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1.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567525

RESUMO

Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5 and H7 are capable of mutating from low to high pathogenicity strains, causing high mortality in poultry with significant economic losses globally. During 2015, two outbreaks of H7N7 low pathogenicity AIV (LPAIV) in Germany, and one each in the United Kingdom (UK) and The Netherlands occurred, as well as single outbreaks of H7N7 high pathogenicity AIV (HPAIV) in Germany and the UK. Both HPAIV outbreaks were linked to precursor H7N7 LPAIV outbreaks on the same or adjacent premises. Herein, we describe the clinical, epidemiological, and virological investigations for the H7N7 UK HPAIV outbreak on a farm with layer chickens in mixed free-range and caged units. H7N7 HPAIV was identified and isolated from clinical samples, as well as H7N7 LPAIV, which could not be isolated. Using serological and molecular evidence, we postulate how the viruses spread throughout the premises, indicating potential points of incursion and possible locations for the mutation event. Serological and mortality data suggested that the LPAIV infection preceded the HPAIV infection and afforded some clinical protection against the HPAIV. These results document the identification of a LPAIV to HPAIV mutation in nature, providing insights into factors that drive its manifestation during outbreaks.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N7/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N7/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Galinhas , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Fazendas , Genoma Viral/genética , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/genética , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N7/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H7N7/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/patologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Mutação , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais/genética
2.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579009

RESUMO

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), a zoonotic disease, is a major threat to humans and poultry health worldwide. In January 2014, HPAI virus subtype H5N8 first infected poultry farms in South Korea, and 393 outbreaks, overall, were reported with enormous economic damage in the poultry industry. We analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution of HPAI H5N8 outbreaks in poultry farms using the global and local spatiotemporal interaction analyses in the first (January to July 2014) and second (September 2014 to June 2015) outbreak waves. The space-time K-function analyses revealed significant interactions within three days and in an over-40 km space-time window between the two study periods. The excess risk attributable value (D0) was maintained despite the distance in the case of HPAI H5N8 in South Korea. Eleven spatiotemporal clusters were identified, and the results showed that the HPAI introduction was from the southwestern region, and spread to the middle region, in South Korea. This spatiotemporal interaction indicates that the HPAI epidemic in South Korea was mostly characterized by short period transmission, regardless of the distance. This finding supports strict control strategies such as preemptive depopulation, and poultry movement tracking. Further studies are needed to understand HPAI disease transmission patterns.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N8/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Fazendas , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
3.
Poult Sci ; 100(4): 100988, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33610893

RESUMO

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) is an opportunistic pathogen often introduced to neonatal chicks during the hatching process. This commensal bacterium, particularly as a pioneer colonizer of the gastrointestinal tract, can have substantial implications in the rearing of poultry because of reduced flock performance. In order to mimic the effects of the natural bacterial bloom present during the hatch, a seeder challenge model was developed to expose neonatal chicks to virulent E. coli. On day 20 of embryogenesis, selected early hatched chicks (n = 18/hatcher) were briefly removed and sprayed challenged with saline (vehicle) or E. coli at 1 × 107 colony-forming unit (CFU)/chick (exp 1) and 2.5 × 107 CFU/chick (exp 2). These challenged chicks were returned to the hatcher to serve as seeders to transmit the pathogen to the indirect challenged or contact chicks (n = 195/hatcher). For two 7-d experiments, the efficacy of transmission was evaluated via enteric bacterial recovery, body weight gain (BWG), and mortality. For exp 1 and exp 2, significantly (P < 0.0001) more gram-negative bacteria were recovered from the seeder and contact gastrointestinal samples than the negative control samples on day of hatch. In addition, there was a reduction (P < 0.05) in 7-d BWG and significantly (P < 0.0001) higher mortality in the contact-challenged chicks than the negative control chicks in both exp 1 and exp 2. These data suggest that this challenge model could be used to evaluate different methods of controlling the bacterial bloom that occurs in the hatching environment.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas , Galinhas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/microbiologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão
4.
Virology ; 550: 1-7, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853833

RESUMO

Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is an important pathogen threatening poultry production worldwide. Here, two recombinant IBVs (rYN-1a-aYN and rYN-1b-aYN) were generated in which ORF1a or ORF1b of the virulent YN genome were replaced by the corresponding regions from the attenuated strain aYN. The pathogenicity and virulence of rIBVs were evaluated in ovo and in vivo. The results revealed that mutations in the ORF1a gene during passage in embryonated eggs caused the decreased pathogenicity of virulent IBV YN strain, proven by determination of virus replication in ECEs and CEK cells, the observation of clinical signs, gross lesions, microscopic lesions, tracheal ciliary activity and virus distribution in chickens following exposure to rIBVs. However, mutations in ORF1b had no obvious effect on virus replication in both ECEs and CEK cells, or pathogenicity in chickens. Our findings demonstrate that the replicase 1a gene of avian coronavirus IBV is a determinant of pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Vírus Reordenados/patogenicidade , Proteínas Virais/genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cricetulus , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Células Epiteliais/virologia , Expressão Gênica , Vida Livre de Germes , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Replicação Viral
5.
J Vet Sci ; 21(3): e34, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A nationwide outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in South Korea caused massive economic losses in 2010. Since then, the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (QIA) has enhanced disinfection systems regarding livestock to prevent horizontal transmission of FMD and Avian influenza (AI). Although the amount of disinfectant used continues to increase, cases of FMD and AI have been occurring annually in Korea, except 2012 and 2013. OBJECTIVES: This study measured the concentration of the disinfectant to determine why it failed to remove the horizontal transmission despite increased disinfectant use. METHODS: Surveys were conducted from February to May 2017, collecting 348 samples from disinfection systems. The samples were analyzed using the Standards of Animal Health Products analysis methods from QIA. RESULTS: Twenty-three facilities used inappropriate or non-approved disinfectants. Nearly all sampled livestock farms and facilities-93.9%-did not properly adjust the disinfectant concentration. The percentage using low concentrations, or where no effective substance was detected, was 46.9%. Furthermore, 13 samples from the official disinfection station did not use effective disinfectant, and-among 72 samples from the disinfection station-88.89% were considered inappropriate concentration, according to the foot-and-mouth disease virus guidelines; considering the AIV guideline, 73.61% were inappropriate concentrations. Inappropriate concentration samples on automatic (90.00%) and semi-automatic (90.90%) disinfection systems showed no significant difference from manual methods (88.24%). Despite this study being conducted during the crisis level, most disinfectants were used inappropriately. CONCLUSIONS: This may partially explain why horizontal transmission of FMD and AI cannot be effectively prevented despite extensive disinfectant use.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Febre Aftosa , Influenza Aviária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Galinhas , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Patos , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Gado , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7289, 2020 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350378

RESUMO

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) control is mainly based on wide vaccine administration. Although effective, its efficacy is not absolute, the viral circulation is not prevented and some side effects cannot be denied. Despite this, the determinants of IBV epidemiology and the factors affecting its circulation are still largely unknown and poorly investigated. In the present study, 361 IBV QX (the most relevant field genotype in Italy) sequences were obtained between 2012 and 2016 from the two main Italian integrated poultry companies. Several biostatistical and bioinformatics approaches were used to reconstruct the history of the QX genotype in Italy and to assess the effect of different environmental, climatic and social factors on its spreading patterns. Moreover, two structured coalescent models were considered in order to investigate if an actual compartmentalization occurs between the two integrated poultry companies and the role of a third "ghost" deme, representative of minor industrial poultry companies and the rural sector. The obtained results suggest that the integration of the poultry companies is an effective barrier against IBV spreading, since the strains sampled from the two companies formed two essentially-independent clades. Remarkably, the only exceptions were represented by farms located in the high densely populated poultry area of Northern Italy. The inclusion of a third deme in the model revealed the likely role of other poultry companies and rural farms (particularly concentrated in Northern Italy) as sources of strain introduction into one of the major poultry companies, whose farms are mainly located in the high densely populated poultry area of Northern Italy. Accordingly, when the effect of different environmental and urban parameters on IBV geographic spreading was investigated, no factor seems to contribute to IBV dispersal velocity, being poultry population density the only exception. Finally, the different viral population pattern observed in the two companies over the same time period supports the pivotal role of management and control strategies on IBV epidemiology. Overall, the present study results stress the crucial relevance of human action rather than environmental factors, highlighting the direct benefits that could derive from improved management and organization of the poultry sector on a larger scale.


Assuntos
Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Genótipo , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Fazendas , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/patogenicidade , Itália , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e020319, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428178

RESUMO

Among the avian used for human consumption, the Muscovy duck is well adapted to various climatic conditions and its breeding is widespread due to its easy handling, and its meat is widely consumed and appreciated, especially in the cuisine of northern Brazil. The present study aimed to report and identify taxonomically the nematodes found in the esophagus of Muscovy ducks reared and marketed in the municipality of Soure, Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil, and discuss its zoonotic potential to human. The samples consisted of 30 specimens of Cairina moschata domestica analyzed. A total of 258 nematodes were recovered, which were strongly fixed in the esophageal mucosa of hosts. The morphological and morphometric characteristics were compatible with Anisakis third-stage larvae.


Assuntos
Anisakis/classificação , Patos/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Animais , Anisakis/anatomia & histologia , Anisakis/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Esôfago/parasitologia , Feminino , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Larva , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7181, 2020 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346128

RESUMO

The duck plague virus (DPV) US3 protein, a homolog of the herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) US3 protein that is reported to be critical for viral replication, has been minimally studied. Therefore, to investigate the function of the DPV US3 protein, we used scarless Red recombination technology based on an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) containing the DPV Chinese virulent strain (CHv) genome and successfully constructed and rescued a US3-deleted mutant and the corresponding revertant virus (BAC-CHv-ΔUS3 and BAC-CHv-ΔUS3R, respectively). For viral growth characteristics, compared to the parental and revertant viruses, the US3-deleted mutant showed an approximately 100-fold reduction in viral titers but no significant reduction in genome copies, indicating that the US3-deleted mutant exhibited decreased viral replication but not decreased viral DNA generation. In addition, the US3-deleted mutant formed viral plaques that were 33% smaller on average than those formed by the parental and revertant viruses, demonstrating that US3 protein affected the viral cell-to-cell spread of DPV. Finally, the results of electron microscopy showed that the deletion of US3 resulted in a large number of virions accumulating in the nucleus and perinuclear space, thus blocking virion nuclear egress. In this study, we found that the DPV US3 protein played pivotal roles in viral replication by promoting viral cell-to-cell spread and virion nuclear egress, which may provide some references for research on the function of the DPV US3 protein.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae , Mardivirus/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Vírion/metabolismo , Liberação de Vírus , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Patos , Infecções por Herpesviridae/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Herpesviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Mardivirus/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Proteínas Virais/genética , Vírion/genética
9.
Food Microbiol ; 90: 103455, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336358

RESUMO

The present pilot study aimed at evaluating air sampling as a novel method for monitoring Campylobacter in poultry farms. We compared the bacteriological isolation of Campylobacter from boot swabs and air filter samples using ISO 10272-1:2017. A secondary aim was to evaluate the use of molecular methods, i.e. real time PCR, on the same sample set. Samples from 44 flocks from five European countries were collected, and included air samples, in parallel with boot swabs. Campylobacter spp. was isolated from seven of 44 boot swabs from three of five partners using the enrichment method. Two of these positive boot swab samples had corresponding positive air samples. Using enrichment, one positive air sample was negative in the corresponding boot swabs, but Campylobacter spp. was isolated from direct plating of the boot swab sample. One partner isolated Campylobacter spp. from six of 10 boot swabs using direct plating. Overall, 33 air filter samples were screened directly with PCR, returning 14 positive results. In conclusion, there was a lack of correspondence between results from analysis of boot swabs and air filters using ISO 10272-1:2017. In contrast, the combination of air filters and direct real-time PCR might be a way forward. Despite the use of the detailed ISO protocols, there were still sections that could be interpreted differently among laboratories. Air sampling may turn into a multi-purpose and low-cost sampling method that may be integrated into self-monitoring programs.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar/normas , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Campylobacter/genética , Europa (Continente) , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fezes/microbiologia , Internacionalidade , Projetos Piloto , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão
10.
Avian Dis ; 64(1): 46-52, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267124

RESUMO

Rodents serve as amplifiers of Salmonella infections in poultry flocks and can serve as a source of Salmonella contamination in the environment even after thorough cleaning and disinfection. This study aims to determine the dynamics of Salmonella occurrence in rodents and its relation to Salmonella contamination in the layer farm environment, including air dusts and eggs. From 2008 to 2017, roof rats (Rattus rattus), environmental swabs, air dusts, and eggs were collected from an intensive commercial layer farm in East Japan and were tested for Salmonella spp. using standard procedures. In roof rat samples, the Salmonella isolation rate was reached at 10% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.1-21.9) in which Salmonella Corvallis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Potsdam, and Salmonella Mbandaka were the frequent isolates from the cecal portion of the intestines. On the other hand, the prevalence rate of Salmonella in environmental swabs was at 5.1% (95% CI 2.2-7.4) while air dusts were at 0.9% (95% CI 0.2-1.8). It was observed that the prevalence of predominant Salmonella serotypes shifted over time; in roof rats, it was noted that Salmonella Potsdam gradually replaced Salmonella Infantis. In environmental swabs and eggs, Salmonella Corvallis and Salmonella Potsdam increased significantly while Salmonella Infantis became less frequent. In air dusts, Salmonella Corvallis was observed to decrease and Salmonella Potsdam became more common. Based on our findings, the role of roof rats in the epidemiology of Salmonella in layer farms was expanded from being a reservoir and an amplifier host into a shifting vessel of the most predominant serotypes.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Ratos , Salmonelose Animal/transmissão , Salmonella/fisiologia , Animais , Abrigo para Animais , Japão/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia
11.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 2136-2145, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241499

RESUMO

This study investigated the prevalence of Salmonella and the molecular typing of all isolates in a goose production chain including hatchery, farm, slaughterhouse, and market. A total of 350 Salmonella isolates was detected from 1,030 samples, and 13 serotypes were recovered. The highest Salmonella contamination frequency was observed at the hatchery, which 51.8% (188/363) of samples were Salmonella positive. S. Potsdam and S. Typhimurium were the 2 most common serotypes. S. Potsdam was most frequently found in the hatchery, while S. Typhimurium was widely distributed in the goose production chain. In general, the antibiotic resistance of Salmonella isolates is low, which isolates from the market is comparatively higher than from other production links indicating a possibility of Salmonella cross-contamination in the market. By the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis, 7 different ST types were identified. ST2039 was the most common ST type, which was mostly found from S. Potsdam isolates in hatchery indicating that S. Potsdam might have been long existed in hatchery. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of S. Potsdam indicated that S. Potsdam could be transmitted along the production chain. The PFGE analysis of S. Typhimurium showed that PFGE pattern 29 (PF29) was distributed in hatchery, and also in farm and from humans indicating the risk of S. Typhimurium transmitting to humans by the food supply chain. Our study provided the evidence of Salmonella cross-contamination in the slaughterhouse and the retail market of goose production chain, and specific serotypes existed for a long time at a particular production link. The spread of Salmonella along the production chain, might cause harm to humans through cross-contamination. Further studies would be needed to control the Salmonella contamination in hatchery and prevent the transmission of the pathogen during the goose production.


Assuntos
Gansos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado/veterinária , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Prevalência , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/transmissão
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 192, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human psittacosis, caused by Chlamydia (C.) psittaci, is likely underdiagnosed and underreported, since tests for C. psittaci are often not included in routine microbiological diagnostics. Source tracing traditionally focuses on psittacine pet birds, but recently other animal species have been gaining more attention as possible sources for human psittacosis. This review aims to provide an overview of all suspected animal sources of human psittacosis cases reported in the international literature. In addition, for each animal species the strength of evidence for zoonotic transmission was estimated. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using four databases (Pubmed, Embase, Scopus and Proquest). Articles were included when there was mention of at least one human case of psittacosis and a possible animal source. Investigators independently extracted data from the included articles and estimated strength of evidence for zoonotic transmission, based on a self-developed scoring system taking into account number of human cases, epidemiological evidence and laboratory test results in human, animals, and the environment. RESULTS: Eighty articles were included, which provided information on 136 different situations of possible zoonotic transmission. The maximum score for zoonotic transmission was highest for turkeys, followed by ducks, owls, and the category 'other poultry'. Articles reporting about zoonotic transmission from unspecified birds, psittaciformes and columbiformes provided a relatively low strength of evidence. A genotypical match between human and animal samples was reported twenty-eight times, including transmission from chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, peafowl, pigeons, ducks, geese, songbirds, parrot-like birds and owls. CONCLUSIONS: Strong evidence exists for zoonotic transmission from turkeys, chickens and ducks, in addition to the more traditionally reported parrot-like animal sources. Based on our scoring system, the evidence was generally stronger for poultry than for parrot-like birds. Psittaciformes should not be disregarded as an important source of human psittacosis, still clinicians and public health officials should include poultry and birds species other than parrots in medical history and source tracing.


Assuntos
Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Chlamydophila psittaci/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Psitacose/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Columbidae/microbiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Psitacose/microbiologia , Saúde Pública , Administração em Saúde Pública , Aves Canoras/microbiologia , Estrigiformes/microbiologia
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 240: 108538, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902488

RESUMO

Human salmonellosis caused by the consumption of eggs and chicken meat contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis has become a continuing public health concern worldwide. In this study we adopted whole genome sequencing (WGS) to determine the genetic relationship and antimicrobial resistance of S. enterica strains isolated from a poultry breeding enterprise that consists of one breeding chicken farm, one egg hatchery and one commercial chicken farm. A total of 148 S. enterica including 147 S. Enteritidis strains were isolated from 2100 fecal swab samples, with 16 (5.3 %, 16/300) from breeding chicken farm, 38 (4.2 %, 38/900) from egg hatchery and 94 (10.4 %, 94/900) from commercial chicken farm. WGS revealed that all 147 S. Enteritidis strains belonged to ST11, and further divided into 4 different ribosomal STs and 64 core genome STs. Single nucleotide polymorphism typing suggested the presence of the vertical transmission of S. Enteritidis from breeding chicken to commercial chicken. Three different antimicrobial-resistant plasmids including one blaCTX-M-14-carrying plasmid and two virulence-resistance plasmids were characterized, resulting in the heterogeneous antimicrobial resistance of clonally related S. Enteritidis strains. Routine surveillance in breeding chicken farms is conducive to the control of S. Enteritidis from farm to fork.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cruzamento , Galinhas/microbiologia , China , Fazendas , Feminino , Masculino , Óvulo/microbiologia , Plasmídeos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/transmissão , Salmonella enteritidis/genética , Virulência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
14.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(1): e1007857, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961906

RESUMO

The 2014-2015 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5NX outbreak represents the largest and most expensive HPAI outbreak in the United States to date. Despite extensive traditional and molecular epidemiological studies, factors associated with the spread of HPAI among midwestern poultry premises remain unclear. To better understand the dynamics of this outbreak, 182 full genome HPAI H5N2 sequences isolated from commercial layer chicken and turkey production premises were analyzed using evolutionary models able to accommodate epidemiological and geographic information. Epidemiological compartmental models embedded in a phylogenetic framework provided evidence that poultry type acted as a barrier to the transmission of virus among midwestern poultry farms. Furthermore, after initial introduction, the propagation of HPAI cases was self-sustainable within the commercial poultry industries. Discrete trait diffusion models indicated that within state viral transitions occurred more frequently than inter-state transitions. Distance and sample size were very strongly supported as associated with viral transition between county groups (Bayes Factor > 30.0). Together these findings indicate that the different types of midwestern poultry industries were not a single homogenous population, but rather, the outbreak was shaped by poultry industries and geographic factors.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N2/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Agricultura , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Evolução Molecular , Geografia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N2/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N2/genética , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0220484, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990938

RESUMO

The growing occurrence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica in poultry has been reported with public health concern worldwide. We reported, recently, the occurrence of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovars carrying clinically relevant resistance genes in dairy cattle farms in the Wakiso District, Uganda, highlighting an urgent need to monitor food-producing animal environments. Here, we present the prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, and sequence type of 51 Salmonella isolates recovered from 379 environmental samples from chicken farms in Uganda. Among the Salmonella isolates, 32/51 (62.7%) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, and 10/51 (19.6%) displayed multiple drug resistance. Through PCR, five replicon plasmids were identified among chicken Salmonella isolates including IncFIIS 17/51 (33.3%), IncI1α 12/51 (23.5%), IncP 8/51 (15.7%), IncX1 8/51 (15.7%), and IncX2 1/51 (2.0%). In addition, we identified two additional replicons through WGS (Whole Genome Sequencing; ColpVC and IncFIB). A significant seasonal difference between chicken sampling periods was observed (p = 0.0017). We conclude that MDR Salmonella highlights the risks posed to animals and humans. Implementing a robust, integrated surveillance system will aid in monitoring MDR zoonotic threats.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella enterica/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/classificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Fazendas , Humanos , Vigilância Imunológica , Plasmídeos/química , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Prevalência , Replicon , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/transmissão , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Uganda/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
16.
Vet Dermatol ; 31(2): 167-169, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European poultry red mite (PRM) Dermanyssus gallinae, a common ectoparasite of laying chickens and pigeons; it also can feed on other birds, humans and domestic animals, causing clinical signs ranging from mild discomfort to severe dermatitis. Little is known about possible hypersensitivity to PRM or cross-sensitization with house dust or storage mites. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Knowledge on possible PRM immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy and possible cross-sensitization with house dust and storage mites may facilitate the clinical approach. The aim herein was to clarify possible evidence of type I hypersensitivity to PRM in dogs and possible occurrence of cross-sensitization with house dust and storage mites. ANIMALS: Sixteen dogs with chronic contact with PRM-infested chickens from traditional bird houses and 10 control dogs with no contact with birds. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Dogs were subjected to intradermal testing (IDT) and serum specific IgE (sIgE) determination for house dust and storage mites and D. gallinae. RESULTS: The highest wheal score was obtained with 0.1 mg/mL D. gallinae extract. Positive IDT reactions to PRM were found in four of 10 control dogs and in 10 of 16 from the chicken-exposed group. SIgE to PRM was detected in one control and in seven dogs exposed to chickens. No significant correlation was found between IDT or sIgE scores to PRM and house dust and storage mites. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Contact with PRM-infested chickens may lead to sensitization without allergy, independently from sensitization to house dust and storage mites.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Reações Cruzadas , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/imunologia , Cães/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/imunologia , Ácaros/imunologia , Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia
17.
Microb Pathog ; 140: 103940, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863839

RESUMO

H9N2 viruses can cause great economic losses to the domestic poultry industry when co-infected with other influenza viruses or pathogens. . To better understand the molecular characteristics of H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and analyze the genetic evolutionary relationship, we isolated three H9N2 subtypes AIVs from nasopharyngeal swab specimens from the three cases reported in Anhui province since 2015, and systematically reviewed the genome-wide data of 21 poultry--isolated H9N2 viruses during 1998-2017. The six internal genes of three human-isolated viruses and recent poultry-isolated viruses (since 2014) in Anhui province presented high gene homologies with HPAI H7N9, even including H10N8 and H5N6. The three human-isolated H9N2 AIVs and poultry-isolated viruses (since 2008) in Anhui province were highly similar, and classified into genotype S. Seven N-linked potential glycosylation sites in the HA protein were detected in the three human-isolated viruses, which also appeared in poultry-isolated H9N2 AIVs. None of the human-isolated H9N2 AIVs had the I368V mutation in PB1 protein, but all the poultry-isolated H9N2 viruses in 2017 carried this mutation. Multidisciplinary, cross-regional and cross-sectoral approaches are warranted to address complex public health challenges and achieve the goal of 'one health'.


Assuntos
Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/genética , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Galinhas , China/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Incidência , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Prevalência
18.
Braz J Microbiol ; 51(1): 385-394, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768926

RESUMO

Despite intensive vaccination, endemicity of Avian paramyxoviruses-1 (APMV-1) is a significant problem in developing countries in Africa, Middle East, and Asia. Given the importance of APMV-1 in poultry and multiple non-poultry avian species, it is important to continue surveillance programs, routine monitoring and characterization of field isolates in the region where viruses are endemic. The purpose of this study was to pathotyped and genetically characterized 21 APMV-1s isolated from multiple avian species reared in different regions of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK). Phylogenetic analysis based on complete fusion (F) gene sequences showed that 17 APMV-1 isolates obtained from commercial poultry and backyard birds belonged to sub-genotype VIIi. Though, one pigeon-origin APMV-1 isolate was clustered in sub-genotype VIg and three in recently designated new sub-genotype VIm of genotype VI. The pigeon-origin isolates had the following two motifs 113-RKKR↓F-117 and 113-RQRR↓F-117, while all other isolates had the polybasic amino acid sequence 113-RQKR↓F-117 at the F-cleavage site, which is characteristic of virulent APMV-1 strains. These results are consistent with the five viruses that had intracerebral pathogenicity indices (ICPIs) of between 1.50 and 1.73, corresponding to a velogenic pathotype. The APMV-1s isolated from commercial poultry and backyard birds in this study showed low nucleotide distance (0.3-0.9%) and genetically closely related (> 97%) to viruses repeatedly isolated (2011-2017) from multiple avian species in other states of Pakistan. Strengthened surveillance programs in both commercial poultry and backyard flocks are needed to better assess the commercial-backyard bird interface and form a basis for evidence-based measures to limit and prevent APMV-1 transmission.


Assuntos
Aves/virologia , Doença de Newcastle/transmissão , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Columbidae/virologia , Genes Virais , Variação Genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Doença de Newcastle/virologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/genética , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/patogenicidade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Virulência
19.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(2): 661-677, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587498

RESUMO

Free-range poultry farms have a high risk of introduction of avian influenza viruses (AIV), and it is presumed that wild (water) birds are the source of introduction. There is very scarce quantitative data on wild fauna visiting free-range poultry farms. We quantified visits of wild fauna to a free-range area of a layer farm, situated in an AIV hot-spot area, assessed by video-camera monitoring. A total of 5,016 hr (209 days) of video recordings, covering all 12 months of a year, were analysed. A total of 16 families of wild birds and five families of mammals visited the free-range area of the layer farm. Wild birds, except for the dabbling ducks, visited the free-range area almost exclusively in the period between sunrise and the moment the chickens entered the free-range area. Known carriers of AIV visited the outdoor facility regularly: species of gulls almost daily in the period January-August; dabbling ducks only in the night in the period November-May, with a distinct peak in the period December-February. Only a small fraction of visits of wild fauna had overlap with the presence of chickens at the same time in the free-range area. No direct contact between chickens and wild birds was observed. It is hypothesized that AIV transmission to poultry on free-range poultry farms will predominantly take place via indirect contact: taking up AIV by chickens via wild-bird-faeces-contaminated water or soil in the free-range area. The free-range poultry farmer has several possibilities to potentially lower the attractiveness of the free-range area for wild (bird) fauna: daily inspection of the free-range area and removal of carcasses and eggs; prevention of forming of water pools in the free-range facility. Furthermore, there are ways to scare-off wild birds, for example use of laser equipment or trained dogs.


Assuntos
Galinhas/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Aves , Charadriiformes , Patos , Fazendas , Feminino , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Países Baixos , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Gravação em Vídeo
20.
Avian Pathol ; 49(1): 56-61, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509002

RESUMO

In this study, the relative contribution of vertical transmission, within-farm transmission and between-farm transmission of Mycoplasma synoviae in layer pullet flocks was quantified using logistic regression analysis. Data from 311 Dutch pullet flocks, of which 172 (55%) were positive for M. synoviae, were included in the study. Also the M. synoviae status of the parent stock of these flocks was included. The M. synoviae status was determined with the M. synoviae rapid plate agglutination test. Data analysis showed that vertical transmission was the most important transmission route for M. synoviae in layers as is demonstrated by an odds ratio of 5.8 (P = 0.000). A positive association with M. synoviae infections was found for layer pullet flocks on a multi-house farm where at least one other flock was M. synoviae-positive compared to single-house farms (odds ratio 3.1, P = 0.022), while a negative association was found when no other M. synoviae-positive flocks were present (odds ratio = 0.2, P = 0.003). No association was found between M. synoviae status of pullet flocks and poultry farm density. Odds ratios were 0.54 (P = 0.288) and 0.34 (P = 0.073), respectively, for medium and highest poultry farm density compared to lowest poultry farm density. This is the first time that the relative contribution of horizontal and vertical transmission of M. synoviae has been quantified. These results can be extrapolated to M. synoviae control in general, and emphasize the importance of M. synoviae control in parent stock and practical channelling.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma synoviae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Modelos Logísticos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Densidade Demográfica , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
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