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1.
J Parasitol ; 106(1): 46-52, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990623

RESUMO

Recently, the heteroxenous eyeworm, Oxyspirura petrowi, has gained attention due to its prevalence in the declining game bird, Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), but the intermediate hosts of many nematodes remain unknown. However, identifying the intermediate host of O. petrowi with traditional techniques would be difficult and time-consuming, especially considering there are more than 80 potential orthopteran hosts just in Texas. To screen a large number of samples quickly and effectively, primers for nested PCR (nPCR) were developed using the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region. Then the nPCR was used to identify which of the 35 species collected from the Order Orthoptera were potential intermediate hosts of O. petrowi. With this technique, 18 potential intermediate hosts were identified. Later, we collected live specimens of species that tested positive to confirm the presence of larvae, but larvae were not found in the live specimens, nor in the extra tissue of the species that had tested positive for O. petrowi DNA. Despite this, this study demonstrated that nPCR is more sensitive than traditional techniques and can be a valuable tool in determining the intermediate hosts of parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Ortópteros/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Thelazioidea/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Colinus/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Gafanhotos/classificação , Gafanhotos/genética , Gafanhotos/parasitologia , Gryllidae/classificação , Gryllidae/genética , Gryllidae/parasitologia , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Ortópteros/classificação , Ortópteros/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/transmissão , Thelazioidea/classificação , Thelazioidea/isolamento & purificação
2.
Parasitol Res ; 119(2): 447-463, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31883048

RESUMO

In this study, we explore blood parasite prevalence, infection intensity, and co-infection levels in an urban population of feral pigeons Columba livia in Cape Town. We analyze the effect of blood parasites on host body condition and the association between melanin expression in the host's plumage and parasite infection intensity and co-infection levels. Relating to the haemosporidian parasite itself, we study their genetic diversity by means of DNA barcoding (cytochrome b) and show the geographic and host distribution of related parasite lineages in pigeons worldwide. Blood from 195 C. livia individuals was collected from April to June 2018. Morphometric measurements and plumage melanism were recorded from every captured bird. Haemosporidian prevalence and infection intensity were determined by screening blood smears and parasite lineages by DNA sequencing. Prevalence of Haemoproteus spp. was high at 96.9%. The body condition of the hosts was negatively associated with infection intensity. However, infection intensity was unrelated to plumage melanism. The cytochrome b sequences revealed the presence of four Haemoproteus lineages in our population of pigeons, which show high levels of co-occurrence within individual birds. Three lineages (HAECOL1, COLIV03, COQUI05) belong to Haemoproteus columbae and differ only by 0.1% to 0.8% in the cytochrome b gene. Another lineage (COLIV06) differs by 8.3% from the latter ones and is not linked to a morphospecies, yet. No parasites of the genera Leucocytozoon and Plasmodium were detected.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Columbidae/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Haemosporida/genética , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Citocromos b/genética , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 692-699, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800883

RESUMO

The family Capillariidae is one of the most important in the superfamily Trichinelloidea, with 27 genera and more than 300 species parasitizing vertebrates. This study considers the morphology, morphometry and prevalence of Eucoleus contortus parasitizing the Muscovy duck Cairina moschata domestica esophagus from Marajó Island, in State of Pará, Brazil. Morphologically the nematodes had a filiform body, with transversely striated cuticle, long esophagus, divided into two parts, one muscular and another consisting of stichocytes, spicule weakly sclerotized, spiny sheath and pseudobursa present in males. Females had a pre-equatorial vulva, barrel-shaped eggs and were bioperculated. In the northern region of Brazil, the Muscovy duck is an abundant bird, and one of the items in the food supply for human communities. The occurrence of E. contortus adds data to the biodiversity of parasites described in Anseriform birds of the Brazilian Amazon, especially those used as source of protein by human communities of Marajó.


Assuntos
Anseriformes/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Nematoides/anatomia & histologia , Nematoides/classificação , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 516, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685020

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haemoproteus parasites (Haemosporida, Haemoproteidae) are cosmopolitan in birds and recent molecular studies indicate enormous genetic diversity of these pathogens, which cause diseases in non-adapted avian hosts. However, life-cycles remain unknown for the majority of Haemoproteus species. Information on their exoerythrocytic development is particularly fragmental and controversial. This study aimed to gain new knowledge on life-cycle of the widespread blood parasite Haemoproteus majoris. METHODS: Turdus pilaris and Parus major naturally infected with lineages hPHYBOR04 and hPARUS1 of H. majoris, respectively, were wild-caught and the parasites were identified using microscopic examination of gametocytes and PCR-based testing. Bayesian phylogeny was used to determine relationships between H. majoris lineages. Exoerythrocytic stages (megalomeronts) were reported using histological examination and laser microdissection was applied to isolate single megalomeronts for genetic analysis. Culicoides impunctatus biting midges were experimentally exposed in order to follow sporogonic development of the lineage hPHYBOR04. RESULTS: Gametocytes of the lineage hPHYBOR04 are indistinguishable from those of the widespread lineage hPARUS1 of H. majoris, indicating that both of these lineages belong to the H. majoris group. Phylogenetic analysis supported this conclusion. Sporogony of the lineage hPHYBOR04 was completed in C. impunctatus biting midges. Morphologically similar megalomeronts were reported in internal organs of both avian hosts. These were big roundish bodies (up to 360 µm in diameter) surrounded by a thick capsule-like wall and containing irregularly shaped cytomeres, in which numerous merozoites developed. DNA sequences obtained from single isolated megalomeronts confirmed the identification of H. majoris. CONCLUSIONS: Phylogenetic analysis identified a group of closely related H. majoris lineages, two of which are characterized not only by morphologically identical blood stages, but also complete sporogonic development in C. impunctatus and development of morphologically similar megalomeronts. It is probable that other lineages belonging to the same group would bear the same characters and phylogenies based on partial cytb gene could be used to predict life-cycle features in avian haemoproteids including vector identity and patterns of exoerythrocytic merogony. This study reports morphologically unique megalomeronts in naturally infected birds and calls for research on exoerythrocytic development of haemoproteids to better understand pathologies caused in avian hosts.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Haemosporida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Passeriformes/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Aves Canoras/parasitologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Aves , Ceratopogonidae/parasitologia , Haemosporida/classificação , Haemosporida/genética , Filogenia
5.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3497-3508, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720833

RESUMO

Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Plasmodium spp. protozoa, and penguins are considered particularly susceptible to this disease, developing rapid outbreaks with potentially high mortality. We report on an outbreak of avian malaria in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) at a rehabilitation center in Espírito Santo, southeast Brazil. In August and September 2015, a total of 89 Magellanic penguins (87 juveniles and 2 adults) received care at Institute of Research and Rehabilitation of Marine Animals. Over a period of 2 weeks, Plasmodium infections were identified in eight individuals (9.0%), four of which died (mortality = 4.5%, lethality = 50%). Blood smears and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene revealed the presence of Plasmodium lutzi SPMAG06, Plasmodium elongatum GRW06, Plasmodium sp. PHPAT01, Plasmodium sp. SPMAG10, and Plasmodium cathemerium (sequencing not successful). Two unusual morphological features were observed in individuals infected with lineage SPMAG06: (a) lack of clumping of pigment granules and (b) presence of circulating exoerythrocytic meronts. Hematological results (packed cell volume, plasma total solids, complete blood cell counts) of positive individuals showed differences from those of negative individuals depending on the lineages, but there was no overarching pattern consistently observed for all Plasmodium spp. The epidemiology of the outbreak and the phylogeography of the parasite lineages detected in this study support the notion that malarial infections in penguins undergoing rehabilitation in Brazil are the result of the spillover inoculation by plasmodia that circulate in the local avifauna, especially Passeriformes.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Malária Aviária/parasitologia , Plasmodium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Spheniscidae/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/sangue , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Hematologia , Malária Aviária/sangue , Malária Aviária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/genética , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação
6.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3555-3559, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722067

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to survey the Cryptosporidium species in peafowls (Pavo cristatus) in Henan Province, China. A total of 143 fecal specimens collected from a breeding farm were tested for Cryptosporidium by nested PCR targeting the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), and actin genes of Cryptosporidium followed by sequence analysis. Only one isolate from an asymptomatic host was obtained, and the isolate differed from a new C. xiaoi-like genotype by one nucleotide and from C. xiaoi or C. bovis at the SSU rRNA locus by six nucleotides. Likewise, the actin gene shared 99% identity with the C. xiaoi-like genotype, accompanied by four nucleotide mutations. A complete sequence of the HSP70 gene was obtained, and exhibited 96% similarity with that from C. xiaoi and differed by one nucleotide from that with the C. xiaoi-like genotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the current isolate revealed genetic relatedness to the C. xiaoi-like genotype and distinction from C. xiaoi and C. bovis. Therefore, our results provided the first documentation of avian infection with a C. xiaoi-like genotype in China and further insight into the diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in avians.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Galliformes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico/genética
7.
Dokl Biol Sci ; 487(1): 101-104, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571075

RESUMO

In this ecological and physiological study of the common eider (Somateria mollissima) nesting on the coast of Eastern Murman, the species composition of the bird helminth fauna, as well as the infection quantitative parameters, were determined. The common eider small intestine proved to be infected with trematodes of the genus Microphallus; three species of cestodes, namely, Lateriporus teres (Cestoda: Dilepididae), Fimbriarioides intermedia (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae), and Microsomacanthus diorchis (Cestoda: Hymenolepididae); and one species of acanthocephalan, Polymorphus phippsi (Palaeacanthocephala: Polymorphidae). At the sites of F. intermedia and M. diorchis locations within the intestine, the protease activity was reduced while in the foci infected with acanthocephalan P. phippsi, it was, on the contrary, increased. Glycosidase activity in the intestinal mucosa was reduced as compared to the control in birds infected by the cestodes M. diorchis. Hematological indices of the infected individuals were higher than the control parameters.


Assuntos
Anseriformes/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Intestino Delgado/parasitologia , Acantocéfalos/patogenicidade , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves/metabolismo , Cestoides/patogenicidade , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Helmintíase/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Trematódeos/patogenicidade
8.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 816-820, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618304

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are Apicomplexan intracellular protozoan parasites that affect numerous animal species, thus leading to severe diseases and economic losses, depending on the vertebrate species involved. The role of the avian species in maintaining and transmission of these coccidia has been studied for several years as they tend to serve as a potential source of infection for mammals and humans. The present study aimed to assess the serological exposure of Orinoco goose (Neochen jubata) to T. gondii and N. caninum. Between 2010 and 2013, 41 free-ranging Orinoco geese were captured in the Araguaia River, Brazil. The presence and titration of IgY antibodies to both coccidia were assayed via indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). While IgY antibodies for N. caninum were present in 5 animals, with titers of 20, the antibodies for T. gondii were found in 35 animals, with titers ranging from 20 to 640. Considering that the Orinoco goose's meat is consumed by the local population in the studied area, it may represent an important source of T. gondii infection for humans. Due to its migratory behavior, this goose may play a pivotal role in the natural dispersion of both parasites. Furthermore, molecular studies are required for genotyping the isolates of T. gondii that occurs in this avian species.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/veterinária , Gansos/parasitologia , Neospora/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
9.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 251-255, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599541

RESUMO

During the parasitological examination of 288 wild ducks from north-western Poland, 18 tapeworms were found in the intestines (jejunum, ileum and rectum) of six birds, which, based on the structure of the scolex, internal organs and the presence of cirrus with an internal additional sac, were determinated as Dicranotaenia stenosacculata Macko, 1988. Tapeworms were found in two young females Bucephala clangula, one young female Aythya marila as well as two adult males Aythya fuligula. The aim of the study was to present the morphological and ecological characteristics of the species, recently discovered for the first time in the fauna of Poland.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Cestoides , Infecções por Cestoides , Patos , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Cestoides/fisiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Patos/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Polônia
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 432-442, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531671

RESUMO

A total of thirty Austral thrushes Turdus falcklandii Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 (Turdidae) carcasses were brought to the Departamento de Ciencia Animal, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad de Concepción, to be examined for ecto- and endoparasites. Ectoparasites were found on 20% (6/30) of the thrushes and belonged to species Brueelia magellanica Cichino, 1986 (Phthiraptera), Menacanthus eurysternus Burmeister, 1838 (Phthiraptera) and Tyrannidectes falcklandicus Mironov & González-Acuña, 2011 (Acari). Endoparasites were isolated from 26.6% (8/30) of the birds and identified as Lueheia inscripta Westrumb, 1821 (Acanthocephala), Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus Goeze, 1782 (Acanthocephala), Wardium sp. sensu Mayhew, 1925 (Cestoda), Dilepis undula (Cestoda) Schrank, 1788, and Zonorchis sp. (sensu Travassos, 1944) (Trematoda). To our knowledge, all endoparasites collected in this study are new records in T. falcklandii and expand their distributional range to Chile.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Aves Canoras/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Chile , Ectoparasitoses/diagnóstico , Ectoparasitoses/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia
11.
Malar J ; 18(1): 305, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmodium species feature only four to eight nuclear ribosomal units on different chromosomes, which are assumed to evolve independently according to a birth-and-death model, in which new variants originate by duplication and others are deleted throughout time. Moreover, distinct ribosomal units were shown to be expressed during different developmental stages in the vertebrate and mosquito hosts. Here, the 18S rDNA sequences of 32 species of avian haemosporidian parasites are reported and compared to those of simian and rodent Plasmodium species. METHODS: Almost the entire 18S rDNAs of avian haemosporidians belonging to the genera Plasmodium (7), Haemoproteus (9), and Leucocytozoon (16) were obtained by PCR, molecular cloning, and sequencing ten clones each. Phylogenetic trees were calculated and sequence patterns were analysed and compared to those of simian and rodent malaria species. A section of the mitochondrial CytB was also sequenced. RESULTS: Sequence patterns in most avian Plasmodium species were similar to those in the mammalian parasites with most species featuring two distinct 18S rDNA sequence clusters. Distinct 18S variants were also found in Haemoproteus tartakovskyi and the three Leucocytozoon species, whereas the other species featured sets of similar haplotypes. The 18S rDNA GC-contents of the Leucocytozoon toddi complex and the subgenus Parahaemoproteus were extremely high with 49.3% and 44.9%, respectively. The 18S sequences of several species from all three genera showed chimeric features, thus indicating recombination. CONCLUSION: Gene duplication events leading to two diverged main sequence clusters happened independently in at least six out of seven avian Plasmodium species, thus supporting evolution according to a birth-and-death model like proposed for the ribosomal units of simian and rodent Plasmodium species. Patterns were similar in the 18S rDNAs of the Leucocytozoon toddi complex and Haemoproteus tartakovskyi. However, the 18S rDNAs of the other species seem to evolve in concerted fashion like in most eukaryotes, but the presence of chimeric variants indicates that the ribosomal units rather evolve in a semi-concerted manner. The new data may provide a basis for studies testing whether differential expression of distinct 18S rDNA also occurs in avian Plasmodium species and related haemosporidian parasites.


Assuntos
Aves/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Haemosporida/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/análise , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Núcleo Celular/genética , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Filogenia , Plasmodium/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 367-375, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483030

RESUMO

Renicolids are parasites that inhabit the renal tubules and ureters of molluscivorous and piscivorous birds. Puffinus puffinus is a migratory seabird that was identified as the definitive host of Renicola spp. Studies focusing on the renicolid species and the resulting renal lesions are valuable for their association with causes of stranding in seabirds. The aim of this study was to identify the renicolid trematodes and evaluate the histological findings in two P. puffinus stranded on the coast of Paraná state, Brazil. The parasites were evaluated by histologic, ultrastructural and molecular assays, while tissue changes were analyzed by histologic methods. The morphological and morphometrical characteristics of the parasites, along with polymerase chain reaction and sequencing assays (ribosomal and mitochondrial regions), identified the species as Renicola sloanei. The results also suggest that this helminth can be the adult form of Cercaria pythionike. The dilation of collecting ducts was the main histological finding in the kidneys. In conclusion, R. sloanei was identified, and for the first time, P. puffinus was described as a host of this digenean inducing mild renal changes.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Rim/parasitologia , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Trematódeos/classificação , Trematódeos/genética , Trematódeos/ultraestrutura
13.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 2909-2918, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418111

RESUMO

Helminth parasites have been a popular research topic due to their global prevalence and adverse effects on livestock and game species. The Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), a popular game bird in the USA, is one species subject to helminth infection and has been experiencing a decline of > 4% annually over recent decades. In the Rolling Plains Ecoregion of Texas, the eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi) and caecal worm (Aulonocephalus pennula) helminths are found to be highly prevalent in bobwhite. While there have been increasing studies on the prevalence, pathology, and phylogeny of the eyeworm and caecal worm, there is still a need to investigate the bobwhite immune response to infection. This study utilizes previously sequenced bobwhite cytokines and toll-like receptors to develop and optimize qPCR primers and measure gene expression in bobwhite intramuscularly challenged with eyeworm and caecal worm glycoproteins. For the challenge experiments, separate treatments of eyeworm and caecal worm glycoproteins were administered to bobwhite on day 1 and day 21. Measurements of primary and secondary immune responses were taken at day 7 and day 28, respectively. Using the successfully optimized qPCR primers for TLR7, IL1ß, IL6, IFNα, IFNγ, IL10, and ß-actin, the gene expression analysis from the challenge experiments revealed that there was a measurable immune reaction in bobwhite in response to the intramuscular challenge of eyeworm and caecal worm glycoproteins.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/imunologia , Colinus/imunologia , Glicoproteínas/imunologia , Spirurina/imunologia , Thelazioidea/imunologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Ceco/parasitologia , Colinus/parasitologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Texas/epidemiologia
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 489-492, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411313

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium is a protozoan parasite with a wide range of hosts, including humans. However, only a few Cryptosporidium species have been described in birds (C. meleagridis, C. baileyi, C. galli and C. avium). The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in feces of eared doves (Zenaida auriculata), followed by molecular characterization of the parasite. A total of 196 animals of both sexes were trap-captured; the animals were culled and the intestinal contents were collected for DNA extraction. After extraction, a nested-PCR (nPCR), which amplifies a fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium spp., was performed. The amplicons obtained were purified and sequenced. PCR analysis revealed that 30 animals (15.3%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. There was no significant sex-dependent enrichment of Cryptosporidium occurrence (p > 0.05). Only 15 out of the 30 positive samples were successfully sequenced and their species determined, of which, 13 (86.7%) and 2 (13.3%) were C. meleagridis and C. galli, respectively. Herein, we present for the first time a molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium from feces of eared doves (Z. auriculata) and propose that these birds are a potential source of C. meleagridis infection in humans.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Columbidae/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
15.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 754-759, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365721

RESUMO

Nasal mites (Mesostigmata: Rhinonyssidae) are obligatory endoparasites of birds, and the resulting parasitism can be harmful to the host's respiratory system. The nasal mite Sternostoma tracheacolum Lawrence has caused significant respiratory issues, including serious injuries that possibly cause death of the host. In this study, we report two cases of captive birds parasitized by S. tracheacolum. The first case is a histopathological description of S. tracheacolum parasitizing the Gouldian Finch (Chloebia gouldiae) in the southeast region of Brazil, that showed partially or totally absence of the characteristic respiratory epithelium in trachea lumen. The other describes, for the first time, the parasitism of this species in a canary (Serinus canaria) in the northeast region of the country.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Ácaros/classificação , Passeriformes/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Passeriformes/classificação
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 422, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) species (Haemoproteidae) are widespread blood parasites that can cause disease in birds, but information about their vector species, sporogonic development and transmission remain fragmentary. This study aimed to investigate the complete sporogonic development of four Haemoproteus species in Culicoides nubeculosus and to test if phylogenies based on the cytochrome b gene (cytb) reflect patterns of ookinete development in haemosporidian parasites. Additionally, one cytb lineage of Haemoproteus was identified to the species level and the in vitro gametogenesis and ookinete development of Haemoproteus hirundinis was characterised. METHODS: Laboratory-reared C. nubeculosus were exposed by allowing them to take blood meals on naturally infected birds harbouring single infections of Haemoproteus belopolskyi (cytb lineage hHIICT1), Haemoproteus hirundinis (hDELURB2), Haemoproteus nucleocondensus (hGRW01) and Haemoproteus lanii (hRB1). Infected insects were dissected at intervals in order to detect sporogonic stages. In vitro exflagellation, gametogenesis and ookinete development of H. hirundinis were also investigated. Microscopic examination and PCR-based methods were used to confirm species identity. Bayesian phylogenetic inference was applied to study the relationships among Haemoproteus lineages. RESULTS: All studied parasites completed sporogony in C. nubeculosus. Ookinetes and sporozoites were found and described. Development of H. hirundinis ookinetes was similar both in vivo and in vitro. Developing ookinetes of this parasite possess long outgrowths, which extend longitudinally and produce the apical end of the ookinetes. A large group of closely related Haemoproteus species with a similar mode of ookinete development was determined. Bayesian analysis indicates that this character has phylogenetic value. The species identity of cytb lineage hDELURB2 was determined: it belongs to H. hirundinis. CONCLUSIONS: Culicoides nubeculosus is susceptible to and is a likely natural vector of numerous species of Haemoproteus parasites, thus worth attention in haemoproteosis epidemiology research. Data about in vitro development of haemoproteids provide valuable information about the rate of ookinete maturation and are recommended to use as helpful step during vector studies of haemosporidian parasites, particularly because they guide proper dissection interval of infected insects for ookinete detection during in vivo experiments. Additionally, in vitro studies readily identified patterns of morphological ookinete transformations, the characters of which are of phylogenetic value in haemosporidian parasites.


Assuntos
Haemosporida/classificação , Haemosporida/fisiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Citocromos b/genética , Feminino , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Masculino , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/transmissão
17.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(2): 167-170, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378275

RESUMO

Studies were carried out on 25 pheasants belonging to 13 Phasianinae species of the Phasianidae family. The research material was collected from private breeders ­ both Polish and from abroad. The results confirm that the most frequent nematode is Heterakis gallinarum, while for the first time in the country ­ in two of the examined birds of Polish flocks ­ the occurrence of Heterakis isolonche was found.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Galliformes , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Galliformes/parasitologia , Nematoides/classificação , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Polônia
18.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(3): 273-281, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284350

RESUMO

The infection status of digenetic trematode metacercariae (DTM) was investigated in fishes from 2 representative visiting sites of migratory birds in Gyeongsangnam-do, the Republic of Korea (Korea). A totaly 220 freshwater fishes (7 species) were collected from Junam-jeosuji (reservoir), and 127 fishes (7 species) were also collected from Woopo-neup (swamp) in June and October 2017. As the control group, total 312 fish (22 spp.) from Yangcheon in Sancheong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do were also collected in June and October 2017. All fishes collected in 3 sites were examined with the artificial digestion method. In the fishes from Junam-jeosuji, more than 4 species, i.e., Clonorchis sinensis, Echinostoma spp., Diplostomum spp. and Cyathocotyle orientalis, of DTM were detected and their endemicy was very low, 0.70. More than 6 species, i.e., C. sinensis, Echinostoma spp., Metorchis orientalis, Clinostomum complanatum, Diplostomum spp. and C. orientalis, of DTM were found in the fishes from Woopo-neup, and their endemicy was low, 5.16. In the fishes from Yangcheon, more than 8 species, i.e., C. sinensis, Metagonimus spp., Centrocestus armatus, C. complanatum, C. orientalis, M. orientalis, Echinostoma spp., and Diplostomum spp., of DTM were detected, and their endemicity was relatively high, 95.48. The percentages of avian trematode metacercariae (ATM) were 99.6% and 94.7% in fishes from Junam-jeosuji and Woopo-neup whereas it was 74.1% in the control site, Yangcheon. The above findings suggested that migratory birds partly affect in endemicity of DTM in the fish in the 2 visiting sites in Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Metacercárias/fisiologia , Trematódeos/fisiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Migração Animal , Animais , Aves/parasitologia , Aves/fisiologia , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/parasitologia , Metacercárias/genética , Metacercárias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metacercárias/isolamento & purificação , República da Coreia , Trematódeos/genética , Trematódeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
19.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(2): 221-228, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271639

RESUMO

Geese, ducks, mallards, and swans are birds of the order Anseriformes, which are found in the wild, in zoos and parks, and raised for meat consumption. Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis sp., and Neospora caninum are protozoans of several species of animals. Wild and domestic birds can serve as intermediate hosts, disseminators and potential sources of infection of these protozoa to humans through contaminated meat. The aims of this study were: (i) to perform a serological survey of T. gondii, Sarcocystis sp. and N. caninum in geese (Anser sp.) from public parks and from captivity and (ii) to compare seroprevalence between these two locations. Antibodies were detected by Immunofluorescence antibody test using the serum of 149 geese. Antibodies to Sarcocystis sp., T. gondii, and N. caninum were detected in 28.18%, 18% and 0.67% of geese, respectively; 57% of geese from urban parks and 26.53% of geese from captivity were seropositive for at least one protozoa. The results indicate environmental contamination, particularly for the occurrence of antibodies against T. gondii - a zoonosis that causes toxoplasmosis and is transmitted through oocyte ingestion. This is the first serological survey of T. gondii, Sarcocystis sp. and N. caninum in geese from urban parks in Curitiba, Brazil.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Gansos/parasitologia , Neospora/imunologia , Sarcocystis/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Imunofluorescência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , População Urbana
20.
J Helminthol ; 94: e65, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Catalão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331406

RESUMO

Helminths were examined from 145 scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) collected during the 2012-2013, 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 hunting seasons from a semi-arid region of Texas that spans four ecoregions. Helminth infracommunities were species poor, averaging 1.7 (range 1-4) species. Six species occurred within the component community of which one (Oxyspirura petrowi) is known to be pathogenic to quail. Aulonocephalus pennula was most abundant (9991 individuals, 95% of total) followed by O. petrowi (391 individuals, 4%). Each of the remaining four species was rare (≤21% prevalence) and contributed few individuals (<1%). In the High Plains ecoregion, prevalence of O. petrowi was higher in host collections made during the 2013-2014 hunting season than either hunting seasons 2012-2013 or 2014-2015 and was higher in the High Plains ecoregion than the Edwards Plateau ecoregion during the 2013-2014 hunting season. Mean abundance of A. pennula and O. petrowi was higher in scaled quail from the High Plains ecoregion than the Edwards Plateau ecoregion. Our results provide new information about helminth fauna in scaled quail, persistence of indirect lifecycle helminth species within a semi-arid region, and the occurrence of pathogenic helminth species within this host species.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Helmintos/classificação , Codorniz/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Prevalência , Texas/epidemiologia
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