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1.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 138-140, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647983

RESUMO

Quail populations in the United States have been declining for several decades, and the role that parasites may be playing in this decline is not well understood. The goal of this study was to document novel parasites that inhabited the scaled quail, Callipepla squamata, of the Trans-Pecos ecoregion of Texas. To do this, quail were collected by hunter-harvest, night-netting, and funnel-trapping and were necropsied in the laboratory to determine the parasites they hosted. After analyzing 386 birds, we identified Dispharynx sp. in one of the samples. This specimen is the first to be officially documented in scaled quail.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Codorniz/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Spirurina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Proventrículo/parasitologia , Proventrículo/patologia , Infecções por Spirurida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/patologia , Spirurina/classificação , Texas/epidemiologia
2.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 129-131, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647982

RESUMO

The summer tanager, Piranga rubra (L., 1758) is a medium-sized songbird formerly belonging to the tanager family Thraupidae but now has been placed within the family Cardinalidae. Nothing is known about the coccidian parasites of this stunningly colorful bird. Feces from 2 P. rubra found dead in McCurtain County, Oklahoma were collected and examined for coccidia; 1 was found to be passing a new species of Isospora. Oocysts of Isospora mccurtainensis n. sp. are subspheroidal to ovoidal with a smooth bilayered wall, measure (length × width [L × W]) 21.7 × 19.5 µm, and have a L/W ratio of 1.1; a micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a bilobed and refractile polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal and measure 13.9 × 8.6 µm, L/W 1.6; a knoblike Stieda body is present as well as a distinct sub-Stieda body. The sporocyst residuum is composed of a granular compact cluster with a dense, irregular mass of granules lying between and dispersed among the sporozoites. This is the first coccidian reported from P. rubra and, most important, only the first known from the Cardinalidae in the mainland of the United States.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Isospora/classificação , Isosporíase/veterinária , Aves Canoras/parasitologia , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Isospora/isolamento & purificação , Isosporíase/parasitologia , Masculino , Microscopia de Interferência/veterinária , Oklahoma , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Oocistos/ultraestrutura
3.
J Parasitol ; 107(1): 132-137, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647985

RESUMO

The Northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) is a popular game bird that has been experiencing a well-documented decline throughout Texas since the 1960s. While much of this decline has been attributed to habitat loss and fragmentation, recent studies have identified other factors that may also contribute to decreasing quail populations. Parasites, in particular, have become increasingly recognized as possible stressors of quail, and some species, particularly the eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi) and cecal worm (Aulonocephalus pennula) are highly prevalent in Texas quails. Eyeworm infection has also been documented in some passerines, suggesting helminth infection may be shared between bird species. However, the lack of comprehensive helminth surveys has rendered the extent of shared infection between quail and passerines in the ecoregion unclear. Thus, helminth surveys were conducted on bobwhite, scaled quail (Callipepla squamata), Northern mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos), curve-billed thrashers (Toxistoma curvirostre), and Northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) to contribute data to existing parasitological gaps for birds in the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas. Birds were trapped across 3 counties in the Texas Rolling Plains from March to October 2019. Necropsies were conducted on 54 individuals (36 quail and 18 passerines), and extracted helminths were microscopically identified. Nematode, cestode, and acanthocephalan helminths representing at least 10 helminth species were found. Specifically, A. pennula and O. petrowi had the highest prevalence, and O. petrowi was documented in all of the study species. This research adds to the body of knowledge regarding parasitic infections in quail and passerines of the Rolling Plains ecoregion and highlights the potential consequences of shared infection of eyeworms among these bird species.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Cromadoria/isolamento & purificação , Colinus/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Passeriformes/parasitologia , Thelazioidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Cromadoria/classificação , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/parasitologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/veterinária , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções por Spirurida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Texas/epidemiologia , Thelazioidea/classificação
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e028520, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605391

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify members of the Sarcocystidae family in naturally infected wild birds at a rescue center in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The heart and brain of 44 wild birds were evaluated by bioassay in mice to detect T. gondii, and extracted DNA was used for nested PCR of the 18S ribosomal DNA gene to detect members of the Sarcocystidae family. The positive samples were sequenced, assembled, edited and compared with sequences deposited in GenBank. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from six (13.6%) out of 44 birds. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was identified in 10/44 (22.7%) of the birds. The amplified sequences exhibited 100% similarity with the DNA of the ME49 strain of T. gondii. Sarcocystis DNA (99% similarity) was identified in 5/44 (11.4%) of the birds. T. gondii and Sarcocystis spp. are common in wild birds in Minas Gerais, Brazil.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Coccidiose , Sarcocystidae , Animais , Bioensaio , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves , Brasil , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário , Camundongos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Sarcocystidae/genética , Sarcocystis/genética , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
5.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 970-980, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480577

RESUMO

The population of the Mauritian pink pigeon (Nesoenas mayeri) fell to fewer than 20 individuals in the 1970s. Following intensive conservation efforts, the free-living population is now estimated to be 470 individuals. However, because of the population bottleneck the species remains at risk of extinction because of genetic loss and inbreeding depression. A European captive population was established in 1977 and a European Endangered Species Program (EEP) was formalized in 1992. As birds in the EEP captive population possess unique alleles not observed in the surviving free-living birds, the EEP management plan recommends transferring EEP birds to Mauritius to improve genetic diversity. Health screening of the current EEP population to identify circulating pathogens was performed. Forty-two birds from three collections in the United Kingdom and one in Jersey were screened for a wide range of pathogens, present clinically or subclinically, including important viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminths. Eleven birds tested positive for at least one pathogen: Trichomonas spp. (5), Yersinia kristensenii (2), Yersinia aleksiciae (1), coccidial oocysts (3), and strongyle ova (3). None of the positive birds showed overt signs of clinical disease, although two birds with Trichomonas spp. had suboptimal body condition. Genotyping of one Trichomonas gallinae sample revealed a type-C strain (low pathogenicity). The results from this screening will contribute towards a disease risk assessment, to create a pre-export protocol for translocation of captive EEP birds to Mauritius.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Columbiformes , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Animais , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Coccídios , Humanos , Estrongilídios , Trichomonas/isolamento & purificação , Yersinia
6.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 799-813, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480560

RESUMO

Although parrot species are infrequently infected by hemoparasites in the wild, some fatal infections have been reported in captive individuals. Conversely birds of prey are frequently infected by hemoparasites. In this study, 193 captive birds from Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) centers in Madrid, Spain, belonging to orders Psittaciformes, Accipitriformes, Strigiformes, and Falconiformes, were blood-sampled in search of parasite infections. Molecular and microscopic analyses were conducted to detect parasites of the following genera: Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, Trypanosoma, Babesia, and Lankesterella. Infections by microfilariae and Coccidia were also searched in blood samples. Surprisingly, infections by Haemoproteus syrnii, a common parasite from owls, were detected in the cadavers of two species of parrots, Trichoglossus haematodus and Psittacula cyanocephala. The same haplotype was also detected in the cadavers of two owl species, Tyto alba and Strix rufipes. All these birds were housed and died in the same center. Infections by species of Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, and Trypanosoma were also found in different species of raptors. Nocturnal raptors (Strigiformes) show significantly higher prevalence of infection by blood parasites than diurnal raptors (Falconiformes and Accipitriformes). In conclusion, a potential fatal transmission of Haemoproteus syrnii, from Strigiformes to Psittaciformes species, is reported and several infections by different blood parasites were detected in birds of prey. These results emphasize the importance of increasing prevention measures to avoid or reduce the transmission of blood parasites among birds from different species housed in these types of centers.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Haemosporida/genética , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Psittaciformes/parasitologia , Estrigiformes/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Haplótipos , Filogenia
7.
J Parasitol ; 106(6): 828-834, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351946

RESUMO

The genus Fregata includes 5 species, with 3 recorded in Brazil, with Fregata magnificens being the most abundant. However, its ectoparasitic fauna is still little known. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of ectoparasites of F. magnificens residing along the coast of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo collected by 2 animal rehabilitation centers. Samples were collected from 5 frigatebirds of the Instituto Argonauta in São Paulo and 10 frigatebirds of the Centro de Recuperação de Animais Selvagens (CRAS) in Rio de Janeiro. Species of lice were identified using both morphological and molecular methods. Scanning electron microscopy was also used for identification. Colpocephalum spineum, Fregatiella aurifasciata, and Pectinopygus fregatiphagus were identified. All 3 louse species have previously been recorded from this host outside Brazil, but only P. fregatiphagus has been recorded from Brazil. This paper reports the first occurrence of F. aurifasciata and C. spineum in Brazil. It is also the first record of P. fregatiphagus in the state of Rio de Janeiro.


Assuntos
Amblíceros/classificação , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Amblíceros/anatomia & histologia , Amblíceros/ultraestrutura , Animais , Aves , Brasil , Feminino , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura/veterinária
8.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e003920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027422

RESUMO

The Neotropic cormorant Nannopterum (Phalacrocorax) brasilianus (Suliformes: Phalacrocoracidae) is widely distributed in Central and South America. In Chile, information about parasites for this species is limited to helminths and nematodes, and little is known about other parasite groups. This study documents the parasitic fauna present in 80 Neotropic cormorants' carcasses collected from 2001 to 2008 in Antofagasta, Biobío, and Ñuble regions. Birds were externally inspected for ectoparasites and necropsies were performed to examine digestive and respiratory organs in search of endoparasites. Ectoparasites collected were cleared and mounted for identification under a microscope. Fecal samples were also evaluated to determine the presence of protozoan parasites employing a flotation technique. A total of 44 (42.5%) of birds were infested with at least one ectoparasite species, while 77 (96.25%) were carrying endoparasites. No protozoan forms were found after examination. Most prevalent endoparasite species found were Contracaecum rudolphii s. l. (72/80, 90%), followed by Pectinopygus gyroceras (33/80, 41.25%), and Profilicollis altmani (26/80, 32.5%). This is the first report of P. altmani, Baruscapillaria carbonis, Avioserpens sp., Cyathostoma (Cyathostoma) phenisci, and Eidmaniella pelucida in the Neotropic cormorant. These findings also expand the distributional range of Andracantha phalacrocoracis, Paradilepis caballeroi, Hysteromorpha triloba, and P. gyroceras to Chile.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Aves , Parasitos , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves/parasitologia , Chile , Helmintos , Parasitos/classificação , Parasitos/fisiologia
9.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 82(1): 125-135, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856170

RESUMO

Ticks are among the best studied parasitic groups as they spread important pathogens of medical and veterinary importance worldwide. Migratory birds can play an important role in transporting ticks infected with pathogens across wide geographic regions. It is therefore important to understand which factors promote tick parasitism rates across their avian hosts and the associated potential for disease spread. Here, we identified the host attributes of infestation probability of ticks from the genus Amblyomma in 955 birds from Pantanal, Brazil. Infestation rates exhibited considerable variation across the 129 avian species surveyed and were explained by both host ecological traits and evolutionary history. The probability of an individual bird being infested with immature ticks (larvae and/or nymphs) was higher across resident bird species that forage at ground level and during the wet season. Bird species that feed on vertebrates were less likely to be infested by ticks. Other ecological traits known to promote tick exposure (age, body mass, social behavior, and sex) did not predict infestation probability. Our findings demonstrate that tick occurrence in Pantanal birds is determined by avian host attributes, but tick occurrence throughout the year constrains exposure to host-seeking ticks. Moreover, the ecology of the avian host might prevent the potential spread of tick-borne diseases outside Pantanal as migratory hosts are likely less infested by ticks.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Aves/parasitologia , Estações do Ano , Infestações por Carrapato , Migração Animal , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Brasil , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos
10.
Parasitol Res ; 119(11): 3729-3737, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779020

RESUMO

A new Eimeria species is described from a common bronzewing pigeon (Phaps chalcoptera) (Latham, 1790) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria chalcoptereae n. sp. (n = 30) are subspheroidal, 22-25 × 21-24 (23.5 × 22.6) µm; length/width (L/W) ratio 1.0-1.1 (1.04) µm. Wall bi-layered, 1.0-1.4 (1.2) µm thick, outer layer smooth, c.2/3 of total thickness. Micropyle barely discernible. Oocyst residuum is absent, but 2 to 3 small polar granules are present. Sporocysts (n = 30) ellipsoidal, 13-14 × 7-8 (13.5 × 7.2) µm; L/W ratio 1.8-2.0 (1.88). Stieda body present, flattened to half-moon-shaped, 0.5 × 2.0 µm; sub-Stieda present, rounded to trapezoidal, 1.5 × 2.5 µm; para-Stieda body absent; sporocyst residuum present, usually as an irregular body consisting of numerous small granules that appear to be membrane-bound. Sporozoites vermiform, with a robust refractile body and centrally located nucleus. Isolated Eimeria oocysts were analysed at the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) loci. Analyses revealed that Eimeria chalcoptereae n. sp. shared the highest number of molecular features with an Eimeria sp. previously identified from a domestic pigeon in Australia (KT305927-29), with similarities at these three loci of 98.53%, 97.32% and 94.93%, respectively. According to morphological and molecular analysis, the isolated coccidian parasite is a new species of Eimeria named Eimeria chalcoptereae n. sp. after its host, the common bronzewing pigeon (Phaps chalcoptera) (Columbiformes: Columbidae) (Latham, 1790).


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Columbidae/parasitologia , Eimeria/citologia , Eimeria/genética , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/genética , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Oocistos/citologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Esporozoítos/citologia , Austrália Ocidental
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237170, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813710

RESUMO

In the last decade, house sparrow populations have shown a general decline, especially in cities. Avian malaria has been recently suggested as one of the potential causes of this decline, and its detrimental effects could be exacerbated in urban habitats. It was initially thought that avian malaria parasites would not have large negative effects on wild birds because of their long co-evolution with their hosts. However, it is now well-documented that they can have detrimental effects at both the primo- and chronical infection stages. In this study, we examined avian malaria infection and its physiological and morphological consequences in four populations of wild house sparrows (2 urban and 2 rural). We did not find any relationship between the proportions of infected individuals and the urbanisation score calculated for our populations. However, we observed that the proportion of infected individuals increased during the course of the season, and that juveniles were less infected than adults. We did not detect a strong effect of malaria infection on physiological, morphological and condition indexes. Complex parasite dynamics and the presence of confounding factors could have masked the potential effects of infection. Thus, longitudinal and experimental studies are needed to understand the evolutionary ecology of this very common, but still poorly understood, wild bird parasite.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Malária Aviária/diagnóstico , Parasitemia/diagnóstico , Plasmodium/genética , População Rural , Pardais/parasitologia , População Urbana , Animais , Cidades , Feminino , França , Malária Aviária/parasitologia , Malária Aviária/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estações do Ano , Urbanização
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008759, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745135

RESUMO

Ticks (order: Ixodida) are a highly diverse and ecologically important group of ectoparasitic blood-feeding organisms. One such species, the seabird tick (Ixodes uriae), is widely distributed around the circumpolar regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. It has been suggested that Ix. uriae spread from the southern to the northern circumpolar region millions of years ago and has remained isolated in these regions ever since. Such a profound biographic subdivision provides a unique opportunity to determine whether viruses associated with ticks exhibit the same evolutionary patterns as their hosts. To test this, we collected Ix. uriae specimens near a Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) colony at Neko harbour, Antarctica, and from migratory birds-the Razorbill (Alca torda) and the Common murre (Uria aalge)-on Bonden island, northern Sweden. Through meta-transcriptomic next-generation sequencing we identified 16 RNA viruses, seven of which were novel. Notably, we detected the same species, Ronne virus, and two closely related species, Bonden virus and Piguzov virus, in both hemispheres indicating that there have been at least two cross-circumpolar dispersal events. Similarly, we identified viruses discovered previously in other locations several decades ago, including Gadgets Gully virus, Taggert virus and Okhotskiy virus. By identifying the same or closely related viruses in geographically disjunct sampling locations we provide evidence for virus dispersal within and between the circumpolar regions. In marked contrast, our phylogenetic analysis revealed no movement of the Ix. uriae tick hosts between the same locations. Combined, these data suggest that migratory birds are responsible for the movement of viruses at both local and global scales.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Ixodes/fisiologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Filogenia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus de RNA/genética , Vírus de RNA/isolamento & purificação , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
13.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 107978, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853633

RESUMO

One hundred and twenty one-day-old chukar partridges were randomly divided into eight groups which received diets with different supplementations. There were four unchallenged groups. One group received salinomycin (50 ppm), two groups received cinnamaldehyde (CINN) (100 and 200 mg/kg of diet), and another one received only the basal diet from the 1st to the 31st day. There were also four corresponding groups orally challenged by 3 × 105Eimeria kofoidi sporulated oocysts at the 21st day. Three samplings were done at the 24th, 26th, and 31st days of rearing for pathological and biochemical assessments. Fecal samples were daily taken to check the pattern of oocyst shedding from the 26th to 31st day. The body weight of birds was measured at 21st and 31st days. Along with the in vivo experiment, an in vitro sporulation inhibition test was carried out. The in vitro results showed that CINN decreased sporulation rate at 1 and 0.5 mg/ml. In vivo, it was found that CINN did not prevent the oocyst shedding. Furthermore, the histopathological findings revealed that CINN and salinomycin had no effect on infection establishment. However, our findings showed that CINN (200 mg/kg of diet) could enhance the body weight and improve antioxidant status. Although our results did not support the in vivo anticoccidial activity of CINN, it had a promising potential to improve antioxidant status and body weight in the chukar partridge.


Assuntos
Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Galliformes/parasitologia , Acroleína/farmacologia , Acroleína/uso terapêutico , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves/tratamento farmacológico , Peso Corporal , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Coccidiostáticos/uso terapêutico , Fezes/parasitologia , Galliformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/parasitologia , Intestinos/patologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Piranos/farmacologia , Piranos/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Aleatória , Esporos de Protozoários/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos de Protozoários/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e000920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667500

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to verify the presence and identify the species of haemosporidian parasites in eared doves (Zenaida auriculata) in Brazil. Two hundred and eleven male and female eared doves were trap-captured in four different regions of Londrina city, in southern Brazil. Whole blood was collected in EDTA tubes through heart puncture after euthanasia in a CO2 chamber. A nested PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (cyt b) of Haemoproteus spp./Plasmodium spp. was performed, followed by an enzymatic digestion to identify the genus. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to determine the closely related species. Out of 211 eared doves, 209 (99.05%) were positive for Haemoproteus spp. and/or Plasmodium spp. RFLP analysis showed that 72.72% (152/209) of eared doves were positive only for Haemoproteus spp., 6.22% (13/209) were positive only for Plasmodium spp., and 21.05% (44/209) of eared doves had mixed infections. Genetic analysis found four samples that were homologous with Haemoproteus multipigmentatus and one that was homologous with Plasmodium sp. This is the first molecular study of hemoparasites from eared doves in Brazil, and it is also the first description of H. multipigmentatus and Plasmodium spp. infection in eared doves in Brazil.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa , Doenças das Aves , Columbidae , Plasmodium , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais , Animais , Apicomplexa/classificação , Apicomplexa/genética , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Brasil , Columbidae/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Plasmodium/classificação , Plasmodium/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/diagnóstico , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia
15.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2975-2981, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683557

RESUMO

Haemosporidia infections may cause major damage to avian populations and represent a concern for veterinarians working in zoological parks or wildlife rescue centres. Following the fatal infection of 9 Great grey owls (Strix nebulosa) at Mulhouse zoological park, between summer 2013 and 2015, a prospective epidemiological investigation was performed in captive strigiform birds in France in 2016. The purpose was to evaluate the prevalence of haemosporidian parasites in captive Strigiformes and to estimate the infection dynamics around the nesting period. Blood samples were taken from 122 strigiform birds representing 14 species from 15 French zoological parks. Parasites were detected by direct examination of blood smears and by PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Haemosporidian parasites were detected in 59 birds from 11 zoos. Three distinct Haemoproteus mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences (haplotypes A and C for H. syrnii and haplotype B for Haemoproteus sp.) as well as two species of Plasmodium were detected. The overall prevalence of Haemoproteus infection was 12.8%. The percentage of birds infected by Haemoproteus varied according to the period of sampling. Nesting season seemed to be at greater risk with an average prevalence of 53.9% compared with winter season with an average prevalence of 14.8%, related to the abundance of the vectors. The prevalence of Plasmodium infection in Strigiformes did not exceed 8% throughout the year. This study confirmed how significant Haemosporidia infection could be in Strigiformes from zoological parks in France. The nesting season was identified as a period of higher risk of infection and consequently the appropriate period to apply prophylactic measures.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Estrigiformes/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças das Aves/sangue , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Citocromos b/genética , França/epidemiologia , Haemosporida/classificação , Haemosporida/genética , Haplótipos , Filogenia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/sangue , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
16.
Parasitol Res ; 119(10): 3535-3539, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681193

RESUMO

Parasites co-infecting hosts can interact directly and indirectly to affect parasite growth and disease manifestation. We examined potential interactions between two common parasites of house finches: the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum that causes conjunctivitis and the intestinal coccidian parasite Isospora sp. We quantified coccidia burdens prior to and following experimental infection with M. gallisepticum, exploiting the birds' range of natural coccidia burdens. Birds with greater baseline coccidia burdens developed higher M. gallisepticum loads and longer lasting conjunctivitis following inoculation. However, experimental inoculation with M. gallisepticum did not appear to alter coccidia shedding. Our study suggests that differences in immunocompetence or condition may predispose some finches to more severe infections with both pathogens.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/patologia , Tentilhões , Isospora/fisiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/fisiologia , Carga Parasitária/veterinária , Animais , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/parasitologia , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/patologia , Conjuntivite Bacteriana/veterinária , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/microbiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/parasitologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Tentilhões/microbiologia , Tentilhões/parasitologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/parasitologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/patologia
17.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 385-390, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549569

RESUMO

Costa Rica undertakes continuous efforts to recover the native population of macaw species through rehabilitation programs for breeding and releasing birds in protected areas. In the summer of 2018, a total of 107 scarlet (Ara macao) and 93 great green (Ara ambigua) macaws were sampled in four wildlife rehabilitation centers in Costa Rica. Fecal samples representing 200 individuals were analyzed for intestinal parasites, and 23 individuals were sampled for hemoparasites. Ascaridia and Capillaria were found in fecal samples. No hemoparasites were found. The distribution of percentage of infection was analyzed by location, species, and housing type. As part of a health screening prior to release, parasitological examination is recommended.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Papagaios , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/parasitologia , Incidência , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Prevalência , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 391-397, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549570

RESUMO

Systemic isosporosis (formerly atoxoplasmosis), is a protozoal infection that causes death in nestling and fledgling passerine birds impacting ex situ breeding and reintroduction programs. Because current antemortem diagnostic tests lack sensitivity, a qPCR was developed for detection of Isospora spp. using primers and a fluorescent-tagged MGB probe targeting the large subunit (28s) ribosomal RNA gene (assay efficiency = >100%; sensitivity = <1 dsDNA copy). The assay was used to screen postmortem frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from passerine birds (n = 24; 12 with confirmed systemic isosporosis), whole blood and feces (n = 38) from live passerines, and other tissues infected with phylogenetically similar protozoa. The qPCR identified Isospora sp. DNA in tissues from 21/24 birds including 12/12 birds with cytologically-histologically confirmed infection (100% sensitivity) and 9/12 birds lacking microscopic organisms. The assay also amplified Eimeria sp. DNA; however, sequence analysis ruled out infection in the passerine cases. Blood and/or feces were positive in 30/38 birds, and in only 7/38 birds, blood and feces both contained Isospora sp. DNA. Finally, the qPCR was utilized to screen 30 consecutive daily fecal samples from live passerines (n = 20) to determine optimal sampling protocols. One or more of the daily fecal samples were positive in all 20 birds. In individual birds, the interval between positive qPCR amplification results ranged from 0 to 23 days, with an average of 5.85 days. Simulated application of 13 potential sample collection schedules was used to identify the sensitivity of repeated testing for identification of infected birds. Increased sampling days resulted in higher sensitivity but increased both cost and animal handling requirements. Based on statistical analysis and clinical considerations, the testing recommendation for detection of fecal shedding was collection and assay of five consecutive daily fecal samples, which had an average diagnostic sensitivity of 0.86.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Isospora/isolamento & purificação , Isosporíase/veterinária , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Aves Canoras , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Sangue/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Isosporíase/diagnóstico , Isosporíase/parasitologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas
19.
Avian Dis ; 64(2): 130-134, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550612

RESUMO

Trichomonas gallinae, a single-celled protozoan parasite, is a causative agent of the disease trichomonosis, which is distributed worldwide and has recently been highlighted as a pandemic threat to several wild bird species. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotypic diversity of T. gallinae in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. For this purpose, 273 oral swab samples from different bird species (feral pigeon Columba livia, common mynah Acridotheres tristis, chicken Gallus gallus domesticus, turkey Meleagris gallopavo, and ducks Anatidae) were collected and tested for T. gallinae infection with InPouch™ TV culture kits. The results showed that the overall prevalence of T. gallinae in these samples was 26.4% (n = 72). The PCRs were used to detect the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of T. gallinae, and the results of the sequence analysis indicated genetic variation. Among 48 sequences, we found 15 different ribotypes, of which 12 were novel. Three had been previously described as ribotypes A, C, and II. To our knowledge, this study demonstrated the presence of T. gallinae strain diversity in Saudi Arabian birds for the first time and revealed that ribotypes A and C are predominant among Riyadh birds.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Aves , Genótipo , Tricomoníase/veterinária , Trichomonas/genética , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Galinhas , Columbidae , Patos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estorninhos , Tricomoníase/epidemiologia , Tricomoníase/parasitologia , Perus
20.
Parasitol Res ; 119(8): 2511-2520, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562066

RESUMO

Zygocotyle lunata inhabits the caecum of birds and mammals from the American continent. This amphistome parasite is easily maintained in the laboratory and serves as a model organism in life-cycle studies, but it has seldom been studied using molecular data. Neither the position of Z. lunata in the superfamily Paramphistomoidea nor the monophyly of the Zygocotylidae has been evaluated with molecular phylogenetic methods. In the present study, adult specimens of Z. lunata obtained experimentally in mice from Brazil were submitted to molecular studies. Partial sequences of nuclear (1261 bp of 28S and 418 bp of 5.8S-ITS-2) and mitochondrial (1410 bp of cytochrome c oxidase 1, cox1) markers were compared with published data. In the most well-resolved phylogeny, based on 28S sequences, Z. lunata clustered in a well-supported clade with Wardius zibethicus, the only other species currently included in the Zygocotylidae, thus confirming the validity of this family. Divergence of 28S sequences between these species was 2.2%, which falls in the range of intergeneric variation (0.9-5.6%) observed in the other two monophyletic groups in the 28S tree, i.e., representatives of Gastrodicidae and Neotropical cladorchiids (Cladorchiidae). Analysis of ITS-2 and two parts of the cox1 gene placed Z. lunata within poorly resolved clades or large polytomies composed of several paramphistomoid families, without clarifying higher-level phylogenetic relationships. The cox1 of a Brazilian isolate of Z. lunata is 99.6% similar to a Canadian isolate, confirming the pan-American distribution of the species. Finally, our phylogenetic reconstructions of Paramphistomoidea revealed a complex scenario in the taxonomic composition of some amphistome families, which highlights a need for further integrative studies that will likely result in rearrangements of traditional morphology-based classifications.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Ceco/parasitologia , Paramphistomatidae/genética , Paramphistomatidae/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Aves/parasitologia , Brasil , Canadá , Feminino , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Masculino , Camundongos , Paramphistomatidae/classificação , Paramphistomatidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
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