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1.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(4): 579-584, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356064

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The safety of poultry meat products and contamination with microorganisms is based on appropriate reduction of the presence of pathogens during poultry rearing and is closely related to the level of rearing hygiene, including the type of housing, stocking density, microclimate, sanitation and ventilation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of Campylobacter-positive samples in Iceland during 2016-2018, and to compare the potential influence of individual parameters of welfare on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Positivity of excrement and caecum samples for Campylobacter spp. was determined according to ISO 10272-1: 2006 and 2017. Data of welfare indicators were collected during the rearing period and in the slaughterhouse. RESULTS: Considerable seasonality was observed in the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. The prevalence of campylobacteriosis on the investigated broiler farms was significantly higher (p ˂0.05) during the summer. Comparison of welfare parameters on Campylobacter-positive and Campylobacter-negative farms failed to indicate a significantly higher level of observed welfare indicators in birds from Campylobacter-positive farms (p˃0.05). In comparing small, medium and big farms, a significantly higher occurrence was observed (p<0.05) of the FPD score over 40, stocking density, and the average slaughter weight, and percentage of mortality over 2% in small farms. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive management and the environment affect the welfare of poultry and its resistance to infections (Campylobacteriosis) and thus increase the health risk. Checking the welfare parameters in a slaughter house provides delayed improvement of the environment on farms, but it can also lead to changes in the following production cycles (decreasing of stocking density).


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Matadouros , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Islândia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência
2.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3559-3570, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951145

RESUMO

Blastocystis is the most frequently observed eukaryotic gastrointestinal symbiont in humans and animals. Its low host specificity and zoonotic potential suggest that animals might serve as possible reservoirs for transmission. The prevalence and subtype distributions of Blastocystis sp. in animal populations in Southeast Asia, a hotspot for zoonotic diseases, are reviewed. Recommendations for future research aimed at understanding the zoonotic role of Blastocystis are also included. Seven countries have, so far, reported Blastocystis infection in various animals, such as livestock, poultry, companion animals, and non-human primates. Pigs were the most studied animals, and there were records of 100% prevalence in pigs, cattle, and ostriches. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approaches, twelve Blastocystis sp. subtypes (STs), namely ST1, ST2, ST3, ST4, ST5, ST6, ST7, ST8, ST9, ST10, ST12, and ST14 have been recognised infecting animals of Southeast Asia. ST1 and ST5 were the most frequently identified, and Malaysia observed the most diverse distribution of subtypes. Further investigations on Blastocystis sp. in various animal hosts, using adequate sample sizes and uniform detection methods, are essential for a better understanding of the distribution of this organism. Detailed genome studies, especially on STs shared by humans and animals, are also recommended.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Humanos , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência , Primatas/parasitologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237541, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834007

RESUMO

There is growing interest in exploring the chickens' intestinal microbiota and understanding its interactions with the host. The objective is to optimize this parameter in order to increase the productivity of farm animals. With the goal to isolate candidate probiotic strains, specific culturomic methods were used in our study to culture commensal bacteria from 7-days old chicks raised in two farms presenting long history of high performance. A total of 347 isolates were cultured, corresponding to at least 64 species. Among the isolates affiliated to the Firmicutes, 26 had less than 97% identity of their partial 16S sequence with that of the closest described species, while one presented less than 93% identity, thus revealing a significant potential for new species in this ecosystem. In parallel, and in order to better understand the differences between the microbiota of high-performing and low-performing animals, caecal contents of animals collected from these two farms and from a third farm with long history of low performance were collected and sequenced. This compositional analysis revealed an enrichment of Faecalibacterium-and Campylobacter-related sequences in lower-performing animals whereas there was a higher abundance of enterobacteria-related sequences in high-performing animals. We then investigated antibiosis activity against C. jejuni ATCC 700819 and C. jejuni field isolate as a first phenotypic trait to select probiotic candidates. Antibiosis was found to be limited to a few strains, including several lactic acid bacteria, a strain of Bacillus horneckiae and a strain of Escherichia coli. The antagonist activity depended on test conditions that mimicked the evolution of the intestinal environment of the chicken during its lifetime, i.e. temperature (37°C or 42°C) and oxygen levels (aerobic or anaerobic conditions). This should be taken into account according to the stage of development of the animal at which administration of the active strain is envisaged.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Campylobacter/genética , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Fazendas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236581, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790744

RESUMO

Emergence and intercontinental spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5Nx virus clade 2.3.4.4 has resulted in substantial economic losses to the poultry industry in Asia, Europe, and North America. The long-distance migratory birds have been suggested to play a major role in the global spread of avian influenza viruses during this wave of panzootic outbreaks since 2013. Poultry farm epidemics caused by multiple introduction of different HPAI novel subtypes of clade 2.3.4.4 viruses also occurred in Taiwan between 2015 and 2017. The mandatory and active surveillance detected H5N3 and H5N6 circulation in 2015 and 2017, respectively, while H5N2 and H5N8 were persistently identified in poultry farms since their first arrival in 2015. This study intended to assess the importance of various ecological factors contributed to the persistence of HPAI during three consecutive years. We used satellite technology to identify the location of waterfowl flocks. Four risk factors consistently showed strong association with the spatial clustering of H5N2 and H5N8 circulations during 2015 and 2017, including high poultry farm density (aOR:17.46, 95%CI: 5.91-74.86 and 8.23, 95% CI: 2.12-54.86 in 2015 and 2017, respectively), poultry heterogeneity index (aOR of 12.28, 95%CI: 5.02-31.14 and 2.79, 95%CI: 1.00-7.69, in 2015 and 2017, respectively), non-registered waterfowl flock density (aOR: 6.8, 95%CI: 3.41-14.46 and 9.17, 95%CI: 3.73-26.20, in 2015 and 2017, respectively) and higher percentage of cropping land coverage (aOR of 1.36, 95%CI: 1.10-1.69 and 1.04, 95%CI: 1.02-1.07, in 2015 and 2017, respectively). Our study highlights the application of remote sensing and clustering analysis for the identification and characterization of environmental factors in facilitating and contributing to the persistent circulation of certain subtypes of H5Nx in poultry farms in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Fazendas , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Microbiologia da Água
6.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e7, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787420

RESUMO

Chickens have been implicated in most Salmonella disease outbreaks because they act as carriers of the pathogen in their gut. There are over 2500 serotypes of Salmonella that have been reported worldwide and 2000 of these serovars can be found in chickens. The main objective of this study was to determine the Salmonella serotypes found in poultry farms around Mafikeng district, South Africa. Salmonella was identified according to the guidelines of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) (ISO 6579:2002) standard techniques. Faecal samples were collected and analysed for Salmonella using conventional cultural methods and polymerase chain reaction targeting the 16S Ribosomal Deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) gene for Salmonella identification. Out of 130 presumptive Salmonella isolates determined by urease and triple sugar iron tests, only 46 isolates were identified as Salmonella serotypes of which S. Typhimurium was the most frequent with 18 (39.1%), followed by S. Heidelberg with 9 (19.6%), S. bongori with 7 (15.2%), S. Enteritidis with 6 (13.0%) and both S. Paratyphi B and S. Newport with 3 (6.5%) each. Seven virulence genes including invA 100%, spy 39%, hilA 9%, misL 30%, sdfI 13%, orfL 11% and spiC 9% were detected from these Salmonella isolates in this study. The presence of these virulence genes indicates high pathogenicity potential of these isolates which is a serious public health concern because of zoonotic potential of Salmonella.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonella/genética , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Fezes/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Sorogrupo , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Virulência
7.
Arch Razi Inst ; 75(2): 155-162, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621443

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (AvCoV) which include infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and other bird coronaviruses belong to the genus gammacoronavirus, subfamily Coronavirinae. One of the most prominent representatives of gammacoronavirus genus is infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) which is a highly contagious viral pathogen of chickens causing considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. IBVs mostly affect the respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts leading to a substantial drop in production. Backyard poultry in the villages usually share their food and water with free flight birds which puts them at serious risk of disease transmission. Furthermore, the poor hygienic measurements which are often used in backyard flocks make them a potential reservoir for diseases that can be transferred to commercial poultry flocks. Live bird markets (LBMs) which receive live poultry to be resold or slaughtered and sold onsite play a significant role in spreading infectious diseases among the different bird species. In the present study, a number of 354 cloacal swab samples were collected from different bird species from LBMs of Gilan province. Subsequently, after RNA extraction, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique was carried out using specific primers of S1 gene to detect coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus. Two samples from backyard chickens were reported to be positive to coronavirus which were named Iran/Backyardchicken 96/2017 and Iran/Backyardchicken 94/2017. The results of the phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that these two isolates are placed in QX and IS-1494 strains, respectively. On a final note, the obtained results highlighted the role of live birds offered in LBMs in the epidemiology of IBV and the transmission of the virus to the industrial flock.


Assuntos
Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Cloaca/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
8.
Br Poult Sci ; 61(5): 531-537, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508148

RESUMO

1. Cellulitis and dermatitis are often seen in turkeys at slaughter and are, in many cases, reasons for rejection at meat inspection. Using the results of meat inspections and information about the housing conditions of the animals may provide information on causative factors in the development of cellulitis and dermatitis. 2. A census of two years of turkey production in a company including both fattening farms and an abattoir in the north of England was used to study the relationship between the prevalence of cellulitis/dermatitis and mechanical versus natural ventilation in the poultry house, litter type (long straw, short straw and wood shavings) and stocking density. 3. The overall prevalence of cellulitis and dermatitis in this population was 0.12 %, which was extremely low compared to reports in the literature. In mechanically ventilated houses, the odds of developing cellulitis and/or dermatitis was significantly higher than in naturally ventilated houses (Odds Ratio 3.18). Long straw had a protective effect compared to wood shavings (Odds Ratio 0.18). 4. The study showed that using slaughter data can be helpful in studying on-farm risk factors for disease development.


Assuntos
Dermatite , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Matadouros , Animais , Celulite (Flegmão)/epidemiologia , Celulite (Flegmão)/veterinária , Galinhas , Dermatite/epidemiologia , Dermatite/etiologia , Dermatite/veterinária , Inglaterra , Abrigo para Animais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Perus
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(6)2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486006

RESUMO

In the last 5 years, frequent outbreaks of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) are observed in both broiler and layer chicken flocks in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in spite of extensive usage of vaccines. The IBV is a widespread avian coronavirus affecting both vaccinated and unvaccinated chicken flocks and is attributed to significant economic losses, around the globe. In the present study, 58 (n = 58) samples were collected from four different commercial poultry flocks from 8 KSA districts during 2019. A total of nine positive isolates (9/58; 15.5%), based on real-time reverse transcriptase PCR targeting nucleocapsid (N) gene, were used for further genetic characterization and evolutionary analysis. Genetic characterization of the partial spike (S1) gene revealed the clustering of the reported isolates into three different genotypes, whereas four additional isolates were grouped within 4/91 genotype, two isolates within IS/885 genotype, one isolate was closely related to IS/1494/06, and two isolates were grouped within classic serotype (vaccine-like strains). Phylodynamic revealed clustering of four isolated viruses within GI-13 lineage, three isolates within GI-23 lineage, and two isolates within GI-1 lineage. Results indicate that there are high evolutionary distances between the newly identified IBV strains in this study and the commercially used vaccines (GI-1), suggesting that IBV strains circulating in the KSA are under constant evolutionary pressures. Selective pressure biostatistics analyses consistently demonstrate the presence of a higher positive score which highlights the role of natural selection, a mechanism of virus evolution on sites located on the protein surface, within or nearby domains involved in viral attachment or related functions. Recombination analysis revealed emergence of two isolates through recombination events resulting in new recombinant viruses. Taken together, these finding demonstrate the genetic and evolutionary insights into the currently circulating IBV genotypes in KSA, which could help to better understand the origin, spread, and evolution of infectious bronchitis viruses, and to ascertain the importance of disease monitoring as well as re-evaluation for the currently used vaccines and vaccination programs.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Recombinação Genética , Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Evolução Molecular , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/isolamento & purificação , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Seleção Genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico
10.
J Vet Sci ; 21(3): e34, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A nationwide outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in South Korea caused massive economic losses in 2010. Since then, the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (QIA) has enhanced disinfection systems regarding livestock to prevent horizontal transmission of FMD and Avian influenza (AI). Although the amount of disinfectant used continues to increase, cases of FMD and AI have been occurring annually in Korea, except 2012 and 2013. OBJECTIVES: This study measured the concentration of the disinfectant to determine why it failed to remove the horizontal transmission despite increased disinfectant use. METHODS: Surveys were conducted from February to May 2017, collecting 348 samples from disinfection systems. The samples were analyzed using the Standards of Animal Health Products analysis methods from QIA. RESULTS: Twenty-three facilities used inappropriate or non-approved disinfectants. Nearly all sampled livestock farms and facilities-93.9%-did not properly adjust the disinfectant concentration. The percentage using low concentrations, or where no effective substance was detected, was 46.9%. Furthermore, 13 samples from the official disinfection station did not use effective disinfectant, and-among 72 samples from the disinfection station-88.89% were considered inappropriate concentration, according to the foot-and-mouth disease virus guidelines; considering the AIV guideline, 73.61% were inappropriate concentrations. Inappropriate concentration samples on automatic (90.00%) and semi-automatic (90.90%) disinfection systems showed no significant difference from manual methods (88.24%). Despite this study being conducted during the crisis level, most disinfectants were used inappropriately. CONCLUSIONS: This may partially explain why horizontal transmission of FMD and AI cannot be effectively prevented despite extensive disinfectant use.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Febre Aftosa , Influenza Aviária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Galinhas , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Patos , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Gado , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
11.
J Vet Sci ; 21(3): e41, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is a serious problem in the laying hen industry worldwide. Currently, the foremost control method for D. gallinae is the implementation of integrated pest management, the effective application of which necessitates a precise monitoring method. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to propose an accurate monitoring method with a reliable protocol for caged-layer poultry farms, and to suggest an objective classification for assessing D. gallinae infestation on caged-layer poultry farms according to the number of mites collected using the developed monitoring method. METHODS: We compared the numbers of mites collected from corrugated cardboard traps, regarding with length of sampling periods, sampling sites on cage, and sampling positions in farm buildings. The study also compared the mean numbers of mites collected by the developed method with the infestation levels using by the conventional monitoring methods in 37 caged-layer farm buildings. RESULTS: The statistical validation provided the suitable monitoring method that the traps were installed for 2 days on feed boxes at 27 sampling points which included three vertical levels across nine equally divided zones of farms. Using this monitoring method, the D. gallinae infestation level can be assessed objectively on caged-layer poultry farms. Moreover, the method is more sensitive than the conventional method in detecting very small populations of mites. CONCLUSIONS: This method can be used to identify the initial stages of D. gallinae infestation in the caged-layer poultry farms, and therefore, will contribute to establishment of effective control strategies for this mite.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Galinhas , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Ácaros/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Animais , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Infestações por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Ácaros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
12.
Avian Dis ; 64(2): 130-134, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550612

RESUMO

Trichomonas gallinae, a single-celled protozoan parasite, is a causative agent of the disease trichomonosis, which is distributed worldwide and has recently been highlighted as a pandemic threat to several wild bird species. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotypic diversity of T. gallinae in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. For this purpose, 273 oral swab samples from different bird species (feral pigeon Columba livia, common mynah Acridotheres tristis, chicken Gallus gallus domesticus, turkey Meleagris gallopavo, and ducks Anatidae) were collected and tested for T. gallinae infection with InPouch™ TV culture kits. The results showed that the overall prevalence of T. gallinae in these samples was 26.4% (n = 72). The PCRs were used to detect the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of T. gallinae, and the results of the sequence analysis indicated genetic variation. Among 48 sequences, we found 15 different ribotypes, of which 12 were novel. Three had been previously described as ribotypes A, C, and II. To our knowledge, this study demonstrated the presence of T. gallinae strain diversity in Saudi Arabian birds for the first time and revealed that ribotypes A and C are predominant among Riyadh birds.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves , Genótipo , Tricomoníase/veterinária , Trichomonas/genética , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Galinhas , Columbidae , Patos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estorninhos , Tricomoníase/epidemiologia , Tricomoníase/parasitologia , Perus
13.
Avian Dis ; 64(2): 210-215, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550622

RESUMO

Histomoniasis is a significant disease of gallinaceous birds caused by Histomonas meleagridis. Transmission of this parasite is dependent on use of the cecal nematode Heterakis gallinarum. To define the host range of this nematode, cecal contents from 399 game birds and poultry, representing eight species, were examined for Heterakis spp. The majority of these species (five of eight) were infected with Heterakis nematodes. Heterakis gallinarum was detected in free-ranging wild turkeys (Meleagridis gallopovo), captive-raised ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), chukars (Alectoris chukar), and domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), whereas H. isolonche was found in ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus). No Heterakis species were identified in the domestic turkey (Meleagridis gallopovo), American woodcock (Scolopax minor), and dabbling duck (Anas spp.) samples. Genetic characterization indicated that nematodes identified as H. gallinarum were present in two distinct clades. One clade of H. gallinarum sequenced from this study grouped with chicken-derived sequences from other countries. The other group of sequences consisted of a sister clade to a group of parasites morphologically identified as H. isolonche. Currently it is unknown if this group represents a genetic variant of H. gallinarum, a variant of H. isolonche, or a novel species. These results indicate Heterakis infection varies among poultry and game bird species but is common among select gallinaceous species in Pennsylvania.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Galliformes , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Spirurina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência , Infecções por Spirurida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Spirurina/classificação
14.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 33, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571370

RESUMO

In the spring of 2010, it was discovered that a large proportion of broilers in Sweden were colonized with Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) or plasmid mediated AmpC (pAmpC). It was hypothesized that the high prevalence was due to transfer from an upper level in the production pyramid and sampling upwards in the production pyramid was initiated. From 2010 to 2019, all shipments (n = 122) of broiler breeders were screened on arrival to Sweden for the occurrence of ESBL- or pAmpC-producing E. coli using selective methods. Samples of paper linings from shipments of breeders were cultured on MacConkey agar supplemented with cefotaxime (1 mg/L) after pre-enrichment in either MacConkey broth with cefotaxime (1 mg/L), or from late June 2015 in buffered peptone water without antibiotics. ESBL- or pAmpC-producing E. coli was isolated from 43 (35%) of these. Over the years, the proportion of positive imports have decreased and during 2018 and 2019 all imports were negative. In conclusion, the occurrence of ESBL- or pAmpC-producing E. coli in broiler breeders on arrival to Sweden has decreased. Such bacteria have not been detected in any shipments since 2017.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases/farmacologia , Animais , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência , Suécia/epidemiologia
15.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 395-399, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556163

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to determine the characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in cats, rats, and chickens in the border areas of Yunnan Province. A total of 259 samples was collected from 10 border areas in Yunnan Province including 94 cats, 58 rats, and 107 chickens. Samples were screened by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and the positive products were analyzed by multilocus PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine the genotypes. Toxoplasma gondii deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected from 15.96% of 94 cats, 15.52% of 58 rats, and 6.54% of 107 chickens, respectively, and the average infection rate is 11.97%. Using the multilocus PCR-RFLP, we found that the genotype of T. gondii in cats and rats was ToxoDB#9. Because of low DNA concentration, no genotype was determined from chickens. These results fill the gaps of knowledge in the prevalence and genotype of T. gondii in the border areas of Yunnan Province and have implications for the better control of T. gondii infection in humans and animals.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Ratos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Marcadores Genéticos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
18.
Poult Sci ; 99(1): 111-118, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416792

RESUMO

Avian infectious bronchitis is a serious and highly contagious disease caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). We isolated a highly virulent IBV strain (CK/CH/JS/TAHY) from kidneys of diseased chickens. Phylogenetic analysis based on the S1 gene revealed that CK/CH/JS/TAHY clustered with the QX-like type. The S1 gene has 1,620 nucleotides and encoded a polypeptide of 540 amino acids with typical coronavirus cleavage recognition sites of HRRR. About 1-day-old specific pathogen-free White Leghorn chickens inoculated with CK/CH/JS/TAHY at 105.5 EID50 exhibited clinical signs including coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, and tracheal vocalization accompanied by depression with 84% mortality and 100% morbidity. The kidneys of dead birds were swollen and pale and exhibited severe urate deposition. Histopathological examination revealed kidney hemorrhages, multifocal necrosis of the renal tubules and trachea with cilia loss, sloughing of epithelial cells, and edema of the lamina propria. IBV-specific antibodies appeared at 10 D post-infection. Chickens vaccinated with a CK/CH/JS/TAHY oil-emulsion vaccine showed 26.7% morbidity and 3% mortality indicating a protective effect. In conclusion, the IBV strain is a virulent avian IBV and that exhibited severe pathogenicity in chickens and is a vaccine candidate to prevent infection by Chinese QX-like nephropathogenic IBV strains.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Clonagem Molecular , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/classificação , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
20.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2675-2683, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359604

RESUMO

Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) has rapidly acquired resistance to multiple antimicrobials, and the antimicrobial resistance of E. faecalis from broiler breeders has been implicated in its vertical transmission to their offspring. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of commensal E. faecalis isolated from the broiler breeder farms. Among a total of 229 E. faecalis isolates from 9 broiler breeder farms, the highest resistance rate was observed in tetracycline (78.2%), followed by doxycycline (58.1%) and erythromycin (43.7%), and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance showed significant differences among the 9 broiler breeder farms (P < 0.05). The tetM gene (77.1%) and ermB gene (85.0%) were detected at the highest levels in 179 TE-and 100 E-resistant isolates, respectively. Twenty-four high-level gentamicin-resistant isolates carried aac(6″)Ie-aph(2″)-la gene, and 9 high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates showed point mutations in both gyrA and parC genes. All high-level gentamicin-resistant or high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates showed one of the two different virulence gene patterns, ace-asa1-efaA-gelE complex or ace-efaA-gelE complex. These results indicate that constant epidemiological monitoring at the breeder level is required to prevent the pyramidal transmission of antimicrobial-resistant E. faecalis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Variação Genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Animais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/genética , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
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