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1.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(2): 271-276, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184510

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The article discusses the antimicrobial resistance of poultry-isolated bacteria in the Wielkopolska region of Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From August 2014 - June 2016, antibiotic resistance screening tests were performed involving 4,496 samples of Escherichia coli and 84 samples of Klebsiella spp., and the following antibiotics: amoxicillin, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, colistin, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, neomycin, norfloxacin, spectinomycin, and trimethoprim with sulfamethoxazole. The research used broth the microdilution method and CLSI standards. RESULTS: During the investigation period of 22 months a growing percentage of E. coli isolates showed antibiotic resistance to amoxicillin, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, colistin, enrofloxacin, neomycin, norfloxacin, spectinomycin, and trimethoprim with sulfamethoxazole. Resistance to doxycycline and florfenicol decreased. The most efficient antibiotics against E. coli were colistin (84.64 %), neomycin (80.62 %), and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (73.05 %). Klebsiella samples were the most susceptible to neomycin (85.71 %), colistin (84.52 %), and trimethoprim with sulfamethoxazole (73.81 %). CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic resistance of pathogenic micro-organisms, such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., is a serious problem both for poultry producers and for public health protection. Low efficiency of numerous antibiotic groups forces reflection on limiting the use of medicines in food-producing animals.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Klebsiella/genética , Klebsiella/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polônia
2.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 4092-4104, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977979

RESUMO

Baicalin shows excellent protective effects against Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) induced inflammatory injury as discussed in our previous studies. However, the physiological effects of baicalin are notable in contrast to its low bioavailability, and the critical mechanism for the protective effects of baicalin against MG infection is still unclear. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether baicalin alleviates MG-induced lung inflammatory injury through regulating gut microbiota. Using an MG infection model, results showed that baicalin treatment significantly reduced MG colonization and ameliorated the abnormal pathological changes in the lung. Baicalin treatment also reduced the level of proinflammatory cytokines and suppressed proinflammatory protein expression. Notably, MG infection changed the gut microbiota composition, however, the abnormal gut microbiota composition was partially alleviated by baicalin treatment. Baicalin significantly enriched the commensal bacterium Bacteroides fragilis, and gavaged with Bacteroides fragilis alleviating MG infection-induced inflammatory injury in the lung. In addition, baicalin reversed peripheral accumulation of phenylalanine induced by MG infection. Importantly, increased phenylalanine induced excessive necroptosis through the modulation of gga-miR-190a-3p-Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) axis in HD11 macrophages. Together, our findings highlighted the role of gut microbiota and phenylalanine metabolism in MG infection and confirmed that baicalin could effectively inhibit MG-induced inflammatory injury in the lung by remodeling the gut microbiota and phenylalanine metabolism.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Galinhas , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma gallisepticum , Fenilalanina/metabolismo , Animais , Bacteroides fragilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citocinas/metabolismo , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Disbiose/veterinária , Inflamação/veterinária , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/patologia , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Necroptose , Necrose , Fenilalanina/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 350: 109246, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034079

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica is a major cause of foodborne diseases, and is also an important pathogenic bacterium in poultry industry. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has become a crucial molecular typing technology used for the surveillance of the pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, we adopted WGS for tracking transmission of S. enterica in the production chain of broiler chickens. A total of 74 S. enterica strains were isolated from the different steps of breeding and slaughtering in a large production enterprise in Sichuan Province, China. The isolation rate of Salmonella was the highest in procedure of defeathering (50.0%) and evisceration (36.7%). Serotype identification showed that 74 Salmonella isolates included 7 serotypes, among which Mbandaka accounted for the highest proportions (35.1%). WGS revealed that 74 strains belonged to 7 different sequence types (STs), as well as 7 different ribosomal STs and 35 core genome STs. cgMLST-based Minimum Spanning Trees and phylogenetic tree based on the SNPs indicated that three serotypes, Mbandaka, Indiana and Kentucky, could be clonally transmitted between broiler farm and slaughterhouse. Heterogeneous resistant phenotypes and genotypes were found in two serotypes, Indiana and Kentucky. Our study indicated WGS in an accurate tool for molecular typing of S. enterica. Routine surveillance of S. enterica in the production chain of broiler chickens is needed.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/transmissão , Salmonella enterica/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , China/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Produtos Avícolas , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Sorogrupo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
Vet Rec ; 188(10): e302, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis is a zoonotic pathogen isolated in broilers causing great economic losses in the European poultry sector. It is demonstrated that an investment in management measures at farm level could directly affect the control of food chain microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the development of S. Infantis antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns during the growing period, according to flock density and ventilation management, without antibiotic administration. METHODS: The experiment was performed in two identical poultry houses, evaluating commercial and optimal farm conditions. At 24 h of rearing, 20% of the animals were orally infected with a S. Infantis strain susceptible to all the antibiotics tested. To study Salmonella shedding, faeces samples from each experimental group were taken weekly and analysed as per ISO/TS 6579-2:2017. Antibiotic susceptibility was assessed according to Decision 2013/653. RESULTS: Salmonella shedding showed that the lowest counts were observed in the first week post-infection and highest at slaughter day for both groups. Moreover, 100% of the isolates were multi-resistant. CONCLUSION: The acquisition of AMR by S. Infantis starts at the onset of the production cycle and is maintained until the end, demonstrating the importance of transmission of AMR in zoonotic bacteria at farm level.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Fazendas/organização & administração , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Salmonella enterica/genética , Sorogrupo
5.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103795, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875223

RESUMO

Broiler meat is considered as the most important source of the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. Exposure to stress conditions encountered during the slaughtering process may induce bacterial adaptation mechanisms, and enhance or decrease pathogen resistance to subsequent stress. This adaptation may result from changes in bacterial gene expression. This study aims to accurately quantify the expression of selected C. jejuni genes after stresses inspired from the poultry slaughtering process. RT-qPCR was used to quantify gene expression of 44 genes in three strains after successive heat and cold stresses. Main results indicated that 26 genes out of 44 were differentially expressed following the successive thermal stresses. Three clusters of genes were differentially expressed according to the strain and the stress condition. Up-regulated genes mainly included genes involved in the heat shock response, whereas down-regulated genes belonged to metabolic pathways (such as lipid, amino-acid metabolisms). However, four genes were similarly overexpressed in the three strains; they might represent indicators of the thermal stress response at the species scale. Advances in the molecular understanding of the stress response of pathogenic bacteria, such as Campylobacter, in real-life processing conditions will make it possible to identify technological levers and better mitigate the microbial risk.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter jejuni/fisiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Campylobacter jejuni/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Carne/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estresse Fisiológico
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(3): e1009436, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33740012

RESUMO

Opportunistic pathogens frequently cause volatile infections in hosts with compromised immune systems or a disrupted normal microbiota. The commensalism of diverse microorganisms contributes to colonization resistance, which prevents the expansion of opportunistic pathogens. Following microbiota disruption, pathogens promptly adapt to altered niches and obtain growth advantages. Nevertheless, whether and how resident bacteria modulate the growth dynamics of invasive pathogens and the eventual outcome of such infections are still unclear. Here, we utilized birds as a model animal and observed a resident bacterium exacerbating the invasion of Avibacterium paragallinarum (previously Haemophilus paragallinarum) in the respiratory tract. We first found that negligibly abundant Staphylococcus chromogenes, rather than Staphylococcus aureus, played a dominant role in Av. paragallinarum-associated infectious coryza in poultry based on epidemic investigations and in vitro analyses. Furthermore, we determined that S. chromogenes not only directly provides the necessary nutrition factor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) but also accelerates its biosynthesis and release from host cells to promote the survival and growth of Av. paragallinarum. Last, we successfully intervened in Av. paragallinarum-associated infections in animal models using antibiotics that specifically target S. chromogenes. Our findings show that opportunistic pathogens can hijack commensal bacteria to initiate infection and expansion and suggest a new paradigm to ameliorate opportunistic infections by modulating the dynamics of resident bacteria.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Sistema Respiratório/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Haemophilus paragallinarum/efeitos dos fármacos , Haemophilus paragallinarum/patogenicidade , Microbiota , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(10)2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674440

RESUMO

We investigated the prevalence and transmission of NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae in fecal samples of geese and environmental samples from a goose farm in southern China. The samples were cultivated on MacConkey agar plates supplemented with meropenem. Individual colonies were examined for bla NDM, and bla NDM-positive bacteria were characterized based on whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data from the Illumina and Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) platforms. Of 117 samples analyzed, the carriage rates for New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM)-positive Enterobacteriaceae were 47.1, 18, and 50% in geese, inanimate environments (sewage, soil, fodder, and dust), and mouse samples, respectively. Two variants (bla NDM-1 and bla NDM-5, in 4 and 40 isolates, respectively) were found among 44 bla NDM-positive Enterobacteriaceae; these variants belonged to eight species, and Escherichia coli was the most prevalent (50%). WGS analysis revealed that bla NDM coexisted with diverse antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Population structure analysis showed that most E. coli and Enterobacter sp. isolates were highly heterogeneous, while most Citrobacter sp. and P. stuartii isolates possessed extremely high genetic similarities. In addition, bla NDM-5-positive ST4358/ST48 E. coli isolates were found to be clonally spread between geese and the environment and were highly genetically similar to those reported from ducks, farm environments, and humans in China. Plasmid analysis indicated that IncX3 pHNYX644-1-like (n = 40) and untypeable pM2-1-like plasmids (n = 4) mediated bla NDM spread. pM2-1-like plasmids possessed diverse ARGs, including bla NDM-1, the arsenical and mercury resistance operons, and the maltose operon. Our findings revealed that the goose farm is a reservoir for NDM-positive Enterobacteriaceae The bla NDM contamination of wild mice and the novel pM2-1-like plasmid described here likely adds to the risk for dissemination of bla NDM and associated resistance genes.IMPORTANCE Carbapenem-resistant bacteria, in particular NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae, have become a great threat to global public. These bacteria have been found not only in hospital and community environments but also among food animal production chains, which are recognized as reservoirs for NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae However, the dissemination of NDM-producing bacteria in waterfowl farms has been less well explored. Our study demonstrates that the horizontal spread of bla NDM-carrying plasmids and the partial clonal spread of bla NDM-positive Enterobacteriaceae contribute to the widespread contamination of bla NDM in the goose farm ecosystem, including mice. Furthermore, we found a novel and transferable bla NDM-1-carrying multidrug resistance (MDR) plasmid that possessed multiple environmental adaptation-related genes. The outcomes of this study contribute to a better understanding of the prevalence and transmission of bla NDM-carrying Enterobacteriaceae among diverse niches in the farm ecosystem.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Gansos/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , China , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Fazendas , Fezes/microbiologia , Fômites/microbiologia , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
8.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100894, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652525

RESUMO

Pullorum is a chicken-specific systemic disease caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum). This study was carried out to provide basic data for understanding the trends of S. Pullorum. A total of 652 S. Pullorum isolates collected in China during 1962-2019 were examined. Overall, 525 (80.5%) isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic; 280 (42.9%) isolates resisted 3 or more classes of antibiotics and showed an increasing trend until 2015 and then decreased significantly. The most common multidrug-resistant pattern was ampicillin-tetracycline-nalidixic acid (13.6%). After 2008, 6 classes of antibiotic-resistant strains began to appear, and they have been prevalent ever since. In 2014, a strain resistant to 7 antibiotics (ampicillin-cefazolin-streptomycin-tetracycline-sulphonamides-nalidixic acid-nitrofurantoin) was isolated. The highest antimicrobial resistance was observed for nalidixic acid (71.9%), and the lowest was found for cefotaxime, meropenem, amikacin, gentamicin, fosfomycin, and polymyxin (0%). Our findings monitored the prevalence of the resistance of S. Pullorum during the past half-century in China. Continued surveillance of antimicrobial resistance and the rational use of antimicrobials is necessary and important to control the rapid increase in antimicrobial resistance in S. Pullorum.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Salmonelose Animal , Salmonella enterica , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , China/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sorogrupo
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(4): 100985, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647720

RESUMO

Bacterial infections of yolk sacs contribute to increased mortality of chicks, chronic infections during their rearing, or increased selection in the flock, which in turn leads to high economic losses in poultry production worldwide. The aim of this study was a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of enterococci isolated from yolk sac infections (YSI) of broiler chickens from Poland and the Netherlands. Biochemical, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time-of-flight (TOF) MS, and rpoA gene sequencing identification was performed. Moreover, phenotypic and genotypic characterization of virulence factors and analysis of the clonal relationship of isolates by MALDI-TOF MS and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) were performed. The biochemical test identified 70 isolates as Enterococcus faecalis and 6 as Enterococcus mundtii. The results of MALDI-TOF MS were 100% concordant with those obtained by rpoA gene sequencing, and all 76 isolates were identified as E. faecalis. Differences were noted in the ß-glucuronidase, ß-glucosidase, α-galactosidase, phosphatase, melibiose, lactose, and raffinose tests that is going about the results of biochemical identification. None of the isolates were beta-hemolytic on blood agar in aerobic conditions, but all but one were gelatinase positive. Among biofilm-forming isolates (30/76; 39.5%), as many as 66.7% (20/30) were Polish E. faecalis strains. Most of the isolates carried virulence genes, that is gelE, ace, asa1, efaAfs, fsrA, fsrB, fsrC, cob, cpd, and ccf, but none had the hyl gene. Some isolates harbored cyl operon genes. One Polish strain (ST16) had all of the tested cyl genes and the esp gene, considered clinically important, and showed the highest biofilm-forming ability. Nearly 50% of the isolates showed close genetic relatedness in ERIC typing. In contrast with MALDI-TOF MS cluster analysis, ERIC-PCR results did not show a relationship with the origin of the strains. Using MALDI-TOF MS, 7 peaks were found in Polish and Dutch isolates, which may type them as species-specific biomarkers in E. faecalis from YSI.


Assuntos
Enterococcus , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Fatores de Virulência , Saco Vitelino , Animais , Galinhas , Enterococcus/genética , Enterococcus/patogenicidade , Genes Bacterianos/genética , Genótipo , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Países Baixos , Fenótipo , Polônia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Saco Vitelino/microbiologia
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 765, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536414

RESUMO

Chickens are the most common birds on Earth and colibacillosis is among the most common diseases affecting them. This major threat to animal welfare and safe sustainable food production is difficult to combat because the etiological agent, avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), emerges from ubiquitous commensal gut bacteria, with no single virulence gene present in all disease-causing isolates. Here, we address the underlying evolutionary mechanisms of extraintestinal spread and systemic infection in poultry. Combining population scale comparative genomics and pangenome-wide association studies, we compare E. coli from commensal carriage and systemic infections. We identify phylogroup-specific and species-wide genetic elements that are enriched in APEC, including pathogenicity-associated variation in 143 genes that have diverse functions, including genes involved in metabolism, lipopolysaccharide synthesis, heat shock response, antimicrobial resistance and toxicity. We find that horizontal gene transfer spreads pathogenicity elements, allowing divergent clones to cause infection. Finally, a Random Forest model prediction of disease status (carriage vs. disease) identifies pathogenic strains in the emergent ST-117 poultry-associated lineage with 73% accuracy, demonstrating the potential for early identification of emergent APEC in healthy flocks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Escherichia coli/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Galinhas , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Virulência/genética
11.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1008-1015, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518059

RESUMO

A large number of antimicrobials are used for the treatment of bacterial infections, and the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) in livestock and the transfer of resistant isolates to humans poses a serious potential risk to public health. In particular, broiler parent stock produce thousands of eggs for commercial broiler chickens and can transfer antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and drug-resistance genes to chicks. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant and extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL)-producing E. coli isolated from the broiler parent stock in Korea. Among 51 cefotaxime-resistant E. coli isolates, 45 (88.2%) isolates were identified as multidrug resistant and 21 isolates showed phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of CTX-M-producing E. coli. The CTX-M genes CTX-M-14, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-1, and CTX-M-1 were detected in 10, 7, 3, and 1 isolates, respectively. ISEcp1 or IS26 + ISEcp1 were identified upstream of all CTX-M-type genes, and orf477 and IS903 were detected downstream of 9 and 10 CTX-M-type genes, respectively. Thirteen (61.9%) of the 21 CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates harbored class 1 integrons with 4 different gene cassette arrangements. Among the plasmid replicons, CTX-M-1 was located on I1, F, and FIB; CTX-M-14 on F and FII; CTX-M-15 on FII, FIA, and FIB; and CTX-M-65 on FIB. This is the first study to investigate the presence and distribution of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant and CTX-M-producing E. coli isolated from the broiler parent stock level in Korea, and the results indicate that comprehensive surveillance and persistent monitoring systems in broiler parent stock farms are necessary to prevent the dissemination of resistant isolates.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefotaxima/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Óvulo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética
12.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1016-1023, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518060

RESUMO

Salmonella is a major zoonotic foodborne pathogen that persists on poultry farms worldwide. The present study aimed to survey the prevalence of Salmonella and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) recovered from broiler chickens in Shandong Province, China. A total of 280 Salmonella isolates were identified from 923 broiler chicken samples between 2013 and 2018. Among the isolates, S. Enteritidis (n = 128, 45.7%) was the predominant serovar, and high antimicrobial resistance rates to piperacillin (PIP) (n = 123, 96.1%), ampicillin (AM) (n = 122, 95.3%), nitrofurantoin (FT) (n = 106, 96.1%), and tetracycline (TE) (n = 93, 72.7%) were observed in S. Enteritidis. A total of 96 (75.0%) S. Enteritidis isolates presented with multidrug resistance, the most frequent of which were the combination of AM, PIP, TE, and FT. Resistance to fluoroquinolone tended to increase during 2013 to 2018. Our findings provide important and updated information about the baseline antimicrobial-resistant data for food safety and a risk assessment of S. Enteritidis from broiler chickens in Shandong Province and will be helpful for future surveillance activities to ensure the safety of the chicken supply.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/classificação , Salmonella enteritidis/isolamento & purificação , Sorogrupo
13.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1024-1033, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518061

RESUMO

Foodborne illness is an ongoing problem worldwide and is caused by bacteria that invade the food chain from the farm, slaughter house, restaurant or grocery, or in the home and can be controlled by strategies using biocides (antiseptics and disinfectants). Susceptibility profiles were determined for 96 Campylobacter jejuni strains obtained in 2011-2012 from broiler chicken house environments to antimicrobials and disinfectants as per the methods of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and TREK Diagnostics using CAMPY AST Campylobacter plates. Low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance was observed in C. jejuni strains to tetracycline (TET; 21.9%), ciprofloxacin (CIP; 13.5%), and nalidixic acid (NAL; 12.5%). The resistance profiles had a maximum of 3 antimicrobials, CIP-NAL-TET, with TET being the main profile observed. No cross-resistance was observed between antimicrobials and disinfectants. The C. jejuni strains (99%) were resistant to triclosan, 32% were resistant to chlorhexidine, and they all were susceptible to benzalkonium chloride. The strains had low-level minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to the disinfectants P-128, Food Service Sanitizer, F-25 Sanitizer, Final Step 512 Sanitizer, OdoBan, dioctyldimethylammmonium chloride, didecyldimethylammonium chloride (C10AC), benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride (C12BAC), and benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (C14BAC). Intermediate MICs against DC&R, cetylpyridinium bromide hydrate, hexadecylpyridinium chloride, ethylhexadecyldimethylammonium bromide, and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide with elevated intermediate MICs against Tek-Trol, benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride, tris(hydroxylmethyl)nitromethane (THN), and formaldehyde. The highest MIC were obtained for povidone-iodine. The components THN and the benzylammonium chlorides C12BAC and C14BAC were responsible for the inhibition by DC&R. The components C10AC and C12BAC may act synergistically causing inhibition of C. jejuni by the disinfectant P-128. The formaldehyde component in DC&R was not effective against C. jejuni compared with the ammonium chloride components. Its use in disinfectants may result in additional unnecessary chemicals in the environment. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride is the most effective ammonium chloride component against C. jejuni.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Abrigo para Animais , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária
14.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1059-1067, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518064

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Pullorum (S. Pullorum) is an infectious bacterial pathogen in the poultry industry that causes systemic pullorum disease. This disease causes great losses in terms of the clinical production and quality of chicken products in breeding farms. However, an acknowledged usable rapid detection method for its specific identification has not been reported, and it is generally difficult to distinguish from fowl typhoid caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovars Gallinarum. The development of a specific and rapid detection method for this pathogen is therefore needed. In the present study, we targeted the single-nucleotide mutation position 237 of the S. Pullorum rfbS gene to develop an enzyme-activated blocked probe for its clinical rapid detection. The method displayed robust specificity and reproducibility, and it achieved minimal detection limits of 21 copies/µL of copy number and 4.53 pg/µL of genomic DNA. Compared with traditional identification and PCR methods, this method performed better for the detection of 100 clinical actual samples and without false negative results. The entire process can be accomplished in a 1-step closed-tube operation, overcomes the difficulties currently associated with S. Pullorum detection, and provides a specific and rapid method with broad application potential for SNP detection.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Salmonelose Animal/diagnóstico , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Salmonella enterica/classificação , Salmonella enterica/genética , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1076-1082, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518066

RESUMO

Poultry is seen as the main reservoir for Campylobacter. Control of this zoonotic pathogen in primary production could potentially reduce the colonization in broiler flocks and consequently reduce the number of human infections. In the present study, 20 broiler flocks from 10 farms, were sampled immediately before and 5 to 7 d after partial depopulation (thinning) for the presence of Campylobacter using cecal droppings and overshoes. At the time of thinning, the catching crew, transportation vehicles, forklift, and transport containers were sampled for the presence of Campylobacter. Samples were cultivated; presumed positive isolates were confirmed by PCR. The isolates were molecularly typed by flaA restriction analysis and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Results show that all flocks were thinned using Campylobacter-contaminated equipment and materials. One-third of the broiler flocks became colonized after thinning. In 67% of the colonization cases, identical strains were found matching those of container systems, transport trucks, and/or forklifts. This identifies thinning as an important risk factor for Campylobacter introduction into broiler houses. Setup and compliance with biosecurity practices during thinning is essential to prevent Campylobacter colonization of broiler flocks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/fisiologia , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Campylobacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/prevenção & controle , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado/veterinária , Equipamentos e Provisões/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle
16.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1093-1097, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518068

RESUMO

Florfenicol, apramycin, and danofloxacin are antibiotics approved only for veterinary use and that have good therapeutic effects on chicken respiratory infections caused by Escherichia coli. We established epidemiological cutoff values (ECV) for these antibiotics using 363 E. coli isolates from tracheal samples of chickens in 5 veterinary clinics in Guangdong Province, China. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using the agar dilution method as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institution guidelines. The ECV were then calculated using the statistical method and verified by normalized resistance interpretation and ECOFFinder software programs. The ECV of florfenicol, apramycin, and danofloxacin against E. coli were 16, 16, and 0.125 µg/mL, respectively. Susceptibility tests indicated that these isolates were resistant to florfenicol (66.7%), apramycin (22.3%), and danofloxacin (92.3%). Strains carrying floR were distributed in the range of MIC ≥32 µg/mL for florfenicol. Apramycin resistance was found in 77 strains (77/363, 21.1%), and isolates that carried aac(3)-IV were all in the range of MIC ≥512 µg/mL. Danofloxacin resistance was found in the range of MIC ≤0.125 µg/mL, but there were no mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, aac-(6')-Ib-cr, qep, and oqxB. The presence of the qnrS gene was verified in a few of the strains with an MIC of 0.06 µg/mL. The establishment of ECV was significant for monitoring of resistance development and therapy guidance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , China/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Nebramicina/análogos & derivados , Nebramicina/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados , Tianfenicol/farmacologia
17.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100807, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518310

RESUMO

With global warming and ban on antibiotics, it occurs occasionally that deoxynivalenol (DON) together with Clostridium perfringens impairs the gut health of broiler chickens. However, the interactive effect of DON and C. perfringens on intestinal health is still unknown. A total of 120 one-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly distributed to 4 groups. Birds were gavaged with C. perfringens (8 × 108 CFU/d per bird) or sterile medium and fed a DON diet (0 or 5 mg of DON per kg diet) to investigate the interactive effects. The main effect analysis showed that DON diet significantly downregulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression of mucin-2, B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X, and cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-3 of jejunal mucosa; decreased (P < 0.05) the indexes of ACE, Chao1, Shannon, and Simpson; and also decreased the relative abundance of the phylum Bacteroidete and the genera Lactococcus in jejunal contents of broilers chickens. Meanwhile, C. perfringens significantly increased (P < 0.05) crypt depth; decreased (P < 0.05) the ratio of villi height to crypt depth, the activity of jejunal diamine oxidase, and the relative abundance of Lactococcus; and upregulated (P < 0.05) the relative expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 and cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-8. Furthermore, the interactions between DON and C. perfringens were most significant (P < 0.05) in the mRNA expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor (LITAF) and TLR-4, the abundance of the genera Lactococcus in jejunal contents, and butyric acid concentrations in cecal contents of birds. Finally, Spearman correlation analysis suggested that the most negative correlations (P < 0.05) with the abundance of the genera except Lactobacillus were observed within the mRNA expression of LITAF. The abundance of Lactococcus had a positive correlation (P < 0.05) with the expression of Caspase-3. Most genera except Lactobacillus negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with acetic acid, butyric acid, and total short-chain fatty acids. In conclusion, dietary deoxynivalenol and C. perfringens challenge had a harmful effect on the jejunal health and should be carefully monitored in broiler production.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Infecções por Clostridium , Suplementos Nutricionais , Jejuno , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Tricotecenos , Animais , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Clostridium/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens , Dieta/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Jejuno/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Tricotecenos/farmacologia , Tricotecenos/uso terapêutico
18.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100893, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518320

RESUMO

Duck meat consumption in South Korea has increased in recent years, but no standard about duck farm-specific biosecurity and hygiene guidelines have yet been established. We here investigated Salmonella contamination levels in duck farms to evaluate biosecurity and hygiene practices. We collected 1,116 environmental samples from 31 duck farms in Jeonnam Province, South Korea. The Salmonella-positive farm rate dramatically increased, from 22.6 to 71.0%, on introduction of ducklings. As the ducklings aged 4-6 wk, the positive rate slightly decreased to 64.5%. The Salmonella detection rate on each sampled surface, such as the feed pan (34.4%), wall (33.9%), litter (32.3%), and nipples (24.2%), was highest at 3 wk of age. The most frequently detected Salmonella serovars were Salmonella London (22.2%), Salmonella Albany (21.6%), Salmonella Bareilly (17.0%), and Salmonella Indiana (16.5%). Implementation of cleaning and disinfection procedures, rodent control, and metal house walls significantly lowered the prevalence of Salmonella (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, and P < 0.05, respectively). A high proportion of Salmonella isolates exhibited antimicrobial resistance: 100 and 62.9% exhibited resistance to erythromycin and nalidixic acid, respectively. Furthermore, a majority of S. Albany and all Salmonella Enteritidis isolates were multidrug resistant. These results indicate the level of Salmonella contamination in duck farm environments in Korea is high. Good biosecurity and hygiene practices are the most effective measures for controlling Salmonella contamination.


Assuntos
Patos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Salmonelose Animal , Salmonella , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Patos/microbiologia , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonelose Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle
19.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 27, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596999

RESUMO

Gallibacterium anatis is a common cause of reproductive tract infection in chickens, which leads to reduced egg production and increased mortality. This study was undertaken to investigate prevalence of G. anatis in 12 poultry flocks originating from Iranian provinces with leading chicken production and to determine genetic diversity, antimicrobial resistance, and the presence of major antigens of the isolates investigated. Out of the 120 chicken tracheal samples collected and tested, 84 (70%) were positive for G. anatis. Genotyping by Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis and genome sequencing revealed a total of 24 pulsotypes for 71 strains (at a 87% similarity level) and seven genome clusters comprising 21 strains (97% similarity level), respectively. The combination of the two typing methods confirmed the presence of several genotypes originating from a common ancestor affecting poultry yet also suggested that identical clones were shared among chickens within farms and between different farms. The latter finding is to our knowledge the first example of clonal presence of G. anatis in epidemiologically unrelated farms. The 21 sequenced strains were characterized against a panel of commonly used antibiotics and showed lowered sensitivity to tetracycline (76.2%) and enrofloxacin (90.5%). The widespread presence of multiresistant G. anatis isolates calls for non-antibiotic prophylactics. Three major immunogen genes, gtxA, Gab_1309 and Gab_2312 were detected in the isolates indicating these antigens likely represent effective vaccine targets. A conserved sequence of the gtxA gene across a range of epidemiologically independent strains suggests the use of GtxA for future vaccine development purposes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/veterinária , Pasteurellaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Pasteurellaceae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Genoma Bacteriano , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/microbiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
20.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 585-591, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518111

RESUMO

Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic agent of systemic wasting disease in birds and atypical pneumonia in mammalians including humans, constituting a public health risk. A rapid diagnostic assay would be beneficial in screening C. psittaci in the field. In this study, we developed a probe-based recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for the rapid detection of C. psittaci. The specific primer pairs and probe targeting the conserved region of the outer membrane protein A gene were designed and applied to the real-time real-time RPA assay. The test can be performed at 39°C for 20 min using a portable device, with sensitivities approaching 100 copies of DNA molecules per reaction, with no cross-reaction with other pathogens. The clinical performance of the RPA assay was evaluated in an outbreak of C. psittaci and has high accuracy levels in field applications. The epidemic C. psittaci strains were classed into 2 genotypes: A and C. Collectively, this study offers a promising approach in screening for C. psittaci both in a laboratory setting and in field settings, and RPA can be used as an effective clinical test to monitor outbreaks in domestic fowl populations.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia , Recombinases , Animais , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Patos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/economia , Psitacose/economia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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