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1.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2070-2083, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762445

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence suggests that C3aR (C3a anaphylatoxin receptor) signaling has protective roles in various inflammatory-related diseases. However, its role in atherosclerosis has been unknown. The purpose of the study was to investigate the possible protective role of C3aR in aortic atherosclerosis and explore molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the protection. Approach and Results: C3ar-/-/Apoe-/- mice were generated by cross-breeding of atherosclerosis-prone Apoe-/- mice and C3ar-/- mice. C3ar-/-/Apoe-/- mice and Apoe-/- mice (as a control) underwent high-fat diet for 16 weeks were assessed for (1) atherosclerotic plaque burden, (2) aortic tissue inflammation, (3) recruitment of CD11b+ leukocytes into atherosclerotic lesions, and (4) systemic inflammatory responses. Compared with Apoe-/- mice, C3ar-/-/Apoe-/- mice developed more severe atherosclerosis. In addition, C3ar-/-/Apoe-/- mice have increased local production of proinflammatory mediators (eg, CCL2 [chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2], TNF [tumor necrosis factor]-α) and infiltration of monocyte/macrophage in aortic tissue, and their lesional macrophages displayed an M1-like phenotype. Local pathological changes were associated with enhanced systemic inflammatory responses (ie, elevated plasma levels of CCL2 and TNF-α, increased circulating inflammatory cells). In vitro analyses using peritoneal macrophages showed that C3a stimulation resulted in upregulation of M2-associated signaling and molecules, but suppression of M1-associated signaling and molecules, supporting the roles of C3a/C3aR axis in mediating anti-inflammatory response and promoting M2 macrophage polarization. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate a protective role for C3aR in the development of atherosclerosis and suggest that C3aR confers the protection through C3a/C3aR axis-mediated negative regulation of proinflammatory responses and modulation of macrophage toward the anti-inflammatory phenotype.


Assuntos
Aorta/metabolismo , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/imunologia , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/imunologia , Doenças da Aorta/metabolismo , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Quimiocina CCL2/metabolismo , Quimiotaxia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos Peritoneais/imunologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Placa Aterosclerótica , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/deficiência , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
2.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 133-134: 106777, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750408

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a systemic chronic inflammatory disease. Many antioxidants including alpha-lipoic acid (LA), a product of lipoic acid synthase (Lias), have proven to be effective for treatment of this disease. However, the question remains whether LA regulates the immune response as a protective mechanism against atherosclerosis. We initially investigated whether enhanced endogenous antioxidant can retard the development of atherosclerosis via immunomodulation. To explore the impact of enhanced endogenous antioxidant on the retardation of atherosclerosis via immune regulation, our laboratory has recently created a double mutant mouse model, using apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice crossbred with mice overexpressing lipoic acid synthase gene (LiasH/H), designated as LiasH/HApoe-/- mice. Their littermates, Lias+/+Apoe-/- mice, served as a control. Distinct redox environments between the two strains of mice have been established and they can be used to facilitate identification of antioxidant targets in the immune response. At 6 months of age, LiasH/HApoe-/- mice had profoundly decreased atherosclerotic lesion size in the aortic sinus compared to their Lias+/+Apoe-/- littermates, accompanied by significantly enhanced numbers of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and anti-oxidized LDL autoantibody in the vascular system, and reduced T cell infiltrates in aortic walls. Our results represent a novel exploration into an environment with increased endogenous antioxidant and its ability to alleviate atherosclerosis, likely through regulation of the immune response. These outcomes shed light on a new therapeutic strategy using antioxidants to lessen atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aorta/enzimologia , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Placa Aterosclerótica , Sulfurtransferases/biossíntese , Animais , Aorta/imunologia , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/enzimologia , Doenças da Aorta/imunologia , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/enzimologia , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Indução Enzimática , Lipoproteínas LDL/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Sulfurtransferases/genética , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
3.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2095-2107, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Apo (apolipoprotein) CIII mediates the metabolism of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. High levels of plasma apoCIII are positively correlated with the plasma TG levels and increase the cardiovascular risk. However, whether apoCIII is directly involved in the development of atherosclerosis has not been fully elucidated. Approach and Results: To examine the possible roles of apoCIII in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis, we generated apoCIII KO (knockout) rabbits using ZFN (zinc finger nuclease) technique. On a normal standard diet, apoCIII KO rabbits exhibited significantly lower plasma levels of TG than those of WT (wild type) rabbits while total cholesterol and HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels were unchanged. Analysis of lipoproteins isolated by sequential ultracentrifugation revealed that reduced plasma TG levels in KO rabbits were accompanied by prominent reduction of VLDLs (very-low-density lipoproteins) and IDLs (intermediate-density lipoproteins). In addition, KO rabbits showed faster TG clearance rate after intravenous fat load than WT rabbits. On a cholesterol-rich diet, KO rabbits exhibited constantly and significantly lower levels of plasma total cholesterol and TG than WT rabbits, which was caused by a remarkable reduction of ß-VLDLs-the major atherogenic lipoproteins. ß-VLDLs of KO rabbits showed higher uptake by cultured hepatocytes and were cleared faster from the circulation than ß-VLDLs isolated from WT rabbits. Both aortic and coronary atherosclerosis was significantly reduced in KO rabbits compared with WT rabbits. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that apoCIII deficiency facilitates TG-rich lipoprotein catabolism, and therapeutic inhibition of apoCIII expression may become a novel means not only for the treatment of hyperlipidemia but also for atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Apolipoproteína C-III/deficiência , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Doenças da Aorta/genética , Doenças da Aorta/metabolismo , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Apolipoproteína C-III/genética , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , VLDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipoproteínas IDL/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Oxirredução , Placa Aterosclerótica , Coelhos
4.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(10): 2481-2493, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847390

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: HDL (high-density lipoprotein) role in atherosclerosis is controversial. Clinical trials with CETP (cholesterylester transfer protein)-inhibitors have not provided benefit. We have shown that HDL remodeling in hypercholesterolemia reduces HDL cardioprotective potential. We aimed to assess whether hypercholesterolemia affects HDL-induced atherosclerotic plaque regression. Approach and Results: Atherosclerosis was induced in New Zealand White rabbits for 3-months by combining a high-fat-diet and double-balloon aortic denudation. Then, animals underwent magnetic resonance imaging (basal plaque) and randomized to receive 4 IV infusions (1 infusion/wk) of HDL isolated from normocholesterolemic (NC-HDL; 75 mg/kg; n=10), hypercholesterolemic (HC-HDL; 75 mg/Kg; n=10), or vehicle (n=10) rabbits. Then, animals underwent a second magnetic resonance imaging (end plaque). Blood, aorta, and liver samples were obtained for analyses. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed that NC-HDL administration regressed atherosclerotic lesions by 4.3%, whereas, conversely, the administration of HC-HDLs induced a further 6.5% progression (P<0.05 versus basal). Plaque characterization showed that HC-HDL administered animals had a 2-fold higher lipid and cholesterol content versus those infused NC-HDL and vehicle (P<0.05). No differences were observed among groups in CD31 levels, nor in infiltrated macrophages or smooth muscle cells. Plaques from HC-HDL administered animals exhibited higher Casp3 (caspase 3) content (P<0.05 versus vehicle and NC-HDL) whereas plaques from NC-HDL infused animals showed lower expression of Casp3, Cox1 (cyclooxygenase 1), inducible nitric oxide synthase, and MMP (metalloproteinase) activity (P<0.05 versus HC-HDL and vehicle). HDLs isolated from animals administered HC-HDL displayed lower antioxidant potential and cholesterol efflux capacity as compared with HDLs isolated from NC-HDL-infused animal and vehicle or donor HDL (P<0.05). There were no differences in HDL-ApoA1 content, ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) vascular expression, and SRB1 (scavenger receptor B1) and ABCA1 liver expression. CONCLUSIONS: HDL particles isolated from a hypercholesterolemic milieu lose their ability to regress and stabilize atherosclerotic lesions. Our data suggest that HDL remodeling in patients with co-morbidities may lead to the loss of HDL atheroprotective functions.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Aorta Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , HDL-Colesterol/administração & dosagem , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Placa Aterosclerótica , Animais , Anticolesterolemiantes/toxicidade , Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Abdominal/metabolismo , Doenças da Aorta/sangue , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/etiologia , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/complicações , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Coelhos
5.
Am J Cardiol ; 128: 101-106, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650901

RESUMO

The Marfan syndrome (MFS) patients are highly predisposed to thoracic aortic aneurysm and/or dissection, with virtually every patient having evidence of aortic disease at some point during their lifetime. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in slowing down the progression of aortic dilatation in MFS patients. PUBMED, EMBASE, and COCHRANE databases were searched for relevant articles published from inception to February 1, 2020. We included randomized clinical trials evaluating the effect of ARBs on aortic root size in patients with MFS with a follow-up period of at least 2.5 years. Seven studies were included with a total of 1,510 patients. Our analysis demonstrated a significantly smaller change in aortic root and ascending aorta dilation in the ARBs treated group when compared with placebo (mean difference 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.31 to -0.04; p = 0.04, I2 = 94%, and mean difference -0.13, 95% CI -0.17 to -0.09; p < 0.00001, I2 = 0%, respectively). ARBs as an add-on therapy to beta-blockers resulted in a significantly smaller change in aortic root dilation when compared with the arm without ARBs (mean difference -2.06, 95% CI -2.54 to -1.58; p < 0.00001, I2 = 91%). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the number of clinical events (aortic complications/surgery) observed in the ARBs arm when compared with placebo (Risk ratio of 1.01, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.38; p = 0.94, I2 = 0%). In conclusion, ARBs therapy is associated with a slower progression of aortic root dilation when compared with placebo and as an addition to beta-blocker therapy.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso terapêutico , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Marfan/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/etiologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/prevenção & controle , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/etiologia , Dilatação Patológica/diagnóstico por imagem , Dilatação Patológica/etiologia , Dilatação Patológica/prevenção & controle , Progressão da Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ecocardiografia , Humanos , Irbesartana/uso terapêutico , Losartan/uso terapêutico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Síndrome de Marfan/complicações
6.
J Card Surg ; 35(8): 1811-1821, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether uncomplicated type A intramural hematoma (IMHA) patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) who underwent a "wait-and-watch strategy" and tight glycemic control had similar clinical outcomes as patients without DM who received the same treatment strategy. METHODS: Between January 2010 and December 2016, uncomplicated IMHA patients with and without diabetes mellitus were included and were propensity score-matched to improve the balance between the two groups. Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to identify the specific factors associated with aorta-related mortality. The Fine-Gray model for the competing risk analysis was used to estimate the aorta-related and nonaorta-related mortality in different groups during the follow-up period. RESULTS: A total of 109 IMHA patients were included in this study, and 66 patients were included after matching. Patients without DM experienced significantly more aorta-related adverse events (51.6% vs 13.3%; P = .001) and reinterventions than patients in the DM group (29.0% vs 6.7%; P = .023). Cox regression analysis revealed that a higher matrix metalloproteinase-9 level (hazard ratio [HR], 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-2.09; P < .001) and larger maximum aortic diameter (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.11-1.80; P = .005) were associated with higher aorta-related mortality. The competing risk analysis revealed a significantly higher aorta-related mortality during the follow-up period in the no DM group than in the DM group (36.4%; 95% CI, 11.6%-82.3%; P = .0294). CONCLUSIONS: Uncomplicated IMHA patients with DM (receiving the "wait-and-watch strategy" and tight glycemic control) may have lower aorta-related mortality and rates of aorta-related adverse events and reinterventions than the no DM group.


Assuntos
Doenças da Aorta/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Hematoma/complicações , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/mortalidade , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Seguimentos , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco
7.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 318(5): F1188-F1198, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249611

RESUMO

Caloric restriction (CR) is known to have multiple beneficial effects on health and longevity. To study the effect of CR on phosphorus metabolism and vascular calcification (VC), rats were fed normal or restricted calories (67% of normal). The phosphorus content of the diets was adjusted to provide equal phosphorus intake independent of the calories ingested. After 50 days of CR, rats had negative phosphorus balance, lower plasma phosphorus, glucose, triglycerides, and leptin, and higher adiponectin than rats fed normal calories. Uremia was induced by 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx). After Nx, rats were treated with calcitriol (80 ng/kg ip every other day) and high-phosphorus diets (1.2% and 1.8%). No differences in aortic calcium content were observed between rats that ate normal or restricted calories before Nx in either rats that received 1.2% phosphorus (11.5 ± 1.7 vs. 10.9 ± 2.1 mg/g tissue) or in rats that received 1.8% phosphorus (12.5 ± 2.3 vs. 12.0 ± 2.9 mg/g of tissue). However, mortality was significantly increased in rats subjected to CR before Nx in both the 1.2% phosphorus groups (75% vs. 25%, P = 0.019) and 1.8% phosphorus groups (100% vs. 45%, P < 0.001). After calcitriol administration was stopped and phosphorus intake was normalized, VC regressed rapidly, but no significant differences in aortic calcium were detected between rats that ate normal or restricted calories during the regression phase (5.7 ± 2.7 and 5.2 ± 1.5 mg/g tissue). In conclusion, CR did not prevent or ameliorate VC and increased mortality in uremic rats.


Assuntos
Aorta/metabolismo , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Restrição Calórica , Rim/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Uremia/dietoterapia , Calcificação Vascular/prevenção & controle , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/etiologia , Doenças da Aorta/metabolismo , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Calcitriol , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefrectomia , Ratos Wistar , Fatores de Tempo , Uremia/etiologia , Uremia/metabolismo , Calcificação Vascular/etiologia , Calcificação Vascular/metabolismo , Calcificação Vascular/patologia
8.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 2020: 1926249, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328171

RESUMO

Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) is a flavonoid isolated mainly from the licorice plant, a traditional Chinese herb. ISL has shown anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities. However, the pharmaceutical effects of ISL on atherosclerosis are seldom explored. In this study, we used apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mouse model and angiotensin II- (Ang II-) stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to elucidate the pharmacological mechanism of ISL to inhibit atherosclerosis. We found that in ApoE-/- mice ISL could attenuate atherosclerotic lesion, reduce serum lipid levels, and inhibit TRPC5 expression. In vitro, ISL inhibited Ang II-stimulated proliferation of VSMCs and suppressed Ang II-induced TRPC5 and PCNA expressions in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, our findings provide novel insight into the pharmacological effects of ISL on atherosclerosis and suggest that ISL is beneficial for cardiovascular protection.


Assuntos
Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Chalconas/farmacologia , Placa Aterosclerótica , Canais de Cátion TRPC/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/genética , Doenças da Aorta/metabolismo , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Lipídeos/sangue , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/genética , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Canais de Cátion TRPC/metabolismo
9.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 133, 2020 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated that the JAK/STAT signaling pathway is involved in modulating arterial adventitia inflammation response. In this study, we designed experiments to further investigate the effect of JAK2/STAT3/SOCS3 signaling in rabbit atherosclerosis process. METHODS: Atherosclerosis was induced in the abdominal arteries of rabbits by balloon injury of the aorta supplemented by the atherogenic diet. Simultaneously, in the process of atherosclerosis, animals underwent either ruxolitinib treatment or not for 12 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, all rabbits were sacrificed. The plaque areas in abdominal artery, the lipid burden of plaque and the calcium burden of plaque were detected by H&E staining, Oil Red O staining and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. In addition, rabbit plasma lipids and inflammatory cytokines were measured by biochemical test kits or ELISA kits. Finally, the expression and phosphorylation levels of JAK2/STAT3/SOCS3 pathway-related proteins were detected by RT-qPCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry assays. RESULTS: H&E staining and CT scan analysis showed that rabbit atherosclerosis model was constructed successfully. Ruxolitinib, an inhibitor of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), substantially reduced the area of atherosclerotic plaques in rabbits treated with high fat diet and balloon injury of the aorta. Moreover, ruxolitinib significantly decreased IL-6, IL-1ß, IFN-γ and TNF-α, but increased IL-10 and IL-17 levels in plasma of atherosclerotic rabbits. Additionally, ruxolitinib reduced plasma TC, TG and LDL-C contents and AIP value, while enhanced HDL-C level in atherosclerotic rabbits. Furthermore, we found that JAK2 and STAT3 phosphorylation were up-regulated in rabbits with atherosclerosis when compared with those of the control group, followed by the expression of SOCS3 was also increased due to the activation of JAK2 and STAT3. Interestingly, ruxolitinib could inactivate JAK2 and STAT3 pathway and decrease SOCS3 expression. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the inhibition of JAK2/STAT3/SOCS3 signaling pathway may be a novel method for the clinical treatment of artery atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Janus Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/farmacologia , Placa Aterosclerótica , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Proteína 3 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocinas/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta Abdominal/enzimologia , Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/sangue , Doenças da Aorta/enzimologia , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/enzimologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Fosforilação , Coelhos , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Vascular ; 28(4): 465-474, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Calcification serves as a surrogate for atherosclerosis-associated vascular diseases, and coronary artery calcification is mediated by multiple pathogenic factors. Estrogen is a known factor that protects the arterial wall against atherosclerosis, but its role in the coronary artery calcification development remains largely unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that estrogen inhibits coronary artery calcification via the hypoxia-induced factor-1α pathway. METHODS: Eight-week-old healthy female Sprague-Dawley rats were castrated, and vitamin D3 was administered orally to establish. Hypoxia-induced factor-1 inhibitor was administered to test its effect on vascular calcification and expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and runt-related transcription factor-2. Vascular smooth muscle cell calcification was induced with CaCl2 in rat aortic smooth muscle cells in the presence or absence of E2(17ß-estradiol) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 siRNA intervention. RESULTS: The estrogen levels in ovariectomized rats were significantly decreased, as determined by ELISA. Expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1α mRNA and protein was significantly increased in vascular cells with calcification as compared to those without calcification (p < 0.01). E2 treatment decreased the calcium concentration in vascular cell calcification and cell calcium nodules in vitro (p < 0.05). E2 also lowered the levels of hypoxia-induced factor-1α mRNA and protein (p < 0.01). Oral administration of the hypoxia-induced factor-1α inhibitor dimethyloxetane in castrated rats alleviated vascular calcification and expression of osteogenesis-related transcription factors, bone morphogenetic protein 2 and RUNX2 (p < 0.01). Finally, bone morphogenetic protein 2 siRNA treatment decreased the levels of p-Smad1/5/8 in A7r5 calcification cells (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Estrogen deficiency enhances vascular calcification. Treatment with estrogen reduces the expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1α as well as vascular calcification in rats. The estrogen effects occur in a fashion dependent on hypoxia-induced factor-1α regulation of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and downstream Smad1/5/8.


Assuntos
Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Estradiol/farmacologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Calcificação Vascular/prevenção & controle , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/genética , Doenças da Aorta/metabolismo , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Ovariectomia , Fosforilação , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Smad Reguladas por Receptor/metabolismo , Calcificação Vascular/genética , Calcificação Vascular/metabolismo , Calcificação Vascular/patologia
11.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 34(2): 145-152, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increased myelopoiesis has been linked to risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACD). Excessive myelopoiesis can be driven by dyslipidemia and cholesterol accumulation in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) and may involve increased signaling via Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). Constitutively activating JAK2 mutants drive biased myelopoiesis and promote development of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) or clonal hematopoiesis, conditions associated with increased risk of ACD. JAK2 inhibitors have been developed as a therapy for MPNs. The potential for JAK2 inhibitors to protect against atherosclerosis has not been tested. We therefore assessed the impact of JAK2 inhibition on atherogenesis. METHODS: A selective JAK2 inhibitor TG101348 (fedratinib) or vehicle was given to high-fat high-cholesterol Western diet (WD)-fed wild-type (WT) or Apoe-/- mice. Hematopoietic cell profiles, cell proliferation, and atherosclerosis in WT or Apoe-/- mice were assessed. RESULTS: TG101348 selectively reversed neutrophilia, monocytosis, HSPC, and granulocyte-macrophage progenitor (GMP) expansion in Apoe-/- mice with decreased cellular phosphorylated STAT5 and ERK1/2 and reduced cell cycling and BrdU incorporation in HSPCs, indicating inhibition of JAK/STAT signaling and cell proliferation. Ten-week WD feeding allowed the development of marked aortic atherosclerosis in Apoe-/- mice which was substantially reduced by TG101348. CONCLUSIONS: Selective JAK2 inhibition reduces atherogenesis by suppressing excessive myelopoiesis in hypercholesterolemic Apoe-/- mice. These findings suggest selective JAK2 inhibition as a potential therapeutic approach to decrease ACD risk in patients with increased myelopoiesis and leukocytosis.


Assuntos
Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Janus Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/farmacologia , Mielopoese/efeitos dos fármacos , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta/enzimologia , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/enzimologia , Doenças da Aorta/genética , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/enzimologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/enzimologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/patologia , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Leucocitose/enzimologia , Leucocitose/prevenção & controle , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Placa Aterosclerótica , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Cardiovasc J Afr ; 31(4): 81-90, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) is an indigenous South African plant, traditionally used by the local population as a remedy against several ailments. More recently, rooibos was shown to exhibit potent antioxidant properties, attributed to its polyphenols. We assessed whether treatment with fermented rooibos (RF), unfermented rooibos (RUF) and melatonin (Mel), a well-documented antioxidant included for comparison, could counter the harmful vascular and pro-oxidant effects of nicotine. METHODS: Vascular function, antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation were assessed in male adult rats treated with nicotine (5 mg/kg body weight/day) and 2% RF, 2% RUF or 4% Mel co-administration. Nitric oxide (NO) production and cell viability were measured in nicotine-exposed rat aortic endothelial cells (AECs) pre-treated with RF (0.015 mg/ml). RESULTS: Vascular studies showed that co-administration with RF or Mel exerted anti-contractile and pro-relaxation responses in aortic rings, and increased hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in nicotine-exposed animals. Co-treatment with Mel additionally decreased lipid peroxidation in nicotine-exposed rats. RUF exerted anti-contractile responses in aortic rings of nicotine-treated animals, while in nicotine-exposed AECs, RF pre-treatment increased intracellular NO levels. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we have shown that rooibos co-treatment exerted beneficial vascular effects in nicotine-exposed rats, and that this was associated with increased antioxidant enzyme activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Aspalathus , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Doenças da Aorta/induzido quimicamente , Doenças da Aorta/metabolismo , Doenças da Aorta/fisiopatologia , Aspalathus/química , Catalase/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Melatonina/farmacologia , Nicotina , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
13.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol ; 75(4): 321-332, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895870

RESUMO

Artemisinin is an endoperoxide sesquiterpene lactone from Artemisia annua L with multiple beneficial effects, including anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and vascular protection. Recent studies have found that inflammation along with autophagy deficiency in macrophages is the possible reason for foam cell accumulation in the intima, which leads to atherosclerotic plaque formation. The primary aims of this study were to explore the inhibiting effect of artemisinin on atherosclerosis in high-fat diet-fed ApoE mice and investigate the probable mechanism. Artemisinin (50 and 100 mg/kg, intragastric administration) treatment effectively inhibited foamy macrophage transformation and decreased atherosclerotic plaque formation in atherosclerotic mice. Moreover, artemisinin promoted AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and uncoordinated-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) phosphorylation, and increased LC-3II accumulation and P62 degradation, thereby enhancing macrophage autophagy. Besides, the inhibiting effect of artemisinin on mTOR and ULK1 phosphorylation could be abrogated by AMPK knockdown, suggesting AMPK was the essential target of artemisinin on promoting macrophage autophagy. Our study indicated that artemisinin alleviated atherosclerotic lesions by accelerating macrophage autophagy through the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 pathway.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Espumosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/enzimologia , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/enzimologia , Doenças da Aorta/genética , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/enzimologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Proteína Homóloga à Proteína-1 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Espumosas/enzimologia , Células Espumosas/patologia , Lipoproteínas LDL/toxicidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Placa Aterosclerótica , Células RAW 264.7 , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
14.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 25(3): 251-264, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698947

RESUMO

AIM: Vascular calcification (VC) is thought to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Intermedin1-53 (IMD) is a cardiovascular protective peptide and can inhibit vascular medial calcification in rats. In this study, we investigated the effect of IMD on atherosclerotic calcification induced by a high-fat diet plus homocysteine (Hcy) and the potential mechanisms. METHODS: ApoE-/- mice were fed a high-fat diet with Hcy in drinking water to induce atherosclerotic calcification. RESULTS: As compared to the high-fat diet alone, Hcy treatment significantly increased atherosclerotic lesion areas and the number of calcified nodules in aortic roots and was reduced by IMD infusion or 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) treatment. In vitro, as compared to calcifying medium alone, Hcy treatment further increased alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium content, and calcium nodule number in human aorta vascular smooth muscle cells (HA-VSMCs), all blocked by IMD or PBA pretreatment. Mechanistically, IMD or PBA significantly alleviated endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) activation compared with Hcy treatment. In parallel, IMD or PBA attenuated the messenger RNA levels of osteogenic markers and inflammatory cytokines in aortas and their protein levels in lesions of aortic roots. In vitro, Hcy treatment significantly increased the protein levels of osteoblast-like cell markers in primary rat VSMCs and inflammation markers in mouse peritoneal macrophages, all decreased with IMD or PBA pretreatment. Intermedin1-53 pretreatment also markedly reduced the protein levels of ERS markers in rat VSMCs and mouse peritoneal macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: Intermedin1-53 protects against Hcy-promoted atherosclerotic calcification in ApoE-/- mice by inhibiting ERS.


Assuntos
Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Homocisteína , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Peptídicos/farmacologia , Calcificação Vascular/prevenção & controle , Animais , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Aorta Torácica/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/induzido quimicamente , Doenças da Aorta/metabolismo , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Macrófagos Peritoneais/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Calcificação Vascular/induzido quimicamente , Calcificação Vascular/metabolismo , Calcificação Vascular/patologia
15.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 35(7): 1171-1178, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In animal studies, zinc supplementation inhibited phosphate-induced arterial calcification. We tested the hypothesis that higher intake of dietary zinc was associated with lower abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) among adults in the USA. We also explored the associations of AAC with supplemental zinc intake, total zinc intake and serum zinc level. METHODS: We performed cross-sectional analyses of 2535 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-14. Dietary and supplemental zinc intakes were obtained from two 24-h dietary recall interviews. Total zinc intake was the sum of dietary and supplemental zinc. AAC was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in adults ≥40 years of age and quantified using the Kauppila score system. AAC scores were categorized into three groups: no AAC (AAC = 0, reference group), mild-moderate (AAC >0-≤6) and severe AAC (AAC >6). RESULTS: Dietary zinc intake (mean ± SE) was 10.5 ± 0.1 mg/day; 28% had AAC (20% mild-moderate and 8% severe), 17% had diabetes mellitus and 51% had hypertension. Higher intake of dietary zinc was associated with lower odds of having severe AAC. Per 1 mg/day higher intake of dietary zinc, the odds of having severe AAC were 8% lower [adjusted odds ratio 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.86-0.98), P = 0.01] compared with those without AAC, after adjusting for demographics, comorbidities and laboratory measurements. Supplemental zinc intake, total zinc intake and serum zinc level were not associated with AAC. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of dietary zinc was independently associated with lower odds of having severe AAC among noninstitutionalized US adults.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Calcificação Vascular/prevenção & controle , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Prognóstico , Estados Unidos , Calcificação Vascular/sangue
16.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(2): 295-305, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150053

RESUMO

AIMS: The immune system is strongly involved in atherosclerosis and immune regulation generally leads to attenuated atherosclerosis. B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is a novel co-receptor that negatively regulates the activation of B and T cells; however, there have been no reports of BTLA and its function in atherosclerosis or cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to assess the dominant BTLA expressing leucocyte in CVD patients and to investigate whether BTLA has a functional role in experimental atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We show that BTLA is primarily expressed on B cells in CVD patients and follicular B2 cells in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr-/-) mice. We treated Ldlr-/- mice that were fed a western-type diet (WTD) with phosphate-buffered saline, an isotype antibody, or an agonistic BTLA antibody (3C10) for 6 weeks. We report here that the agonistic BTLA antibody significantly attenuated atherosclerosis. This was associated with a strong reduction in follicular B2 cells, while regulatory B and T cells were increased. The BTLA antibody showed similar immunomodulating effects in a progression study in which Ldlr-/- mice were fed a WTD for 10 weeks before receiving antibody treatment. Most importantly, BTLA stimulation enhanced collagen content, a feature of stable lesions, in pre-existing lesions. CONCLUSION: Stimulation of the BTLA pathway in Ldlr-/- mice reduces initial lesion development and increases collagen content of established lesions, presumably by shifting the balance between atherogenic follicular B cells and atheroprotective B cells and directing CD4+ T cells towards regulatory T cells. We provide the first evidence that BTLA is a very promising target for the treatment of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Placa Aterosclerótica , Receptores Imunológicos/agonistas , Animais , Aorta/imunologia , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/imunologia , Doenças da Aorta/metabolismo , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos B Reguladores/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Receptores de LDL/deficiência , Receptores de LDL/genética , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
17.
J Pathol ; 250(1): 30-41, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509234

RESUMO

Medial arterial calcification (MAC) is a major complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and an indicator of poor prognosis. Aortic overexpression of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) accelerates MAC formation. The present study aimed to assess whether a TNAP inhibitor, SBI-425, protects against MAC and improves survival probability in a CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD) mouse model. CKD-MBD mice were divided in three groups: vehicle, SBI-10, and SBI-30. They were fed a 0.2% adenine and 0.8% phosphorus diet from 14 to 20 weeks of age to induce CKD, followed by a high-phosphorus (0.2% adenine and 1.8% phosphorus) diet for another 6 weeks. At 14-20 weeks of age, mice in the SBI-10 and SBI-30 groups were given 10 and 30 mg/kg SBI-425 by gavage once a day, respectively, while vehicle-group mice were given distilled water as vehicle. Control mice were fed a standard chow (0.8% phosphorus) between the ages of 8 and 20 weeks. Computed tomography imaging, histology, and aortic tissue calcium content revealed that, compared to vehicle animals, SBI-425 nearly halted the formation of MAC. Mice in the control, SBI-10 and SBI-30 groups exhibited 100% survival, which was significantly better than vehicle-treated mice (57.1%). Aortic mRNA expression of Alpl, encoding TNAP, as well as plasma and aortic tissue TNAP activity, were suppressed by SBI-425 administration, whereas plasma pyrophosphate increased. We conclude that a TNAP inhibitor successfully protected the vasculature from MAC and improved survival rate in a mouse CKD-MBD model, without causing any adverse effects on normal skeletal formation and residual renal function. © 2019 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/antagonistas & inibidores , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Calcificação Vascular/prevenção & controle , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/enzimologia , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/enzimologia , Doenças da Aorta/etiologia , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/complicações , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/enzimologia , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/enzimologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/enzimologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Niacinamida/farmacologia , Osteoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoblastos/enzimologia , Osteoblastos/patologia , Fatores de Tempo , Calcificação Vascular/enzimologia , Calcificação Vascular/etiologia , Calcificação Vascular/patologia
18.
Atherosclerosis ; 291: 78-86, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder mediated by macrophage activation. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is a key regulator in the macrophage inflammatory response. However, the functional role of miR-21 in atherogenesis is far from clear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we report that miR-21 is significantly upregulated in mouse atherosclerotic plaques and peripheral monocytes from patients with coronary artery disease. Compared with miR-21+/+apoE-/- mice (apoE-/- mice), miR-21-/-apoE-/- (double knockout, DKO) mice showed less atherosclerotic lesions, reduced presence of macrophages, decreased smooth muscle cells(SMC) and collagen content in the aorta. We further explored the role of miR-21 in macrophage activation in vitro. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from DKO mice not only exhibit impaired function of migration induced by chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) but also a weakened macrophage-endothelium interaction activated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). However, atherogenic inflammatory cytokine secretion was not affected by miR-21 in vitro or in vivo. Additionally, miR-21 knockdown in BMDMs directly derepressed the expression of dual specificity protein phosphatase 8 (Dusp-8), a previously validated miR-21 target in cardiac fibroblasts, which negatively regulates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, particularly the p38-and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-related signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that inhibition of miR-21 may restrict the formation of atherosclerotic plaques partly by regulating macrophage migration and adhesion, while, reduced SMCs and collagen content in plaques may lead to a less stable phenotype with the progression of atherosclerosis. Thus, the absence of miR-21 reduces atherosclerotic lesions but may not represent all benefit in atherosclerosis development.


Assuntos
Aorta/enzimologia , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Quimiotaxia , Fosfatases de Especificidade Dupla/metabolismo , Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/enzimologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/enzimologia , Doenças da Aorta/genética , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/enzimologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Adesão Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fosfatases de Especificidade Dupla/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , MicroRNAs/genética , Placa Aterosclerótica , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(47): 23698-23704, 2019 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690656

RESUMO

Pyrophosphate deficiency may explain the excessive vascular calcification found in children with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) and in a mouse model of this disease. The present study found that hydrolysis products of ATP resulted in a <9% yield of pyrophosphate in wild-type blood and aortas, showing that eNTPD activity (ATP → phosphate) was greater than eNPP activity (ATP → pyrophosphate). Moreover, pyrophosphate synthesis from ATP was reduced and pyrophosphate hydrolysis (via TNAP; pyrophosphate → phosphate) was increased in both aortas and blood obtained from mice with HGPS. The reduced production of pyrophosphate, together with the reduction in plasma ATP, resulted in marked reduction of plasma pyrophosphate. The combination of TNAP inhibitor levamisole and eNTPD inhibitor ARL67156 increased the synthesis and reduced the degradation of pyrophosphate in aortas and blood ex vivo, suggesting that these combined inhibitors could represent a therapeutic approach for this devastating progeroid syndrome. Treatment with ATP prevented vascular calcification in HGPS mice but did not extend longevity. By contrast, combined treatment with ATP, levamisole, and ARL67156 prevented vascular calcification and extended longevity by 12% in HGPS mice. These findings suggest a therapeutic approach for children with HGPS.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/fisiologia , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Apirase/antagonistas & inibidores , Calcinose/prevenção & controle , Difosfatos/metabolismo , Levamisol/uso terapêutico , Progéria/tratamento farmacológico , Pirofosfatases/antagonistas & inibidores , Trifosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Fosfatase Alcalina/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antígenos CD/fisiologia , Doenças da Aorta/enzimologia , Apirase/deficiência , Apirase/fisiologia , Calcinose/enzimologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Humanos , Lamina Tipo A/genética , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/deficiência , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/fisiologia , Progéria/genética , Progéria/metabolismo , Progéria/patologia , Pirofosfatases/deficiência , Pirofosfatases/fisiologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
20.
Circ Res ; 125(11): 1019-1034, 2019 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610723

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Recent studies have shown that dysfunctional autophagy in endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and macrophages, plays a detrimental role during atherogenesis, leading to the suggestion that autophagy-stimulating approaches may provide benefit. OBJECTIVE: Dendritic cells (DCs) are at the crossroad of innate and adaptive immune responses and profoundly modulate the development of atherosclerosis. Intriguingly, the role of autophagy in DC function during atherosclerosis and how the autophagy process would impact disease development has not been addressed. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we show that the autophagic flux in atherosclerosis-susceptible Ldlr-/- (low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient) mice is substantially higher in splenic and aortic DCs compared with macrophages and is further activated under hypercholesterolemic conditions. RNA sequencing and functional studies on selective cell populations reveal that disruption of autophagy through deletion of Atg16l1 differentially affects the biology and functions of DC subsets in Ldlr-/- mice under high-fat diet. Atg16l1 deficient CD11b+ DCs develop a TGF (transforming growth factor)-ß-dependent tolerogenic phenotype and promote the expansion of regulatory T cells, whereas no such effects are seen with Atg16l1 deficient CD8α+ DCs. Atg16l1 deletion in DCs (all CD11c-expressing cells) expands aortic regulatory T cells in vivo, limits the accumulation of T helper cells type 1, and reduces the development of atherosclerosis in Ldlr-/- mice. In contrast, no such effects are seen when Atg16l1 is deleted selectively in conventional CD8α+ DCs and CD103+ DCs. Total T-cell or selective regulatory T-cell depletion abrogates the atheroprotective effect of Atg16l1 deficient DCs. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to its proatherogenic role in macrophages, autophagy disruption in DCs induces a counter-regulatory response that maintains immune homeostasis in Ldlr-/- mice under high-fat diet and limits atherogenesis. Selective modulation of autophagy in DCs could constitute an interesting therapeutic target in atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aorta/imunologia , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Autofagia , Antígeno CD11b/imunologia , Comunicação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/imunologia , Doenças da Aorta/metabolismo , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Proteína 5 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/genética , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Antígenos CD11/genética , Antígenos CD11/metabolismo , Antígeno CD11b/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Placa Aterosclerótica , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Receptores de LDL/genética , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
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