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1.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 138-140, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647983

RESUMO

Quail populations in the United States have been declining for several decades, and the role that parasites may be playing in this decline is not well understood. The goal of this study was to document novel parasites that inhabited the scaled quail, Callipepla squamata, of the Trans-Pecos ecoregion of Texas. To do this, quail were collected by hunter-harvest, night-netting, and funnel-trapping and were necropsied in the laboratory to determine the parasites they hosted. After analyzing 386 birds, we identified Dispharynx sp. in one of the samples. This specimen is the first to be officially documented in scaled quail.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Codorniz/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Spirurina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Proventrículo/parasitologia , Proventrículo/patologia , Infecções por Spirurida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/patologia , Spirurina/classificação , Texas/epidemiologia
2.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 132-137, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647985

RESUMO

The Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) is a popular game bird that has been experiencing a well-documented decline throughout Texas since the 1960s. While much of this decline has been attributed to habitat loss and fragmentation, recent studies have identified other factors that may also contribute to decreasing quail populations. Parasites, in particular, have become increasingly recognized as possible stressors of quail, and some species, particularly the eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi) and cecal worm (Aulonocephalus pennula) are highly prevalent in Texas quails. Eyeworm infection has also been documented in some passerines, suggesting helminth infection may be shared between bird species. However, the lack of comprehensive helminth surveys has rendered the extent of shared infection between quail and passerines in the ecoregion unclear. Thus, helminth surveys were conducted on bobwhite, scaled quail (Callipepla squamata), Northern mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos), curve-billed thrashers (Toxistoma curvirostre), and Northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) to contribute data to existing parasitological gaps for birds in the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas. Birds were trapped across 3 counties in the Texas Rolling Plains from March to October 2019. Necropsies were conducted on 54 individuals (36 quail and 18 passerines), and extracted helminths were microscopically identified. Nematode, cestode, and acanthocephalan helminths representing at least 10 helminth species were found. Specifically, A. pennula and O. petrowi had the highest prevalence, and O. petrowi was documented in all of the study species. This research adds to the body of knowledge regarding parasitic infections in quail and passerines of the Rolling Plains ecoregion and highlights the potential consequences of shared infection of eyeworms among these bird species.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Cromadoria/isolamento & purificação , Colinus/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Passeriformes/parasitologia , Thelazioidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Cromadoria/classificação , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/parasitologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/veterinária , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções por Spirurida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Texas/epidemiologia , Thelazioidea/classificação
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e028520, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605391

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify members of the Sarcocystidae family in naturally infected wild birds at a rescue center in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The heart and brain of 44 wild birds were evaluated by bioassay in mice to detect T. gondii, and extracted DNA was used for nested PCR of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene to detect members of the Sarcocystidae family. The positive samples were sequenced, assembled, edited and compared with sequences deposited in GenBank. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from six (13.6%) out of 44 birds. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was identified in 10/44 (22.7%) of the birds. The amplified sequences exhibited 100% similarity with the DNA of the ME49 strain of T. gondii. Sarcocystis DNA (99% similarity) was identified in 5/44 (11.4%) of the birds. T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. are common in wild birds in Minas Gerais, Brazil.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Coccidiose , Sarcocystidae , Animais , Bioensaio , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves , Brasil , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário , Camundongos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Sarcocystidae/genética , Sarcocystis/genética , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
4.
Parasite ; 28: 4, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the major migration routes for birds going between Europe and Asia is the Black Sea-Mediterranean route that converges on the Volga Delta, continuing into the area of the Caspian Sea. Cercarial dermatitis is a disorder in humans caused by schistosome trematodes that use aquatic birds and snails as hosts and is prevalent in areas of aquaculture in Northern Iran. Before the disorder can be addressed, it is necessary to determine the etiological agents and their host species. This study aimed to document whether domestic mallards are reservoir hosts and if so, to characterize the species of schistosomes. Previous work has shown that domestic mallards are reservoir hosts for a nasal schistosome. RESULTS: In 32 of 45 domestic mallards (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) (71.1%), the schistosome Trichobilharzia franki, previously reported only from Europe, was found in visceral veins. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis confirmed the species designation. These findings extend the range of T. franki from Europe to Eurasia. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of cercarial dermatitis in Iran is high in areas of aquaculture. Previous studies in the area have shown that domestic mallards are reservoir hosts of T. regenti, a nasal schistosome and T. franki, as shown in this study. The genetic results support the conclusion that populations of T. franki from Iran are not differentiated from populations in Europe. Therefore, the schistosomes are distributed with their migratory duck hosts, maintaining the gene flow across populations with compatible snail hosts in Iran.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Doenças das Aves , Dermatite , Patos/parasitologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Ásia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Mar Negro , Dermatite/epidemiologia , Dermatite/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Europa (Continente) , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Schistosoma/anatomia & histologia , Schistosoma/genética , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Caramujos/parasitologia
5.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 82(1): 125-135, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856170

RESUMO

Ticks are among the best studied parasitic groups as they spread important pathogens of medical and veterinary importance worldwide. Migratory birds can play an important role in transporting ticks infected with pathogens across wide geographic regions. It is therefore important to understand which factors promote tick parasitism rates across their avian hosts and the associated potential for disease spread. Here, we identified the host attributes of infestation probability of ticks from the genus Amblyomma in 955 birds from Pantanal, Brazil. Infestation rates exhibited considerable variation across the 129 avian species surveyed and were explained by both host ecological traits and evolutionary history. The probability of an individual bird being infested with immature ticks (larvae and/or nymphs) was higher across resident bird species that forage at ground level and during the wet season. Bird species that feed on vertebrates were less likely to be infested by ticks. Other ecological traits known to promote tick exposure (age, body mass, social behavior, and sex) did not predict infestation probability. Our findings demonstrate that tick occurrence in Pantanal birds is determined by avian host attributes, but tick occurrence throughout the year constrains exposure to host-seeking ticks. Moreover, the ecology of the avian host might prevent the potential spread of tick-borne diseases outside Pantanal as migratory hosts are likely less infested by ticks.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Aves/parasitologia , Estações do Ano , Infestações por Carrapato , Migração Animal , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Brasil , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008759, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745135

RESUMO

Ticks (order: Ixodida) are a highly diverse and ecologically important group of ectoparasitic blood-feeding organisms. One such species, the seabird tick (Ixodes uriae), is widely distributed around the circumpolar regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. It has been suggested that Ix. uriae spread from the southern to the northern circumpolar region millions of years ago and has remained isolated in these regions ever since. Such a profound biographic subdivision provides a unique opportunity to determine whether viruses associated with ticks exhibit the same evolutionary patterns as their hosts. To test this, we collected Ix. uriae specimens near a Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) colony at Neko harbour, Antarctica, and from migratory birds-the Razorbill (Alca torda) and the Common murre (Uria aalge)-on Bonden island, northern Sweden. Through meta-transcriptomic next-generation sequencing we identified 16 RNA viruses, seven of which were novel. Notably, we detected the same species, Ronne virus, and two closely related species, Bonden virus and Piguzov virus, in both hemispheres indicating that there have been at least two cross-circumpolar dispersal events. Similarly, we identified viruses discovered previously in other locations several decades ago, including Gadgets Gully virus, Taggert virus and Okhotskiy virus. By identifying the same or closely related viruses in geographically disjunct sampling locations we provide evidence for virus dispersal within and between the circumpolar regions. In marked contrast, our phylogenetic analysis revealed no movement of the Ix. uriae tick hosts between the same locations. Combined, these data suggest that migratory birds are responsible for the movement of viruses at both local and global scales.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Ixodes/fisiologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Filogenia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
7.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(19)2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737126

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica serovar Hvittingfoss is an important foodborne serotype of Salmonella, being detected in many countries where surveillance is conducted. Outbreaks can occur, and there was a recent multistate foodborne outbreak in Australia. S Hvittingfoss can be found in animal populations, though a definitive animal host has not been established. Six species of birds were sampled at Roebuck Bay, a designated Ramsar site in northwestern Australia, resulting in 326 cloacal swabs for bacterial culture. Among a single flock of 63 bar-tailed godwits (Limosa lapponica menzbieri) caught at Wader Spit, Roebuck Bay, in 2018, 17 (27%) were culture positive for Salmonella All other birds were negative for Salmonella The isolates were identified as Salmonella enterica serovar Hvittingfoss. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between isolates collected from godwits and the S Hvittingfoss strain responsible for a 2016 multistate foodborne outbreak originating from tainted cantaloupes (rock melons) in Australia. While it is not possible to determine how this strain of S Hvittingfoss was introduced into the bar-tailed godwits, these findings show that wild Australian birds are capable of carrying Salmonella strains of public health importance.IMPORTANCE Salmonella is a zoonotic pathogen that causes gastroenteritis and other disease presentations in both humans and animals. Serovars of S. enterica commonly cause foodborne disease in Australia and globally. In 2016-2017, S Hvittingfoss was responsible for an outbreak that resulted in 110 clinically confirmed human cases throughout Australia. The origin of the contamination that led to the outbreak was never definitively established. Here, we identify a migratory shorebird, the bar-tailed godwit, as an animal reservoir of S Hvittingfoss. These birds were sampled in northwestern Australia during their nonbreeding period. The presence of a genetically similar S Hvittingfoss strain circulating in a wild bird population, 2 years after the 2016-2017 outbreak and ∼1,500 km from the suspected source of the outbreak, demonstrates a potentially unidentified environmental reservoir of S Hvittingfoss. While the birds cannot be implicated in the outbreak that occurred 2 years prior, this study does demonstrate the potential role for wild birds in the transmission of this important foodborne pathogen.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Charadriiformes , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Feminino , Incidência , Masculino , Prevalência , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Sorogrupo , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235406, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609774

RESUMO

Pathogens pose a major risk to wild host populations, especially in the face of ongoing biodiversity declines. Beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) can affect most if not all members of one of the largest and most threatened bird orders world-wide, the Psittaciformes. Signs of disease can be severe and mortality rates high. Its broad host range makes it a risk to threatened species in particular, because infection can occur via spill-over from abundant hosts. Despite these risks, surveillance of BFDV in locally abundant wild host species has been lacking. We used qPCR and haemagglutination assays to investigate BFDV prevalence, load and shedding in seven abundant host species in the wild in south-east Australia: Crimson Rosellas (Platycercus elegans), Eastern Rosellas (Platycercus eximius), Galahs (Eolophus roseicapillus), Sulphur-crested Cockatoos (Cacatua galerita), Blue-winged Parrots (Neophema chrysostoma), Rainbow Lorikeets (Trichoglossus moluccanus) and Red-rumped Parrots (Psephotus haematonotus). We found BFDV infection in clinically normal birds in six of the seven species sampled. We focused our analysis on the four most commonly caught species, namely Crimson Rosellas (BFDV prevalence in blood samples: 41.8%), Sulphur-crested Cockatoos (20.0%), Blue-winged Parrots (11.8%) and Galahs (8.8%). Species, but not sex, was a significant predictor for BFDV prevalence and load. 56.1% of BFDV positive individuals were excreting BFDV antigen into their feathers, indicative of active viral replication with shedding. Being BFDV positive in blood samples predicted shedding in Crimson Rosellas. Our study confirms that BFDV is endemic in our study region, and can inform targeted disease management by providing comparative data on interspecies variation in virus prevalence, load and shedding.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Infecções por Circoviridae , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Psittaciformes/virologia , Animais , Austrália , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Circoviridae/virologia , Circovirus/fisiologia , DNA Viral/genética , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Carga Viral , Replicação Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
9.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2975-2981, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683557

RESUMO

Haemosporidia infections may cause major damage to avian populations and represent a concern for veterinarians working in zoological parks or wildlife rescue centres. Following the fatal infection of 9 Great grey owls (Strix nebulosa) at Mulhouse zoological park, between summer 2013 and 2015, a prospective epidemiological investigation was performed in captive strigiform birds in France in 2016. The purpose was to evaluate the prevalence of haemosporidian parasites in captive Strigiformes and to estimate the infection dynamics around the nesting period. Blood samples were taken from 122 strigiform birds representing 14 species from 15 French zoological parks. Parasites were detected by direct examination of blood smears and by PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Haemosporidian parasites were detected in 59 birds from 11 zoos. Three distinct Haemoproteus mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences (haplotypes A and C for H. syrnii and haplotype B for Haemoproteus sp.) as well as two species of Plasmodium were detected. The overall prevalence of Haemoproteus infection was 12.8%. The percentage of birds infected by Haemoproteus varied according to the period of sampling. Nesting season seemed to be at greater risk with an average prevalence of 53.9% compared with winter season with an average prevalence of 14.8%, related to the abundance of the vectors. The prevalence of Plasmodium infection in Strigiformes did not exceed 8% throughout the year. This study confirmed how significant Haemosporidia infection could be in Strigiformes from zoological parks in France. The nesting season was identified as a period of higher risk of infection and consequently the appropriate period to apply prophylactic measures.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Estrigiformes/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/sangue , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Citocromos b/genética , França/epidemiologia , Haemosporida/classificação , Haemosporida/genética , Haplótipos , Filogenia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/sangue , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
10.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 385-390, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549569

RESUMO

Costa Rica undertakes continuous efforts to recover the native population of macaw species through rehabilitation programs for breeding and releasing birds in protected areas. In the summer of 2018, a total of 107 scarlet (Ara macao) and 93 great green (Ara ambigua) macaws were sampled in four wildlife rehabilitation centers in Costa Rica. Fecal samples representing 200 individuals were analyzed for intestinal parasites, and 23 individuals were sampled for hemoparasites. Ascaridia and Capillaria were found in fecal samples. No hemoparasites were found. The distribution of percentage of infection was analyzed by location, species, and housing type. As part of a health screening prior to release, parasitological examination is recommended.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Papagaios , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/parasitologia , Incidência , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Prevalência , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
Avian Dis ; 64(2): 130-134, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550612

RESUMO

Trichomonas gallinae, a single-celled protozoan parasite, is a causative agent of the disease trichomonosis, which is distributed worldwide and has recently been highlighted as a pandemic threat to several wild bird species. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotypic diversity of T. gallinae in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. For this purpose, 273 oral swab samples from different bird species (feral pigeon Columba livia, common mynah Acridotheres tristis, chicken Gallus gallus domesticus, turkey Meleagris gallopavo, and ducks Anatidae) were collected and tested for T. gallinae infection with InPouch™ TV culture kits. The results showed that the overall prevalence of T. gallinae in these samples was 26.4% (n = 72). The PCRs were used to detect the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of T. gallinae, and the results of the sequence analysis indicated genetic variation. Among 48 sequences, we found 15 different ribotypes, of which 12 were novel. Three had been previously described as ribotypes A, C, and II. To our knowledge, this study demonstrated the presence of T. gallinae strain diversity in Saudi Arabian birds for the first time and revealed that ribotypes A and C are predominant among Riyadh birds.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves , Genótipo , Tricomoníase/veterinária , Trichomonas/genética , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Galinhas , Columbidae , Patos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estorninhos , Tricomoníase/epidemiologia , Tricomoníase/parasitologia , Perus
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579594

RESUMO

Psittaciform orthobornaviruses are currently considered to be a major threat to the psittacine bird population worldwide. Parrot bornavirus (PaBV) was identified recently in Brazil and, since then, few studies have been conducted to understand the epidemiology of PaBV in captive psittacine birds. In the present study, natural infections by PaBV in South American parrots were investigated in two breeding facilities: commercial (A) and conservationist (B). Thirty-eight psittacine of 21 different species were presented for postmortem examination. Tissue samples were collected and investigated for the presence of PaBV-RNA using RT-PCR. In addition, clinical information about these birds was used when available. PaBV infection was detected in 73.7% of all birds investigated, indicating a wide dissemination of this virus in both facilities. From birds investigated in aviary A, 66.7% showed clinical signs, 100% had typical lesions of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD), 100% had mild to severe proventricular dilatation and 88.9% were PaBV-positive. In birds from aviary B, 27.6% showed clinical signs, 65.5% had typical lesions of PDD, 62% had mild to severe proventricular dilatation and 69% were PaBV-positive. Neurological disease was observed more frequently than gastrointestinal disease. Sequencing analysis of the matrix gene fragment revealed the occurrence of genotype 4 (PaBV-4) in both places. About 15.8% of birds in this study are threatened species. We discussed the difficulties and challenges for controlling viral spread in these aviaries and implications for South American psittacine conservation. These results emphasize the urgent need to develop a national regulatory and health standard for breeding psittacine birds in the country.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/patologia , Bornaviridae/genética , Infecções por Mononegavirales/patologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Bornaviridae/classificação , Bornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Infecções por Mononegavirales/complicações , Infecções por Mononegavirales/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mononegavirales/virologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/virologia , Papagaios/virologia , Filogenia , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/classificação , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética
13.
J Virol ; 94(18)2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581107

RESUMO

Wild birds are major natural reservoirs and potential dispersers of a variety of infectious diseases. As such, it is important to determine the diversity of viruses they carry and use this information to help understand the potential risks of spillover to humans, domestic animals, and other wildlife. We investigated the potential viral causes of paresis in long-standing, but undiagnosed, disease syndromes in wild Australian birds. RNA from diseased birds was extracted and pooled based on tissue type, host species, and clinical manifestation for metagenomic sequencing. Using a bulk and unbiased metatranscriptomic approach, combined with clinical investigation and histopathology, we identified a number of novel viruses from the families Astroviridae, Adenoviridae, Picornaviridae, Polyomaviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Parvoviridae, and Circoviridae in common urban wild birds, including Australian magpies, magpie larks, pied currawongs, Australian ravens, and rainbow lorikeets. In each case, the presence of the virus was confirmed by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. These data revealed a number of candidate viral pathogens that may contribute to coronary, skeletal muscle, vascular, and neuropathology in birds of the Corvidae and Artamidae families and neuropathology in members of the Psittaculidae The existence of such a diverse virome in urban avian species highlights the importance and challenges in elucidating the etiology and ecology of wildlife pathogens in urban environments. This information will be increasingly important for managing disease risks and conducting surveillance for potential viral threats to wildlife, livestock, and human health.IMPORTANCE Wildlife naturally harbor a diverse array of infectious microorganisms and can be a source of novel diseases in domestic animals and human populations. Using unbiased RNA sequencing, we identified highly diverse viruses in native birds from Australian urban environments presenting with paresis. This research included the clinical investigation and description of poorly understood recurring syndromes of unknown etiology: clenched claw syndrome and black and white bird disease. As well as identifying a range of potentially disease-causing viral pathogens, this study describes methods that can effectively and efficiently characterize emergent disease syndromes in free-ranging wildlife and promotes further surveillance for specific pathogens of potential conservation and zoonotic concern.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves/virologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Metagenoma , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Transcriptoma , Adenoviridae/classificação , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Astroviridae/classificação , Astroviridae/genética , Astroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Austrália/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Circoviridae/classificação , Circoviridae/genética , Circoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Cidades , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Paramyxoviridae/classificação , Paramyxoviridae/genética , Paramyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Parvoviridae/classificação , Parvoviridae/genética , Parvoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/classificação , Picornaviridae/genética , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Polyomaviridae/classificação , Polyomaviridae/genética , Polyomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585999

RESUMO

Despite many studies on West Nile Virus (WNV) in the US, including the reservoir role of bird species and the summer shifts of the Culex mosquito, feeding from birds to mammals, there have been few equivalent studies in the neighboring regions of Canada where WNV is endemic. Here, a priority list of bird species likely involved in WNV transmission in the greater Montréal area is constructed by combining three sources of data: (i) from WNV surveillance in wild birds (2002-2015); (ii) blood meal analysis of Culex pipiens-restuans (CPR), the primary enzootic vectors of WNV in the region, collected from surveillance in 2008 and 2014; (iii) literature review on the sero-prevalence/host competence of resident birds. Each of these data sources yielded 18, 23 and 53 species, and overall, 67 different bird species were identified as potential WNV amplifiers/reservoirs. Of those identified from CPR blood meals, Common starlings, American robins, Song sparrows and House sparrows ranked the highest and blood meal analysis demonstrated a seasonal shift in feed preference from birds to mammals by CPR. Our study indicates that there are broad similarities in the ecology of WNV between our region and the northeastern US, although the relative importance of bird species varies somewhat between regions.


Assuntos
Aves/parasitologia , Culex , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/transmissão , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Canadá , Mosquitos Vetores , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Especificidade da Espécie , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária
15.
Avian Dis ; 64(2): 210-215, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550622

RESUMO

Histomoniasis is a significant disease of gallinaceous birds caused by Histomonas meleagridis. Transmission of this parasite is dependent on use of the cecal nematode Heterakis gallinarum. To define the host range of this nematode, cecal contents from 399 game birds and poultry, representing eight species, were examined for Heterakis spp. The majority of these species (five of eight) were infected with Heterakis nematodes. Heterakis gallinarum was detected in free-ranging wild turkeys (Meleagridis gallopovo), captive-raised ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), chukars (Alectoris chukar), and domestic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), whereas H. isolonche was found in ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus). No Heterakis species were identified in the domestic turkey (Meleagridis gallopovo), American woodcock (Scolopax minor), and dabbling duck (Anas spp.) samples. Genetic characterization indicated that nematodes identified as H. gallinarum were present in two distinct clades. One clade of H. gallinarum sequenced from this study grouped with chicken-derived sequences from other countries. The other group of sequences consisted of a sister clade to a group of parasites morphologically identified as H. isolonche. Currently it is unknown if this group represents a genetic variant of H. gallinarum, a variant of H. isolonche, or a novel species. These results indicate Heterakis infection varies among poultry and game bird species but is common among select gallinaceous species in Pennsylvania.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Galliformes , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Spirurina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pennsylvania/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência , Infecções por Spirurida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Spirurina/classificação
18.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2039-2045, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377908

RESUMO

Ticks are ectoparasites that feed on blood of a broad taxonomic range of terrestrial and flying vertebrates and are distributed across a wide range of environmental conditions. Here, we explore the biotic and abiotic factors on infestation probability of ticks of the genus Amblyomma and assess the degree of host specificity based on analysis of 1028 birds surveyed across Brazil. We show that tick infestation rates exhibited considerable variation across the 235 avian species analyzed and that the probability of an individual bird being parasitized by immature ticks (larvae and nymphs) increased with annual precipitation. Host phylogeny and two host ecological traits known to promote tick exposure (body mass and foraging behavior) did not predict infestation probability. Moreover, immature ticks displayed a low degree of host specificity at the family level. Lastly, tick occurrence in birds carrying infection with avian malaria and related parasites did not differ from those free of these haemosporidian parasites, indicating a lack of parasite avoidance by immature ticks. Our findings demonstrate that tick occurrence in birds across Brazilian biomes responds to environmental factors rather than ecological and evolutionary host attributes.


Assuntos
Aves/parasitologia , Meio Ambiente , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Larva , Malária Aviária/epidemiologia , Ninfa , Filogenia
19.
Aust Vet J ; 98(7): 338-344, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430906

RESUMO

CASE REPORT: An outbreak of systemic isosporosis caused mortalities in greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) and goldfinches (Carduelis carduelis) kept in an aviary in the western suburbs of Melbourne. The following year, a further outbreak in the same aviary occurred in a different flock of goldfinches. At the time of the second outbreak, dead and sick common sparrows (Passer domesticus) discovered near the aviary were also found to have systemic isosporosis. METHOD: The systemic isosporosis was investigated and described using histopathology, electron microscopy and sequence analysis of the 18s gene. RESULTS: Isospora spp. infecting the greenfinch and the goldfinch caused significant thickening of the duodenal lamina propria. Measurements in the goldfinches showed an inverse correlation coefficient between the thickening of the duodenum and the weightof the birds. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of Isospora spp. within lymphocytes migrating into the lamina propria of the duodenum. Analysis of the 18s sequence discovered two different gene sequences across the three species of birds that didn't completely match any sequences previously deposited in GenBank. CONCLUSION: Although the sparrows were found to have died from causes other than systemic Isospora, molecular studies of samples from their liver revealed the presence of an Isospora with 18s gene sequence identical to that found in the captive greenfinches.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Isospora , Pardais , Animais , Surtos de Doenças
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8480, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439889

RESUMO

The use of a sensitive and accurate parasite detection methodology is crucial in studies exploring prevalence of parasites in host populations or communities, and uncertainty in identifying parasite genera and/or lineages may limit the understanding of host-parasite interactions. Here, we used a multistate occupancy approach that accounts for imperfect detection to assess whether sex and breeding season influenced the prevalence of a specific Haemoproteus lineage (TARUF02) in a white-lined tanager population. Likewise, we explored whether the probability of detecting the target parasite in an infected bird using PCR and sequencing analyses may be influenced by season and host sex. We found little evidence that sex influenced the probability of an individual host being infected by a haemosporidian parasite. Conversely, we found that the probability of infection by Haemoproteus TARUF02 was ~30% higher during the breeding season, reflecting a higher prevalence of this parasite in this season. The probability that PCR detects DNA of haemosporidian parasite was higher for female birds, suggesting that they are more prone to be parasitized with parasitemia levels that are more successfully detected by molecular analysis. Sequencing successfully determined the Haemoproteus TARUF02 lineage in 60% of samples collected during the breeding season and 84% of samples collected during the non-breeding season. Understanding the ecology of hosts and aspects of their physiology that may influence the parasite infection is essential to better understanding of hemoparasite infections and how parasites influence their native hosts, through decreasing reproductive success, lifespan, and/or survival.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Aves/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Haemosporida/genética , Masculino , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Estações do Ano
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