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1.
Parasitol Res ; 119(2): 447-463, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883048

RESUMO

In this study, we explore blood parasite prevalence, infection intensity, and co-infection levels in an urban population of feral pigeons Columba livia in Cape Town. We analyze the effect of blood parasites on host body condition and the association between melanin expression in the host's plumage and parasite infection intensity and co-infection levels. Relating to the haemosporidian parasite itself, we study their genetic diversity by means of DNA barcoding (cytochrome b) and show the geographic and host distribution of related parasite lineages in pigeons worldwide. Blood from 195 C. livia individuals was collected from April to June 2018. Morphometric measurements and plumage melanism were recorded from every captured bird. Haemosporidian prevalence and infection intensity were determined by screening blood smears and parasite lineages by DNA sequencing. Prevalence of Haemoproteus spp. was high at 96.9%. The body condition of the hosts was negatively associated with infection intensity. However, infection intensity was unrelated to plumage melanism. The cytochrome b sequences revealed the presence of four Haemoproteus lineages in our population of pigeons, which show high levels of co-occurrence within individual birds. Three lineages (HAECOL1, COLIV03, COQUI05) belong to Haemoproteus columbae and differ only by 0.1% to 0.8% in the cytochrome b gene. Another lineage (COLIV06) differs by 8.3% from the latter ones and is not linked to a morphospecies, yet. No parasites of the genera Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium were detected.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Columbidae/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Haemosporida/genética , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Citocromos b/genética , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
2.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3497-3508, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720833

RESUMO

Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. protozoa, and penguins are considered particularly susceptible to this disease, developing rapid outbreaks with potentially high mortality. We report on an outbreak of avian malaria in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at a rehabilitation center in Espírito Santo, southeast Brazil. In August and September 2015, a total of 89 Magellanic penguins (87 juveniles and 2 adults) received care at Institute of Research and Rehabilitation of Marine Animals. Over a period of 2 weeks, Plasmodium infections were identified in eight individuals (9.0%), four of which died (mortality = 4.5%, lethality = 50%). Blood smears and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene revealed the presence of Plasmodium lutzi SPMAG06, Plasmodium elongatum GRW06, Plasmodium sp. PHPAT01, Plasmodium sp. SPMAG10, and Plasmodium cathemerium (sequencing not successful). Two unusual morphological features were observed in individuals infected with lineage SPMAG06: (a) lack of clumping of pigment granules and (b) presence of circulating exoerythrocytic meronts. Hematological results (packed cell volume, plasma total solids, complete blood cell counts) of positive individuals showed differences from those of negative individuals depending on the lineages, but there was no overarching pattern consistently observed for all Plasmodium spp. The epidemiology of the outbreak and the phylogeography of the parasite lineages detected in this study support the notion that malarial infections in penguins undergoing rehabilitation in Brazil are the result of the spillover inoculation by plasmodia that circulate in the local avifauna, especially Passeriformes.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Malária Aviária/parasitologia , Plasmodium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spheniscidae/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/sangue , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Hematologia , Malária Aviária/sangue , Malária Aviária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/genética , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação
3.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3555-3559, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722067

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to survey the Cryptosporidium species in peafowls (Pavo cristatus) in Henan Province, China. A total of 143 fecal specimens collected from a breeding farm were tested for Cryptosporidium by nested PCR targeting the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), and actin genes of Cryptosporidium followed by sequence analysis. Only one isolate from an asymptomatic host was obtained, and the isolate differed from a new C. xiaoi-like genotype by one nucleotide and from C. xiaoi or C. bovis at the SSU rRNA locus by six nucleotides. Likewise, the actin gene shared 99% identity with the C. xiaoi-like genotype, accompanied by four nucleotide mutations. A complete sequence of the HSP70 gene was obtained, and exhibited 96% similarity with that from C. xiaoi and differed by one nucleotide from that with the C. xiaoi-like genotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the current isolate revealed genetic relatedness to the C. xiaoi-like genotype and distinction from C. xiaoi and C. bovis. Therefore, our results provided the first documentation of avian infection with a C. xiaoi-like genotype in China and further insight into the diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in avians.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Galliformes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico/genética
4.
Vet Microbiol ; 239: 108453, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767092

RESUMO

Sindbis virus (SINV) is an arbovirus causing clinical symptoms such as arthritis, rash and fever following human infections in Fennoscandia. Its transmission cycle involves mosquito species as vectors as well as wild birds that act as natural reservoir hosts. In Germany, SINV was first time observed in 2009 in different mosquito species in the Upper Rhine valley and one year later in a hooded crow in Berlin. Recently, SINV was also detected repeatedly at various locations in Germany in the context of a mosquitoes monitoring program for arboviruses. In this study, we detected for just the second time a SINV infection in a diseased wild bird (common wood pigeon) from Central Europe. SINV was isolated by cell culture and the complete SINV genome sequence was determined. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a close affiliation to SINV genotype I with a high similarity to human isolate sequences from Finland, Sweden and Russia. The isolate was genetically distinct from the first avian isolate suggesting the circulation of at least two different SINV strains in Germany. In order to reveal the infection frequency in SINV positive mosquito regions 749 bird blood samples were assayed serologically and SINV antibodies found primarily in resident birds. SINV is therefore endemically circulating in mosquitoes in Germany, which results in occasional bird infections. No data are yet available on zoonotic transmission to humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Alphavirus/virologia , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Vírus Sindbis/classificação , Zoonoses/virologia , Infecções por Alphavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Alphavirus/transmissão , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Aves/virologia , Genótipo , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Filogenia , Vírus Sindbis/genética , Vírus Sindbis/fisiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
5.
Vet Microbiol ; 237: 108397, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585638

RESUMO

Aves polyomavirus 1 (APV) causes inflammatory disease in psittacine birds, especially in young budgerigar. In this study, an APV virus (SD18 strain) was isolated from a diseased psittacine birds breeding facility. The full genome (4981 bp) of SD18 was determined and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of full genome sequences indicated all the APV strains form two groups. The SD18 strain showed close relationship with APV isolated from Poland, however, the other Chinese strains are located in group II, which suggested different genotypes APVs are co-circulating in China. Compared with the consensus sequence of APV full genome, the SD18 strain contains 13 nucleotide mutations, and 2 unique amino acid substitutions (R179M and Q382K) located in VP2/3 and Large T proteins. To explore the pathogenicity of the virus, the SD18 strain was used to challenge 2-week-old budgerigars. All infected birds died no later than 5 days post infection, and virus was detected in multiple organs including brain, heart, ingluvies, liver, and intestine, which indicated that SD18 is fatal and causes systemic infection in young budgerigar. In vitro studies showed that SD18 replicated efficiently in CEF cells and reached the highest viral titers at 9 days post infection. Notably, replication of SD18 stimulated IFN-ß response in CEF cells and overexpression of the VP4 or VP4Delta proteins significantly inhibited IFN-ß promoter activation, which could be the strategy of APV to escape from the host innate immunity.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/virologia , Melopsittacus/virologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/veterinária , Polyomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Polyomavirus/genética , Infecções por Polyomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 816-820, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618304

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are Apicomplexan intracellular protozoan parasites that affect numerous animal species, thus leading to severe diseases and economic losses, depending on the vertebrate species involved. The role of the avian species in maintaining and transmission of these coccidia has been studied for several years as they tend to serve as a potential source of infection for mammals and humans. The present study aimed to assess the serological exposure of Orinoco goose (Neochen jubata) to T. gondii and N. caninum. Between 2010 and 2013, 41 free-ranging Orinoco geese were captured in the Araguaia River, Brazil. The presence and titration of IgY antibodies to both coccidia were assayed via indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). While IgY antibodies for N. caninum were present in 5 animals, with titers of 20, the antibodies for T. gondii were found in 35 animals, with titers ranging from 20 to 640. Considering that the Orinoco goose's meat is consumed by the local population in the studied area, it may represent an important source of T. gondii infection for humans. Due to its migratory behavior, this goose may play a pivotal role in the natural dispersion of both parasites. Furthermore, molecular studies are required for genotyping the isolates of T. gondii that occurs in this avian species.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Gansos/parasitologia , Neospora/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
7.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 10(6): 101282, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492630

RESUMO

This study was aimed to know epidemiological aspects of Borrelia spp. in a protected urban area of Buenos Aires city, Argentina, where thousands of people visit this area for recreational purposes. Ticks were collected from vegetation, birds and dogs. Three hundred and forty birds belonging to 43 species, 41 genera, 18 families and six orders were captured (90.3% corresponded to the order Passeriformes). One hundred and twenty ticks were collected from 47 birds (13.8%) belonging to 10 species (23.2%), all of them from to the order Passeriformes (Emberizidae, Furnariidae, Parulidae, Thraupidae, Troglodytidae, Turdidae). Ticks were identified as Ixodes auritulus (56 larvae, 44 nymphs and 8 females) and Amblyomma aureolatum (1 larva and 11 nymphs). One thousand and ninety-one ticks collected from vegetation, 100 ticks collected from birds, and 89 ticks from dogs were tested for Borrelia infection by PCR trials targeting the flagellin (fla) and 16S rRNA genes. In addition, 101 blood and 168 tissue samples from birds were analyzed. Nine nymphs of A. aureolatum (2.1%) and four nymphs of I. auritulus (0.7%) collected from vegetation were positive. Five nymphs of A. aureolatum (45.4%), and five pools of larvae (minimum infection rate 13.5%), 18 nymphs (40.9%) and one female (14.3%) of I. auritulus collected on birds were also positive. The remaining samples were negative. The phylogenetic tree generated with fla sequences shows that seven of the eight different haplotypes of Borrelia detected in I. auritulus conform an independent lineage within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex together with sequences of Borrelia sp. detected in I. auritulus from Canada and Uruguay. The fla sequences of Borrelia obtained from A. aureolatum and one sequence of a single specimen of I. auritulus conform a phylogenetic group with Borrelia turcica, Borrelia sp. isolated from a tortoise in Zambia, Borrelia spp. detected in Amblyomma maculatum from USA and Amblyomma longirostre from Brazil. The epidemiological risk that implies the infection with Borrelia genospecies associated with I. auritulus seems to be low because this tick is not aggressive to humans, but it helps to maintain borrelial spirochetes in the enzootic transmission cycles. The pathogenicity to humans of the Borrelia found in A. aureolatum is unknown; however, adults of this tick species are known to bite humans. This is the first report of the presence of Borrelia in A. aureolatum. Further investigations are necessary to know the risk of transmission of borreliosis by hard ticks in the study area.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Infecções por Borrelia/veterinária , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Passeriformes , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Borrelia/classificação , Infecções por Borrelia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Borrelia/microbiologia , Cidades , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Parques Recreativos , Filogenia , Prevalência
9.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 257-264, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383310

RESUMO

Wild birds are known reservoirs of bacterial and viral pathogens, some of which have zoonotic potential. This poses a risk to both avian and human health, since spillover into domestic bird populations may occur. In Victoria, wild-caught cockatoos trapped under licence routinely enter commercial trade. The circovirus Beak and Feather Disease Virus (BFDV), herpesviruses, adenoviruses and Chlamydia psittaci have been identified as significant pathogens of parrots globally, with impacts on both aviculture and the conservation efforts of endangered species. In this study, we describe the results of surveillance for psittacid herpesviruses (PsHVs), psittacine adenovirus (PsAdV), BFDV and C. psittaci in wild cacatuids in Victoria, Australia. Samples were collected from 55 birds of four species, and tested using genus or family-wide polymerase chain reaction methods coupled with sequencing and phylogenetic analyses for detection and identification of known and novel pathogens. There were no clinically observed signs of illness in most of the live birds in this study (96.3%; n = 53). Beak and Feather Disease Virus was detected with a prevalence of 69.6% (95% CI 55.2-80.9). Low prevalences of PsHV (1.81%; 95% CI 0.3-9.6), PsAdV (1.81%; 95% CI 0.3-9.6), and C. psittaci (1.81%; 95% CI 0.3-9.6) was detected. Importantly, a novel avian alphaherpesvirus and a novel avian adenovirus were detected in a little corella (Cacatua sanguinea) co-infected with BFDV and C. psittaci. The presence of multiple potential pathogens detected in a single bird presents an example of the ease with which such infectious agents may enter the pet trade and how novel viruses circulating in wild populations have the potential for transmission into captive birds. Genomic identification of previously undescribed avian viruses is important to further our understanding of their epidemiology, facilitating management of biosecurity aspects of the domestic and international bird trade, and conservation efforts of vulnerable species.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Papagaios/virologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Viroses/veterinária , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Alphaherpesvirinae/patogenicidade , Animais , Aviadenovirus/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Chlamydophila psittaci , Circovirus/patogenicidade , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Papagaios/microbiologia , Prevalência , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Vitória/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Vírus/classificação
10.
Vet Ital ; 55(2): 169-172, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274179

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among 180 Escherichia coli strains isolated from 200 wild pheasants caught in rural areas of the Czech Republic (Eastern Moravia) and Slovakia (Western Region). The isolates were also classified into phylogenetic groups by the multiplex PCR method. Our findings demonstrated that 130 strains were resistant to ampicillin (72%), 160 strains to cephalothin (89%), and 40 strains to tetracycline (22%). Ten strains were found to be resistant to chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (5.6%). In turn, all strains were sensitive to cefoperazone/sulbactam, ciprofloxacin, colistin, gentamicin, and piperacillin/tazobactam. Ten of the 180 isolates (5.6%) exhibited multi-resistant phenotypes, including resistances against beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, sulphonamides, and chloramphenicol. As far as we know, this is the first report describing antimicrobial resistance in E. coli from pheasants.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Galliformes , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Prevalência , Eslováquia/epidemiologia
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(2): 221-228, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271639

RESUMO

Geese, ducks, mallards, and swans are birds of the order Anseriformes, which are found in the wild, in zoos and parks, and raised for meat consumption. Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis sp., and Neospora caninum are protozoans of several species of animals. Wild and domestic birds can serve as intermediate hosts, disseminators and potential sources of infection of these protozoa to humans through contaminated meat. The aims of this study were: (i) to perform a serological survey of T. gondii, Sarcocystis sp. and N. caninum in geese (Anser sp.) from public parks and from captivity and (ii) to compare seroprevalence between these two locations. Antibodies were detected by Immunofluorescence antibody test using the serum of 149 geese. Antibodies to Sarcocystis sp., T. gondii, and N. caninum were detected in 28.18%, 18% and 0.67% of geese, respectively; 57% of geese from urban parks and 26.53% of geese from captivity were seropositive for at least one protozoa. The results indicate environmental contamination, particularly for the occurrence of antibodies against T. gondii - a zoonosis that causes toxoplasmosis and is transmitted through oocyte ingestion. This is the first serological survey of T. gondii, Sarcocystis sp. and N. caninum in geese from urban parks in Curitiba, Brazil.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Gansos/parasitologia , Neospora/imunologia , Sarcocystis/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Imunofluorescência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , População Urbana
12.
Aust Vet J ; 97(10): 398-400, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310011

RESUMO

Chlamydia gallinacea is a recently described bacterial species in a genus known to infect and cause disease in animals and humans. Our report describes the identification of C. gallinacea infection in free-range laying chickens (Gallus gallus) in Australia, and the identification of C. gallinacea infection in a parrot, a wild Australian galah (Eolophus roseicapillus). There is currently little knowledge of the effects of C. gallinacea infection on avian hosts, but it has been linked to respiratory disease in humans and could potentially cause similar disease in other species. Our report highlights the need for further study and surveillance of Chlamydia species in both wild and domestic hosts in Australia.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Chlamydia/genética , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Papagaios , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vitória/epidemiologia
13.
Parasitol Int ; 72: 101946, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229552

RESUMO

Deep evolutionary relationships within raptorial niche have recently been challenged. Little is known as to whether birds of the raptorial niche share congruent or host-switching communities of parasites. Here, we analyzed the helminth component communities associated with birds of prey and owls. From 1962 to 2015, we examined 1731 birds of prey and owls in Czechia, and we provide a meta-analysis based on the available literature. Both the analysis of newly examined birds as well as the meta-analysis of previous studies suggested low similarities in the helminth component communities in Strigiformes relative to those in Accipitriformes (Sørensen similarity indices 0.380 in Czechia and 0.324 worldwide) or Falconiformes (0.341 and 0.328), as well as low similarities in the helminth component communities in Falconiformes to those in Accipitriformes (0.366 and 0.413). Globally, 59.6% of helminth species found in Accipitriformes, 39.5% of those in Falconiformes and 38.3% of those in Strigiformes were obligate specialists that were limited to a single examined bird order. Another 11.5%, 12.8% and 8.3% of species had core hosts in only a single order. Only five helminth species infected all three bird orders at a similar prevalence. The differences in prevalence cannot be explained by differences in food composition. We provide detailed information on the prevalence, seasonality, age- and sex-specificity, intensity and lethality of helminth infections. In conclusion, we provide the first systematically collected evidence on the congruence of the helminth distribution and phylogeny of the raptorial niche, which is consistent with its split into Australaves and Afroaves.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Falconiformes/parasitologia , Helmintos/classificação , Aves Predatórias/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , República Tcheca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/fisiologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 292, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Climate-related changes are expected to influence the prevalence and distribution of vector-borne haemosporidian parasites at northern latitudes, although baseline information about resident birds is still lacking. In this study, we investigated prevalence and genetic diversity of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon parasites infecting the northwestern crow (Corvus caurinus), a non-migratory passerine with unique life-history characteristics. This species occupies both intertidal and forested habitats and is subject to high prevalence of avian keratin disorder (AKD), a disease that causes gross beak deformities. Investigation of avian blood parasites in northwestern crows at sites broadly distributed across coastal Alaska provided an opportunity to evaluate specific host factors related to parasite infection status and assess geographical patterns of prevalence. RESULTS: We used molecular methods to screen for haemosporidian parasites in northwestern crows and estimated genus-specific parasite prevalence with occupancy modeling that accounts for imperfect detection of parasite infection. We observed considerable geographical and annual variation in prevalence of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon, but these patterns were not correlated with indices of local climatic conditions. Our models also did not provide support for relationships between the probability of parasite infection and body condition or the occurrence of co-infections with other parasite genera or clinical signs of AKD. In our phylogenetic analyses, we identified multiple lineages of each parasite genus, with Leucocytozoon showing greater diversity than Plasmodium or Haemoproteus. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study expand our knowledge about the prevalence and diversity of avian blood parasites in northern resident birds as well as corvids worldwide. We detected all three genera of avian haemosporidians in northwestern crows in Alaska, although only Leucocytozoon occurred at all sites in both years. Given the strong geographical and annual variation in parasite prevalence and apparent lack of correlation with climatic variables, it appears that there are other key factors responsible for driving transmission dynamics in this region. Thus, caution is warranted when using standard climatic or geographical attributes in a predictive framework. Our phylogenetic results demonstrate lower host specificity for some lineages of Leucocytozoon than is typically reported and provide insights about genetic diversity of local haemosporidian parasites in Alaska.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Corvos/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Parasitos/genética , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/sangue , Alaska/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Mudança Climática , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Ecossistema , Haemosporida/genética , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Plasmodium/genética , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência
15.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(5): 1827-1833, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237100

RESUMO

Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) is a common disease in psittacine bird that caused by beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). BFDV is widely spread and threatening psittacine birds worldwide. However, the BFDV infection in China remains largely unknown. In this study, a surveillance study of BFDV was conducted in three budgerigar breeding facilities, which showed that 66.6% of collected faeces samples were positive for BFDV. Full genomes of nine BFDV circulating in the three budgerigar breeding facilities (three for each facility) were determined and analysed. The full genomes shared 75.9% to 87.5% identity with the known genotype BFDV. Phylogenetic analysis of the full genome indicated that the BFDV circulating in China formed a separated group, and the nine isolates fell into three subgroups, suggesting that different unique BFDV genotypes are circulating in China. Notably, the Cap genes of three strains (SD3, SD5 and SD9) showed low identity (67.9% to 70%) to all the known genotypes of BFDV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these three Cap genes formed a unique lineage that is different from all known genotypes, which suggested that the SD3, SD5 and SD9 strains identified in this study belong to a novel genotype that has not been reported. However, the origin of this genotype remains unclear. All the data indicated that the different unique genotypes of BFDV are co-circulating in China, and active surveillance of BFDV is warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/virologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Melopsittacus/virologia , Animais , Bico/virologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Cruzamento , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Plumas/virologia , Genótipo , Filogenia
16.
J Avian Med Surg ; 33(2): 141-149, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251501

RESUMO

Avian polyomavirus disease and psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) are both contagious viral diseases in psittacine birds with similar clinical manifestations and characterized by abnormal feathers. To determine the prevalence of Aves polyomavirus 1 (APyV) and beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) in captive, exotic psittacine birds in Chile, feathers from 250 psittacine birds, representing 17 genera, were collected and stored during the period 2013-2016. Polymerase chain reaction testing was used to detect APyV and BFDV were detected in feather bulb samples. The results indicated that 1.6% (4/250) of the samples were positive for APyV, 23.2% (58/250) were positive to BFDV, and 0.8% (2/250) were positive to both APyV and BFDV. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of APyV and BFDV prevalence in captive, exotic psittacine birds in South America. Analysis of 2 Chilean partial sequences of the gene encoding agnoprotein 1a (APyV) and the replication-associated protein (BFDV) extends the knowledge of genomic variability for both APyV and BFDV isolates and their spectrum of hosts. No geographical marker was detected for the local isolates.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/virologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/veterinária , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Polyomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Psittaciformes , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/genética , Filogenia , Polyomavirus/classificação , Infecções por Polyomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Polyomavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Polyomavirus/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/epidemiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/veterinária , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia
17.
Avian Pathol ; 48(5): 437-443, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081348

RESUMO

A Bourke's parrot (Neopsephotus bourkii) originating from an aviary in Australia, containing two species of parrots, five species of finch and a species of dove, was presented for necropsy. The Bourke's parrot died from gastritis caused by Macrorhabdus ornithogaster, but also had an interstitial nephritis and ureteritis with adenovirus-like inclusion bodies within collecting duct epithelial cells. The adenovirus causing the lesions was shown to be Psittacine adenovirus-2 (PsAdV-2) using a PCR assay specific for adenoviruses and sequencing of amplicons. A survey of droppings from other birds in the aviary using the same PCR assay with amplicon sequencing found a high prevalence of infection of PsAdV-2 in Bourke's and scarlet-chested parrots (Neophema splendida). PsAdV-2 was also present in droppings from a Namaqua dove (Oena capensis). Gouldian finches (Erythrura gouldiae), red-billed firefinches (Lagonosticta senegala), and red-throated parrot finches (Erythrura psittacea) were shedding Gouldian finch adenovirus-1 (GFAdV-1). Two novel adenoviruses, an atadenovirus and a siadenovirus, were detected in the droppings from long-tailed finches (Poephila acuticauda). Kidney tissue from three of four scarlet-chested parrots submitted for necropsy from a second aviary were also positive for PsAdv-2. These findings and previously reported findings of widespread PsAdv-2 infection in captive orange-bellied parrots (Neophemia chrysogaster) raise the possibility that PsAdV-2 is enzootic in Australian aviculture. This represents the first report of GFAdV-1 in Australia and first identification of infection in finch species other than the Gouldian finch. Identification of two novel adenoviruses in long-tailed finches suggests that other novel adenoviruses are circulating in other finch species. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Psittacine adenovirus-2 was present in high prevalence in two Australian aviaries. Gouldian finch adenovirus-1 (GFAdV-1) was detected in Australia for the first time. The host range of GFAdV-1 host range was expanded to other finch species. Novel atadenovirus and siadenovirus were detected in Estrildid finches.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Adenoviridae/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Variação Genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Adenoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Austrália , Evolução Biológica , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Tentilhões , Papagaios , Filogenia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Virulência , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
18.
J Avian Med Surg ; 33(1): 22-28, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124608

RESUMO

We determined the prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci genotypes in asymptomatic and symptomatic birds in northeast Iran. Samples were collected from 11 species of Psittaciformes and 1 species of Columbiformes from 2015 to 2016. Choanal cleft and cloacal swab samples, fresh fecal samples, and/or tissue samples of 70 symptomatic and 130 asymptomatic birds were collected and tested by molecular detection (nested polymerase chain reaction [PCR] testing specific for C psittaci). Results showed C psittaci was detected in 37 (18.5%) of 200 birds (18/37 symptomatic and 19/37 asymptomatic birds) by nested PCR assay. Of the PCR-positive samples, 14 products were positive for oligonucleotide sets CTU/CTL by a second PCR assay and genotyped by outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene sequencing. Of the 10 samples positive for genotype A (cockatiels [Nymphicus hollandicus, n = 5], ring-necked parakeet [Psittacula krameri, n = 2], African gray parrot [Psittacus erithacus, n = 3]), 6 samples were from asymptomatic and 4 from symptomatic birds. Genotype B was observed in 3 samples from symptomatic birds (P krameri [n = 2], pigeon [Columba livia, n = 1]), and provisional genotype I was detected in one symptomatic cockatiel. These findings revealed the importance of monitoring imported asymptomatic birds in developing countries, especially the Middle East, where there is no systematic monitoring. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the detection of C psittaci provisional genotype I in cockatiels.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/classificação , Columbiformes , Genótipo , Psittaciformes , Psitacose/veterinária , Animais , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Sequência de Bases , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves , Chlamydophila psittaci/genética , Columbiformes/microbiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Psittaciformes/microbiologia , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Psitacose/microbiologia
19.
J Parasitol ; 105(3): 391-394, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059382

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) is of epidemiological interest because turkeys feed from the ground, and detection of infection in turkeys indicates contamination by oocysts in the environment. During the 2018 spring hunting season in Pennsylvania, fresh (unfixed, not frozen) samples were obtained from 20 harvested wild turkeys and tested for Toxoplasma gondii infection. Hearts from all wild turkeys and skeletal muscle from 1 were bioassayed for T. gondii by inoculation in outbred Swiss Webster (SW) and interferon-gamma gene knockout (KO) mice. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 1:5 dilution of neat serum from 5 of 15 wild turkeys and in fluid from the heart of 1 of 4 wild turkeys with the modified agglutination test (MAT); neat serum was not available from 4 wild turkeys. Viable T. gondii was isolated from hearts of 5 wild turkeys, 1 with MAT of 1:10, 1 with MAT of 1:5, and 3 seronegative (MAT < 1:5). Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from both heart and skeletal muscle in the 1 wild turkey that had skeletal muscle submitted. The KO mice inoculated with tissue from all 5 infected wild turkeys died or were euthanatized when ill, 7-21 days post-inoculation (PI). Tachyzoites were detected in lungs of all KO mice, and the T. gondii strains were successfully propagated in cell culture. The SW mice inoculated with tissues of wild turkeys remained asymptomatic, and tissue cysts were seen in the brains of infected mice when euthanatized in good health at 46 days PI; 1 of the 2 SW mice inoculated with the heart of 1 turkey died on day 26, and tachyzoites were detected in its lung. Genetic typing on DNA extracted from culture-derived tachyzoites using the PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism with 10 genetic markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico) revealed that 4 isolates belonged to ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #5 and 1 was genotype #216.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Perus/parasitologia , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças Assintomáticas , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Coração/parasitologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Esquelético/parasitologia , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
20.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(5): 495-503, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090178

RESUMO

Bird migration has long been hypothesized as the main mechanism for long-distance dispersal of flaviviruses, but the role of migratory birds in flaviviruses spillover is not well documented. In this study, we investigated the eco-epidemiology of West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) in trans-Saharan passerines during their spring stopover in southern Tunisian oases. To do, we combined oral swab analysis and serological tools to assess whether migratory birds could be reaching these stopover sites while infectious or have been previously exposed to viruses. All sampled birds tested negative for oral swab analysis. However, anti-WNV and anti-USUV antibodies were detected in 32% and 1% of tested birds, respectively. Among WNV-seropositive species, the Golden oriole (Oriolus oriolus) showed the highest anti-WNV occurrence probability. In this species, anti-WNV occurrence was twice larger in males than females. Inter-specific and intraspecific morphological, physiological and behavioural differences could explain these results. Although our findings did not show evidence for passerines migrating while infectious, they did not exclude an existing enzootic WNV transmission cycle in Tunisian oases. Further investigations including larger samples of migratory birds are needed for a better understanding of this issue.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/virologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/veterinária , Flavivirus/isolamento & purificação , Passeriformes/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação , Migração Animal , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Clima Desértico , Infecções por Flavivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Flavivirus/virologia , Passeriformes/classificação , Especificidade da Espécie , Tunísia/epidemiologia
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