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1.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 24(1): 119-152, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189247

RESUMO

Feather damaging behavior (FDB), also referred to as feather picking, feather plucking, or pterotillomania, is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in captive psittacines. The clinical approach to identify underlying medical conditions associated with FDB is reviewed. Primary feather or skin diseases as well as systemic diseases may lead to this syndrome. This article focuses on the medical causes of FDB documented in the current avian literature. Medical causes are presented using the VITAMIN D algorithm. Key components of the multifaceted therapeutic approach in managing FDB of medical origin are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Aves , Plumas , Animais
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e000920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667500

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to verify the presence and identify the species of haemosporidian parasites in eared doves (Zenaida auriculata) in Brazil. Two hundred and eleven male and female eared doves were trap-captured in four different regions of Londrina city, in southern Brazil. Whole blood was collected in EDTA tubes through heart puncture after euthanasia in a CO2 chamber. A nested PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cyt b) of Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp. was performed, followed by an enzymatic digestion to identify the genus. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to determine the closely related species. Out of 211 eared doves, 209 (99.05%) were positive for Haemoproteus spp. and/or Plasmodium spp. RFLP analysis showed that 72.72% (152/209) of eared doves were positive only for Haemoproteus spp., 6.22% (13/209) were positive only for Plasmodium spp., and 21.05% (44/209) of eared doves had mixed infections. Genetic analysis found four samples that were homologous with Haemoproteus multipigmentatus and one that was homologous with Plasmodium sp. This is the first molecular study of hemoparasites from eared doves in Brazil, and it is also the first description of H. multipigmentatus and Plasmodium spp. infection in eared doves in Brazil.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa , Doenças das Aves , Columbidae , Plasmodium , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais , Animais , Apicomplexa/classificação , Apicomplexa/genética , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Brasil , Columbidae/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
3.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 391-397, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549570

RESUMO

Systemic isosporosis (formerly atoxoplasmosis), is a protozoal infection that causes death in nestling and fledgling passerine birds impacting ex situ breeding and reintroduction programs. Because current antemortem diagnostic tests lack sensitivity, a qPCR was developed for detection of Isospora spp. using primers and a fluorescent-tagged MGB probe targeting the large subunit (28s) ribosomal RNA gene (assay efficiency = >100%; sensitivity = <1 dsDNA copy). The assay was used to screen postmortem frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from passerine birds (n = 24; 12 with confirmed systemic isosporosis), whole blood and feces (n = 38) from live passerines, and other tissues infected with phylogenetically similar protozoa. The qPCR identified Isospora sp. DNA in tissues from 21/24 birds including 12/12 birds with cytologically-histologically confirmed infection (100% sensitivity) and 9/12 birds lacking microscopic organisms. The assay also amplified Eimeria sp. DNA; however, sequence analysis ruled out infection in the passerine cases. Blood and/or feces were positive in 30/38 birds, and in only 7/38 birds, blood and feces both contained Isospora sp. DNA. Finally, the qPCR was utilized to screen 30 consecutive daily fecal samples from live passerines (n = 20) to determine optimal sampling protocols. One or more of the daily fecal samples were positive in all 20 birds. In individual birds, the interval between positive qPCR amplification results ranged from 0 to 23 days, with an average of 5.85 days. Simulated application of 13 potential sample collection schedules was used to identify the sensitivity of repeated testing for identification of infected birds. Increased sampling days resulted in higher sensitivity but increased both cost and animal handling requirements. Based on statistical analysis and clinical considerations, the testing recommendation for detection of fecal shedding was collection and assay of five consecutive daily fecal samples, which had an average diagnostic sensitivity of 0.86.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Isospora/isolamento & purificação , Isosporíase/veterinária , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Aves Canoras , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Sangue/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Isosporíase/diagnóstico , Isosporíase/parasitologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas
4.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 407-415, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549572

RESUMO

Over a period of 5 mo, seven out of eight American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) housed on a spring-fed pond at a zoo died or were euthanized. Clinical signs included inability to stand, anorexia, and weight loss. Clinicopathologic findings included heterophilic leukocytosis and elevated creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase. Histopathologic findings on all pelicans demonstrated severe, chronic, diffuse rhabdomyofiber degeneration and necrosis, making vitamin E deficiency a differential diagnosis despite routine supplementation. Based on tissue and pond water assays for the cyanobacterial toxin, microcystin, toxicosis is suspected as the inciting cause of death in these cases. We hypothesize that vitamin E exhaustion and resultant rhabdomyodegeneration and cardiomyopathy were sequelae to this toxicosis.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Aves , Microcistinas/envenenamento , Necrose/veterinária , Envenenamento/mortalidade , Envenenamento/veterinária , Alabama/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/mortalidade , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Masculino , Necrose/diagnóstico , Necrose/microbiologia , Necrose/mortalidade , Envenenamento/complicações , Envenenamento/diagnóstico
5.
Avian Dis ; 64(2): 228-233, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550625

RESUMO

A grey-hooded parakeet (Psilopsiagon aymara) and two budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) from different owners presented with decreased activity, vomitus, and diarrhea. A microscopic examination of feces showed trophozoites of the protozoan flagellate Giardia. A commercial immunochromatographic dipstick test for Giardia sp. antigens confirmed the infection. These findings were assured by PCR of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene and coproantigen ELISA. Sequencing of PCR products of the SSU rRNA (292 bp) and ß-giardin genes (511 bp) identified Giardia psittaci as the species involved. Therefore, our results show that a GSA 65-based coproantigen ELISA, which was established for diagnosis of Giardia duodenalis is applicable for the detection of G. psittaci. A treatment with ronidazole was started. Additionally, fecal examination and dissection of the dead birds revealed coinfection with the fungal pathogen Macrorhabdus ornithogaster. One budgerigar survived and repeatedly tested negative after treatment with ronidazole. The described cases indicate that a single infection with G. psittaci has a good prognosis, whereas the prognosis is poor when coinfections occur, especially with M. ornithogaster.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/veterinária , Periquitos , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Alemanha , Giardia/genética , Giardíase/diagnóstico , Giardíase/parasitologia , Masculino , Melopsittacus , Tipagem Molecular/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária
6.
J Clin Virol ; 128: 104391, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the past two decades, three novel coronaviruses (CoVs) have emerged to cause international human epidemics with severe morbidity. CoVs have also emerged to cause severe epidemics in animals. A better understanding of the natural hosts and genetic diversity of CoVs are needed to help mitigate these threats. OBJECTIVE: To design and evaluate a molecular diagnostic tool for detection and identification of all currently recognized and potentially future emergent CoVs from the Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. STUDY DESIGN AND RESULTS: We designed a semi-nested, reverse transcription RT-PCR assay based upon 38 published genome sequences of human and animal CoVs. We evaluated this assay with 14 human and animal CoVs and 11 other non-CoV respiratory viruses. Through sequencing the assay's target amplicon, the assay correctly identified each of the CoVs; no cross-reactivity with 11 common respiratory viruses was observed. The limits of detection ranged from 4 to 4 × 102 copies/reaction, depending on the CoV species tested. To assess the assay's clinical performance, we tested a large panel of previously studied specimens: 192 human respiratory specimens from pneumonia patients, 5 clinical specimens from COVID-19 patients, 81 poultry oral secretion specimens, 109 pig slurry specimens, and 31 aerosol samples from a live bird market. The amplicons of all RT-PCR-positive samples were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Our assay performed well with all tested specimens across all sample types. CONCLUSIONS: This assay can be used for detection and identification of all previously recognized CoVs, including SARS-CoV-2, and potentially any emergent CoVs in the Orthocoronavirinae subfamily.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Aves , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Variação Genética , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da SARS/genética , Vírus da SARS/isolamento & purificação , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8480, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439889

RESUMO

The use of a sensitive and accurate parasite detection methodology is crucial in studies exploring prevalence of parasites in host populations or communities, and uncertainty in identifying parasite genera and/or lineages may limit the understanding of host-parasite interactions. Here, we used a multistate occupancy approach that accounts for imperfect detection to assess whether sex and breeding season influenced the prevalence of a specific Haemoproteus lineage (TARUF02) in a white-lined tanager population. Likewise, we explored whether the probability of detecting the target parasite in an infected bird using PCR and sequencing analyses may be influenced by season and host sex. We found little evidence that sex influenced the probability of an individual host being infected by a haemosporidian parasite. Conversely, we found that the probability of infection by Haemoproteus TARUF02 was ~30% higher during the breeding season, reflecting a higher prevalence of this parasite in this season. The probability that PCR detects DNA of haemosporidian parasite was higher for female birds, suggesting that they are more prone to be parasitized with parasitemia levels that are more successfully detected by molecular analysis. Sequencing successfully determined the Haemoproteus TARUF02 lineage in 60% of samples collected during the breeding season and 84% of samples collected during the non-breeding season. Understanding the ecology of hosts and aspects of their physiology that may influence the parasite infection is essential to better understanding of hemoparasite infections and how parasites influence their native hosts, through decreasing reproductive success, lifespan, and/or survival.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Aves/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Haemosporida/genética , Masculino , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Estações do Ano
9.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 23(2): 337-351, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327040

RESUMO

Avian bornavirus (ABV) is a neurotropic virus that can cause gastrointestinal and/or neurologic signs of disease in birds. The disease process is called proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). The characteristic lesions observed in birds include encephalitis and gross dilatation of the proventriculus. ABV is widely distributed in captive and wild bird populations. Most birds infected do not show clinical signs of disease. This article is an update of the Veterinary Clinics of North America article from 2013: Avian Bornavirus and Proventricular Dilatation Disease: Diagnostics, Pathology, Prevalence, and Control.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Bornaviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Mononegavirales/veterinária , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Doenças das Aves/prevenção & controle , Aves , Dilatação , Infecções por Mononegavirales/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mononegavirales/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mononegavirales/patologia , Prevalência , Proventrículo/patologia
10.
Virus Genes ; 56(3): 316-324, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034617

RESUMO

Knowledge about adenoviruses in birds of the order Passeriformes is very scarce. Based on molecular characterizations, only two siadenoviruses, great tit adenovirus 1 and Gouldian finch adenovirus, have been described so far occurring in great tits and Gouldian finches, respectively. Assuming a broader occurrence of adenoviruses, various passeriform birds including pet, zoo, and wild birds were examined using a broad-range PCR targeting a fragment of the adenovirus DNA polymerase gene. Adenoviruses were detected in 25 individual birds belonging to 13 species and seven zoological families (Ploceidae, Fringillidae, Estrildidae, Paridae, Sylviidae, Turdidae, Muscicapidae). The putative viruses were further characterized by sequencing the PCR products and phylogenetic analyses. DNA of adenoviruses affiliating to 3 genera including aviadenovirus, siadenovirus, and atadenovirus was found. Viruses with sequences identical or closely related to great tit adenovirus 1 and Gouldian finch adenovirus 1 were detected in a great tit and in two zebra finches, respectively. Based on polymerase amino acid sequence comparisons, the viruses found in the remaining 22 birds revealed phylogenetic distances larger than 15% to adenoviruses known so far suggesting that they may belong to at least 14 different virus species. In some bird species (great tit, zebra finch, vitelline masked weaver) varying adenovirus genera were detected. These results suggest a broad variety of adenoviruses circulating in passeriform birds.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Adenoviridae/classificação , Adenoviridae/genética , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Passeriformes/virologia , Animais , DNA Viral , Genoma Viral , Filogenia
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 104, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood parasites belonging to the Apicomplexa, Trypanosomatidae and Filarioidea are widespread in birds and have been studied extensively. Microscopical examination (ME) of stained blood films remains the gold standard method for the detection of these infections in birds, particularly because co-infections predominate in wildlife. None of the available molecular tools can detect all co-infections at the same time, but ME provides opportunities for this to be achieved. However, fixation, drying and staining of blood films as well as their ME are relatively time-consuming. This limits the detection of infected hosts during fieldwork when captured animals should be released soon after sampling. It is an obstacle for quick selection of donor hosts for parasite experimental, histological and other investigations in the field. This study modified, tested and described the buffy coat method (BCM) for quick diagnostics (~ 20 min/sample) of avian blood parasites. METHODS: Blood of 345 birds belonging to 42 species was collected, and each sample was examined using ME of stained blood films and the buffy coat, which was examined after centrifugation in capillary tubes and after being transferred to objective glass slides. Parasite detection using these methods was compared using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and Cohen's kappa index. RESULTS: Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, microfilariae, Trypanosoma and Lankesterella parasites were detected. BCM had a high sensitivity (> 90%) and specificity (> 90%) for detection of Haemoproteus and microfilariae infections. It was of moderate sensitivity (57%) and high specificity (> 90%) for Lankesterella infections, but of low sensitivity (20%) and high specificity (> 90%) for Leucocytozoon infections. Trypanosoma and Plasmodium parasites were detected only by BCM and ME, respectively. According to Cohen's kappa index, the agreement between two diagnostic tools was substantial for Haemoproteus (0.80), moderate for Lankesterella (0.46) and fair for microfilariae and Leucocytozoon (0.28) infections. CONCLUSIONS: BCM is sensitive and recommended as a quick and reliable tool to detect Haemoproteus, Trypanosoma and microfilariae parasites during fieldwork. However, it is not suitable for detection of species of Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium. BCM is a useful tool for diagnostics of blood parasite co-infections. Its application might be extended to studies of blood parasites in other vertebrates during field studies.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Buffy Coat/parasitologia , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Parasitologia/métodos , Coloração e Rotulagem/métodos , Animais , Animais Selvagens/sangue , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/sangue , Aves/sangue , Aves/classificação , Aves/parasitologia , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(2): 336-338, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100641

RESUMO

A captive, adult female Brent goose (Branta bernicla) with a history of severe feather picking by its mate, was presented with 0.5-2.5 cm skin nodules on the head and neck. Histologic examination revealed a well-delineated dermal mass that surrounded an intact feather follicle and was composed of lakes of proteinaceous fluid and fibrin with scattered foamy macrophages and multinucleate giant cells. No bacteria or fungi were identified with histology, microbial culture, or PCR. Sterile panniculitis is an infrequent finding in animals and traumatic panniculitis is rarely sterile.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Gansos , Paniculite/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Doenças das Aves/etiologia , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Paniculite/diagnóstico , Paniculite/etiologia , Paniculite/patologia , Quebeque
13.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(2): 344-347, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081087

RESUMO

A unilateral, malformed gnathotheca in a green-winged macaw (Ara chloropterus) was managed for 16 mo with periodic beak trims. Biopsy of the affected beak did not identify an underlying cause; however, at postmortem examination, a densely cellular neoplasm invaded the mandible from the beak, dissecting and effacing the cortex and trabecular bone and inciting periosteal proliferation. There was no evidence of metastasis. Neoplastic cells were strongly immunopositive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, consistent with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A black-headed caique (Pionites melanocephalus) was presented with a similar clinical history, timeline, and gross appearance. Biopsy of the mandibular portion of the lesion resulted in a diagnosis of SCC. Medical management with toceranib at a palliative dose resulted in adverse side effects and was discontinued. Early diagnosis of mandibular SCC may allow for early intervention and development of treatment modalities. Our 2 cases suggest that the mandibular bone, not the beak, may be a preferred biopsy site in the diagnosis of mandibular SCC in psittacines.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/veterinária , Mandíbula/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/veterinária , Papagaios , Animais , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia
14.
Microb Pathog ; 138: 103798, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639466

RESUMO

The avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a known pathogen of poultry, and newly emerged pathogen of house finches wherein it is associated with lethal conjunctivitis. Factors present in MG that are known to mediate virulence include cytadherence, sialidase activity, peroxide production, and biofilm formation. We have quantitatively assessed these factors for MG isolates from house finches from a temporal and geographic distribution across the continental United States that show differing capacity for virulence in vivo. Statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences were observed across strains for sialidase activity, cytadherence, and hydrogen peroxide production. Sialidase activity increased over time in geographically static populations, but did not correlate with time overall. All strains were able to bind α-2,6-linked sialic acid. No strains were found to bind α-2,3-linked sialic acid. All strains produced biofilms in vitro; however, no significant differences were observed in the density of biofilms across strains. Quantitative variance in virulence-associated traits is consistent with within-host evolutionary adaptation in response to a change in ecological niche by a parasitic pathogen.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica da População , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma , Fenótipo , Animais , Aderência Bacteriana , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomarcadores , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/metabolismo , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Mycoplasma/classificação , Mycoplasma/fisiologia , Neuraminidase/metabolismo , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Virulência
15.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 23(1): 21-45, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759448

RESUMO

Diseases of the renal system can be caused by infectious and noninfectious processes. Creating a relevant differential diagnosis for kidney disease in the live or dead bird requires a structured approach where the list of differentials is narrowed based on the signalment of the bird; its history, including its diet and management; physical findings; and other diagnostic findings. This article aims to provide the reader not only a list of the diseases that occur in birds but also the guidelines on when a disease should be considered in a differential.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/veterinária , Animais , Doenças das Aves/fisiopatologia , Aves , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia
16.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 23(1): 47-58, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759451

RESUMO

Renal disease often remains undetected in living patients. Urinalysis might contribute to the diagnosis of some kinds of renal and metabolic diseases. Blood uric acid concentrations reflect the excretory functional capacity of the renal proximal tubules. In contrast, blood urea concentrations are significantly affected by the bird's hydration status and have been proposed as a useful variable to detect prerenal causes for renal impairment in birds. Measurement of exogenous creatinine excretion shows promising preliminary results to become a useful test for the assessment of renal excretion in birds.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/fisiopatologia , Creatinina/análise , Nefropatias/veterinária , Animais , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Aves , Creatinina/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Nefrologia , Ureia/análise , Ácido Úrico/análise , Urinálise/veterinária
17.
Avian Pathol ; 49(2): 115-118, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766868

RESUMO

Aspergillosis is a disease of domestic and free-living birds caused by infection with a fraction of fungi within the genus Aspergillus. Species can be identified by colony morphology and microscopic characterization of conidia and conidiophores or by PCR, and isolates can be typed by microsatellite typing. Serodiagnostic options for testing are limited to antibody and antigen detection methods. The sensitivity of these tests can be enhanced through the use of protein electrophoresis. In many countries, no systemic antifungal drugs are registered for use in food-producing birds and resistance to antifungal drugs has been reported in Aspergillus strains derived from birds. The most important prevention strategy against aspergillosis is keeping the infection pressure low by adequate ventilation as well as cleaning and disinfection. Open questions about avian aspergillosis that research needs to address are related to epidemiology and serodiagnosis, as well as therapy and prevention.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/veterinária , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Aspergilose/diagnóstico , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Aves
18.
Vet Rec ; 186(17): 563, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatic disease in psittacine birds is common but challenging to diagnose. This retrospective study evaluates the diagnostic value of plasma biochemistry, haematology, radiography and endoscopic visualisation in psittaciforms with suspected hepatic disease that underwent endoscopic liver biopsy. METHODS: Clinical records of 28 companion psittaciforms from a veterinary teaching hospital (2007-2016) were reviewed. Diagnostic results were categorised as abnormal or normal and compared with histopathology for agreement or disagreement. Statistical significance was determined by kappa test for agreement and McNemar's test for disagreement. RESULTS: 11 of 28 psittaciforms (39.3 per cent) had clinical signs considered specific for liver disease. 25 of 28 (89.3 per cent) psittaciforms had histopathological liver lesions. Gross changes radiographically and endoscopically agreed with histopathology in 57.1 per cent and 53.6 per cent of cases, respectively. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (48.1 per cent), creatine phosphokinase (73.1 per cent) and albumin by protein electrophoresis (50 per cent) showed the highest agreement. Kappa was not significant for any parameters, while McNemar's test for disagreement was significant for radiography, endoscopy, AST, lactate dehydrogenase, bile acid, total protein (chemistry), cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid and glucose. CONCLUSION: Overall, changes on plasma biochemistry, radiography or endoscopy are non-specific and do not consistently agree with histopathology results. Endoscopic liver biopsy is highly recommended if there is clinical suspicion of hepatic disease.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Psittaciformes , Animais , Biópsia/veterinária , Doenças das Aves/sangue , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico por imagem , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Endoscopia/veterinária , Feminino , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Radiografia/veterinária , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19699, 2019 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31873143

RESUMO

Early diagnosis of kidney diseases in avian species is limited. Endogenous markers currently used in avian practice are not sensitive enough to identify early kidney failure. Consequently, alternative markers should be evaluated. To be able to evaluate these alternative markers, an accurate marker to estimate the GFR should be validated. This study determined the GFR, measured as clearance of exogenous creatinine and exo-iohexol, in six different bird species, i.e. broiler chickens, laying chickens, turkeys, Muscovy ducks, pigeons and African grey parrots (4♀/4♂). To be able to compare the six bird species, normalization to bodyweight (BW) of the GFR was performed, after a good correlation between BW and kidney weight was demonstrated (R² = 0.9836). Clearance of exo-iohexol normalized to BW (mL/min/kg) was determined in all bird species, i.e. 3.09 in broiler chickens; 2.57 in laying chickens; 1.94 in turkeys; 1.29 in pigeons; 2.60 in ducks and 1.11 in parrots. However, these results differed significantly with the clearance of exogenous creatinine: 8.41 in broiler chickens; 9.33 in laying chickens; 5.62 in turkeys; 14.97 in pigeons; 17.59 in ducks and 25.56 in parrots 25.56. Iohexol is preferred to measure the GFR, since it is not prone to tubular reabsorption nor secretion.


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Creatinina/sangue , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Testes de Função Renal/veterinária , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças das Aves/sangue , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/fisiopatologia , Aves/sangue , Galinhas , Columbidae , Creatinina/administração & dosagem , Creatinina/farmacocinética , Patos , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Iohexol/administração & dosagem , Iohexol/farmacocinética , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/veterinária , Testes de Função Renal/métodos , Masculino , Papagaios , Especificidade da Espécie , Perus
20.
Viruses ; 11(12)2019 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817690

RESUMO

Parrot bornaviruses (PaBVs) are the causative agents of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), a chronic and often fatal neurologic disorder in Psittaciformes. The disease is widely distributed in private parrot collections and threatens breeding populations of endangered species. Thus, immunoprophylaxis strategies are urgently needed. In previous studies we demonstrated a prime-boost vaccination regime using modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) constructs expressing the nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein of PaBV-4 (MVA/PaBV-4 and NDV/PaBV-4, respectively) to protect cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) against experimental challenge infection. Here we investigated the protective effect provided by repeated immunization with either MVA/PaBV-4, NDV/PaBV-4 or Orf virus constructs (ORFV/PaBV-4) individually. While MVA/PaBV-4-vaccinated cockatiels were completely protected against subsequent PaBV-2 challenge infection and PDD-associated lesions, the course of the challenge infection in NDV/PaBV-4- or ORFV/PaBV-4-vaccinated birds did not differ from the unvaccinated control group. We further investigated the effect of vaccination on persistently PaBV-4-infected cockatiels. Remarkably, subsequent immunization with MVA/PaBV-4 and NDV/PaBV-4 neither induced obvious immunopathogenesis exacerbating the disease nor reduced viral loads in the infected birds. In summary, we demonstrated that vaccination with MVA/PaBV-4 alone is sufficient to efficiently prevent PaBV-2 challenge infection in cockatiels, providing a suitable vaccine candidate against avian bornavirus infection and bornavirus-induced PDD.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Bornaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Mononegavirales/veterinária , Vírus Vaccinia/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Cacatuas , Imunização , Papagaios , RNA Viral , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
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