Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 320
Filtrar
1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(2): 169-174, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074705

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the etiology and epidemiological characteristics of gastroenteritis virus in foodborne diseases from three cities in Shandong. Methods: From January to December 2017, six sentinel hospitals in Jinan, Yantai and Linyi city of Shandong Province were selected as the research sites. Stool samples of 1 397 diarrhea patients were collected, as well as basic information and clinical symptoms. Duplex quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect Norovirus genogroupⅠ (Nov GⅠ) and genogroupⅡ (Nov GⅡ), Sapovirus (SAV) and Human astrovirus (HAstV), respectively, quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect group A Rotavirus (RVA), and quantitative PCR was used to detect Enteric adenovirus (EAdV). The specific gene of the virus were sequenced and typed. It was compared that the gastroenteritis virus rate in cases with different characteristics and the clinical symptoms difference between the virus positive and negative cases. Results: The median age (P(25), P(75)) was 23 (1, 42) , mainly male, 57.48% with 803 cased and children under 5 years old, 36.36% with 508 cases. The positive rate of gastroenteritis virus was 33.93% (474 cases), and that of Jinan, Linyi and Yantai City were 32.03% (147/459), 41.54% (189/455) and 28.57% (138/483), respectively (P<0.001). Nov GⅡ had the highest positive rate, 16.54% (231 cases), which, mainly GⅡ.P16/GⅡ.2 (48.28%, 56/116), peaked in May (24.75%, 50/202) and June (19.59%, 38/194). In patients of gastroenteritis virus positive, 44.51% (211/474) had vomiting symptoms, higher than that of patients of gastroenteritis virus negative (34.13%, 315/923). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: In Shandong Province, the majority of gastroenteritis patients were male and children under 5 years old. Nov GⅡ possessed highest epidemic intensity, and peaked in spring and summer. Viral gastroenteritis had atypical clinical symptoms.


Assuntos
Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 311: 108349, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634688

RESUMO

Food-borne viral infections are caused mainly by noroviruses (NoV) and the hepatitis A virus (HAV), which respectively cause gastroenteritis and hepatitis. Various foods have been implicated in viral outbreaks, including vegetables that are consumed in a variety of forms, often with salad dressing. NF EN ISO procedures (15216-1:2017) propose standard methods for quantifying NoV and HAV in high-risk food categories, such as vegetables, based on viral elution and PEG concentration methods, but these methods are not suitable for composite meals like salads dressed with oily, fatty or emulsified food ingredients. The development of sensitive and reliable techniques for the detection of viruses in these products is therefore needed to ensure the safety of these products. The aim of this study was to develop an RT-qPCR based method for the detection and quantification of NoV and HAV in various vegetables with different dressings. Three methods for recovering NoV and HAV from artificially contaminated dressed vegetables were evaluated. The selected method was based on the use of Trizol reagent and, according to the type of dressing, the limit of detection ranged from 104 to 106 genome copies/g for NoV and from 102 to 103 PFU/g for HAV. The described method can be applied for detecting NoV and HAV in food containing salad dressing for routine diagnosis needs.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Vírus da Hepatite A/isolamento & purificação , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Verduras/virologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus da Hepatite A/genética , Humanos , Norovirus/genética , RNA Viral/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 910, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On September 4, 2018, a boarding school in the Shunyi District of Beijing, China reported an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis. At least 209 suspected students caused of diarrhea and vomiting. The case was investigated, and control measures were taken to prevent further spread. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among the school students and staff in order to test hypothesis that high risk of food served at the school canteen. We collected information on demographics, refectory records, person to person transmission by uniform epidemiological questionnaire. Risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Stool specimens of cases and canteen employees, retained food, water, and environmental swabs were investigated by laboratory analysis. RESULTS: We identified 209 cases (including 28 laboratory-confirmed cases) which occurred from August 29 to September 10. All cases were students, and the average age was 20, 52% were male. The outbreak lasted for 13 days, and peaked on September 5. Consumption of Drinks stall and Rice flour stall on September 1 (RR:3.4, 95%CI:1.5-7.8, and RR:7.6, 95%CI:2.8-20.2), Rice flour stall and Fish meal stall on September 2 (RR:4.0, 95%CI:1.2-13.6, and RR:4.6, 95%CI:1.7-12.5), muslim meal stall on September 4 (RR:2.7, 95%CI:1.3-5.4), Barbeque stall on September 5 (RR:3.0, 95%CI:1.2-7.0) were independently associated with increased risk of disease within the following 2 days. Among 35 specimens of rectal swabs or feces from students, 28 specimens were positive. Norovirus GI.6 alone was detected in 23 specimens, Bacillus cereus alone in 3 specimens and both norovirus GI.6 and Bacillus cereus in 2 specimens. Ten specimens of rectal swabs from canteen employees were positive for norovirus GI, and 2 specimens were positive for Bacillus cereus. Four retained food specimens were positive for Bacillus cereus, and environmental samples were negative for any viruses or bacteria. CONCLUSION: Our investigation indicated that canteen employees were infected by two pathogens (norovirus and Bacillus cereus) and transmission may have been possible due to unhygienic practices. Student consumption of food or drink at high-risk stalls was determined as the probable cause of the outbreak.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Pequim/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/complicações , Diarreia/complicações , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Gastroenterite/complicações , Higiene das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Vômito/complicações , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(9): e1008009, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536612

RESUMO

Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the most common cause of foodborne illness, with a societal cost of $60 billion and 219,000 deaths/year. The lack of robust small animal models has significantly hindered the understanding of norovirus biology and the development of effective therapeutics. Here we report that HuNoV GI and GII replicate to high titers in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae; replication peaks at day 2 post infection and is detectable for at least 6 days. The virus (HuNoV GII.4) could be passaged from larva to larva two consecutive times. HuNoV is detected in cells of the hematopoietic lineage and the intestine, supporting the notion of a dual tropism. Antiviral treatment reduces HuNoV replication by >2 log10, showing that this model is suited for antiviral studies. Zebrafish larvae constitute a simple and robust replication model that will largely facilitate studies of HuNoV biology and the development of antiviral strategies.


Assuntos
Norovirus/fisiologia , Norovirus/patogenicidade , Replicação Viral/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra/virologia , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Larva/virologia , Metagenômica , Modelos Animais , Norovirus/genética , Cultura de Vírus/métodos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Food Environ Virol ; 11(4): 315-339, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560123

RESUMO

Foodborne viral diseases are a major public health threat and pose a huge burden on the economies of both developed and developing countries. Enteric viruses are the causative agents of most foodborne illnesses and outbreaks. Egypt is classified by WHO among the regions with intermediate to high endemicity for various enteric viruses. This is manifested by the high prevalence rates of different enteric virus infections among Egyptian population such as Hepatitis A and E viruses, human rotaviruses, human noroviruses, human astroviruses, and human adenovirus. Recently, a number of foodborne gastroenteritis and acute hepatitis outbreaks have occurred in the US, Canada, Australia, and the European Union countries. Some of these outbreaks were attributed to the consumption of minimally processed foods imported from Egypt indicating the possibility that Egyptian foods may also be partially responsible for high prevalence of enteric virus infections among Egyptian population. In the absence of official foodborne-pathogen surveillance systems, evaluating the virological safety of Egyptian foods is a difficult task. In this review, we aim to provide a preliminary evaluation of the virological safety of Egyptian foods. A comprehensive review of prevalence studies on enteric virus infections shows hyperendemicity of several enteric viruses in Egypt and provides strong evidence of implication of Egyptian foods in these infections. We also address possible environmental risk factors that may lead to the contamination of Egyptian foods with enteric viruses. In addition, we describe potential obstacles to any plan that might be considered for improving the virological safety of Egyptian foods.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Viroses/virologia , Animais , Egito/epidemiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/mortalidade , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/mortalidade , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
6.
Food Microbiol ; 84: 103235, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421765

RESUMO

Foodborne transmission of HEV is a growing public health concern in industrialised countries, where the disease is mainly autochthonous, caused by zoonotic HEV of either genotype 3 or 4. Foodstuffs containing pig's liver were suspected on several occasions to be the cause of autochthonous cases of HEV infection, while the transmission was associated with animal contact and the ingestion of raw or uncooked meat, especially liver. In assessing the risk related to the presence of HEV in food, detection methods were previously developed but HEV detection rates seem to vary with the type of samples and methods. As foodstuff containing pig liver can be contaminated with HEV internally, an efficient virus extraction procedure is required. The aim of this study was to evaluate six methods for their efficiency in releasing HEV viral particles from figatelli, pig liver sausages and liver samples previously tested positive for the presence of HEV. The ratio weight to volume of elution buffer (1:5) and the FastPrep®-24 homogeniser showed to significantly improve the quantity of HEV genomes released per gram of figatelli and pig liver sausages. To our knowledge, this study is the first to evaluate several methods for elution of HEV particles from naturally contaminated pig liver products, and may be extended for quantifying other viral genomes from food of animal origin.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Fígado/virologia , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Hepatite E/transmissão , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Carne/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Suínos
7.
Microb Pathog ; 135: 103648, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356928

RESUMO

Norovirus is a highly infectious human pathogen that causes acute foodborne diseases worldwide. As global diet patterns have begun to incorporate a higher consumption of fresh agricultural products, the internalization of norovirus into plants has emerged as a potential threat to human health. Here, we demonstrated that murine norovirus (MNV1) was internalized into Arabidopsis in multiple phases, and this internalization was correlated with Arabidopsis innate immunity responses. Under hydroponic conditions, continuous treatment of MNV1 retarded root growth and facilitated flower development of Arabidopsis without causing necrotic lesions. Examination of viral titers and RNA levels revealed that MNV1 was internalized into Arabidopsis in at least three different phases. In response to MNV1 treatment, the Arabidopsis defensive marker PR1 (a salicylic acid signaling marker) was transiently up-regulated at the early stage. PDF1.2, a jasmonic acid signaling marker, exhibited a gradual induction over time. Noticeably, Arabidopsis RNS1 (T2 ribonuclease) was rapidly induced by MNV1 and exhibited anti-correlation with the internalization of MNV1. Exposure to recombinant Arabidopsis RNS1 protein reduced the viral titers and degraded MNV1 RNA in vitro. In conclusion, the internalization of MNV1 into Arabidopsis was fluctuated by mutual interactions that were potentially regulated by Arabidopsis immune systems containing RNS1.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/imunologia , Arabidopsis/virologia , Norovirus/fisiologia , Plântula/imunologia , Plântula/virologia , Internalização do Vírus , Animais , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos , Defensinas/metabolismo , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Imunidade Inata , Camundongos , Oxilipinas , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/virologia , Proteínas Recombinantes , Ribonucleases/genética , Ribonucleases/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Carga Viral
8.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 69(3): 175-180, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220345

RESUMO

Although norovirus (NoV) is the major cause of gastroenteritis, with the largest number of NoV food poisoning cases in Japan, limited information is available regarding NoV detection in food. This study aimed to detect NoV in food samples during the 2015-2016 suspected foodborne outbreaks in Tokyo; 352 food samples from 64 NoV food poisoning outbreaks were collected. Bacterial culturing was performed for sample pretreatment and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was conducted for NoV screening. The NoV detection rate was 1·7% (6/352). NoV-positive food samples included leftover boxed lunch, mackerel fillet (foodstuff), aburi salmon slice (partially seared salmon slice), raw tuna as a chirashizushi ingredient, raw amberjack as a sushi topping and ice for drinks. Since fresh fish as sushi toppings or ingredients and ice were consumed without heating, they may present a higher risk of viral infection. NoV-positive food samples were obtained from five outbreaks, wherein food handlers were NoV-positive in four. Each partial VP1 sequence from food samples matched completely with those in NoV-positive individuals and food handlers. Hence, food handlers play a potentially important role in food-based NoV transmission in all five outbreaks; therefore, hygiene education among them is essential to prevent NoV foodborne outbreaks. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Significance and Impact of the Study: Norovirus (NoV) is a leading cause of foodborne outbreak in Japan. The most frequent route of transmission in NoV foodborne outbreaks is secondary contamination via infected food handlers. However, limited information is available regarding NoV contamination in food samples. This study reports the detection of NoV in food samples to elucidate the source and route of NoV infection leading to outbreaks for 2 years in Tokyo. Our data potentially contribute to education and the development of safe food-handling strategies among food handlers and employees in the food industry through elucidation of risk factors associated with NoV contamination.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/transmissão , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Alimentos Crus/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Peixes/virologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Japão , Norovirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Tóquio
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 304: 89-96, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176964

RESUMO

The environmental stability of enteric viruses and resistance to conventional treatments and common disinfectants, leads to their persistence in waters and food, causing serious implications on public health. Among non-thermal treatment methods, ionizing radiation is recognized as a useful and effective mean of disinfection. The objective of this study was to estimate the inactivation of enteric virus by gamma radiation in raw berry fruits, in order to evaluate the potential of this technology to be applied as a disinfection treatment. Fresh strawberries and raspberries were inoculated either individually with murine norovirus type 1 (MuNoV; as a human norovirus surrogate) and human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV) or with a viral pool of both viruses, and irradiated in a Co-60 equipment at doses of 1 kGy up to 11 kGy. The infectivity of viral particles of MuNoV and HAdV was assessed by plaque assay using Raw 264.7 and A549 cells, respectively. A 2 log PFU/g reduction on MuNoV and HAdV titers was obtained after treatment with a dose of 4 kGy for both fruits. However, non-linear inactivation survival curves were obtained for MuNoV and HAdV in fresh fruits, leading to the detection of infective viral particles at a dose of 11 kGy. The irradiation process indicated virucidal potential, although the estimated gamma radiation dose to attain food safety (> 7 kGy) would compromise the preservation of food quality. Nevertheless, the irradiation technology could be an effective virus mitigation tool to treat polluted waters, which are a major vehicle of contamination for fresh produce.


Assuntos
Adenovírus Humanos/efeitos da radiação , Desinfecção/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Fragaria/virologia , Raios gama , Norovirus/efeitos da radiação , Rubus/virologia , Células A549 , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Frutas/virologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7
10.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(6): 581-585, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177754

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the infection status and genetic characteristics of Norovirus from foodborne diseases in sentinel hospital of Ma'anshan city. Methods: The 911 stool samples and epidemiological data of the patients with foodborne disease were collected from three hospitals of Ma'anshan city during January 2015 to June 2018. The G Ⅰ and G Ⅱ Norovirus were detected by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Some of the positive specimens were amplified by conventional reverse transcription PCR, and the PCR products were sequenced for sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. Results: The positive rate of Norovirus was 14.7% (134/911), in which 7 strains were G Ⅰ, 124 strains were G Ⅱ and 3 strains were mixed infection. Norovirus can be detected throughout the year, with high positive rate from December to April of the next year [24.4%(20/82)-45.3%(24/53)]. The 78 males (15.5%) and 55 females (13.7%) were positive for Norovirus (χ(2)=0.58,P=0.448). There was no significant difference in different age groups (χ(2)=9.55, P=0.089). A total of 79 strains were successfully sequenced, 4 strains were G Ⅰ group(5.1%), 75 strains were G Ⅱ group (94.9%). The predominant strains were GⅡ.17 and GⅡ.4, aud the number were 35 and 15 respectively. The predominant strains were different in different years. The main strain was GⅡ.17 in 2015 (30, 68.2%),GⅡ.4 in 2016 (5/9) and 2017 (8/16), but GⅡ.3 in 2018 (3/6). Conclusion: Norovirus diarrhea was popular in Ma'anshan city throughout the year,especially in winter and spring. The prevalent strain was GⅡ,genotypes were diversified distribution,the dominant strains were GⅡ.17 and GⅡ.4. The predominant strains were different in different years.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Gastroenterite , Norovirus , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Caliciviridae/genética , China , Cidades , Fezes , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Norovirus/genética , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia
11.
Rev Med Liege ; 74(1): 41, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30680973

RESUMO

Discovered in the 1970s, human noroviruses (NoV) are the leading cause of foodborne disease and gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. NoV affect people of all ages. In children less than 5 years old, despite rotavirus remains the main enteropathogen responsible for viral gastroenteritis, NoV become the first etiological virus in countries where the rotavirus vaccine was introduced. Treatment of viral gastroenteritis is symptomatic. The key element in front of NoV infection is limiting their transmission. A rapid NoV detection during outbreak is important in the aim to rapidly implement hygiene measures to limit the size of the outbreak. Prevention of NoV infections relies on the use of adequate hand hygiene measures and disinfection of contaminated environmental surfaces. In face of an acute gastroenteritis outbreak, the early NoV identification with rapid laboratory tests or molecular biology methods is needed in the aim to implement as soon as possible hygiene measures to limit the size of the NoV outbreak. Due to antigenically diverse NoV strains and the lack of long term immunity, the development of an effective vaccine is difficult.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Caliciviridae/transmissão , Norovirus/patogenicidade , Animais , Infecções por Caliciviridae/terapia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Vetores de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Zoonoses
12.
J Appl Microbiol ; 126(4): 996-1010, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30244501

RESUMO

Viral enteropathogens are one of the leading causative agents of foodborne illnesses in both the United States and the European Union. While human noroviruses and hepatitis A virus cause the vast majority of outbreaks and illnesses, there are handful of human enteric viruses that contribute to sporadic outbreaks worldwide including astrovirus, sapovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus and Aichi virus. In addition, hepatitis E virus is increasingly being recognized as an emerging zoonotic threat within the food supply. This review aims to briefly describe the primary human enteric viruses of concern with respect to foodborne transmission. Next, we focus on the contamination and persistence of these viruses within three high-risk food commodities-leafy greens, soft red fruits and bivalve mollusks. As opposed to detailing the specific routes by which these foods can be contaminated with enteric viruses, we have chosen to focus on their persistence and specific interactions within the food itself. Therefore, the processes of attachment and internalization of the viruses in foods have been emphasized. Looking forward, the implications of these specific interactions of human enteric viruses with leafy greens, soft red fruits and bivalve mollusks are briefly considered within the context of future prevention and control strategies.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Bivalves/virologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/etiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Frutas/virologia , Humanos , Alimentos Marinhos/virologia , Verduras/virologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Vírus/metabolismo
14.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 16(2): 81-89, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394792

RESUMO

Human enteric viruses, specifically human norovirus (hNoV), are the most common cause of foodborne illness boasting a wide range of transmission routes. These include person to person, contact with contaminated fomites, as well as ingestion of contaminated water and food. Because of this, the control and prevention of enteric viruses in food and other relevant environments have been a research focus over the past few decades. Interestingly, viruses as well as many other pathogens are often studied in isolation even though it is known that microorganisms do not occur in isolation but rather as part of complex microbial communities-both external from the host and within the host. Therefore, the overall goal of this review is to present the current evidence on virus-microbe interactions as these relate to the infectivity as well as the control and prevention of epidemiologically relevant foodborne viruses (such as hNoV) within our food systems. Therefore, this review is divided into in vivo, in situ, and in vitro implications of virus-microbe interactions through discussion of studies investigating the complex relationships between human enteric viruses and microbial cohabitants, specifically hNoV and bacteria.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Alimentos/virologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Norovirus/patogenicidade , Biofilmes , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/virologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Indústria Alimentícia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Interações Microbianas , Recombinação Genética , Microbiologia da Água
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 39(12): 1570-1575, 2018 Dec 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572380

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of a norovirus- borne outbreak caused by GⅡ.4 Sydney 2012 in a university of Guangzhou to provide evidence for the prevention and control strategy on norovirus-caused epidemics. Methods: A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect clinical information from the patients as well as other data related to the epidemic. Pathogen detections were performed through anal swab specimens from the patients, kitchen workers and samples from the environment. Positive samples were further sequenced for phylogenetic analysis. A case-control study was employed to identify the risk factors related to this outbreak. Results: A total of 226 cases of norovirus-borne infection were identified between September 17 and 21, 2017, including 223 students, with an attack rate of 0.73% (223/30 711), and 3 kitchen workers. Students staying in the A dormitory area had the highest attack rate (1.73%, 164/9 459). No clustering was found in different colleges or classes. Results from the case-control study revealed that people who ate at the canteen in A dormitory area during September 18 to 20 was at risk for the onset of illness (OR=10.75, 95%CI: 5.56-20.79). The highest risk was related to the dinner on September 18. Another significant risk factor (OR=3.65, 95%CI: 1.92-6.94) was close personal contact in the same room of the dorm. The 3 norovirus infected kitchen workers were all from the canteen in A dormitory area where the positive rate of norovirus identified in kitchen workers was 26.67% (12/45). Positive samples were sequenced and sub-typed with results showing that the GⅡ.4 Sydney 2012 variant and the nucleotide sequences of cases and kitchen workers were 100% identical. Conclusions: The outbreak was caused by norovirus GⅡ.4 Sydney 2012 variant at campus. Similar outbreaks had been seen since 2013, with the routes of transmission most likely due to food-borne or personal contact.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 36(3): 317-323, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429382

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an important public health problem. HEV infection has been identified as a major cause of enterically transmitted acute sporadic hepatitis in India especially in adult age group. India is hyperendemic for HEV, with the disease presenting both as outbreaks and as cases of acute sporadic viral hepatitis. Most of these outbreaks can be traced to contamination of drinking water supplies with human fecal matter. The last decade has witnessed tremendous change in our understanding of the virus in its epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic approaches, treatment options and the need for vaccination. With the identification of culture systems for HEV and development of animal models for its replication, knowledge regarding its replication and pathogenesis has evolved. This review attempts to discuss the nuances in our understanding of this virus, its pathogenesis and diagnosis, especially with reference to the Indian scenario.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Animais , Gerenciamento Clínico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Endêmicas , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Hepatite E/diagnóstico , Hepatite E/fisiopatologia , Hepatite E/terapia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia
17.
Euro Surveill ; 23(41)2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326994

RESUMO

Between June-September 2018, 20 hepatitis A cases were notified in six counties in Sweden. Combined epidemiological and microbiological investigations identified imported frozen strawberries produced in Poland as the source of the outbreak. Sequence analysis confirmed the outbreak strain IB in the strawberries with 100 % identity and the respective batch was withdrawn. Sharing the sequence information internationally led to the identification of 14 additional cases in Austria, linked to strawberries from the same producer.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Fragaria/virologia , Frutas/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite A/genética , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Criança , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Alimentos Congelados/virologia , Genótipo , Hepatite A/diagnóstico , Hepatite A/transmissão , Hepatite A/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite A/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência , Suécia/epidemiologia
18.
Food Microbiol ; 76: 390-395, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30166165

RESUMO

Virus-contaminated frozen berries have been frequently identified as cause of foodborne disease outbreaks. To provide new tools for virus detection and characterization in berries, next generation sequencing (NGS) and reverse transcription-digital PCR (RT-dPCR) techniques were tested here with strawberries previously involved in a large-scale norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis outbreak in Germany. By NGS, about 29 million sequence reads were generated, which mainly showed identities to sequences from the plant matrix and from the bacterial flora. Most abundant virus sequences originated from plant-specific viruses, whereas sequences with high identity to human viruses were rare. Only two sequence reads showed homologies to human NoV. They were identical to GII.P16/GII.13 NoV sequences from patients and a strawberry sample independently analyzed during the outbreak. Quantification of the GII NoV RNA of the berries using RT-dPCR confirmed a low mean virus amount of 185 copies/25 g, which is similar to independently assessed RT-qPCR results (257 copies/25 g). The study shows that identification of human-pathogenic viruses in naturally contaminated frozen berries is possible using NGS technologies. However, the method needs to be further optimized in order to enable convenient and reproducible detection of a low amount of human-pathogenic virus sequences in a background of highly abundant nucleic acids of other sources.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Fragaria/virologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Surtos de Doenças , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fragaria/química , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Norovirus/classificação , Norovirus/genética , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 285: 110-128, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075465

RESUMO

In a recent report by risk assessment experts on the identification of food safety priorities using the Delphi technique, foodborne viruses were recognized among the top rated food safety priorities and have become a greater concern to the food industry over the past few years. Food safety experts agreed that control measures for viruses throughout the food chain are required. However, much still needs to be understood with regard to the effectiveness of these controls and how to properly validate their performance, whether it is personal hygiene of food handlers or the effects of processing of at risk foods or the interpretation and action required on positive virus test result. This manuscript provides a description of foodborne viruses and their characteristics, their responses to stress and technologies developed for viral detection and control. In addition, the gaps in knowledge and understanding, and future perspectives on the application of viral detection and control strategies for the food industry, along with suggestions on how the food industry could implement effective control strategies for viruses in foods. The current state of the science on epidemiology, public health burden, risk assessment and management options for viruses in food processing environments will be highlighted in this review.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/normas , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Alimentos/virologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
20.
J Food Prot ; 81(9): 1432-1438, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080120

RESUMO

Viral contamination can compromise the safety of water utilized for direct consumption, produce irrigation, and postharvest washing of produce. Zero-valent iron (ZVI) is used commercially for chemical remediation of water and has been demonstrated to remove some biological contaminants from water in laboratory and field studies. This study investigated the efficacy of ZVI to remove human norovirus surrogates, Tulane virus (TV) and murine norovirus (MNV), from water and to characterize the reversibility and nature of viral association with ZVI. Genomic material of TV and MNV recovered from the effluent of inoculated water treatment columns containing a 1:1 mixture of ZVI and sand was 2 and 3 log, respectively, less than that recovered from the effluent of treatment columns containing only sand. Elution buffers (citrate buffers, pH 4 and 7, and virus elution buffer, pH 9.5, with and without added 1 M NaCl) did not increase recovery of infectious TV and MNV from ZVI as compared with elution with water alone. TV-inoculated lettuce washed with water in the presence of ZVI yielded 1.5 to 2 log fewer infectious TV from washwater as compared with lettuce washed with water alone or in the presence of sand. These data demonstrate the enhanced removal of human norovirus surrogates, TV and MNV, from water by ZVI and provide indications that unrecovered viruses are not readily disassociated from ZVI by buffers of various pH and ionic strength. These findings warrant further investigation into larger-scale simulations of water remediation of viral contaminants for potential application in the treatment of water used for drinking, irrigation, and food processing.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/virologia , Norovirus , Microbiologia da Água , Purificação da Água , Animais , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Ferro , Alface , Camundongos , Norovirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA