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1.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 24, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596990

RESUMO

Avian coccidiosis caused by Eimeria leads to huge economic losses on the global poultry industry. In this study, microneme adhesive repeat regions (MARR) bc1 of E. tenella microneme protein 3 (EtMIC3-bc1) was used as ligand, and peptides binding to EtMIC3 were screened from a phage display peptide library. The positive phage clones were checked by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Competitive ELISA was applied to further verify the binding capability between the positive phages and recombinant EtMIC3-bc1 protein or sporozoites protein. The inhibitory effects of target peptides on sporozoites invasion of MDBK cells were measured in vitro. Chickens were orally administrated with target positive phages and the protective effects against homologous challenge were evaluated. The model of three-dimensional (3D) structure for EtMIC3-bc1 was conducted, and molecular docking between target peptides and EtMIC3-bc1 model was analyzed. The results demonstrated that three selected positive phages specifically bind to EtMIC3-bc1 protein. The three peptides A, D and W effectively inhibited invasion of MDBK cells by sporozoites, showing inhibited ratio of 71.8%, 54.6% and 20.8%, respectively. Chickens in the group orally inoculated with phages A displayed more protective efficacies against homologous challenge than other groups. Molecular docking showed that amino acids in three peptides, especially in peptide A, insert into the hydrophobic groove of EtMIC3-bc1 protein, and bind to EtMIC3-bc1 through intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Taken together, the results suggest EtMIC3-binding peptides inhibit sporozoites entry into host cells. This study provides new idea for exploring novel strategies against coccidiosis.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Esporozoítos/imunologia , Animais , Bacteriófagos , Ceco/patologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica
2.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 655-663, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409626

RESUMO

Coccidiosis is an intestinal parasitic disease that causes huge economic losses in the poultry industry globally. Henan and Hubei, as important poultry production provinces in China, have great pressure for the prevention and control of chicken coccidiosis. In order to obtain information on the local prevalence of Eimeria species, we used an internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequence of ribosomal DNA to identify the species from 318 fresh fecal samples. The fecal samples and the data relating to farm information were collected from 137 farms in Hubei and Henan provinces. As shown by genus-specific PCR results, the positivity rate of Eimeria was 97.17% (309/318), and the most common species were Eimeria mitis (66.67%), E. tenella (46.86%), and E. necatrix (41.51%). Then, we analyzed the correlation between the background information of each sample and the PCR identification results, which showed that indigenous farms in Henan province were at the greatest risk of harboring highly pathogenic Eimeria species and a larger proportion of such farms were positive for E. necatrix, the most pathogenic species. The results of this study showed that chicken coccidia was widespread, which provides important insights into the control of chicken coccidiosis in this region.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/genética , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fezes/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Prevalência
3.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100888, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516468

RESUMO

Coccidiosis, caused by parasites of the genus Eimeria, is one of the most widespread and economically detrimental diseases in the global poultry industry. Because the merozoite stage of Eimeria tenella is immunologically vulnerable, motile, and functionally important for the parasites, the proteins expressed in these stages are considered to be potentially immunoprotective antigens, especially the secreted antigens and surface antigens. Here, we detected a previously unidentified MIC2-associated protein (Et-M2AP) from E. tenella and determined its localization. An immunofluorescence assay revealed that Et-M2AP was distributed in the apical part of second generation merozoites and sporozoites. In addition, an expression profile analysis revealed that the transcriptional level of Et-M2AP is significantly higher in the merozoite stage. To assess the potential of Et-M2AP protein as a coccidiosis vaccine, we expressed recombinant Et-M2AP (rEt-M2AP) and compared the immune protective efficacy of rEt-M2AP with 3 surface antigens that are highly expressed by merozoites (rEt-SAG23, rEt-SAG16, and rEt-SAG2 proteins). The immune protective efficacy of these vaccine candidates was assessed based on survival rate, lesion score, BW gain, relative BW gain, and oocyst output. The results show that the survival rate was 90%, which are significantly higher than those in the challenge control group. The BW gain rate was 42% (P < 0.001) in rEt-M2AP-immunized chickens, which are significantly higher than those in the challenge control group and rEt-SAG23, rEt-SAG16, and rEt-SAG2 proteins-immunized chickens. In addition, chickens immunized with rEt-M2AP (88% oocyst output decrease rate, P < 0.001) had the least oocyst output, compared with those immunized with rEt-SAG16 (59.2% oocyst output decrease rate, P < 0.001), rEt-SAG23 (22% oocyst output decrease rate), and rEt-SAG2 (1.36% oocyst output decrease rate). These results demonstrate that rEt-M2AP provided effective protection against challenge with E. tenella, suggesting that rEt-M2AP is a promising candidate antigen gene for development as a coccidiosis vaccine.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria tenella , Merozoítos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vacinas Protozoárias , Animais , Galinhas/imunologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/genética , Eimeria tenella/imunologia , Merozoítos/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Vacinas Protozoárias/normas , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia
4.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100806, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516484

RESUMO

A reliable and reproducible in vivo experimental model is an essential tool to study the pathogenesis of broiler necrotic enteritis and to evaluate control methods. Most current in vivo models use Eimeria as predisposing factor. Nevertheless, most models only result in a limited number of animals with intestinal necrosis. This research describes the necrotic enteritis incidence and severity using 2 previously described experimental models varying in the time point and frequency of Eimeria administration: single late and early repeated Eimeria administration models. In an in vivo model in which Clostridium perfringens is administered at 3 consecutive days between day 18 and 20 of age, birds belonging to the single late Eimeria administration regimen received a single administration of a tenfold dose of a live attenuated Eimeria vaccine on the second day of C. perfringens challenge. Broilers belonging to the early repeated administration regimen were inoculated with the same Eimeria vaccine 4 and 2 d before the start of the C. perfringens challenge. Early repeated coccidial administration resulted in a significant increase in average necrotic lesion score (value 3.26) as compared with a single late Eimeria administration regimen (value 1.2). In addition, the number of necrotic enteritis-positive animals was significantly higher in the group that received the early repeated coccidial administration. Single Eimeria administration during C. perfringens challenge resulted in a skewed distribution of lesion scoring with hardly any birds in the high score categories. A more centered distribution was obtained with the early repeated Eimeria administration regimen, having observations in every lesion score category. These findings allow better standardization of a subclinical necrotic enteritis model and reduction of the required numbers of experimental animals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium , Coccidiose , Enterite , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens , Coccidiose/microbiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enterite/microbiologia , Enterite/parasitologia , Enterite/veterinária , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/parasitologia , Necrose/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Vacinas Protozoárias/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 593-603, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415386

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic protozoan that infects most species of mammals and birds, including poultry. This study aimed to investigate the course of T. gondii infection and the efficacy of diclazuril and Artemisia annua in preventing infection in experimentally infected chickens. Seventy-five 1-month-old chickens, female and male, were randomly divided into five groups (n = 15 each) as follows: (1) uninfected untreated (negative control, NC); (2) infected with T. gondii genotype II/III isolated from a wild cat (group WC); (3) infected with T. gondii genotype II isolated from a domestic cat (group DC); (4) infected with T. gondii domestic cat strain and treated with the anticoccidial diclazuril (group DC-D); and (5) infected with T. gondii domestic cat strain and treated with the medicinal plant Artemisia annua (group DC-A). Clinical signs, body temperature, mortality rate, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, hematological parameters, and the presence of T. gondii-specific IgY antibodies were recorded in all groups. Five chickens per group were euthanized 28 days post-infection (p.i.) and their brains, hearts, and breast muscle tested for T. gondii by mouse bioassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). No clinical signs related to the experimental infection were observed throughout the study period. T. gondii-specific antibodies were detected by day 28 p.i., but not in all infected chickens. Overall, T. gondii DNA was detected (bioassay or tissue digests) in all infected and untreated chickens (10/10), while viable parasite (bioassay) was isolated from 7 out of 10 chickens. The parasite was most frequently identified in the brain (7/10). There were no differences in the T. gondii strains regarding clinical infection and the rate of T. gondii detection in tissues. However, higher antibody titers were obtained in chickens infected with T. gondii WC strain (1:192) comparing with T. gondii DC strain (1:48). A. annua reduced replication of the parasite in 3 out of 5 chickens, while diclazuril did not. In conclusion, broiler chickens were resistant to clinical toxoplasmosis, irrespective of the strain (domestic or wild cat strain). The herb A. annua presented prophylactic efficacy by reduced parasite replication. However, further studies are required aiming at the efficacy of diclazuril and A. annua for the prevention of T. gondii infection in chickens using quantitative analysis methods.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Artemisia annua , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/prevenção & controle , Triazinas/farmacologia , Animais , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Gatos , Galinhas , Feminino , Genótipo , Coração/parasitologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Músculos Peitorais/parasitologia , Plantas Medicinais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Soroconversão , Distribuição Tecidual , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/fisiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3559-3570, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951145

RESUMO

Blastocystis is the most frequently observed eukaryotic gastrointestinal symbiont in humans and animals. Its low host specificity and zoonotic potential suggest that animals might serve as possible reservoirs for transmission. The prevalence and subtype distributions of Blastocystis sp. in animal populations in Southeast Asia, a hotspot for zoonotic diseases, are reviewed. Recommendations for future research aimed at understanding the zoonotic role of Blastocystis are also included. Seven countries have, so far, reported Blastocystis infection in various animals, such as livestock, poultry, companion animals, and non-human primates. Pigs were the most studied animals, and there were records of 100% prevalence in pigs, cattle, and ostriches. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approaches, twelve Blastocystis sp. subtypes (STs), namely ST1, ST2, ST3, ST4, ST5, ST6, ST7, ST8, ST9, ST10, ST12, and ST14 have been recognised infecting animals of Southeast Asia. ST1 and ST5 were the most frequently identified, and Malaysia observed the most diverse distribution of subtypes. Further investigations on Blastocystis sp. in various animal hosts, using adequate sample sizes and uniform detection methods, are essential for a better understanding of the distribution of this organism. Detailed genome studies, especially on STs shared by humans and animals, are also recommended.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Humanos , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência , Primatas/parasitologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
7.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 82(2): 243-254, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897464

RESUMO

Four silica-based acaricides were examined in laboratory tests for their effectiveness against poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae. All acaricides resulted in 100% mite mortality. Two groups of active ingredients could be differentiated. The products Silicosec® and Ewazid®, based on naturally occurring diatomaceous earth (DE), killed 100% of adult D. gallinae within 48 h exposure time. The time to kill 50% of the mites (LT50) was calculated to be 31.7 and 34.9 h, respectively. The other two products, containing aggregates and agglomerates of pyrogenic synthetic amorphous silicon dioxide as active ingredients, killed the mites in a significantly shorter time: LT50 was 6.3 h for the liquid product Fossil Shield® Instant White and 11.8 h for the powdery product Fossil Shield 90.0 White. This is more remarkable as the quantities of active ingredients used for the DE treatments were several folds higher. The effectiveness of all tested products was also shown in practical tests. A professional company treated five chicken houses on one farm in the Berlin-Brandenburg region with the test products, three houses with Fossil Shield Instant White and one each with Ewazid and Silicosec. Over a period of 46 weeks after stocking, the mite development in the houses was assessed. Only in one of the houses, treated with Fossil Shield Instant White, the mite population remained permanently low. In two houses treated with Fossil Shield Instant White, small mite colonies appeared in week 36, which were controlled by a follow-up spot treatment in week 41. In the houses treated with DE, the first mite colonies appeared 12 weeks after stocking. The number increased continuously over the experimental period and in week 31 after stocking there were clearly visible colonies (2-3 cm diameter) and the first mites could also be detected on the chicken eggs. At this time both houses were treated again with a follow-up spot-treatment, which only led to a slight improvement in one house and to a stabilization of the infestation in the other house. In week 41, large mite colonies were detected in both houses. A spot treatment at this point was ineffective in reducing the infestation. The tests showed faster acaricidal action of the products with the synthetic active ingredients compared to the natural DE-based products. This matches the shorter killing times under laboratory conditions. The experiments in a commercial chicken farm showed that it is possible to control the mite population for a period of 46 weeks by using physically effective SiO2-based products. These products are therefore an effective alternative to the use of chemical acaricides.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Ácaros , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Dióxido de Silício , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/prevenção & controle , Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764795

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with 100ppm sodium monensin or 0.15% of a blend of functional oils (cashew nut oil + castor oil) on the intestinal microbiota of broilers challenged with three different Eimeria spp. The challenge was accomplished by inoculating broiler chicks with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria tenella, Eimeria acervulina, and Eimeria maxima via oral gavage. A total of 864, day-old male broiler chicks (Cobb) were randomly assigned to six treatments (eight pens/treatment; 18 broilers/pen) in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, composed of three additives (control, monensin or blend), with or without Eimeria challenge. Intestinal contents was collected at 28 days of age for microbiota analysis by sequencing 16s rRNA in V3 and V4 regions using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Taxonomy was assigned through the SILVA database version 132, using the QIIME 2 software version 2019.1. No treatment effects (p > 0.05) were observed in the microbial richness at the family level estimated by Chao1 and the biodiversity assessed by Simpson's index, except for Shannon's index (p < 0.05). The intestinal microbiota was dominated by members of the order Clostridiales and Lactobacillales, followed by the families Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Lactobacillaceae, regardless of treatment. When the controls were compared, in the challenged control group there was an increase in Erysipelotrichaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Streptococcaceae, and Peptostreptococcaceae, and a decrease in Ruminococcaceae. Similar results were found for a challenged group that received monensin, while the blend partially mitigated this variation. Therefore, the blend alleviated the impact of coccidiosis challenge on the microbiome of broilers compared to monensin.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Monensin/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/dietoterapia , Anacardium/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/dietoterapia , Coccidiose/imunologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Eimeria/genética , Eimeria/imunologia , Eimeria/patogenicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Masculino , Oocistos/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ricinus/química
9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2885-2895, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715344

RESUMO

Chicken coccidiosis is a protozoan parasitic disease that leads to considerable economic losses in the poultry industry. In this study, we used invasive Lactobacillus plantarum (L.P) expressing the FnBPA protein as a novel bacterial carrier for DNA delivery into epithelial cells to develop a live oral DNA vaccine. A fusion DNA vaccine co-expressing EtMIC2 and chicken IL-18 (chIL-18) was constructed and then delivered to the host by invasive L.P. Its efficacy against Eimeria tenella challenge was evaluated in chickens by examining the relative weight gain rate; caecal lesion score; OPG; anti-coccidial index (ACI); levels of EtMIC2 antibody, FnBPA, IL-4, IL-18, IFN-γ and SIgA; and proliferation ability and percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ splenocytes. The experimental results showed that chickens immunized with invasive L.P carrying the eukaryotic expression vector pValac-EtMIC2 (pValac-EtMIC2/pSIP409-FnBPA) had markedly improved immune protection against challenge compared with that of chickens immunized with non-invasive L.P (pValac-EtMIC2/pSIP409). However, invasive L.P co-expressing EtMIC2 with the chIL-18 vector exhibited the highest protection efficiency against E. tenella. These results indicate that invasive Lactobacillus-expressing FnBPA improved humoural and cellular immunity and enhanced resistance to E. tenella. The DNA vaccine delivered by invasive Lactobacillus provides a new concept and method for the prevention of E. tenella.


Assuntos
Antígeno 12E7/metabolismo , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/imunologia , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Animais , Ceco/parasitologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria tenella/genética , Imunidade Celular/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/genética , Lactobacillus plantarum/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Ganho de Peso
10.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 428-437, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603417

RESUMO

Commonly found in backyard and commercial poultry production, coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria species, presents a self-limiting intestinal infection based on the number of ingested oocysts. Heat stress (HS) is one of the major environmental stressors in poultry, predisposing broiler chickens to immunosuppression and rendering them susceptible to diseases. There are suggestions that HS reduces Eimeria oocyst shedding in chickens; however, the relationship between HS and coccidiosis is not well elucidated. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature on viability, morphology, infectivity, and development of Eimeria tenella in vitro, and merozoite production and oocyst shedding in vivo. In vitro exposure of sporozoites to 55 C for at least 60 min reduced sporozoites viability as shown by morphological changes and rendering them unable to invade Mardin-Darbi bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Intracellular development of merozoites was significantly reduced by an increase in 2 C in the optimal temperature of incubation in vitro. Most importantly, the induction of HS in the live chickens caused significantly lower lesion scores, reduced merozoite production, and oocyst shedding, resulting in a much less severe disease outcome.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Ceco/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria tenella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eimeria tenella/patogenicidade , Citometria de Fluxo/veterinária , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/complicações , Temperatura Alta , Merozoítos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Merozoítos/fisiologia , Esporozoítos/fisiologia
11.
Avian Dis ; 64(2): 123-129, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550611

RESUMO

Eimeria spp. are important intestinal pathogens of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Anticoccidial feed additives, chemicals, and ionophores have traditionally been used to control Eimeria infections in broiler production. Thus, the trend toward antibiotic-free and organic production requires new approaches to coccidiosis prevention. Two not mutually exclusive methods are the use of plant extracts with antiparasitic activity and manipulation of the intestinal microbiota by pre- and probiotics. In the present study, birds were inoculated with a combination of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella. We profiled the jejunal microbiome at multiple time points postinfection to investigate the changes in jejunum microbiota and to identify the time point of the maximum difference between infected and noninfected birds. Additionally, we assessed the anticoccidial effects of two anecdotal treatment methods, green tea and apple cider vinegar, as well as amprolium. Green tea and apple cider vinegar had no effect on oocyst shedding, but green tea reduced the mild unspecific lesions in coccidia-infected birds; there was no influence on unspecific lesions in uninfected controls. Jejunal contents were collected on the day of the infection and 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, and 14 days postinfection (dpi) for investigation of the intestinal microbiota by 16S ribosomal (r)RNA gene sequencing. Comparison of the untreated-uninfected and the untreated-infected groups showed a maximum community dissimilarity of 10 dpi. From 4 days after infection, Clostridiales were significantly enriched at the expense of Lactobacillales in infected compared with uninfected birds. Interestingly, treatment with green tea prevented proliferation of Clostridiales induced by the coccidia and increased the relative abundance of Melainabacteria.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Eimeria/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Ácido Acético/química , Amprólio/farmacologia , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiostáticos/química , Eimeria tenella/fisiologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Jejuno/microbiologia , Malus/química , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Chá/química
12.
Avian Dis ; 64(2): 130-134, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550612

RESUMO

Trichomonas gallinae, a single-celled protozoan parasite, is a causative agent of the disease trichomonosis, which is distributed worldwide and has recently been highlighted as a pandemic threat to several wild bird species. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotypic diversity of T. gallinae in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. For this purpose, 273 oral swab samples from different bird species (feral pigeon Columba livia, common mynah Acridotheres tristis, chicken Gallus gallus domesticus, turkey Meleagris gallopavo, and ducks Anatidae) were collected and tested for T. gallinae infection with InPouch™ TV culture kits. The results showed that the overall prevalence of T. gallinae in these samples was 26.4% (n = 72). The PCRs were used to detect the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of T. gallinae, and the results of the sequence analysis indicated genetic variation. Among 48 sequences, we found 15 different ribotypes, of which 12 were novel. Three had been previously described as ribotypes A, C, and II. To our knowledge, this study demonstrated the presence of T. gallinae strain diversity in Saudi Arabian birds for the first time and revealed that ribotypes A and C are predominant among Riyadh birds.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves , Genótipo , Tricomoníase/veterinária , Trichomonas/genética , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Galinhas , Columbidae , Patos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estorninhos , Tricomoníase/epidemiologia , Tricomoníase/parasitologia , Perus
13.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2549-2561, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562065

RESUMO

This study investigated the role of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway on host cell apoptosis in the early infection of Eimeria tenella. Chicken cecal epithelial cells were treated with apoptosis-inducer Actinomycin D (Act D) or PI3K/Akt signaling pathway inhibitor LY294002 and then infected with E. tenella. Results demonstrated that the E. tenella-infected group had less apoptosis 4-8 h after the infection and more apoptosis 12-20 h after the infection than the control group. At 4-20 h after the infection, the apoptotic/necrotic rate and the Caspase-3 activity in the Act D + E. tenella group were lower (P < 0.01) than those in the Act D-treated group. The p-Akt and NF-κB contents in the E. tenella-infected group were higher (P < 0.01) than those in the control group 4-12 h after the infection. However, the bad content and the Caspase-9/3 activity were lower (P < 0.05) in the E. tenella-infected group than in the control group. Compared with the E. tenella-infected group, the LY294002 + E. tenella group showed decreased p-Akt content and increased apoptotic/necrotic rate, bad content, NF-κB expression, membrane permeability transition pore (MPTP) openness, and Caspase-9/3 activity. Thus, the early development of E. tenella could inhibit host cell apoptosis by downregulating the Caspase-3 activity. Upregulating this activity promoted apoptosis. In addition, activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway inhibited the apoptosis of E. tenella host cells in the early infection by reducing the expression of the bad content, limiting the MPTP opening, and decreasing the Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 activities.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/fisiologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Animais , Ceco/metabolismo , Ceco/parasitologia , Galinhas , Coccidiose/metabolismo , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/fisiopatologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/parasitologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Exp Parasitol ; 215: 107901, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525007

RESUMO

Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) has caused severe economic loss in chicken production, especially after the forbidden use of antibiotics in feed. Considering the drug resistant problem caused by misuse of chemoprophylaxis and live oocyst vaccines can affect the productivity of chickens, also it has the risk to reversion of virulence, the development of efficacious, convenient and safe vaccines is still deeply needed. In this study, the EtMic2 protein of E. tenella was anchored on the surface of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) NC8 strain. The newly constructed strain was then used to immunize chickens, followed by E. tenella challenge. The results demonstrated that the recombinant strain could provide efficient protection against E. tenella, shown by increased relative body weight gains, percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, humoral immune response and inflammatory cytokines. In addition, decreased cecum lesion scores and fecal oocyst shedding were also observed during the experiment. In conclusion, this study proves the possibility to use L. plantarum as a vessel to deliver protective antigen to protect chickens against coccidiosis.


Assuntos
Antígeno 12E7/imunologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Protozoárias , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Ceco/parasitologia , Coccidiose/economia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Eimeria tenella/química , Citometria de Fluxo/veterinária , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/biossíntese , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-2/sangue , Intestinos/imunologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/genética , Lactobacillus plantarum/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/economia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Vacinas Sintéticas
15.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 395-399, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556163

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to determine the characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in cats, rats, and chickens in the border areas of Yunnan Province. A total of 259 samples was collected from 10 border areas in Yunnan Province including 94 cats, 58 rats, and 107 chickens. Samples were screened by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and the positive products were analyzed by multilocus PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine the genotypes. Toxoplasma gondii deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected from 15.96% of 94 cats, 15.52% of 58 rats, and 6.54% of 107 chickens, respectively, and the average infection rate is 11.97%. Using the multilocus PCR-RFLP, we found that the genotype of T. gondii in cats and rats was ToxoDB#9. Because of low DNA concentration, no genotype was determined from chickens. These results fill the gaps of knowledge in the prevalence and genotype of T. gondii in the border areas of Yunnan Province and have implications for the better control of T. gondii infection in humans and animals.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Ratos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , China/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Marcadores Genéticos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
16.
Avian Dis ; 64(2): 210-215, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550622

RESUMO

Histomoniasis is a significant disease of gallinaceous birds caused by Histomonas meleagridis. Transmission of this parasite is dependent on use of the cecal nematode Heterakis gallinarum. To define the host range of this nematode, cecal contents from 399 game birds and poultry, representing eight species, were examined for Heterakis spp. The majority of these species (five of eight) were infected with Heterakis nematodes. Heterakis gallinarum was detected in free-ranging wild turkeys (Meleagridis gallopovo), captive-raised ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), chukars (Alectoris chukar), and domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), whereas H. isolonche was found in ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus). No Heterakis species were identified in the domestic turkey (Meleagridis gallopovo), American woodcock (Scolopax minor), and dabbling duck (Anas spp.) samples. Genetic characterization indicated that nematodes identified as H. gallinarum were present in two distinct clades. One clade of H. gallinarum sequenced from this study grouped with chicken-derived sequences from other countries. The other group of sequences consisted of a sister clade to a group of parasites morphologically identified as H. isolonche. Currently it is unknown if this group represents a genetic variant of H. gallinarum, a variant of H. isolonche, or a novel species. These results indicate Heterakis infection varies among poultry and game bird species but is common among select gallinaceous species in Pennsylvania.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Galliformes , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Spirurina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência , Infecções por Spirurida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Spirurina/classificação
17.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107936, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535116

RESUMO

This study evaluated the germination capacity of Pochonia chlamydosporia (VC4) fungus after its passage through the gastrointestinal tract of domestic chickens and its interaction with Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum eggs. Twenty-two domestic chickens were divided in two groups: control group (G1) received shredded corn substrate without VC4; and treatment group (G2) received a single dose of 29 g corn substrate containing 3.3 × 106 conidia/chlamydospores (VC4). Subsequently, chicken fecal samples were collected at intervals of 0, 6, 8, 10, 12, 18 and 24 h. Petri dishes from fecal samples of the treated group (G2) were subdivided (G2a and G2b), and then replicated in 2% agar-water medium for the microbiological test. After VC4 growth, approximately 200 eggs of A. galli (G2a) and H. gallinarum (G2b) were added to each subgroup to evaluation of ovicidal activity. There was fungal viability after passage through chicken gastrointestinal tract and egg predation of 59.9% and 43.2% for A. galli and H. gallinarum, respectively. The present work demonstrates the ability of the fungus P. chlamydosporia to survive after passing through the gastrointestinal tract of domestic chickens, an extreme environment (low pH, enzymes, microbiota and mechanical action), and still germinate after being excreted with feces.


Assuntos
Ascaridíase/veterinária , Galinhas , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Hypocreales/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Animais , Ascaridia/microbiologia , Ascaridíase/prevenção & controle , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Nematoides/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/prevenção & controle , Spirurina/microbiologia
18.
J Vet Sci ; 21(3): e41, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is a serious problem in the laying hen industry worldwide. Currently, the foremost control method for D. gallinae is the implementation of integrated pest management, the effective application of which necessitates a precise monitoring method. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to propose an accurate monitoring method with a reliable protocol for caged-layer poultry farms, and to suggest an objective classification for assessing D. gallinae infestation on caged-layer poultry farms according to the number of mites collected using the developed monitoring method. METHODS: We compared the numbers of mites collected from corrugated cardboard traps, regarding with length of sampling periods, sampling sites on cage, and sampling positions in farm buildings. The study also compared the mean numbers of mites collected by the developed method with the infestation levels using by the conventional monitoring methods in 37 caged-layer farm buildings. RESULTS: The statistical validation provided the suitable monitoring method that the traps were installed for 2 days on feed boxes at 27 sampling points which included three vertical levels across nine equally divided zones of farms. Using this monitoring method, the D. gallinae infestation level can be assessed objectively on caged-layer poultry farms. Moreover, the method is more sensitive than the conventional method in detecting very small populations of mites. CONCLUSIONS: This method can be used to identify the initial stages of D. gallinae infestation in the caged-layer poultry farms, and therefore, will contribute to establishment of effective control strategies for this mite.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Galinhas , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Ácaros/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Animais , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Infestações por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Ácaros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
19.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e020319, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428178

RESUMO

Among the avian used for human consumption, the Muscovy duck is well adapted to various climatic conditions and its breeding is widespread due to its easy handling, and its meat is widely consumed and appreciated, especially in the cuisine of northern Brazil. The present study aimed to report and identify taxonomically the nematodes found in the esophagus of Muscovy ducks reared and marketed in the municipality of Soure, Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil, and discuss its zoonotic potential to human. The samples consisted of 30 specimens of Cairina moschata domestica analyzed. A total of 258 nematodes were recovered, which were strongly fixed in the esophageal mucosa of hosts. The morphological and morphometric characteristics were compatible with Anisakis third-stage larvae.


Assuntos
Anisakis/classificação , Patos/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Animais , Anisakis/anatomia & histologia , Anisakis/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Esôfago/parasitologia , Feminino , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Larva , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão
20.
Parasitol Res ; 119(6): 1955-1968, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399722

RESUMO

Coccidiosis is a crucial parasitic disease of the poultry industry. As a result of the enormous global economic losses and the increased resistance to the conventional anticoccidial agents, there is a continuous need to find new anticoccidials. Here, the anticoccidial effect of the fluoroquinolone lomefloxacin versus diclazuril in experimentally infected broilers was tested for the treatment of Eimeria tenella infection. Ninety 14-day-old Cobb strain broiler chickens were allocated into five groups, each with 18 chicks. Group 1 (G1) was separated as an uninfected negative control and received no treatment; group 2 (G2), infected untreated (positive control); group 3 (G3), infected and treated with lomefloxacin at a dose rate of 100 ppm in drinking water; group 4 (G4), infected and treated with diclazuril at a dose rate of 2.5 ppm in drinking water; group 5 (G5), infected and treated with lomefloxacin at a dose rate of 100 ppm plus diclazuril at dose rate of 2.5 ppm in drinking water. Clinical signs, mortality rates, number of oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG), growth performance parameters (weight gain: WG and feed conversion ratio: FCR), lesion scoring, haematological and serum biochemical analyses, antioxidant biomarkers and histopathologic inspection of the caeca were used as evaluation criteria for the anticoccidial efficacy of both lomefloxacin and diclazuril. The findings herein showed that administration of lomefloxacin and/or diclazuril improved growth performance parameters (WG, FCR) and significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced OPG, and diminished the severity of bloody diarrhoea and mortalities. Additionally, haematological indices and serum biochemical parameters such as ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine, uric acid, total proteins, albumin and globulin were improved. Finally, a significant elevation in the levels of the antioxidant biomarkers was observed in the chicks of G3, G4 and G5 as compared with those of G2.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Eimeria tenella , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ceco/patologia , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Fezes/parasitologia , Nitrilos/uso terapêutico , Oocistos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
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