos/parasitologia , Chade/epidemiologia , Copépodes/parasitologia , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Dracunculíase/epidemiologia , Dracunculíase/transmissão , Humanos , Zoonoses/parasitologia
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 526, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food-borne trematodiases are an important group of neglected global diseases. Affected patients in regions with low prevalence usually experience delayed diagnosis, especially when presenting with atypical clinical symptoms. Here, we presented a rare case of a Chinese patient infected with three food-borne trematodiases. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old man presented with diarrhea, lower extremity edema, and symptoms of cardiac dysfunction. He had a history of intermittent consumption of raw freshwater fishes for 6-7 years. Upon evaluation, he had eosinophilia, anemia, intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and a growing space-occupying lesion in the left atrium. The patient underwent a cardiac surgery which revealed an endocardial hematoma due to mechanical injuries. Imaging investigations also revealed intracranial and pulmonary lesions. A total of three trematodiases were diagnosed based upon microscopic stool examination, from which eggs of Clonorchis sinensis, Heterophyidae and Echinostomatidae were identified. Deposition of Clonorchis sinensis eggs was also observed from ileocecal squash slides. The patient was successfully treated with three cycles of praziquantel. CONCLUSIONS: Food-borne trematodiases may present with systemic involvement. Patients with dietary history of high risk or atypical ingestions should be evaluated for parasitic infection, even in non-endemic areas.


Assuntos
Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Negligenciadas/patologia , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Trematódeos , Infecções por Trematódeos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Trematódeos/patologia
10.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2247-2255, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081529

RESUMO

In a previous study, immunoproteomics was used to identify a serine protease inhibitor (TsSPI) of T. spiralis excretory/secretory (ES) proteins that exhibited an inhibitory effect on trypsin enzymatic activity, but the precise role of TsSPI on worm infection and development in its host is not well understood. The objective of the present study was to use RNA interference to ascertain the function of TsSPI in larval invasion and growth. TsSPI-specific small interference RNAs (siRNAs) were delivered to muscle larvae (ML) to silence TsSPI expression by electroporation. Four days after electroporation, the ML transfected with 2 µM siRNA-653 exhibited a 75.75% decrease in TsSPI transcription and a 69.23% decrease in TsSPI expression compared with control ML. Although the silencing of TsSPI expression did not decrease worm viability, it significantly suppressed the larval invasion of intestinal epithelium cells (IEC) (P < 0.01), and the suppression was siRNA dose-dependent (r = 0.981). The infection of mice with siRNA-653-treated ML produced a 63.71% reduction of adult worms and a 72.38% reduction of muscle larvae. In addition, the length of the adults, newborn larvae, and ML and the fecundity of female T. spiralis from mice infected with siRNA-treated ML were obviously reduced relative to those in the control siRNA or PBS groups. These results indicated that the silencing of TsSPI by RNAi suppressed larval invasion and development and decreased female fecundity, further confirming that TsSPI plays a crucial role during the T. spiralis lifecycle and is a promising molecular target for anti-Trichinella vaccines.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/genética , Trichinella spiralis/genética , Triquinelose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/imunologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Larva , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Músculos/parasitologia , Proteômica , Interferência de RNA , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/metabolismo , Trichinella spiralis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trichinella spiralis/imunologia , Trichinella spiralis/patogenicidade , Triquinelose/imunologia , Triquinelose/parasitologia
11.
Intern Med ; 58(18): 2727-2730, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118403

RESUMO

Along with the increase in consumption of raw animal meat, the prevalence of food poisoning is increasing. A 67-year-old Japanese man had eaten raw venison 4 hours prior to the beginning of vomiting. Many white cysts were discovered in the venison, with numerous bradyzoites being detected after the cysts were punctured. The presence of the Sarcocystis spp. 18S rRNA gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction, and Sarcocystis truncata was isolated from the venison. Sarcocystis truncata has not previously been identified in sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan. This is the first report of possible Sarcocystis truncata-induced food poisoning following consumption of venison.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Carne/envenenamento , Alimentos Crus/envenenamento , Sarcocistose/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal , Idoso , Animais , Cervos/parasitologia , Diarreia , Febre , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Carne/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 18S , Alimentos Crus/parasitologia , Sarcocystis/genética , Vômito
12.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2139-2147, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098726

RESUMO

The consumption of raw or inadequately cooked marine fish can lead to several disorders caused by the ingestion of viable anisakid nematodes. Although anisakid larvae can be killed by subzero temperatures, making freezing an important control measure for this potential health hazard, these parasites can survive freezing under some conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to experimentally evaluate the time-temperature conditions needed to kill Anisakis simplex and Pseudoterranova spp. The effectiveness of freezing was tested on two species of fish: cod, Gadus morhua from the North Atlantic, and herring, Clupea harengus membras from the southern Baltic Sea. Samples, which comprised skinless fillets of cod (n = 40) with visible parasites and whole herring (n = 240), were separately frozen at - 15, - 18, or - 20 °C for 24 h, or at - 20 °C for 48 h in the single-compressor freezer and at - 20, - 25, or - 35 °C for 24 h in the double-compressor freezer. After thawing, parasites were stained with malachite green and examined under the microscope for viability. All A. simplex and Pseudoterranova spp. larvae in cod fillets died at a temperature of - 15 °C or lower. However, freezing did not kill all the A. simplex larvae in whole herring: spontaneous movement of these parasites was observed in samples stored in the single-compressor freezer at - 15, - 18, and - 20 °C over 24 h. Our results demonstrate that the freezing procedure must consider both the capability of the freezing device and the nature of the fish product to ensure consumer safety.


Assuntos
Anisakis/citologia , Ascaridoidea/citologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Congelamento , Gadus morhua/parasitologia , Larva/citologia , Animais , Anisakis/classificação , Ascaridoidea/classificação , Temperatura Baixa , Peixes , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(5)2019 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061178

RESUMO

Sparganosis is a rare zoonotic parasitosis that is sporadically reported worldwide. In Australia, the causative tapeworms are considered endemic in wildlife animals, however, there have been only five reported human infections. We present three additional cases of sparganosis, involving two Australian born gentlemen who have never travelled overseas and a woman who emigrated from Ethiopia. The first man presented with two unusual subcutaneous lumps that migrated along the anterior abdominal wall connected by a tunnel. The second man presented with two separate lumps, one on the thigh and the other on the left upper abdomen over a 4-week interval. The woman presented with 6 weeks of intermittent fevers, night sweats, abdominal pain and passing intestinal worms. This series of patients suggests that sparganosis is under-recognised in Australia and serves as a reminder for clinicians to the varied presentations that can be characteristic of this lesser known zoonosis.


Assuntos
Parede Abdominal/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Esparganose/epidemiologia , Spirometra/isolamento & purificação , Coxa da Perna/parasitologia , Dor Abdominal/parasitologia , Parede Abdominal/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre , Humanos , Masculino , Esparganose/parasitologia , Esparganose/cirurgia , Spirometra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coxa da Perna/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 63: 142-144, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961810

RESUMO

Alaria alata (Diplostomidae, Trematoda), a potentially zoonotic pathogen, is the only Alaria species in Europe. In recent years, increasing reports of mesocercariae of A. alata in wild boars have been recorded in European countries; however there have been no described cases in domestic pigs over the past decades. Out of 272 diaphragm samples from wild boars (Sus scrofa) and domestic pigs (Sus scrofa), from Serbia, included in the present investigations, mesocercariae of A. alata were found in six (3%) samples from wild boars and in two (2.77%) samples from domestic pigs. Due to the lack of sensitivity of artificial digestion with a magnetic stirrer which was applied in the study, the true prevalence is estimated to be considerably higher in the area of investigation. Confirming the infection in domestic pigs and a wide distribution in wild boars in the area of investigation, the present paper should influence the growing awareness of alariosis as a potential human disease. The meat from free-range domestic pigs and game meat as a potential source of alariosis should always be adequately thermally treated before consumption.


Assuntos
Sus scrofa/parasitologia , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Carne Vermelha/parasitologia , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Suínos
15.
Parasitol Res ; 118(6): 2005-2008, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982139

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a global, zoonotic parasite capable of infecting any warm-blooded host. Toxoplasmosis can cause a variety of illnesses including abortions and congenital defects in humans, sheep, and goats. Congenital toxoplasmosis is considered to have the highest global disease burden of any foodborne illness in humans. This study examined the potential role of milk as a route of T. gondii transmission between livestock and humans within Mongolian herders, a little-studied population which relies heavily on animals. Milk of Mongolian sheep, goats and Bactrian camels was tested for the presence of T. gondii DNA, and a survey was conducted to ascertain what behavioral and environmental factors were present that might potentiate T. gondii infection within these Mongolian communities. T. gondii DNA was detected in samples from one sheep and five camels. Sequence analysis of DNA from camel milk revealed that two were from potentially virulent T. gondii genotypes. This has implications for public health in the region, as milk is an extremely important source of nutrition and our survey results imply that some people believe consumption of raw camel milk carries health benefits. This is the first report of T. gondii DNA in Bactrian camel milk as well as the first genotypic characterization of T. gondii within Mongolia.


Assuntos
Camelus/parasitologia , Leite/parasitologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/transmissão , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Gado/parasitologia , Mongólia , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/congênito , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
16.
Parasitol Int ; 71: 53-55, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880157

RESUMO

Of the three Trichinella species described in South America, T. spiralis, T. pseudospiralis and T. patagoniensis, only the former has been implicated in human infections from consumption of pork-derived products. During a presumed trichinellosis outbreak in 2012 in Mendoza, Argentina, we evaluated the serological responses of three patients who had eaten the incriminated food and had signs and symptoms compatible with trichinellosis, using ELISA. We also analyzed potentially contaminated pork sausage by artificial digestion technique and recovered Trichinella muscle larvae, which were identified to the species level using a PCR multiplex assay and by sequencing a region of the mitochondrial gene coding cytochrome oxidase subunit I. No antibodies were detected in the sera of the patients, probably because the samples were collected during the immunological window period. According to molecular identification, all larvae from the sausage corresponded to T. britovi. Trichinella britovi is reported here for the first time in the American Continent, and represents the only cold-tolerant member of the genus in the Neotropics. This species was most likely introduced from Europe to South America during Spanish colonization through pigs, wild boars and/or rats.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Produtos da Carne/parasitologia , Trichinella/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/etiologia , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Argentina/epidemiologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/genética , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Trichinella/genética , Triquinelose/epidemiologia
17.
Parasitol Res ; 118(5): 1465-1472, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911911

RESUMO

Gnathostomiasis, an emerging food-borne parasitic zoonosis in Asia, is mainly caused by Gnathostoma spinigerum (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae). Consumption of raw meat or freshwater fishes in endemic areas is the major risk factor. Throughout Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia, and Myanmar, freshwater fish are often consumed raw or undercooked. The risk of this practice for gnathostomiasis infection in Lao PDR, Cambodia, and Myanmar has never been evaluated. Here, we identified larvae of Gnathostoma species contaminating freshwater fishes sold at local markets in these three countries. Public health authorities should advise people living in, or travelling to, these areas to avoid eating raw or undercooked freshwater fishes. Identification of larvae was done using molecular methods: DNA was sequenced from Gnathostoma advanced third-stage larvae recovered from snakehead fishes (Channa striata) and freshwater swamp eels (Monopterus albus). Phylogenetic analysis of a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene showed that the G. spinigerum sequences recovered from southern Lao PDR, Cambodia, and Myanmar samples had high similarity to those of G. spinigerum from China. Sequences of the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 2 region closely resembled sequences of G. spinigerum from Thailand, Indonesia, the USA, and central Lao PDR. This is the first molecular evidence of G. spinigerum from freshwater fishes in southern Lao PDR, Cambodia, and Myanmar.


Assuntos
Anguilla/parasitologia , Peixes/parasitologia , Gnathostoma/classificação , Gnatostomíase/veterinária , Smegmamorpha/parasitologia , Animais , Camboja , DNA Intergênico/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Água Doce , Variação Genética , Gnathostoma/genética , Gnathostoma/isolamento & purificação , Gnatostomíase/parasitologia , Indonésia , Laos , Larva , Mianmar , Filogenia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
18.
Parasitol Res ; 118(5): 1593-1599, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852640

RESUMO

The present study aimed to isolate and genotype strains of T. gondii from pigs slaughtered for human consumption in South Brazil. Blood and tissues (heart, diaphragm, liver, tongue, and masseter) from 400 animals were collected at two slaughterhouses. Sera were obtained, and antibodies against T. gondii were detected by both indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and modified agglutination test (MAT). The tissues of animals that tested positive in MAT, IFAT, or both (cut-off ≥ 64) were bioassayed. Twenty-six (6.5%) of the 400 animals were positive by serology. A total of 18 (69.2%) out of those 26 were positive in the mouse bioassay. The isolates were characterized by using 10 PCR-RFLP genetic markers. Fourteen isolates were fully genotyped, and four isolates were genotyped using nine of the 10 markers. All isolates belonged to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #206. The present study reports on genotype #206 in pigs for the first time, and it confirms the atypical nature of the Brazilian T. gondii isolates. Additionally, even with low levels of antibodies detected in pig herds, pork presents a T. gondii infection risk for humans.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Matadouros , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Bioensaio , Brasil , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Coração/parasitologia , Humanos , Fígado/parasitologia , Camundongos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Carne Vermelha/parasitologia , Suínos , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue
19.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0211540, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703149

RESUMO

In contrast to northern and northeastern Thailand, central Thailand was believed not to be endemic for Opisthorchis viverrini (OV). Fieldwork conducted in a rural area of central Thailand revealed that the prevalence and incidence were relatively high compared with regional average data. We hypothesized that the behavioural-psycho-social background of the study population might play an important role in the high burden of the infection. As a result, a qualitative study was conducted to highlight potential social determinants of the infection dynamics to gain greater understanding of the risk behaviours and their contexts. A qualitative study using focus group discussion and in-depth interviews was conducted in Na-ngam Village, Chachoengsao Province from 2012-14. Framework analysis was used to explore associations between infection and thematic content. Social influence showed a strong impact on infection dynamics of OV infection. Our results revealed that Koi pla (chopped raw fish salad) remains a popular dish in the community, as the dish itself represents northeastern culture. The cultural norm had been transferred from ancestors to their descendants. Some elders complained that discontinuing the consumption of Koi pla went against old traditions with respect to cultural norms and socialization. In contrast, modern education teaches about hygiene including OV infection risks, and accordingly teenagers and young adults were reported to modify their lifestyles including their eating habits. Children are a potential key to pass knowledge to their parents and school-based education programs can serve as a practical hub for knowledge dissemination. However, health education alone might not lead to behavioural change in other age groups. Therefore, more efforts are needed to support the transformation.


Assuntos
Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Opistorquíase/parasitologia , Opistorquíase/transmissão , Opisthorchis/patogenicidade , Alimentos Crus/parasitologia , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Opistorquíase/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Meio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(1): e0007018, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral sparganosis is the most serious complication of human sparganosis. Currently, there is no standard for the treatment of inoperable patients. Conventional-dose praziquantel therapy is the most reported treatment. However, the therapeutic outcomes are not very effective. High-dose praziquantel therapy is a useful therapeutic choice for many parasitic diseases that is well tolerated by patients, but it has not been sufficiently evaluated for cerebral sparganosis. This study aims to observe the prognoses following high-dose praziquantel therapy in inoperable patients and the roles of MRI and peripheral eosinophil absolute counts during follow-up. METHODOLOGY: Baseline and follow-up epidemiological, clinical, radiological and therapeutic data related to 10 inoperable patients with cerebral sparganosis that were treated with repeated courses of high-dose praziquantel therapy, with each course consisting of 25 mg/kg thrice daily for 10 days were assessed, followed by analyses of the prognoses, MRI findings and peripheral eosinophil absolute counts. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Baseline clinical data: the clinical symptoms recorded included seizures, hemiparesis, headache, vomiting and altered mental status. Peripheral blood eosinophilia was found in 3 patients. The baseline radiological findings were as follows. Motile lesions were observed in 10 patients, including aggregated ring-like enhancements, tunnel signs, serpiginous and irregular enhancements. Nine of the 10 patients had varying degrees of white matter degeneration, cortical atrophy and ipsilateral ventricle dilation. The follow-up clinical data were as follows. Clinical symptom relief was found in 8 patients, symptoms were eliminated in 1 patient, and symptoms showed no change from baseline in 1 patient. Peripheral blood eosinophilia was found in 2 patients. The follow-up radiological findings were as follows. Motile lesions that were transformed into stable, chronic lesions were found in 8 patients, and motile lesions that were eliminated completely were found in 2 patients. CONCLUSIONS: High-dose praziquantel therapy for cerebral sparganosis is effective. The radiological outcomes of motile lesions are an important indicator during the treatment process, especially during follow-ups after clinical symptoms have improved. Peripheral eosinophil absolute counts cannot be used as an effective prognostic indicator.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Esparganose/tratamento farmacológico , Plerocercoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Criança , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/parasitologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxcarbazepina/uso terapêutico , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Plerocercoide/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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