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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008152, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218570

RESUMO

Clonorchiasis is one of the most important food-borne trematodiases affecting millions of people. Strategies were recommended by different organizations and control programmes were implemented but mostly in short-time periods. It's important to assess the long-term benefits and sustainability of possible control strategies on morbidity control of the disease. We developed a multi-group transmission model to describe the dynamics of C. sinensis transmission among different groups of people with different raw-fish-consumption behaviors, based on which, a full model with interventions was proposed and three common control measures (i.e., preventive chemotherapy, information, education, and communication (IEC) and environmental modification) and their possible combinations were considered. Under a typical setting of C. sinensis transmission, we simulated interventions according to different strategies and with a series of values of intervention parameters. We found that combinations of measures were much beneficial than those singly applied; higher coverages of measures had better effects; and strategies targeted on whole population performed better than that on at-risk population with raw-fish-consumption behaviors. The strategy recommended by the government of Guangdong Province, China shows good and sustainable effects, under which, the infection control (with human prevalence <5%) could be achieved within 7.84 years (95% CI: 5.78-12.16 years) in our study setting (with original observed prevalence 33.67%). Several sustainable strategies were provided, which could lead to infection control within 10 years. This study makes the effort to quantitatively assess the long-term effects of possible control strategies against C. sinensis infection under a typical transmission setting, with application of a multi-group dynamic transmission model. The proposed model is easily facilitated with other transmission settings and the simulation outputs provide useful information to support the decision-making of control strategies on clonorchiasis.


Assuntos
Clonorquíase/epidemiologia , Clonorquíase/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 107, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, Taenia solium can cause cysticercosis in humans (including neurocysticercosis) and in pigs through ingestion of eggs and taeniasis in humans through ingestion of raw/undercooked pork contaminated with mature cysts. It is now recognised globally as one of the most prevalent food-borne parasitic diseases. The majority of cases have been reported in developing countries where consumption of food produced under unhygienic conditions is prevalent, exacerbated by lack of food safety education. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and practices of consumers towards pork safety in two districts of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, where T. solium cysticercosis is endemic in pigs and humans. METHODS: Three-hundred-and-sixty-one (361) participants were conveniently interviewed on consumer knowledge (harmfulness of T. solium cysticercosis, ability to identify cysts, trustworthiness of registered butcheries and legal requirements) and practices (storage of pork and method(s) of cooking pork safely) through a structured questionnaire. Chi-square for association of variables was used to compare differences in the districts. RESULTS: Overall, 73.1% of the study group from both districts agreed that pork forms an important part of their diet. Consumers (54.2%: 189/349) agreed that pork infected with T. solium cysts could be harmful, and 57.3% (188/328) indicated their inability to identify T. solium cysts in pork when slaughtered at home. Although 69.5% (234/352) trusted pork bought from butcheries, only 52.2% (187/358) were aware that butcheries must present a registration certificate in order to operate. This coincides with the fact that very few (< 10%) were aware of the legal requirements in terms of disease control, slaughter and food preparation. Most consumers (88.7%: 268/302) kept pork in the fridge and only 11.3% (34/302) kept it in a freezer (p = 0.02). Although not significantly different between the districts (p = 0.15), consumers in Alfred Nzo (71.4%: 152/213) and OR Tambo (61.2%: 74/12) mostly cooked pork as a stew, followed by braai/barbeque and frying or baking. This was in line with the fact that consumers in Alfred Nzo (79%: 147/186) and OR Tambo (80.8%: 120) preferred well-cooked pork; the main reason for this was the belief that cooking kills germs (43.6%: 121/277) followed by rendering the meat tasty (26.4%: 73/277). CONCLUSIONS: Consumers surveyed in the two districts were somewhat aware that T. solium cysticercosis could be harmful, although some were not able to identify T. solium cysts in pork. They also lacked sufficient knowledge regarding butchery certification and other legal requirements related to disease control, slaughter and food preparation. Practices related to cooking have the potential to promote the transmission of human taeniasis and the fact that most respondents preferred stewed pork could be a positive sign, as the cysts are destroyed during the cooking process. Results from this study are useful for the development of a control and prevention strategy targeted towards consumers, and the creation of awareness of food safety, with special emphasis on T, solium cysticercosis.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Conhecimento , Carne de Porco/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Taenia solium/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Culinária , Estudos Transversais , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Cisticercose/prevenção & controle , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carne de Porco/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Teníase/parasitologia , Teníase/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 312: 108387, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669763

RESUMO

Fresh produce-associated outbreaks of foodborne illnesses continue to occur every year in the U.S., suggesting limitations of current practices and the need for effective intervention technologies. Advanced oxidation process involves production of hydrogen radicals, which are the strongest oxidant. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of advanced oxidation process by combining gaseous ozone and aerosolized hydrogen peroxide. Grape tomatoes were inoculated with a 2-strain cocktail of Salmonella typhimurium on both stem scar and smooth surface. Gaseous ozone (800 and 1600 ppm) and aerosolized hydrogen peroxide (2.5, 5 and 10%) were separately or simultaneously introduced into a treatment chamber where the inoculated tomatoes were placed. During the 30 min treatments, hydrogen peroxide was aerosolized using an atomizer operated in two modes: continuously or 15 s on/50 s off. After the treatments, surviving Salmonella on the smooth surface and stem scar were enumerated. Results showed that ozone alone reduced Salmonella populations by <0.6 log CFU/fruit on both the smooth surface and the stem scar area, and aerosolized hydrogen peroxide alone reduced the populations by up to 2.1 log CFU/fruit on the smooth surface and 0.8 log CFU/fruit on stem scar area. However, the combination treatments reduced the populations by up to 5.2 log CFU/fruit on smooth surface and 4.2 log CFU/fruit on the stem scar. Overall, our results demonstrate that gaseous ozone and aerosolized hydrogen peroxide have synergistic effects on the reduction of Salmonella populations on tomatoes.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Ozônio/farmacologia , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella typhimurium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/microbiologia , Oxirredução
4.
Food Microbiol ; 85: 103279, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500702

RESUMO

Cereulide, a potent toxin produced by Bacillus cereus, is a small, highly heat- and acid-resistant depsipeptide toxin, which confronts food industry with several challenges. Due to the ubiquitous presence of B. cereus in the environment, this opportunistic pathogen can enter food production and processing at almost any stage. Although the bacteria itself might be removed during food processing, the cereulide toxin will most likely not be destroyed or inactivated by these processes. Because of the high toxicity of cereulide and the high incidence rates often observed in connection with foodborne outbreaks, the understanding of the mechanisms of toxin production as well as accurate data on contamination sources and factors promoting toxin formation are urgently needed to prevent contamination and toxin production in food production processes. Over the last decade, considerable progress had been made on the understanding of cereulide toxin biosynthesis in emetic B. cereus, but an overview of current knowledge on this toxin with regards to food industry perspective is lacking. Thus, we aim in this work to summarize data available on extrinsic parameters acting on cereulide toxin synthesis in emetic B. cereus and to discuss the food industry specific challenges related to this toxin. Furthermore, we emphasize how identification of the cardinals in food production processes can lead to novel effective strategies for prevention of toxin formation in the food processing chain and could contribute to the improvement of existing HACCP studies.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/metabolismo , Depsipeptídeos/biossíntese , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Toxinas Bacterianas/biossíntese , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Manipulação de Alimentos , Indústria Alimentícia/métodos , Indústria Alimentícia/normas
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861843

RESUMO

Foodborne diseases continue to be a global public health problem with an estimated 600 million people falling ill annually. In return, international standards are becoming stricter which poses challenges to food trade. In light of the increasing burden of foodborne diseases, many countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region have upgraded their food laws and undertaken changes to the organizational structure of their regulatory institutions to maintain or expand international export activities, tighten control on local and imported products, and protect consumers' health. However, until this date, the published information on the regional health burdens of foodborne diseases is very limited and it is not clear whether the recent changes will serve towards science-based and effective preventive functions and the adoption of the risk management approach. In this review, we summarize the recent food safety issues and the national food control systems of selected countries in the region although we were challenged with the scarcity of information. To this end, we examined the national food safety systems in the context of the five essential elements of the FAO/WHO Guidelines for Strengthening National Food Control Systems. These five elements-food law and regulations; food control management; inspection services; laboratory services; food monitoring; and epidemiological data, information, education, communication, and training-constitute the building blocks of a national food control system, but could also serve as tools to assess the effectiveness of the systems.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Legislação sobre Alimentos , África do Norte , Alimentos , Humanos , Oriente Médio , Saúde Pública
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1066, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic and asymptomatic enteric infections in early childhood are associated with negative effects on childhood growth and development, especially in low and middle-income countries, and food may be an important transmission route. Although basic food hygiene practices might reduce exposure to faecal pathogens and resulting infections, there have been few rigorous interventions studies to assess this, and no studies in low income urban settings where risks are plausibly very high. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a novel infant food hygiene intervention on infant enteric infections and diarrhoea in peri-urban settlements of Kisumu, Kenya. METHODS: This is a cluster randomized control trial with 50 clusters, representing the catchment areas of Community Health Volunteers (CHVs), randomly assigned to intervention or control, and a total of 750 infants recruited on a rolling basis at 22 weeks of age and then followed for 15 weeks. The intervention targeted four key caregiver behaviours related to food hygiene: 1) hand washing with soap before infant food preparation and feeding; 2) bringing all infant food to the boil before feeding, including when reheating or reserving; 3) storing all infant food in sealed containers; and, 4) using only specific utensils for infant feeding which are kept separate and clean. RESULTS: The primary outcome of interest is the prevalence of one or more of 23 pre-specified enteric infections, determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for enteric pathogen gene targets. In addition, infant food samples were collected at 33 weeks, and faecal indicator bacteria (Enterococcus) isolated and enumerated to assess the impact of the intervention on infant food contamination. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of an infant food hygiene intervention on enteric infections in a high burden, low income urban setting. Our trial responds to growing evidence that food may be a key pathway for early childhood enteric infection and disease and that basic food hygiene behaviours may be able to mitigate these risks. The Safe Start trial seeks to provide new evidence as to whether a locally appropriate infant food hygiene intervention delivered through the local health extension system can improve the health of young children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at clinicaltrial.gov on March 16th 2018 before enrolment of any participants (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03468114).


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Enterite/epidemiologia , Enterite/microbiologia , Desinfecção das Mãos/métodos , Infecções/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Cuidadores , Culinária , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Enterite/prevenção & controle , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Controle de Infecções , Infecções/microbiologia , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Sabões , Saúde da População Urbana
7.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 311: 108349, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634688

RESUMO

Food-borne viral infections are caused mainly by noroviruses (NoV) and the hepatitis A virus (HAV), which respectively cause gastroenteritis and hepatitis. Various foods have been implicated in viral outbreaks, including vegetables that are consumed in a variety of forms, often with salad dressing. NF EN ISO procedures (15216-1:2017) propose standard methods for quantifying NoV and HAV in high-risk food categories, such as vegetables, based on viral elution and PEG concentration methods, but these methods are not suitable for composite meals like salads dressed with oily, fatty or emulsified food ingredients. The development of sensitive and reliable techniques for the detection of viruses in these products is therefore needed to ensure the safety of these products. The aim of this study was to develop an RT-qPCR based method for the detection and quantification of NoV and HAV in various vegetables with different dressings. Three methods for recovering NoV and HAV from artificially contaminated dressed vegetables were evaluated. The selected method was based on the use of Trizol reagent and, according to the type of dressing, the limit of detection ranged from 104 to 106 genome copies/g for NoV and from 102 to 103 PFU/g for HAV. The described method can be applied for detecting NoV and HAV in food containing salad dressing for routine diagnosis needs.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Vírus da Hepatite A/isolamento & purificação , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/virologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus da Hepatite A/genética , Humanos , Norovirus/genética , RNA Viral/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
8.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(10): 1543-1552, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546299

RESUMO

Salmonella is a common zoonotic and foodborne pathogen that causes high morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In this study, we established and validated a polymerase spiral reaction (PSR) assay which targeted the conserved invasion gene (invA) of Salmonella by SYBR Green I indicator methods. Subsequently, assays for determination of the optimal conditions for optimal specificity and sensitivity of PSR were performed. We performed comprehensive evaluations using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and realtime PCR. A total number of 532 samples of daily food were analyzed by PSR. Twenty-seven bacterial strains were tested in the specificity assay, from which positive results were obtained only for 14-Salmonella strains. However, none of the 13 non-Salmonella strains was amplified. Similarly with LAMP and real-time PCR, the detection limit of the PSR assay was 50 CFU/ml. The PSR method was also successfully applied to evaluate the contamination with Salmonella in 532 samples of daily food, corroborating traditional culture method data. The novel PSR method is simple, sensitive, and rapid and provides new insights into the prevention and detection of foodborne diseases.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Salmonella/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382354

RESUMO

This study aimed to (i) compare the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practices (KAP) and observed food safety practices of food truck (FT) food handlers, (ii) evaluate the microbiological quality of food and water samples collected from these vehicles, and (iii) establish a score classification for the KAP instrument according to the food contamination probability assessment. This study was conducted in three stages with 40 food truck food handlers conveniently sampled in the Federal District, Brazil, through structured interviews, application of an observational checklist for the assessment of handlers' practices and the collection of food and water samples for determination of microbiological quality. FTs that are likely to exhibit food contamination and are at a high risk of foodborne diseases if at least one of the following situations occur: (1) if a food handler scores ≤6 in the knowledge section; (2) if a food handler scores ≤5 in the attitudes section; or (3) if a food handler scores ≤6 in the self-reported practices section. On the other hand, FTs in which handlers score higher than the cutoff points in all the sections are unlikely to exhibit food contamination and are at a low risk of foodborne diseases. The findings of this study are the first step to understand food handlers' point of view and the initial diagnosis to guide educational strategies in the FT sector.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Serviços de Alimentação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Fatores de Risco , Microbiologia da Água
10.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416193

RESUMO

Cancer patients receiving treatment are at a higher risk for the acquisition of foodborne illness than the general population. Despite this, few studies have assessed the food safety behaviors, attitudes, risk perceptions, and food acquisition behaviors of this population. Further, no studies have, yet, quantified the food safety knowledge of these patients. This study aims to fill these gaps in the literature by administering a thorough questionnaire to cancer patients seeking treatment in three hospitals in a Midwest, metropolitan area. Demographic, treatment, food security, and food safety knowledge, behaviors, attitudes, risk perceptions, and acquisition information was assessed for 288 patients. Specific unsafe attitudes, behaviors, and acquisition practices were identified. Most notable is that 49.4% (n = 139) of participants were not aware that they were at increased risk of foodborne infection, due to their disease and treatment. Additionally, though patients exhibited a general understanding of food safety, the participant average for correctly answering the food safety questions was 74.77% ± 12.24%. The section concerning food storage showed lowest participant knowledge, with an average score of 69.53% ± 17.47%. Finally, patients reporting low food security also reported a higher incidence of unsafe food acquisition practices (P < 0.05). These findings will help healthcare providers to better educate patients in the food safety practices necessary to decrease risk of foodborne infection, and to provide targeted food safety education to low-food-security patients.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 516, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial resistance among the bacteria present in ready-to-eat foods like vegetable salads is an emerging concern today. The current study was undertaken to investigate the presence of multi-drug resistant extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) producing E. coli and Salmonella spp. in raw vegetable salads served at hotels and restaurants in Bharatpur. A total of 216 salad samples were collected from three different grades of hotels and restaurants and examined for the presence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. in Microbiology laboratory of Birendra Multiple Campus by conventional microbiological techniques. RESULTS: Out of 216 samples, 66 samples (35.2%) showed the presence of Salmonella spp. whereas E. coli was recovered from 29 (13.4%) samples of which 3 samples harbored E. coli O157: H7. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed that 9 (13.6%) Salmonella and 4 (13.8%) E. coli isolates were detected as multi-drug resistant. Total ESBL producers reported were 5 (7.57%) Salmonella and 4 (13.8%) E. coli. The study also assessed a significant association between occurrence of E. coli and Salmonella with different grades of hotels and restaurants, personal hygiene and literacy rate of chefs and with the type of cleaning materials used to wash knives and chopping boards (p < 0.05). The findings suggest an immediate need of attention by the concerned authorities to prevent the emergence and transmission of food-borne pathogens and infections antimicrobial resistance among them.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Escherichia coli O157/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli O157/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Habitação/normas , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nepal , Restaurantes/normas , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/metabolismo
12.
Food Microbiol ; 84: 103276, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421762

RESUMO

The diarrheal type of food poisoning caused by enteropathogenic Bacillus cereus has been linked to various exotoxins. Best described are the non-hemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe), hemolysin BL (Hbl), and cytotoxin K (CytK). Due to the ubiquitous prevalence of B. cereus in soil and crops and its ability to form highly resistant endospores, contaminations during food production and processing cannot be completely avoided. Although phylogenetically closely related, enteropathogenic B. cereus strains show a high versatility of their toxic potential. Thus, functional tools for evaluating the pathogenic potential are urgently needed in order to predict hazardous food contaminations. As the diarrheal syndrome is the result of a toxico-infection with enterotoxin production in the intestine, the entire passage of the bacteria within the host, from spore survival in the stomach, spore germination, host cell adherence, and motility, to enterotoxin production under simulated intestinal conditions was compared in a panel of 20 strains, including high pathogenic as well as apathogenic ones. This approach resulted in an overarching virulence analysis scheme. In parallel, we searched for potential toxico-specific secreted markers to discriminate low and high pathogenic strains. To this end, we targeted known exotoxins using an easy to implement immunoblotting approach as well as a caseinolytic exoprotease activity assay. Overall, Nhe component B, sphingomyelinase, and exoproteases showed good correlation with the complex virulence analysis scheme and can serve as a template for future fast and easy risk assessment tools to be implemented in routine diagnostic procedures and HACCP studies.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/patogenicidade , Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
13.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 69(4): 252-257, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429475

RESUMO

Alfalfa sprouts have been implicated in multiple foodborne disease outbreaks. This study evaluated the growth of Listeria monocytogenes during sprouting of alfalfa seeds and the effectiveness of daily chlorine dioxide & ozone rinsing in controlling the growth. Alfalfa seeds inoculated with L. monocytogenes were sprouted for 5 days (25°C) with a daily aqueous ClO2 (3 ppm, 10 min) or ozone water (2 ppm, 5 min) rinse. Neither treatment significantly reduced the growth of L. monocytogenes on sprouting alfalfa seeds. The initial level of L. monocytogenes was 3·44 ± 0·27, which increased to c. 7·0 log CFU per g following 3 days of sprouting. There was no significant difference in the bacterial population between the treatment schemes. Bacterial distribution in roots (7·63 ± 0·511 log CFU per g), stems (7·51 ± 0·511 log CFU per g) and leaves (7·41 ± 0·511 log CFU per g) were similar after 5 days. Spent sanitizers had significantly lower levels of bacterial populations compared to the spent distilled water control. The results indicated that sprouting process provides a favourable condition for the growth of L. monocytogenes and the sanitizer treatment alone may not be able to reduce food safety risks. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Sprouts are high-risk foods. Consumption of raw sprouts is frequently associated with foodborne disease outbreaks. Optimum sprouting procedure involves soaking seeds in water followed by daily water rinsing to maintain a moist environment that is also favourable for the growth of pathogenic micro-organisms. The present study emphasized the potential food safety risks during sprouting and the effect of applying daily sanitizer rinsing in the place of water rinsing to reduce those risks. The finding of this study may be useful in the development of pre-harvest and post-harvest risk management strategies.


Assuntos
Compostos Clorados/farmacologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicago sativa/microbiologia , Óxidos/farmacologia , Água/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Ozônio/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Sementes/microbiologia , Verduras/microbiologia , Água/química
14.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443325

RESUMO

Propolis is a natural mixture produced by bees from plant resin substances. This study focuses on the general characteristics of five samples of Polish extract propolis originating from agricultural areas. Chemical composition with high performance liquid chromatography‒diode array detector method, total content of flavonoids and polyphenols, and antioxidative activity were determined in the ethanol extracts of propolis (EEP) samples. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC) and time-kill curves were studied for foodborne pathogens and food spoilage microorganisms. In EEPs the predominant flavonoid compounds were pinocembrin, chrysin, pinobanksin, apigenin, and kaempferol and the predominant phenolic acids were p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and caffeic acid. A strong antioxidative action of propolis in vitro was observed (IC50 for DPPH radical was at the level of 0.9-2.1 µg/mL). EEPs had MIC values for bacteria in the range of 1-16 mg/mL, whereas MIC for fungi ranged from 2 to 32 mg/mL. Extract of propolis originating from southern Poland was distinguished by higher content of bioactive components, and stronger antioxidative and antimicrobial activity than EPPs from the remaining areas of Poland. The results indicate the possibility of applying ethanol extracts from Polish propolis to protect food against microbiological spoilage.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Própole/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Agentes de Controle Biológico/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Etanol/química , Etanol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polônia
15.
Toxicol Lett ; 314: 75-81, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284020

RESUMO

Aflatoxin is a fungal secondary metabolite with high toxicity that is capable of contaminating various types of food crops. It has been identified as a Group 1 human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Chronic aflatoxin exposure has caused worldwide concern as a matter of public food safety. Peanuts and peanut products are the major sources of aflatoxin exposure. Therefore, some reduction interventions have been developed to minimize contamination throughout the peanut production chain. The purpose of this study is to estimate the efficacy of interventions in reducing the health impact of hepatocellular carcinoma caused by aflatoxin contamination in peanuts. The estimated total Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) were calculated using FDA-iRISK software. Six aflatoxin reduction strategies were evaluated, including good agricultural practice (GAP), biocontrol, Purdue Improved Crop Storage packaging, basic processing, ozonolysis, and ultraviolet irradiation. The results indicated that basic processing could prevent huge public health loss of 4,079.7-21,833 total DALYs per year. In addition, GAP and biocontrol were both found to be effective strategies in the farm field. Meanwhile, the other three interventions had limited effectiveness in reducing total DALYs. In conclusion, this study could help farmers, processing plants, and government policy makers to alleviate aflatoxin contamination issues in the peanut production chain.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/efeitos adversos , Arachis/microbiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevenção & controle , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Exposição Dietética/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Avaliação da Deficiência , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Ozônio/química , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Raios Ultravioleta
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 306: 108266, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319195

RESUMO

The antimicrobial activities of lemon oil based nanoemulsion and two different concentrations of lemon essential oil (100% and 10%) on food-brne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Salmonella Paratyphi A) and fish spoilage bacteria (Photobacterium damselae, Enterococcus faecalis, Vibrio vulnificus, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia liquefaciens, and Pseudomonas luteola) were compared in terms of disc diffusion, minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The constitutes of extracted lemon essential oil were identified by using GC-MS. Viscosity, the mean droplet size, thermodynamic stability and refractive index of nanoemulsions were determined. The main components detected in the lemon essential oil were d-limonene, p-cymene, ß-pinene with percentages of 52.85%, 14.36%, and 13.69%, respectively. It was found that lemon nanoemulsion was more effective on food-borne pathogens except K. pneumoniae than 100% lemon essential oil. 10% lemon essential oil showed the highest inhibition effect on S. Paratyphi A. The conversion of the essential oil into nanoemulsion improved antimicrobial activity. According to value of MIC, both nanoemulsion and 100% essential oil inhibited bacterial growth of all of the pathogen bacteria tested whereas they were less effective on inhibition of fish spoilage bacteria. However, 10% essential oil was more effective on spoilage bacteria than pathogens. MBC showed that nanoemulsion and 100% lemon essential oil presented a noticeable bactericidal activity against S. paratyphi A whereas 10% lemon essential oil was found as ≥25 mg/mL against pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Therefore, the use of nanoemulsion based on lemon essential oil can have potential as a natural antimicrobial agent against food-borne pathogen and spoilage bacteria for fish processing industry.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Citrus/classificação , Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 304: 89-96, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176964

RESUMO

The environmental stability of enteric viruses and resistance to conventional treatments and common disinfectants, leads to their persistence in waters and food, causing serious implications on public health. Among non-thermal treatment methods, ionizing radiation is recognized as a useful and effective mean of disinfection. The objective of this study was to estimate the inactivation of enteric virus by gamma radiation in raw berry fruits, in order to evaluate the potential of this technology to be applied as a disinfection treatment. Fresh strawberries and raspberries were inoculated either individually with murine norovirus type 1 (MuNoV; as a human norovirus surrogate) and human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV) or with a viral pool of both viruses, and irradiated in a Co-60 equipment at doses of 1 kGy up to 11 kGy. The infectivity of viral particles of MuNoV and HAdV was assessed by plaque assay using Raw 264.7 and A549 cells, respectively. A 2 log PFU/g reduction on MuNoV and HAdV titers was obtained after treatment with a dose of 4 kGy for both fruits. However, non-linear inactivation survival curves were obtained for MuNoV and HAdV in fresh fruits, leading to the detection of infective viral particles at a dose of 11 kGy. The irradiation process indicated virucidal potential, although the estimated gamma radiation dose to attain food safety (> 7 kGy) would compromise the preservation of food quality. Nevertheless, the irradiation technology could be an effective virus mitigation tool to treat polluted waters, which are a major vehicle of contamination for fresh produce.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos/efeitos da radiação , Desinfecção/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Fragaria/virologia , Raios gama , Norovirus/efeitos da radiação , Rubus/virologia , Células A549 , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Frutas/virologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7
18.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 304: 19-31, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151072

RESUMO

Reducing salt content in foods such as cheeses, while limiting the growth of spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens, is a difficult challenge. One method that may prove useful is use of staphylococcins, which are bacteriocins produced by staphylococci. Therefore, staphylococcin antimicrobial activity against six strains of S. aureus isolated from cheese was tested aiming at their industrial application in biopreservation of Minas fresh (Frescal) cheese with reduced sodium content. Three staphylococcins were selected for these tests: Pep 5, aureocin A53 and lysostaphin. All three staphylococcins proved to be bacteriolytic against all six strains of S. aureus. The antimicrobial activity of the partially purified staphylococcins was subsequently investigated against strains S. aureus Q1 and QJ3 in cheese matrices (6.0 log CFU/g) with different NaCl contents (control, a 25% reduction, and a 50% reduction), kept under refrigeration at 4 °C, for 21 days. Both strains were shown to be of concern for food industry as they carry the SEA, SEB and SEH enterotoxin genes, and are resistant to ß-lactam drugs and moderate biofilm formers when grown in TSB. When used singly, Pep5, aureocin A53 and lysostaphin reduced approximately 95%, 99% and 99.99% of the viable cell counts, respectively, irrespective of the sodium content of the cheese matrix. The combined action of aureocin A53 and Pep5 resulted in an additional and significant reduction (p < 0.05) of ~1.0 log CFU/g when compared with the reduction caused by the use of either one singly. The combined action of lysostaphin and aureocin A53 or lysostaphin and Pep5 resulted in a reduction similar to or slightly smaller (p > 0.05) than that observed when lysostaphin was employed singly. Lysostaphin also proved to reduce the number of the staphylococcal viable cells to a level (~ 2.0 log CFU/g) at which enterotoxin production should not reach a sufficient quantity to cause food poisoning. Therefore, lysostaphin may have a practical application in the food industry to control staphylococcal contamination of Minas fresh cheese with a sodium content reduced up to 50%, providing consumers with more safe options to reduce their intake of sodium.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriocinas/farmacologia , Queijo/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Lisostafina/farmacologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos , Enterotoxinas/análise , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo
20.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2139-2147, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098726

RESUMO

The consumption of raw or inadequately cooked marine fish can lead to several disorders caused by the ingestion of viable anisakid nematodes. Although anisakid larvae can be killed by subzero temperatures, making freezing an important control measure for this potential health hazard, these parasites can survive freezing under some conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to experimentally evaluate the time-temperature conditions needed to kill Anisakis simplex and Pseudoterranova spp. The effectiveness of freezing was tested on two species of fish: cod, Gadus morhua from the North Atlantic, and herring, Clupea harengus membras from the southern Baltic Sea. Samples, which comprised skinless fillets of cod (n = 40) with visible parasites and whole herring (n = 240), were separately frozen at - 15, - 18, or - 20 °C for 24 h, or at - 20 °C for 48 h in the single-compressor freezer and at - 20, - 25, or - 35 °C for 24 h in the double-compressor freezer. After thawing, parasites were stained with malachite green and examined under the microscope for viability. All A. simplex and Pseudoterranova spp. larvae in cod fillets died at a temperature of - 15 °C or lower. However, freezing did not kill all the A. simplex larvae in whole herring: spontaneous movement of these parasites was observed in samples stored in the single-compressor freezer at - 15, - 18, and - 20 °C over 24 h. Our results demonstrate that the freezing procedure must consider both the capability of the freezing device and the nature of the fish product to ensure consumer safety.


Assuntos
Anisakis/citologia , Ascaridoidea/citologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Congelamento , Gadus morhua/parasitologia , Larva/citologia , Animais , Anisakis/classificação , Ascaridoidea/classificação , Temperatura Baixa , Peixes , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos
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