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1.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 58(1): 133-150, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731897

RESUMO

Imaging plays a central role in the evaluation of patients following cardiothoracic surgery, both for monitoring in the early postoperative period and for assessing for suspected complications. Patients with postsurgical complications can develop a range of signs and symptoms, from hypotension and tachycardia, as the result of severe bleeding, to fever and leukocytosis because of infection. The radiologist is an important member of the care team in the postoperative period, helping identify and manage complications of cardiothoracic surgery. This article reviews the common complications of cardiothoracic surgery focusing on the role of imaging and clues to diagnosis.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Radiografia/métodos , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Doenças Vasculares/etiologia
2.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 57(6): 1093-1108, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582037

RESUMO

Acute stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Acute ischemic strokes have been classified according to The Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification system, and this system aids in proper management. Nearly every patient who presents to a hospital with acute stroke symptoms has some form of emergent imaging. As such, imaging plays an important role in early diagnosis and management. This article reviews the imaging patterns of acute strokes, and how the infarct pattern and imaging characteristics can suggest an underlying cause.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Vasculares/complicações , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 57(6): 1117-1131, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582039

RESUMO

Various imaging techniques play a role in the diagnosis of CNS vasculopathies, which comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders, including various noninflammatory and inflammatory etiologies. Noninflammatory vasculopathies include entities such as CADASIL, Susac, moyamoya, fibromuscular dysplasia, vasculopathy of connective tissue disorders, and reversible vasoconstriction syndrome. Inflammatory vasculopathies include vasculitides of different vessel sizes, primary angiitis of the CNS, vasculitis of systemic disease, and vasculitis secondary to specific causes. Miscellaneous etiology includes cerebral amyloid angiopathy, which has noninflammatory and inflammatory subtypes. This article discusses important clinical and imaging findings used to distinguish these disorders.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia
4.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547271

RESUMO

Diosmin is a natural compound with a wide range of biological activity, e.g., it improves lymphatic drainage, supports microcirculation, and increases venous tone, and venous elasticity, hence, it is applied in the pharmacotherapy of chronic venous disorders (CVD). The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between diosmin administration (2 × 600 mg daily) in patients suffering from CVD and the levels of selected factors influencing angiogenesis, which are involved in CVD pathophysiology. Thirty-five CVD patients were examined. Levels of plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A and VEGF-C); angiostatin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2); and plasminogen (PLG) were measured with an Elisa assay before and after three months of diosmin administration. The clinical symptoms of CVD were monitored using ultrasound images, echo Doppler assay, visual analogue scale (VAS), and measurement of the leg circumference. The average content of TNF alpha, VEGF-C, VEGF-A IL-6, and FGF2 decreased after the therapy with diosmin in a significant manner; with p < 0.001, p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01, respectively, and a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the plasma angiostatin level after the three-month treatment was found. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in edema and the average leg circumference of the patients was observed after the therapy. Diosmin influences the angiogenic and inflammatory mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of edema presented in patients with a different class of CVD.


Assuntos
Diosmina/farmacologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Vasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Angiostatinas/sangue , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neovascularização Fisiológica/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Varizes/diagnóstico por imagem , Varizes/tratamento farmacológico , Varizes/fisiopatologia , Doenças Vasculares/sangue , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Veias/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias/fisiopatologia
5.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529421

RESUMO

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection can be caused by a tear in the intima or a bleeding in the wall of a coronary artery. It is a possible cause of acute coronary syndrome and should be suspected in patients with few risk factors for coronary artery disease. The condition is overrepresented in women particularly during the peripartum period. We present a case where a 36-year-old woman, three days after delivering her third child, presented with myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries. She later presented again with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and coronary angiography with optical coherence tomography revealed coronary dissection that was treated with percutaneous coronary intervention.


Assuntos
Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários , Doenças Vasculares/congênito , Adulto , Angiografia Coronária , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Período Periparto , Gravidez , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Cardiovasculares na Gravidez/cirurgia , Fatores de Risco , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Vasculares/cirurgia
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(35): e16612, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464896

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare, complex disease, and nowadays poorly understood. The overall incidence of SCAD ranges from 0.28% to 1.1% in angiographic studies. Therefore, the true incidence of SCAD is most likely underestimated due to asymptomatic or sudden cardiac death before diagnosis. Stent fracture (SF) is a multifactorial issue. Longer vessel remodeled by 2 stents can be more prone to have SF due to higher radial force. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this paper we report a 48-year-old man with chest pain for 2 years. DIAGNOSES: Elective coronary angiography revealed a linear dissection in obtuse marginal branch (OM). INTERVENTIONS: He underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with the guidance of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). OUTCOMES: Then SF was revealed 9 months later. LESSONS: This is the first case report of SF after coronary intervention therapy in SCAD patients.


Assuntos
Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Stents/efeitos adversos , Doenças Vasculares/congênito , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Angiografia Coronária , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Doenças Vasculares/complicações , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Vasculares/cirurgia
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16073, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261518

RESUMO

The present study aims to measure the retinal thickness of the macular region of AIDS patients with normal ocular fundus, HIV-related microvascular retinopathy patients and cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) patients by optical coherence tomography, and generalize the characteristics of retinal thickness of these 3 groups of patients.In this retrospective case series, the study object comprised of 111 AIDS patients who received diagnosis and treatment in the Ophthalmology Department of Beijing Youan Hospital. There are 33 patients in the AIDS normal ocular fundus group, 47 patients in the HIV-related microvascular retinopathy group, and 31 patients in the CMVR group. The retinal thickness of the macular region of these above patients was measured. The main indicators were retinal thickness of 9 macular partitions, best corrected visual acuity, CD4+ T lymphocyte count, and the start of highly active antiretroviral therapy.In the CMVR group, except for the nasal-outer and temporal-outer sectors, the thickness of the affected eye of the rest of the regions was greater than that of healthy eye (P < .05). Furthermore, there was a difference in thickness of the superior-outer and inferior-outer sectors between the AIDS normal ocular fundus group and HIV-related microvascular retinopathy group. The difference in thickness of the superior-inner sector between patients in the AIDS normal ocular fundus group and CMVR group was not statistically significant, while the difference in thickness of the rest of the regions was statistically significant. The difference in thickness of various regions between patients in the HIV-related microvascular retinopathy group and CMVR group was statistically significant.The retinal thickness of patients in the CMVR group generally increased, the retinal thickness of superior-outer and inferior-outer sections of patients in the HIV-related microvascular retinopathy group increased, when compared to the AIDS normal ocular fundus group. These optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination results present its own characteristics in different eye diseases in AIDS patients, and different stages of eye disease.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico por imagem , Macula Lutea/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/complicações , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/patologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Macula Lutea/patologia , Masculino , Microvasos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Doenças Retinianas/complicações , Doenças Retinianas/patologia , Vasos Retinianos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Doenças Vasculares/complicações , Doenças Vasculares/patologia , Acuidade Visual , Adulto Jovem
10.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 60: 128-146, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonatherosclerotic abdominal arterial vasculopathies (NAVs), including mesenteric or renal artery dissection, aneurysm, stenosis, and vasculitis, are rare but have great clinical significance. Patients may present emergently with life-threatening complications such as arterial rupture and hemorrhagic shock. Herein, we present our center's experience with NAVs and provide extensive literature review to close the gap in the scarce, related literature. METHODS: From a single-center retrospective data analysis, we identified and characterized subjects (aged 18-60 years) who presented with NAV between January 2000 and December 2015. Of the 1416 charts reviewed, 118 met inclusion criteria. RESULTS: The average age of patients with NAV was 47.0 ± 9.9 years, mostly affecting women (64%). Primary diagnoses included fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) (25.4%), isolated aneurysms (24.6%), and median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) (15.3%). Less common diagnoses were localized vasculitis of the gastrointestinal tract (LVGT) (7.6%), isolated dissection (5.1%), microscopic polyangiitis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (5.1%), trauma (4.2%), segmental arterial mediolysis (4.2%), Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (2.5%), Takayasu's arteritis (2.5%), polyarteritis nodosa (1.7%), idiopathic abdominal aortitis (0.8%), and Loeys-Dietz syndrome (0.8%). Females constituted 90% of patients with FMD, 77.8% with MALS, 77.8% with isolated aneurysms, 66.7% with Takayasu arteritis, and 55.6% with LVGT. Prevalent comorbidities included tobacco use (43.6%) and hypertension (52.1%). Coil embolization was used in 14.4%, anticoagulation in 11.9%, angioplasty/stenting in 11.9%, open resection/surgical revascularization in 10.2%, and prednisone in 10.2% of the cases. Conservative management was pursued in 33.1% of the patients. A high degree of symptom relief was shown in 91.7%. CONCLUSIONS: NAV are rare and can be caused by different etiologies that primarily affect females. Hypertension and tobacco use were prevalent. Various imaging strategies revealed aneurysms, stenosis, dissection, and/or thrombosis affecting renal and celiac arteries. Most patients improved with conservative, medical, endovascular, or surgical approach. More research is needed to standardize management approach to patients with NAV.


Assuntos
Abdome/irrigação sanguínea , Doenças Vasculares , Adolescente , Adulto , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Vasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/terapia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Life Sci Alliance ; 2(3)2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221625

RESUMO

STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI) is an autoinflammatory disorder characterized by blood vessel occlusions, acral necrosis, myositis, rashes, and pulmonary inflammation that are the result of activating mutations in the STimulator of Interferon Genes (STING). We generated a transgenic line that recapitulates many of the phenotypic aspects of SAVI by targeting the expression of the human STING-N154S-mutant protein to the murine hematopoietic compartment. hSTING-N154S mice demonstrated failure to gain weight, lymphopenia, progressive paw swelling accompanied by inflammatory infiltrates, severe myositis, and ear and tail necrosis. However, no significant lung inflammation was observed. X-ray microscopy imaging revealed vasculopathy characterized by arteriole occlusions and venous thromboses. Type I interferons and proinflammatory mediators were elevated in hSTING-N154S sera. Importantly, the phenotype was prevented in hSTING-N154S mice lacking the type I interferon receptor gene (Ifnar1). This model, based on a mutant human STING protein, may shed light on the pathophysiological mechanisms operative in SAVI.


Assuntos
Células Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/genética , Doenças Vasculares/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores , Citocinas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfopenia/genética , Linfopenia/metabolismo , Linfopenia/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Imagem Molecular , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fenótipo , Receptor de Interferon alfa e beta/metabolismo , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Vasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Vasculares/patologia
12.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(2): eAO4526, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of the radiofrequency thermoablation of the saphenous vein with the ligation technique, and complete removal of the saphenous vein, from the saphenofemoral junction to the ankle. METHODS: A total of 49 patients with chronic venous disease in the Comprehensive Classification System for Chronic Venous Disorders (CEAP) classes 2 to 4 for clinical signs, etiology, anatomic distribution and pathophysiology, were assessed at baseline, after 4 weeks, and after 1 year. The parameters assessed were complications, period of absence from activities, Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS) and quality of life scores according to Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire (AVVQ). They were re-examined 1 and 3 years after treatment to evaluate recurrence rates. RESULTS: The success rate per limb (p=0.540), VCSS (p=0.636), AVVQ (p=0.163), and clinical complications were similar in the two treatment groups. Nevertheless, the radiofrequency thermoablation group had significant shorter length of hospital stay (0.69±0.47) and absence from activities (8.62±4.53), p<000.1. CONCLUSION: Patients submitted to radiofrequency thermoablation had an occlusion rate, clinical recurrence and improvement in quality of life comparable to removal of the saphenous vein. However, these patients spent less time hospitalized and away from their daily activities during recovering.


Assuntos
Ablação por Radiofrequência/métodos , Veia Safena/cirurgia , Doenças Vasculares/cirurgia , Absenteísmo , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Ligadura/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Recidiva , Veia Safena/diagnóstico por imagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
14.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 59: 225-230, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central venous occlusion may occur in hemodialysis patients, resulting in arm or facial swelling and failure of dialysis access. Endovascular management with balloon angioplasty or stenting has been described, but there are minimal data on the use of covered stents in this pathology. We sought to review a single institution's experience with the use of covered stents for central venous occlusive disease in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients undergoing placement of covered stents between April 2014 and December 2016 for central venous occlusive disease to preserve a failing dialysis access was performed. Patients' records were reviewed to identify demographics, medical comorbidities, operative variables, primary patency rates, and secondary interventions. RESULTS: A total of 29 patients were included in the analysis. Viabahn (W.L. Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, AZ) stent grafts were exclusively used in all patients. Technical success rate was 100%. The patients were predominantly female (65.5%), with a mean age of 67.9 ± 12.1 and medical comorbidities of hypertension (86%), diabetes (76%), and tobacco use (7%). The majority (86%) had prior angioplasty and 17 of 29 (59%) patients had previous central venous catheters. The right brachiocephalic vein was the most commonly stented vessel (28%). The median stent length and diameter used were 50 millimeters (range 25-100 millimeters) and 13 millimeters (range: 9-13 millimeters), respectively. The majority of patients (83%) received a single stent, with only 2 patients requiring more than one. Median follow-up was 24 months (range: 6-41 months). Four of 29 (13.8%) patients developed symptomatic stent restenosis requiring secondary intervention, all of which occurred in patients with primary stenosis between 50% and 75%. When compared to the patients without restenosis, longer stents were found to be significantly associated with restenosis (62.5 centimeters, interquartile range [IQR]: 0] vs. 50 centimeter, IQR: 0, P = 0.002). Primary patency rates were 92.9%, 91.7%, and 80.0% at 6, 12, and 24 months respectively. Secondary patency rates were 96.4%, 95.8%, and 93.3% at 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months, respectively. The overall primary patency rate was estimated at 86.2% using Kaplan-Meier analysis at 30.5 months (95% confidence interval: 26.5-34.5 months). CONCLUSIONS: Covered stent grafts have reasonable primary patency and excellent secondary patency when used for central venous stenosis in dialysis patients. Stent-graft length is associated with poorer long-term patency rates.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Prótese Vascular , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/etiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Diálise Renal , Stents , Doenças Vasculares/cirurgia , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Constrição Patológica , Feminino , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Oclusão de Enxerto Vascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desenho de Prótese , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Vasculares/etiologia , Doenças Vasculares/fisiopatologia
15.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(11): 1812-1815, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948002

RESUMO

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an important cause of myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death, particularly in young to middle-aged women. Coronary vasospasm is another condition believed to be associated with SCAD; however, this has only been shown in isolated case reports to date. We sought to examine the association of SCAD and coronary vasospasm by reporting the experience of coronary vasospasm testing in patients with a history of previous SCAD in a large, tertiary referral center. We conducted a single-center retrospective review of patients with history of SCAD confirmed by angiography who received provocative testing using ergonovine in the Cleveland Clinic cardiac catheterization lab from January 1990 to December 2016. Positive vasospasm was defined as: (1) total or subtotal occlusion of at least 1 major coronary artery induced by administration of ergonovine and (2) resolution of said occlusion with the administration of nitrates. Patients with history of strong trauma to the chest and iatrogenic dissection (e.g., catheter-induced) were excluded from the study. We identified 11 patients who satisfied all inclusion criteria. All participants were women and the mean age was 47 years: 73% received screening for fibromuscular dysplasia and of those, 38% were found to have the diagnosis. Only 1 of 11 patients had a positive vasospasm test in the setting of ergonovine administration in the catheterization lab. In conclusion, we found a low prevalence of coronary vasospasm in individuals with confirmed previous SCAD.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária , Vasoespasmo Coronário/epidemiologia , Vasoespasmo Coronário/etiologia , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/complicações , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Vasculares/congênito , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Vasculares/complicações , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Semin Ultrasound CT MR ; 40(2): 157-171, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030739

RESUMO

Nontraumatic vascular emergencies of the head and neck are uncommon, but can occur in patients with central venous catheters, head and neck infections, and in patients with head and neck cancer. Recognizing the imaging findings of vascular complications in these patient populations is critically important to ensure expeditious treatment to avoid significant morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Emergências , Humanos , Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem
17.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 55(1): 59-62, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggested that the visceral fat could exert a predictive role in the pathogenesis of dementia. The aims of the present study were to evaluate: i) possible differences between groups with different epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness on the included variables; ii) the possible predictive role of the EAT levels on cognitive functioning. METHODS: 65 community-dwelling subjects were enrolled and divided into two groups: EAT < 7 mm (n = 36); EAT > 7 mm (n = 29). The metabolic profile was assessed through the evaluation of the biochemical parameters whereas the EAT thickness was measured through the transthoracic echocardiography. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) was also administered. RESULTS: The two EAT groups reported several significant differences, included on the MMSE scores. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that the EAT thickness levels and the hypertension had a predictive effect on the MMSE scores. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings support the association between EAT thickness levels and cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/anatomia & histologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Pericárdio/anatomia & histologia , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/psicologia , Vida Independente , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pericárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Vasculares/epidemiologia
18.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(11): 1783-1787, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929769

RESUMO

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is increasingly being recognized. However, data supporting diagnosis and management are scarce. We analyze a contemporary and comprehensive SCAD registry to advance the understanding of SCAD risk factors, angiographic appearance, and gender differences. This is a retrospective analysis of a prospectively populated database of SCAD patients seen at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) between June 2013 and October 2017. Core laboratory analysis of both coronary angiograms and computerized tomographic (CT) angiography of the extracoronary vessels was performed. Of the 113 patients, 87% were female and mean age was 47 ± 10 years. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and smoking were present in 27%, 14%, and 22% of patients. Among females, 14%, 8%, and 9% had a history of gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia, and gestational diabetes, respectively. Fifteen percent had used fertility treatment and 47% of postmenopausal women had used hormone replacement therapy. Angiography showed multivessel SCAD in 42%, severe coronary artery tortuosity in 59%, and extracoronary vascular abnormalities in 100% of patients with complete CT angiographic imaging. Gender differences revealed a self-reported depression and anxiety prevalence of 20% and 32%, respectively, in women compared with 0% in men. Type 1 SCAD was more commonly diagnosed in men than women (71% vs 29%, p <0.01). In conclusion, we highlight under-recognized features of SCAD including (1) relation with pregnancy complications and exposure to hormonal therapy; (2) diffuse, multivessel process in tortuous coronaries on a background of extracoronary arterial abnormalities; and (3) gender differences highlighting the role of mental health as well as potential underdiagnoses in men.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/congênito , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Vasculares/epidemiologia
19.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 17(4): 275-291, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957570

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) accounts for up to 4% of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) on coronary angiography and predominantly affects women (>90%). SCAD most often occurs in patients with few or no conventional cardiovascular risk factors. This condition remains underdiagnosed due to a lack of awareness among health-care providers and misdiagnosis on coronary angiography. Areas covered: In this review, authors aim to summarize contemporary data on the etiology, morbidity and mortality risks, as well as management strategies in order to raise awareness. Expert opinion: The last decade of extensive research revealed that SCAD is not as rare as previously thought and needs to be in the differential diagnosis of all MI patients, especially in young to middle-aged women. Predisposing factors, such as fibromuscular dysplasia, and potential triggers like physical or emotional stresses, are frequently linked. Coronary angiography is the first-line diagnostic tool and should be performed meticulously because of more fragile vessel architecture to avoid iatrogenic dissections. If angiographic findings are uncertain, the use of intravascular imaging may be required. Conservative therapy is favored over revascularization unless patients have high-risk features. Recurrent cardiovascular events post-SCAD are frequent, and patients should be closely monitored after a SCAD event.


Assuntos
Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/complicações , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/terapia , Doenças Vasculares/congênito , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/etiologia , Angiografia Coronária , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Displasia Fibromuscular/complicações , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Vasculares/complicações , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Vasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/terapia
20.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 21(1): 17, 2019 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although cardiovascular magnetic resonance venography (CMRV) is generally regarded as the technique of choice for imaging the central veins, conventional CMRV is not ideal. Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA) are less suited to steady state venous imaging than to first pass arterial imaging and they may be contraindicated in patients with renal impairment where evaluation of venous anatomy is frequently required. We aim to evaluate the diagnostic performance of 3-dimensional (3D) ferumoxytol-enhanced CMRV (FE-CMRV) for suspected central venous occlusion in patients with renal failure and to assess its clinical impact on patient management. METHODS: In this IRB-approved and HIPAA-compliant study, 52 consecutive adult patients (47 years, IQR 32-61; 29 male) with renal impairment and suspected venous occlusion underwent FE-CMRV, following infusion of ferumoxytol. Breath-held, high resolution, 3D steady state FE-CMRV was performed through the chest, abdomen and pelvis. Two blinded reviewers independently scored twenty-one named venous segments for quality and patency. Correlative catheter venography in 14 patients was used as the reference standard for diagnostic accuracy. Retrospective chart review was conducted to determine clinical impact of FE-CMRV. Interobserver agreement was determined using Gwet's AC1 statistic. RESULTS: All patients underwent technically successful FE-CMRV without any adverse events. 99.5% (1033/1038) of venous segments were of diagnostic quality (score ≥ 2/4) with very good interobserver agreement (AC1 = 0.91). Interobserver agreement for venous occlusion was also very good (AC1 = 0.93). The overall accuracy of FE-CMRV compared to catheter venography was perfect (100.0%). No additional imaging was required prior to a clinical management decision in any of the 52 patients. Twenty-four successful and uncomplicated venous interventions were carried out following pre-procedural vascular mapping with FE-CMRV. CONCLUSIONS: 3D FE-CMRV is a practical, accurate and robust technique for high-resolution mapping of central thoracic, abdominal and pelvic veins and can be used to inform image-guided therapy. It may play a pivotal role in the care of patients in whom conventional contrast agents may be contraindicated or ineffective.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/administração & dosagem , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Flebografia/métodos , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Constrição Patológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Vasculares/complicações , Doenças Vasculares/terapia
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