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1.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(5): 705-716, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646324

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the differences of the pathological changes and cognitive function after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) between Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Wistar rats. Male SD and Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups, respectively: sham operated (S-sham and W-sham) and operated (S-BCCAO and W-BCCAO) groups. The survival rate and the rate of loss of pupillary light reflex (PLR) were observed on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 after the operation, and the light-dark box, Y-maze and odor recognition tests were performed to detect cognitive function on day 28 after the operation. HE and Luxol fast blue staining were used to observe the pathological changes of gray matter (hippocampus), white matter (optical tract), optic nerve, and retina. The results showed that the survival rate of the W-BCCAO group was 62.5%, and PLR loss rate was 100%; whereas the survival rate of the S-BCCAO group was 100%, and PLR loss rate was 58.3%. In the W-BCCAO group, percentages of time spent and distance traveled in the light box were more than those in the W-sham group, but there was no statistical significance between the S-BCCAO and S-sham groups. In the S-BCCAO group, the percentages of time spent and distance traveled in the III arm (labyrinth arm) of the Y-maze were less than those in the S-sham group, but no statistical significance was found between the W-BCCAO group and W-sham group. In the S-BCCAO group, the discrimination ratio of the odor recognition task was less than that in the S-sham group, but no statistical significance could be seen between the W-BCCAO and W-sham groups. Ischemic injury was observed in the CA1 area of the hippocampus in the S-BCCAO group, but no readily visible damage was observed in the W-BCCAO group. Ischemic injury of the visual beam and optic nerve was observed in both the S-BCCAO and W-BCCAO groups. Compared with the corresponding sham groups, the S-BCCAO and W-BCCAO groups showed serious retinal damage with significant thinner retina. The ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and outer plexiform layer (OPL) were thinner in the S-BCCAO group, but no statistical significances were shown in the other layers. All the layers, except the outer nuclear layer (ONL), were significantly thinner in the W-BCCAO group. The results indicate that there are differences of the pathological changes in the hippocampus and visual conduction pathway after BCCAO between SD and Wistar rats, and the degree of learning and memory injury was also different, which suggests that the vascular dementia model of different rat strains should be selected according to research purpose.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/patologia , Cognição , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar
2.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(7): e8432, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314853

RESUMO

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) can impair healing of diabetic foot (DF) in patients with diabetes mellitus. To determine whether carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) can predict lower limb arterial lesions in patients with DF, this cross-sectional study enrolled patients with DF at West China Hospital (China) between January 2012 and December 2015. Ultrasonography was used to measure CIMT, assess the internal carotid arteries (ICA) for plaques, and evaluate lower limb segmental arteries for stenosis. The optimal CIMT cutoff for detecting lower limb PAD was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Factors associated with PAD were identified by logistic regression analyses. A total of 167 patients (mean age: 69.7±10.3 years; 102 men) were included. Patients with PAD were older and had higher levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein than patients without PAD (P<0.05). The area under the ROC curve was 0.747 (P<0.001). At the optimal CIMT cutoff of 0.71 mm, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 79.65, 61.11, 81.08, and 58.93%, respectively. Compared with those without PAD, more patients with PAD had CIMT ≥0.71 mm (79.65 vs 38.89%; P<0.001) and ICA plaques (66.37vs 11.11%; P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.118; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.056-1.183; P<0.001), ICA plaques (OR: 13.452; 95%CI: 4.450-40.662; P<0.001), and CIMT ≥0.71 mm (OR: 2.802; 95%CI: 1.092-7.188; P=0.032) were associated with PAD.CIMT may be a surrogate marker of PAD in patients with DF.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/complicações , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea/efeitos adversos , Pé Diabético/etiologia , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(9): 2429-2433, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intracranial arteriosclerotic disease (ICAD) is common in Asians and has been presumed to be largely associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the risks for asymptomatic ICAD detectable in examinations of the brain, among other tests, are not well known. The present study is aimed at identifying the risks for asymptomatic ICAD using data on risk factors obtained in health checkups, including data from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), chest computed tomography (CT), and neck echography. METHODS: Subjects comprised 103 examinees more than equal to 40 years old (56.9 ± 4.7 years, 93 men) who underwent head MRI, chest CT, and carotid echography in the same period in a workplace health checkup between April and September 2014. Subjects were evaluated for ICAD based on stenosis of bilateral middle cerebral arteries and the basilar artery on previously reported scores from magnetic resonance angiography. Evaluations for extracranial arteriosclerotic disease (ECAD) were based on findings from carotid echography, and total calcium scores were calculated based on the number, areas, and peak Hounsfield computed tomographic numbers of the aortic arch calcified lesion detected. RESULTS: ICAD, including mild cases with stenosis less than 50%, was seen in 21 subjects (20.3%); and MetS was evident in 12 subjects (11.7%). Logistic regression analysis with multivariate adjustment for major vascular risk factor demonstrated that echogenic of plaque was significantly associated with the ICAD (OR 3.69, 95%CI 1.02-13.3), however age was significant predictor of the risk profile in patients with ECAD. CONCLUSIONS: Carotid atherosclerosis could predict intracranial atherosclerosis in middle-aged people. However, further study with large sample size is warranted.


Assuntos
Artéria Basilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Saúde do Trabalhador , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Ultrassonografia , Local de Trabalho , Fatores Etários , Doenças Assintomáticas , Artéria Basilar/patologia , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/patologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Projetos Piloto , Placa Aterosclerótica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 35(9): 1745-1753, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312997

RESUMO

No data exist whether statins have robust anti-inflammatory effects of atherosclerotic plaques primarily during the early treatment period or continuously throughout use. This prospective three time point 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) study of the carotid artery assessed anti-inflammatory effects of statin during the early treatment period (initiation to 3 months) and late treatment period (3 months to 1 year) and their correlation with lipid and inflammatory profile changes during a year of therapy. Nine statin-naïve stable angina patients with inflammatory carotid plaques received 20 mg/day atorvastatin after undergoing initial 18F-FDG PET/CT scanning of carotid arteries and ascending thoracic aorta, and then completed serial 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging at 3 and 12 months whose data were analyzed. The primary outcome was the inter-scan percent change in target-to-background ratio (ΔTBR) within the index vessel. At 3 months of atorvastatin treatment, mean serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level decreased by 36.4% to < 70 mg/dL (p = 0.001) and mean serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level increased to > 40 mg/dL (p = 0.041), with both maintained with no further reduction up to 1 year (p = 0.516 and 0.715, respectively) while mean serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein level only numerically decreased (p = 0.093). The index vessel ΔTBR showed continuous plaque inflammation reduction over 1 year, by 4.4% (p = 0.015) from the initiation to 3rd months and 6.2% (p = 0.009) from 3rd months to 1 year, respectively, without correlation with lipid profile changes. The ΔTBR of the bilateral carotid arteries and ascending aorta also continuously decreased from 3 months to 1 year. Three time point 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging demonstrates that statin's anti-inflammatory effect continues throughout its use up to 1 year, even though yielding stable below-target plasma LDL-C levels at 3 months.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças da Aorta/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Artérias Carótidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/tratamento farmacológico , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 15: 101-107, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190848

RESUMO

Introduction: Theoretically, first-degree relatives (FDRs) of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are predisposed to have earlier and more severe atherosclerosis than non-FDR due to hereditary insulin resistance. A previous study reported that atherosclerotic plaques were found in 45.2% of young adults FDR of T2DM, but the study did not include non-FDR as control group. The aim of this study was to compare subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness, CIMT) between FDR of T2DM and non-FDR. Method: This was a cross-sectional study involving 16 FDR subjects and 16 age-sex matched non-FDR subjects, aged 19-40 years, with normal glucose tolerance and no hypertension. Collected data included demographic characteristic, anthropometric measurement (BMI and waist circumference), laboratory analysis (fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, lipid profile), and CIMT examination (using B-mode ultrasound). Results: The mean of CIMT in the FDR group was higher than that in the non-FDR group (0.44 mm vs 0.38 mm, p=0.005). After adjusting for waist circumference, BMI, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride, CIMT maintained significant difference between FDR and non-FDR subjects. BMI and waist circumference showed moderate correlation with CIMT. Conclusion: CIMT in young adult FDR of T2DM is thicker than that in age-and sex-matched non-FDR population.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/genética , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Placa Aterosclerótica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 57(3): 501-518, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928074

RESUMO

Doppler ultrasound (US) is the primary noninvasive imaging modality for detecting, grading, and monitoring extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis, which is a well-established surrogate marker for stroke risk. In addition, Doppler US is the primary imaging modality for surveillance of patients following carotid intervention with endarterectomy or stent placement. This article reviews the pathophysiology and epidemiology of stroke, technique for performing a carotid US examination, normal findings, and diagnostic US criteria for evaluating carotid plaque, grading stenosis in the native ICA and following intervention, as well as waveform analysis of the carotid arteries.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/complicações , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(6): 1586-1596, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Complex aortic plaque is a potential cause of acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease, which needs timely identification. Also as a marker for systemic atherosclerosis, complex aortic plaque may be indicated by significant (≥50%) cervicocephalic atherosclerotic stenosis. We aimed at examining whether age ranges would influence their association to more accurately estimate the risk of having complex aortic plaque in acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: Aortic arch and cervicocephalic arteries were simultaneously evaluated using computed tomography angiography. Middle-aged (45-64 years) and old-aged (65-85 years) acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease patients were divided into 2 groups according to whether there was an aortic arch plaque with thickness of greater than or equal to 4 mm or associated ulcerations or mural thrombus. RESULTS: Old-aged patients (n = 107) had a higher prevalence of complex aortic plaque (67.3% versus 30.9%, P < .001) than those middle aged (n = 178). Among middle-aged patients, the presence of extracranial significant atherosclerotic stenosis (adjusted odd ratio = 2.89, 95% confidence interval: 1.42-5.86) rather than intracranial ones independently predicted complex aortic plaque. Regarding the extent of significant cervicocephalic atherosclerotic stenosis, the presence of multi-segment, bilateral, simultaneous extracranial and intracranial, and simultaneous anterior and posterior circulation ones were independent indicators for complex aortic plaque in the middle-aged subgroup (adjusted odd ratio = 2.42, 2.05, 2.26, 2.14, respectively). By contrast, no statistical correlation of complex aortic plaque and significant cervicocephalic atherosclerotic stenosis was found among old-aged patients. CONCLUSION: Considering the ranges of age was important to more precisely predict complex aortic plaque with significant cervicocephalic atherosclerotic stenosis in acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Artérias Cerebrais/patologia , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Placa Aterosclerótica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Artéria Vertebral/patologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Aortografia/métodos , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/patologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Artérias Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , China/epidemiologia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Dados Preliminares , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Artéria Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 53(3): 250-254, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866750

RESUMO

We describe a case of concomitant fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) and atherosclerotic internal carotid artery (ICA) disease in a symptomatic patient. Sixty-eight-year-old female presented for evaluation of a transient ischemic attack. Imaging revealed severe proximal >80% ICA stenosis with severe FMD to mid and distal ICA. Planned hybrid approach with left carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and balloon angioplasty was aborted intraoperatively due to lack of back bleeding. Open gradual rigid dilation was then performed with resumption of back bleeding. Completion angiogram revealed widely patent flow through CEA patch with no residual defects. Patient awoke from operation neurologically intact. At 6-month follow-up, carotid duplex revealed severe recurrent ICA stenosis. Endovascular intervention was performed with balloon dilation to the proximal and mid-ICA with stenting of a moderate 60% ostial common carotid stenosis. She recovered well from procedure with 3-month carotid duplex showing widely patent common carotid stent and ICA with no areas of stenosis. Informed consent has been obtained from the patient for publication of the case report and accompanying images.


Assuntos
Angioplastia com Balão , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Artéria Carótida Interna/cirurgia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/efeitos adversos , Displasia Fibromuscular/cirurgia , Placa Aterosclerótica , Idoso , Angioplastia com Balão/instrumentação , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Artéria Carótida Interna/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Carótida Interna/patologia , Artéria Carótida Interna/fisiopatologia , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Displasia Fibromuscular/diagnóstico por imagem , Displasia Fibromuscular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Recidiva , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Stents , Falha de Tratamento , Ultrassonografia Doppler Dupla
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(5): 1346-1352, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30777620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk factors for carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque (CP) differ by ethnicity; however, this is not well understood in some ethnic populations. This work examines the risk factors for cIMT and CP in an indigenous Nigerian population. METHODS: We assessed cIMT and CP in 122 participants and then performed biochemical analysis: fasting blood glucose (FBG), hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol (TC). The clinical history and anthropometric characteristics of participants were recorded. Linear models were used to assess the factors associated with cIMT and CP, and stepwise multivariate regression analyses were conducted to assess the predictors of cIMT and CP. RESULTS: The cIMT thickness varied from .5 mm to 1.3 mm. Family history of heart disease (FHHDx), physical activity, FBG, HDL-C, TG, TC, body mass index (BMI), systolic pressure, and waist circumference were significantly associated with cIMT (P ≤ .01). High systolic (ß = .008) and diastolic (ß = .17) pressure, FHHDx (ß = .24), age (ß = .004), physical activity (ß = -.09), and waist circumference (ß = -.017) significantly predicted 85% of the variation in cIMT (P < .001 for all). Family history of hypertension (FHH), LDL-C, and high blood pressure were significantly associated with CP (P ≤ .05). The significant predictors of CP were FHH (ß = .145, P = .03), smoking (ß = .167, P = .01), HDL-C (ß = .283, P < .001), weight (ß = .150, P = .04), and BMI (ß = .183, P = .01), explaining most of the 43.2% variation in CP. CONCLUSIONS: Some of the risk factors differ from those of other ethnicities, suggesting a need for population-specific approach to risk assessment and early detection of subclinical disease.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Placa Aterosclerótica , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Antropometria , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/etnologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/etnologia
11.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(1): e007835, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microcalcifications in atherosclerotic plaques are destabilizing, predict adverse cardiovascular events, and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality.18F-fluoride positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging has demonstrated promise as a useful clinical diagnostic tool in identifying high-risk plaques; however, there is confusion as to the underlying mechanism of signal amplification seen in PET-positive, CT-negative image regions. This study tested the hypothesis that 18F-fluoride PET/CT can identify early microcalcifications. METHODS: 18F-fluoride signal amplification derived from microcalcifications was validated against near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging and histology using an in vitro 3-dimensional hydrogel collagen platform, ex vivo human specimens, and a mouse model of atherosclerosis. RESULTS: Microcalcification size correlated inversely with collagen concentration. The 18F-fluoride ligand bound to microcalcifications formed by calcifying vascular smooth muscle cell derived extracellular vesicles in the in vitro 3-dimensional collagen system and exhibited an increasing signal with an increase in collagen concentration (0.25 mg/mL collagen -33.8×102±12.4×102 counts per minute; 0.5 mg/mL collagen -67.7×102±37.4×102 counts per minute; P=0.0014), suggesting amplification of the PET signal by smaller microcalcifications. We further incubated human atherosclerotic endarterectomy specimens with clinically relevant concentrations of 18F-fluoride. The 18F-fluoride ligand labeled microcalcifications in PET-positive, CT-negative regions of explanted human specimens as evidenced by 18F-fluoride PET/CT imaging, near-infrared fluorescence, and histological analysis. Additionally, the 18F-fluoride ligand identified micro and macrocalcifications in atherosclerotic aortas obtained from low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that 18F-fluoride PET signal in PET-positive, CT-negative regions of human atherosclerotic plaques is the result of developing microcalcifications, and high surface area in regions of small microcalcifications may amplify PET signal.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Radioisótopos de Flúor/administração & dosagem , Placa Aterosclerótica , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Calcificação Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Camundongos Knockout , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Receptores de LDL/deficiência , Receptores de LDL/genética , Ruptura Espontânea , Calcificação Vascular/patologia
12.
Cardiovasc Drugs Ther ; 33(1): 25-33, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663009

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in cardiovascular disease is now recognized. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is known to have cardiovascular protective effects by decreasing ER stress. This study aimed to assess the ability of TUDCA to decrease ER stress, inhibit dedifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and reduce in-stent restenosis. METHODS: The effect of TUDCA on dedifferentiation of VSMCs and ER stress was investigated in vitro using wound-healing assays, MTT assays, and western blotting. For in vivo studies, 18 rabbits were fed an atherogenic diet to induce atheroma formation. Bare metal stents (BMS), BMS+TUDCA or Firebird stents were implanted in the left common carotid artery. Rabbits were euthanized after 28 days and processed for scanning electron microscope (SEM), histological examination (HE), and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In vitro TUDCA (10-1000 µmol/L) treatment significantly inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-induced proliferation and migration in VSMCs in a concentration-dependent manner and decreased ER stress markers (IRE1, XBP1, KLF4, and GRP78). In vivo, we confirmed no significant difference in neointimal coverage on three stents surfaces; neointimal was significantly lower with BMS+TUDCA (1.6 ± 0.2 mm2) compared with Firebird (1.90 ± 0.1 mm2) and BMS (2.3 ± 0.1 mm2). Percent stenosis was lowest for BMS+TUDCA, then Firebird, and was significantly higher with BMS (28 ± 4%, 35 ± 7%, 40 ± 1%; respectively; P < 0.001). TUDCA treatment decreased ER stress in the BMS+TUDCA group compared with BMS. CONCLUSIONS: TUDCA inhibited dedifferentiation of VSMCs by decreasing ER stress and reduced in-stent restenosis, possibly through downregulation of the IRE1/XBP1 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Desdiferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Stents Farmacológicos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Tauroquenodesoxicólico/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Aorta Torácica/patologia , Artérias Carótidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias Carótidas/metabolismo , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/metabolismo , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Neointima , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Coelhos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recidiva , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Tauroquenodesoxicólico/administração & dosagem , Proteína 1 de Ligação a X-Box/metabolismo
13.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 2, 2019 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic importance of carotid atherosclerosis in individuals with diabetes is unsettled. We aimed to evaluate the relationships between parameters of carotid atherosclerosis and the future occurrence of micro- and cardiovascular complications in individuals with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Ultrasonographic parameters of carotid atherosclerosis, intima-media thickness (CIMT) and plaques, were measured at baseline in 478 participants who were followed-up for a median of 10.8 years. Multivariate Cox analysis was used to examine the associations between carotid parameters and the occurrence of microvascular (retinopathy, renal, and peripheral neuropathy) and cardiovascular complications (total cardiovascular events [CVEs] and cardiovascular mortality), and all-cause mortality. The improvement in risk stratification was assessed by using the C-statistic and the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) index. RESULTS: During follow-up, 116 individuals had a CVE and 115 individuals died (56 from cardiovascular diseases); 131 newly-developed or worsened diabetic retinopathy, 156 achieved the renal composite outcome (94 newly developed microalbuminuria and 78 deteriorated renal function), and 83 newly-developed or worsened peripheral neuropathy. CIMT, either analysed as a continuous or as a categorical variable, and presence of plaques predicted CVEs occurrence and renal outcomes, but not mortality or other microvascular complications. Individuals with an increased CIMT and plaques had a 1.5- to 1.8-fold increased risk of CVEs and a 1.6-fold higher risk of renal outcome. CIMT and plaques modestly improved cardiovascular risk discrimination over classic risk factors, with IDIs ranging from 7.8 to 8.4%; but more markedly improved renal risk discrimination, with IDIs from 14.8 to 18.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Carotid atherosclerosis parameters predicted cardiovascular and renal outcomes, and improved renal risk stratification. Ultrasonographic carotid imaging may be useful in type 2 diabetes management.


Assuntos
Artérias Carótidas , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Placa Aterosclerótica , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/mortalidade , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Causas de Morte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Angiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Echocardiography ; 36(2): 345-361, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623485

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: This study presents a novel nonlinear model which can predict 10-year carotid ultrasound image-based phenotypes by fusing nine traditional cardiovascular risk factors (ethnicity, gender, age, artery type, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, hypertension, low-density lipoprotein, and smoking) with five types of carotid automated image phenotypes (three types of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), wall variability, and total plaque area). METHODOLOGY: Two-step process was adapted: First, five baseline carotid image-based phenotypes were automatically measured using AtheroEdge™ (AtheroPoint™ , CA, USA) system by two operators (novice and experienced) and an expert. Second, based on the annual progression rates of cIMT due to nine traditional cardiovascular risk factors, a novel nonlinear model was adapted for 10-year predictions of carotid phenotypes. RESULTS: Institute review board (IRB) approved 204 Japanese patients' left/right common carotid artery (407 ultrasound scans) was collected with a mean age of 69 ± 11 years. Age and hemoglobin were reported to have a high influence on the 10-year carotid phenotypes. Mean correlation coefficient (CC) between 10-year carotid image-based phenotype and age was improved by 39.35% in males and 25.38% in females. The area under the curves for the 10-year measurements of five phenotypes IMTave10yr , IMTmax10yr , IMTmin10yr , IMTV10yr , and TPA10yr were 0.96, 0.94, 0.90, 1.0, and 1.0. Inter-operator variability between two operators showed significant CC (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: A nonlinear model was developed and validated by fusing nine conventional CV risk factors with current carotid image-based phenotypes for predicting the 10-year carotid ultrasound image-based phenotypes which may be used risk assessment.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus , Idoso , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Ultrassonografia/métodos
15.
Nat Med ; 25(3): 496-506, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30692699

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein-E (ApoE) has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, and other unresolvable inflammatory conditions but a common mechanism of action remains elusive. We found in ApoE-deficient mice that oxidized lipids activated the classical complement cascade (CCC), resulting in leukocyte infiltration of the choroid plexus (ChP). All human ApoE isoforms attenuated CCC activity via high-affinity binding to the activated CCC-initiating C1q protein (KD~140-580 pM) in vitro, and C1q-ApoE complexes emerged as markers for ongoing complement activity of diseased ChPs, Aß plaques, and atherosclerosis in vivo. C1q-ApoE complexes in human ChPs, Aß plaques, and arteries correlated with cognitive decline and atherosclerosis, respectively. Treatment with small interfering RNA (siRNA) against C5, which is formed by all complement pathways, attenuated murine ChP inflammation, Aß-associated microglia accumulation, and atherosclerosis. Thus, ApoE is a direct checkpoint inhibitor of unresolvable inflammation, and reducing C5 attenuates disease burden.


Assuntos
Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/imunologia , Apolipoproteínas E/imunologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/imunologia , Plexo Corióideo/imunologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/imunologia , Complemento C1q/imunologia , Via Clássica do Complemento/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/imunologia , Animais , Aorta/imunologia , Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Artérias Carótidas/imunologia , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Plexo Corióideo/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Complemento C5 , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Amiloide/imunologia , Placa Amiloide/patologia , Isoformas de Proteínas/imunologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno
16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(3): 830-837, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to explore the efficacy of atorvastatin on patients with carotid plaque, applying superb microvascular imaging (SMI), and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for evaluating carotid intraplaque neovascularization. METHODS: A total of 82 patients (82 carotid plaques) who were randomized into treatment group and control group underwent conventional ultrasound, CEUS, and SMI examinations. Patients in treatment group received a dose of 20 mg atorvastatin per day for 6 months while those in control group received placebo instead. Lipid parameters were assessed and intraplaque neovascularization were evaluated by CEUS and SMI before and 6 months after atorvastatin treatment. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between the 2 groups at the study entry. Patients with atorvastatin treatment received marked improvement in total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL-cholesterol compared with those in control group (P < .001). In treatment group, SMI-detected intraplaque neovascularization reduced from 69.23% to 48.72% while CEUS-detected ones reduced from 76.92% to 69.23%. By contrast, the percentage of intraplaque neovascularization in control group did not change too much either by SMI (65.12%, 67.44%) or CEUS (74.41%, 74.41%). The consistency between CEUS and SMI was above .75 at all assessments (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Atorvastatin treatment works for patients with carotid plaque by reducing LDL-cholesterol and improving plaque regression. Second, the consistency between SMI and CEUS in visualizing intraplaque neovascularization is good. That indicates a high possibility to identify carotid plaque instability by a safer and cheaper ultrasonography without contrast agent.


Assuntos
Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Artérias Carótidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atorvastatina/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/sangue , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , China , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neovascularização Patológica , Fosfolipídeos/administração & dosagem , Placa Aterosclerótica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Hexafluoreto de Enxofre/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 113: 70-76, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a promising approach to halt atherogenesis in different animal models. This study evaluated whether the mTOR inhibitor everolimus can stabilize pre-existing plaques, prevent cardiovascular complications and improve survival in a mouse model of advanced atherosclerosis. METHODS: ApoE-/-Fbn1C1039G+/- mice (n = 24) were fed a Western diet (WD) for 12 weeks. Subsequently, mice were treated with everolimus (1.5 mg/kg daily) or vehicle for another 12 weeks while the WD continued. RESULTS: Despite hypercholesterolemia, everolimus treatment was associated with a reduction in circulating Ly6Chigh monocytes (15 vs. 28% of total leukocytes, p = 0.046), a depletion of plaque macrophages (2.1 vs. 4.1%, p = 0.040) and an abolishment of intraplaque neovascularization, which are all indicative of a more stable plaque phenotype. Moreover, everolimus reduced hypoxic brain damage and improved cardiac function, which led to increased survival (100 vs. 67% of animals, p = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Everolimus enhances features of plaque stability and counters cardiovascular complications in ApoE-/-Fbn1C1039G+/- mice, even when administered at a later stage of the disease.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/farmacologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/tratamento farmacológico , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Everolimo/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neovascularização Patológica , Placa Aterosclerótica , Animais , Antígenos Ly/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/genética , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/metabolismo , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/metabolismo , Artéria Carótida Primitiva/patologia , Dieta Ocidental , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fibrilina-1/deficiência , Fibrilina-1/genética , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia Encefálica/patologia , Hipóxia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Contração Miocárdica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
18.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 20(2): 91-96, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare three widely used algorithms for stratification of the global cardiovascular risk (GCVR): the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) score, the European systemic coronary risk estimation (SCORE) and the Italian 'Progetto Cuore' (heart project) score. It was also investigated how preclinical carotid atherosclerosis (pre-ATS) might influence the incidence and improve the risk prediction of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular events. METHODS: Subjects (n = 358) without previous history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) were recruited and the GCVR was calculated for each patient. An ultrasound evaluation of the carotid arteries was also performed. RESULTS: According to SCORE, the recruited population had globally a low risk of cardiovascular mortality and the risk equation estimated a GCVR of 2% in spite of the in spite of the observed rate of 0.8% (95% CI -0.001 to 0.02) of fatal events. The FHS and the 'Progetto Cuore' risk equations, regarding a 10-year risk of fatal and nonfatal events, predicted a low GCVR of 31 and 30%, an intermediate risk of 64 and 66%, and a high risk of 5 and 4% of the population respectively. They also estimated a general GCVR of 6.9 and 6.4% respectively versus an observed event rate 27.7 (95% CI 23.0 to 32.0). The discriminative power, calculated with the area under the receiving operator curve (AUROC), was 0.53 for SCORE, 0.54 for FHS and 0.55 for Progetto Cuore. Based on the ultrasound evaluation of carotid arteries, a first clinical event at 10-year follow-up was reported in 3% of subjects with normal ultrasound examination, 32% with intima-media thickening (IMT) and 62% with asymptomatic carotid plaque (ACP). CONCLUSION: The present study has evaluated for the first time the prediction of GCVR in an asymptomatic population, comparing three different risk scores. Carotid pre-ATS was related to the major cardiovascular risk factors (RFs) and was independently associated with a major incidence of cerebro- and cardiovascular events, therefore enhancing the predictive value of the three different risk scores.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/mortalidade , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
World Neurosurg ; 123: e581-e587, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529529

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate construction of an aneurysm on a curved vascular segment of a carotid siphon model for testing endovascular devices. METHODS: Preshaped carotid siphon models of polytetrafluoroethylene were constructed from a human cadaver for confining canine common carotid artery (CCA). The canine right external jugular vein was isolated and harvested to make a venous pouch by suturing 1 end. The right CCA was isolated, and the venous pouch was sutured onto the right CCA to make an aneurysm. The right CCA segment containing the aneurysm was excised and guided through the preshaped polytetrafluoroethylene carotid siphon model using a guidewire with the aneurysm adjusted to protrude out of the round window of the siphon model. The siphon model together with the aneurysm was sutured end-to-end onto the left CCA to form a carotid siphon model in vivo. RESULTS: Five canine models were successfully constructed; the average construction time was 120 minutes. All aneurysms and siphon models remained patent 7 days and 2 weeks later. Five covered stents for intracranial use were tested for flexibility and apposition to the vascular wall in the curved segment of the carotid siphon model in vivo. All the covered stents passed the tortuous siphon model without much difficulty and were deployed successfully to cover the aneurysm orifice without endoleak. CONCLUSIONS: The carotid siphon model in vivo can simulate well the geometry of the human carotid siphon segment and can be used to test endovascular devices for interventions.


Assuntos
Artéria Carótida Primitiva/cirurgia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Modelos Anatômicos , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Stents , Animais , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/cirurgia , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Aneurisma Intracraniano/patologia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Masculino , Politetrafluoretileno
20.
Neurologist ; 24(1): 17-21, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586029

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Takayasu arteritis is a large-vessel vasculitis that may cause oculo-cerebral ischemia. We report a patient with visual loss as initial manifestation, and discuss transcranial Doppler (TCD) findings before and after surgical revascularization. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 19-year-old female developed episodes of transient positional right vision loss, progressing to permanent right vision loss and bright light-induced left amaurosis. Examination demonstrated subclavian bruits, palpable epigastrium aortic pulsation, faint radial pulses, right retinal pallor, arteriolar narrowing, and bilateral boxcarring. Head and neck computed tomography angiogram demonstrated left subclavian origin and right common carotid artery occlusion, and severe innominate and left common carotid artery stenosis. TCD demonstrated right ophthalmic artery flow reversal and nonpulsatile waveforms with dampened spectra in the right anterior circulation. Corticosteroids, methotrexate, infliximab, and dual-antiplatelet therapy were initiated. Eleven weeks later, the patient underwent ascending aortic aneurysm repair and bilateral carotid artery bypass with an aortic graft. Pathology was consistent with chronic active Takayasu arteritis. Two weeks postoperatively, left eye visual symptoms resolved; right visual loss persisted. Postoperative TCD showed marked improvement in cerebral perfusion. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal ischemia in young women should prompt emergent inflammatory and systemic vascular evaluation. In our subject, prolonged right retinal ischemia had dismal prognosis despite carotid-aortic revascularization, whereas left retinal boxcarring reversed. Surgical revascularization is recommended for severely symptomatic oculo-cerebrovascular disease, once inflammation is better controlled with immunosuppressive therapy. TCD documented the presence and monitored the subsequent resolution of blood flow changes causing retinal and brain hypoxia.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Arterite de Takayasu/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Adulto Jovem
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