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1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(5): 474-478, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and molecular features of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats from Anhui Province and neighboring provinces. METHODS: A total 832 and 781 fresh fecal samples were collected from seven large-scale sheep farms and ten large-scale goat farms in Anhui Province and neighboring provinces of Henan, Jiangsu and Shandong. The prevalence and species of Cryptosporidium were investigated in the fecal samples from the sheep and goats in the study areas using nested PCR assay based on the Cryptosporidium-specific SSU rDNA gene, and the subgenotypes of C. parvum and C. ubiquitum were characterized by amplification and sequencing of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 5.8% (48/832) in sheep and 8.7% (68/781) in goats in Anhui Province and neighboring provinces, respectively. The SSU rDNA gene-based PCR assay identified C. xiaoi and C. ubiquitum in sheep and C. parvum in goats, and subtyping revealed that all C. ubiquitum subgenotypes belonged to XIIa subtype 2 and C. parvum subgenotypes belonged to IIdA19G1. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of zoonotic C. ubiquitum XIIa subtype 2 and C. parvum subtype IIdA19G1 suggests that sheep and goats may serve as a potential source for human Cryptosporidium infections.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Doenças das Cabras , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
2.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 225-236, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578846

RESUMO

Hydatidosis or echinococcosis is considered to be one of the most common zoonotic diseases of the animals. Infection occurs when intermediate hosts such as camel, cattle, sheep, and goats ingested food or water contaminated with eggs from the definitive host (dog). This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in one of the biggest abattoirs in Makkah in the west of Saudi Arabia. A total number of 38302 goats were examined and recorded at Makkah abattoirs. The examination had been performed to all slaughtered animals on two organs (spleen and heart) for detection of any hydatid cysts during the period from July 2018 until December 2018. The study included also histopathological tissue evaluation. The total infections number of hydatidosis in goats is 0.23%. The infected hearts were 40.35% whereas the infected spleen was 48.48% subsequently in local animals. The imported animals were 2124, the infected animals in heart were 59.64%, whereas the infected animal involving spleen were 51.51%. Meanwhile, results of histopathological examination had shown that most of the hydatid cysts in goats caused progressive focal pressure and degenerative changes in the surrounding tissue.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Doenças das Cabras , Coração , Baço , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Equinococose/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Coração/parasitologia , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita , Baço/parasitologia
3.
Acta Virol ; 63(3): 270-277, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507192

RESUMO

Orf, also called contagious ecthyma or contagious pustular dermatitis, is a significant zoonotic disease that primarily affects goat and sheep globally. Currently, the infection by orf virus (ORFV) has been observed in different host species worldwide, including China. Here, a suspected outbreak of orf infection in a goat farm in Anhui Province in 2018 was investigated. Through PCR, electron microscopy, and cell culture techniques, we confirmed that the outbreak was caused by ORFV. Consequently, the orf virus strain was named the AH/LA/2018 strain. The amplified and sequenced ORFV011 (B2L) and ORFV059 (F1L) genes were used to construct phylogenetic trees to elucidate the genetic characteristics of the ORFV and the molecular epidemiology of orf. The present study is the first systematic evolution analysis of the ORFV strain isolated in Anhui Province. The results of this study will be helpful to better understand the characteristics of ORFV, to help prevent and control the transmission of ORFV at an early stage in China. Keywords: Anhui Province; goat; orf virus; phylogenetic analysis.


Assuntos
Ectima Contagioso , Vírus do Orf , Filogenia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , China/epidemiologia , Ectima Contagioso/virologia , Genes Virais/genética , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Vírus do Orf/classificação , Vírus do Orf/ultraestrutura , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 99, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489077

RESUMO

Introduction: The burden of brucellosis among smallholder farmers is poorly-documented in Uganda. The disease burden is likely to be high, given the high levels of endemicity, lots of exposures and due to lack of control measures. In order to designate appropriate control measures, the magnitude and risk factors for brucellosis need to be known. We established the burden of and risk factors for Brucella seropositivity in cattle, goats, and humans in Iganga district, eastern Uganda. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in in Kigulamo Parish, Iganga District. We enrolled 226 households and administered a structured questionnaire to heads of households to capture data on socio-demographic characteristics, human brucellosis-related risk factors, and livestock farming practices. Human, cattle, and goat blood samples were collected and tested serologically using commercial indirect-ELISA kits manufactured by USDA, USA. Results: Of 451 human blood samples, 20 (4.4%) were positive. Among 345 cattle blood samples, 4 (1.2%) were positive and among 351 goat blood samples, one (0.3%) was positive. Persons who reported consuming locally-made dairy products had 4 times higher odds of Brucella seropositivity (OR = 4.0, CI = 1.14-14.03, p = 0.031) than those who did not. None of the risk factors we asked about were significantly associated with seropositivity in cattle and goats. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of brucellosis in humans in smallholder households in Kigulamo was relatively low and associated with consumption of locally made dairy products. No risk factors were significantly associated with seropositivity in livestock, likely due to the small number of seropositive animals. We recommend a One Health approach to control brucellosis simultaneously in animals and humans needed to sustainably reduce the burden of brucellosis in Uganda and beyond.


Assuntos
Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Animais , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Gado , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia
5.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 229-233, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383306

RESUMO

Peste des Petits ruminants (PPR) is a devastating disease of small ruminants with high morbidity and mortality rates among susceptible animals. The disease is endemic in much of Africa, the Middle East and Asia and constitutes one of the major hurdles to the improvement of small-ruminant production in these countries. The causal agent of PPR, the Small Ruminant Morbillivirus (SRMV), previously known as PPR virus (PPRV) belongs to the genus Morbillivirus within the family Paramyxoviridae. SRMV can be categorized into four genetically distinct lineages (I to IV). Suspicion of PPR was first reported in Ethiopia in 1977 and since then genetic characterization of circulating viruses has identified lineages III and IV in the country. This study was undertaken to provide an update on the molecular epidemiology of PPR in Ethiopia by analysing animal tissue samples collected between 2011 and 2017. PPR positive samples were identified in four regions of the country. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of fourteen RT-PCR positive amplicons revealed that all of the SRMV in the samples from 2010 to 2017 belong to sub-clade II of clade I of lineage IV. No lineage III viruses were identified.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/genética , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras/virologia , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105126, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394078

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal (GIT) parasite infections result in significant economic losses to ruminant livestock production. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with GIT parasite infections in livestock from Ghana, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in cattle and small ruminants kept under different management systems in the Coastal Savannah zone from October 2014 to February 2015. Faecal samples were collected from 328 cattle and 502 small ruminants (sheep and goats) and examined by formal ether concentration microscopy. The management systems and environmental conditions of the farm or household were observed, and a questionnaire administered to the livestock owners. Overall, 90.8% (754/830) of livestock were infected with at least one of ten different parasites (Eimeria, Strongylid nematodes, Toxocara, Trichuris, Schistosoma, Dicrocoelium, Paramphistomum, Fasciola, Moniezia and Thysaniezia), with Eimeria the most prevalent (78.4%). Most (64.5%) livestock had coinfections with two to five parasites with parasite intensity mostly light and at least one parasite was found in 98.6% (140/142) of the herds. Binary logistic regression models were generated to assess the risk factors associated with infection. Earthen floor was positively associated with strongylid infection, multiple ruminant species with Paramphistomum infection and flock size (>25 animal) with Thysaniezia, Dicrocoelium and Fasciola infections. Separating young animals from older animals was negatively associated with Strongylid infection, feed supplementation with Thysaniezia infection and small ruminant species with Paramphistomum and Toxocara infections. The findings from this study suggests that good sanitation, proper husbandry practices and improved nutrition can improve livestock health and production in Ghana.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Gado , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Prev Vet Med ; 170: 104738, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421505

RESUMO

The zoonotic protozoa Toxoplasma gondii is one of the major abortive pathogens in small ruminants. Nevertheless, data on T. gondii infection in goats during lactation and on the presence of T. gondii in goat milk are lacking. A longitudinal study was planned in a T. gondii naturally infected dairy goat farm with the aim of (i) evaluating the variation of anti-T. gondii antibodies in blood and milk during the lactation; (ii) identifying the optimal phase during lactation for T. gondii monitoring; (iii) detecting the presence of T. gondii DNA in the milk. From March to July 2017, 30 goats in a farm were fortnightly visited seven times and sampled for blood and, when in lactation, for milk. Individual data regarding age, reproductive disorders, and the day of lactation were recorded. For the detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies in blood and milk a commercial ELISA kit was used. Milk samples (n = 63) of selected nine seropositive animals were also molecularly analysed to amplify a sequence within the ITS1 region of T. gondii. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 63.3% (19/30); a high agreement was obtained between serum and milk results (Spearman's coefficient = 0.793 and Kendall's tau = 0.624), particularly between the 15th and the 60th day of lactation. In the statistical analysis, performed with generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs), the variable "phase of lactation" was strongly associated to ELISA values obtained in both serum and milk (p-value = 0.0001, F = 5.197, and p-value = 0.016, F = 2.755, respectively). Finally, molecular analyses revealed the presence of parasitic DNA in 20.6% (13/63) of milk samples, with a discontinuous parasite excretion; statistical analyses did not reveal any association among the parasite excretion and the considered variables. Milk could be considered as a valid alternative to blood for monitoring T. gondii infection in goat herds. Moreover, the detection of T. gondii DNA in milk enhanced the possibility for raw goat's milk consumption to be considered as a risk to public health.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/metabolismo , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Leite/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Itália/epidemiologia , Lactação , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
8.
Food Microbiol ; 84: 103249, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421759

RESUMO

Recently, there has been an increased tendency towards raw-milk consumption, which may pose a consumer risk, due to the possible presence of human pathogenic microorganisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus and even methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The prevalence of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was investigated in 40 dairy (cattle, sheep and goat) farms in northern Greece. S. aureus and MRSA were detected in 47.8% and 4.1% of the 387 samples (raw milk, farmers and animal samples) tested, respectively. Most (81.3%) of the MRSA isolates harbored the mecA gene, whereas the mecC or Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL) genes were not detected. Seven spa types were identified, with t127 being the most prevalent. Spa type t034 (CC398) was isolated for the first time from livestock in Greece. Staphylococcal enterotoxin genes were detected in 93.8% of the MRSA isolates. The MRSA isolates were genetically diverse and were all capable of biofilm production. Our results confirm the lurking threat of MRSA in raw milk and dairy farms and suggest the need for surveillance programs starting at the farm level.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Gado/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Leite/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Enterotoxinas/genética , Fazendas , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Grécia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Meticilina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 308, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been increasingly reported to infect domestic animals and humans, with human infections primarily reported as zoonotic in origin. The aim of the present study was to determine the presence and genotype of E. bieneusi in humans and domestic animals in central Thailand by testing stool samples of 200 apparently healthy humans, 73 goats, 60 cattle and 65 pigs using nested-PCR/ sequence analysis based on the ITS region of SSU rRNA genes. RESULTS: E. bieneusi tested positive in 2 (1%) of the 200 stool samples collected from humans and 56 (28.3%) of the 198 stool samples collected from domestic animals. The highest prevalence of E. bieneusi was observed in pigs (39/65, 60%), followed by goats (14/73, 19.2%) and cattle (3/60, 5%). Seven novel E. bieneusi genotypes were identified, which were named GoatAYE1-4 and PigAYE1-3 and clustered in either zoonotic Group 1 or Group 2. Moreover, eleven previously described E. bieneusi genotypes were also identified (O, D, H, SX1, CHC8, CHG3, CS-10, SHZC1, LW1, WildBoar5, and EbpC). All novel genotypes exhibited zoonotic potential from a phylogenetic analysis of ITS region. CONCLUSION: Our data showed that the prevalence of E. bieneusi is low in apparently healthy individuals and higher in pigs than cattle and goats. This study provides baseline data useful for controlling and preventing E. bieneusi infection in farm communities, where pigs and goats appear to be the major reservoir of E. bieneusi. The results of our study support the view that E. bieneusi is a zoonotic pathogen that should be considered a potential public health threat.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Enterocytozoon/genética , Genótipo , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Lactente , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Prevalência , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 257, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious abortion in ruminants is a problem in animal husbandry worldwide. It is important to obtain a diagnosis, to make sure that proper control measures can be instituted, but most abortion cases remain without an etiologic diagnosis. This report describes the presence of Arcobacter species and several neglected opportunistic abortifacient agents in ruminant abortion cases showing or not co-infections among at least one of the major recognized protozoal, fungal, bacterial and viral abortifacient agents. RESULTS: A total of 67 fetuses (55 cattle and 12 goats) and just one placenta (cattle) were considered. Among the most common abortive agents, Neospora caninum (19,4%), followed by Chlamydophila abortus (4,5%), Listeria monocytogenes 1/2a (2,98%), Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus type 1b (2,98%), Bovine herpesvirus 4 (2,98%), and Aspergillus spp. (2,98%) were detected. The isolated neglected opportunistic bacteria include Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus suis, Trueperella pyogenes, Mannheimia haemolytica, Bacillus cereus and Nocardia spp. Other bacterial species, not associated with abortion by literature, but described as causes of diseases occurring sporadically both in humans and animals, were also detected. Three Arcobacter strains, namely two A. skirrowii and one A. cryaerophilus, were isolated from 3 bovine aborted fetuses, and A. butzleri was isolated from the placenta. CONCLUSIONS: A not negligible isolation of Arcobacter species and other neglected abortifacient agents has to be mentioned, with prevalences that seem to be emerging and replacing or co-placing the major infectious players in bovine and caprine reproductive failure due to abortion disease, even if further studies investigating the aetiological power and transmission routes are needed in order to define the role of these microrganisms in ruminant abortion.


Assuntos
Feto Abortado/microbiologia , Feto Abortado/parasitologia , Feto Abortado/virologia , Arcobacter/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/veterinária , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Aborto Animal/parasitologia , Aborto Animal/virologia , Animais , Arcobacter/classificação , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Itália/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/veterinária , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Placenta/microbiologia , Gravidez , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/veterinária
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 250, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orf virus causes a scabby skin lesions which decreases productivity in small ruminants. The unknown status of this disease in the eastern region of Peninsular Malaysia warrants a study to determine sero-prevalence of orf with regards to farmers' compliance level towards the Herd Health Program (HHP) programme. RESULTS: Out of 504 animals, 115 were positive for Orf-virus antibodies. An overall prevalence rate of 22.8% indicated a high prevalence of orf disease in this region. It was observed that 25.1% (92/367) of goats were positive and 16.8% (23/137) of sheep sero-converted for Orf virus antibody. Several factors were measured for their possible association with prevalence of Orf virus infection. The prevalence was higher in LY farm, JC breed, kid and female animals, and in the presence of disease lesion. Chi-square analysis showed a significant association of three risk factors which are species, age and sex of the animals (P < 0.05). Notwithstanding, all other variables showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Farms surveyed usually practised intensive management system, keeping animals in the shade at all time, due to limited availability of suitable land as a free-range grazing area. An interview with small holder farmers revealed a lack of awareness of the main goals of herd health programme. An overall compliance level of 42.7% was observed for all HHP parameters. Among the 14 main components of HHP modules, animal identification had recorded highest compliance level (84.62%) while milking management recorded the least compliance (- 82.69%). That explained why there was a high sporadic prevalence of Orf infection in this region. CONCLUSION: Good herd health supervision is a rehearsal target to prevent an outbreak and the spread of diseases thus reduces economic losses among farmers. Therefore, a good herd health programme should be in place, in order to prevent and control disease transmission as well as to improve herd immunity.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Ectima Contagioso/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Malásia , Masculino , Vírus do Orf , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Sexuais , Ovinos
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 346, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oestrosis, caused by the larvae of Oestrus ovis, commonly known as sheep nose bot, is an obligatory cavitary myiasis of sheep and goats. Oestrus ovis is a widespread parasite, but little is known about the prevalence of oestrosis at the global and broad geographical levels. The present study aimed to explore the epidemiology of oestrosis at the global and regional level to estimate prevalences and their associated factors using a systematic approach. This is, to the author's knowledge, the first meta-analysis of oestrosis in sheep and goats. METHODS: Published articles were obtained from nine electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Abstracts, Web of Science, Scopus, UCB library, Medline, Biosis Citation Index, Indian journals and Google Scholar) reporting the prevalence of O. ovis in sheep and goats from 1970 to 2018. Pooled prevalences were estimated using a random effect meta-analysis model. RESULTS: Sixty-six studies were eligible, and data from 40,870 sheep and 18,216 goats were used for quantitative analysis. The random effect estimated prevalence of oestrosis at the global level in sheep was 51.15% (95% CI: 42.80-59.51%) and in goats was 42.19% (95% CI: 33.43-50.95%). The pooled prevalence estimates for Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas were 47.85% (95% CI: 36.04-59.66%), 44.48% (95% CI: 33.09-55.87%), 56.83% (95% CI: 48.92-64.74%) and 34.46% (95% CI: 19.90-49.01%), respectively. Heterogeneity (I2 > 80%) was detected in most pooled estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Oestrosis is highly prevalent in many geographical regions of the world, especially in Europe and Africa. Factors that contribute to the pooled prevalence estimate of oestrosis need to be emphasised in any survey to estimate the true prevalence of oestrosis. Furthermore, there is a need for immunisation or implementation of other preventive measures to reduce the burden of oestrosis in sheep and goats and to improve the health and welfare status.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Miíase/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Larva , Masculino , Miíase/epidemiologia , Nariz/parasitologia , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300104

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a re-emerging bacterial zoonosis. North-Central Italy is characterized by a geographic area that promote Leptospira circulation. Data on sero-epidemiological survey carried out from 2002 to 2016 in North-Central Italy were reported and discussed. Overall, 709 out of the 8488 (8.35%) tested sera were positive for Leptospira at the cut-off titer (1:100) and 218 (2.57%) at higher titer (≥1:400). The highest percentages of positivity was recorded for coypus (22.86%), swine (19.74%) and bovine (13.03%). Pomona and Australis resulted the serogroup more often detected, followed by Sejroe and Icterohaemorrhagiae; while, a low number of positive sera was detected for serogroups Ballum, Canicola and Tarassovi. Percentage of positive sera for each year slightly decreased from 2002 to 2008 and rose from 2009. High percentages of positive reactions were recorded in 2014 (17.23%), 2015 (19.61%) and 2016 (38.05%). In conclusion, the results of this investigation reported an increase of leptospirosis in North-Central Italy. Furthermore, several animals resulted infected as accidental hosts by unusual Leptospira serovars. These data could suggest a change in host range for some serovars, that may promote the adaptation to new hosts.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Leptospirose/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras/microbiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Leptospira , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sorogrupo , Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
14.
Can J Vet Res ; 83(3): 160-167, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308587

RESUMO

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis of domestic and wild ruminants. Map strains are segregated into 2 main groups or strain types referred to as sheep (S) type and cattle (C) type. Few small ruminant Map strains have been genetically characterized to date. The present study was undertaken to genetically characterize a panel of 30 small ruminant Map strains in the province of Quebec, Canada. Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units - Variable-Number Tandem Repeat analysis (MIRU-VNTR) were used as genetic markers in addition to IS1311 PCR-REA. S-type and C-type strains were found in both sheep and goats, although C-type strains were more frequently isolated from goats and S-type strains were more common in sheep. A total of 12 distinct Map genotypes were uncovered in the present collection of strains using these markers. Considering the genetic diversity reported here, molecular characterization of Map stains in small ruminants using MIRU-VNTR markers represent an interesting avenue for both epidemiological investigations regarding the sources of herd infection and association studies between Map strains and their virulence, persistence and host-specific adaptation characteristics.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/classificação , Paratuberculose/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Alelos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Genótipo , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Repetições Minissatélites , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/genética , Paratuberculose/epidemiologia , Quebeque , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 184, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since pastoralists in South Darfur, Sudan, had complained about lack of albendazole (ABZ) efficacy to control nematodes in goats, the frequency of infection with gastrointestinal helminths was studied before in vivo faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were conducted using ABZ orally either at the dose recommended for sheep, 5 mg/kg body weight (bw) or at 10 mg/kg bw. Experiments included goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes or experimentally infected with local Haemonchus contortus isolates. Three study areas (Nyala, Beleil and Kass) were visited in autumn or winter. RESULTS: Out of 478 screened goats, 82.4% were infected with gastrointestinal helminths and 82% were shedding eggs of strongyle nematodes with 90% of the strongyle larvae representing Haemonchus spp. A FECRT using naturally infected goats (n = 225: 71 untreated, 104 and 50 treated with 5 and 10 mg ABZ/kg bw, respectively) detected reduced ABZ efficacy in Nyala and Kass. Paired and unpaired FECRT calculations detected reductions of 72-92% with samples taken at 8 days post treatment with 5 mg ABZ/kg bw and of 85-94% with 10 mg ABZ/kg bw. The FECRT based on day 14 post treatment samples showed reductions of 69-77% with 5 mg/kg and of 75-87% with 10 mg ABZ/kg bw. In Beleil, ABZ efficacy was 95%. In the egg hatch test EC50 values for Nyala and Kass ranged from 0.12-0.24 µg thiabendazole/ml, corresponding to benzimidazole resistant phenotypes. Only Haemonchus spp. larvae were present after treatments in coprocultures. When the efficacy was evaluated experimentally using isolates of H. contortus from Nyala and Kass, the 5 mg ABZ/kg dose revealed reductions of 76-78% on day 8 and of 62-70% on day 14 with the unpaired method. Using 10 mg ABZ/kg, the FECR was still only 77-82%. CONCLUSIONS: Both, in vivo and in vitro methods detected resistant H. contortus populations in goats from South Darfur State. The time point 14 days post treatment was more sensitive for detection of ABZ resistance than 8 days post treatment. This is the first report on the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in Sudan confirming that anthelmintic resistance selection is occurring in African subsistence farming systems.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/epidemiologia , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Prevalência , Sudão/epidemiologia
16.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 64: 109-116, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174685

RESUMO

Coxiella burnetii causes diseases in humans (Q fever) and animals, domestic ruminants playing a major role in the epidemiology of the infection. Information on C. burnetii infection in Lebanon is scanty. In order to assess the prevalence of C. burnetii infection in ruminants, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in 2014. A total of 1633 sera from ruminants (865 cattle, 384 sheep and 384 goats) from 429 farms (173 cattle, 128 sheep and 128 goats), in seven provinces of Lebanon were randomly selected and assayed for the presence of antibodies. 39.86% of farms (95% CI: 35.23-44.56) resulted positive. The seroprevalence was 30.63% in Cattle-farms, 46.88% in sheep-farms and 45.31% in goat-farms. Milk samples collected from 282 seropositive animals (86 cows, 93 sheep and 103 goats) from 171 positive farms were tested by a high sensitive Real-Time PCR targeted to the IS1111 transposon of C. burnetii. The overall prevalence in farms was estimated to be 14.04%. Cattle-, sheep- and goat farm prevalence rates were 15.09%, 10% and 17.24%, respectively. The findings of the study show that C. burnetii prevalence in Lebanese domestic ruminants is related to animal species and farming practices. Indeed, the mixed herds with sheep (p < 0.01), the presence of common lambing/kidding areas (p < 0.001) in farms where the use of disinfectants was not a routine practice (p < 0.05) were identified as important risk factors. The results of the study provide baseline information for setting up herd management and public health measures for the prevention and control of Q fever in Lebanon.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Leite/microbiologia , Febre Q/veterinária , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Estudos Transversais , Fazendas , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Líbano/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(5): 2163-2170, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207143

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious disease of small ruminants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemic characteristics of PPR outbreaks in the People's Republic of China (PR China) from 2013 to 2018. A total of 41,876 PPR outbreaks were recorded in small ruminant populations in PR China during that period. Data from February to June 2018 were used to study new developments in the PPR epidemic in PR China. Spatio-temporal clusters and temporal distribution patterns were studied based on PPR notifications. We also used multiple logistic regression to examine the contribution of anthropogenic, climatic and topographic factors to PPR outbreaks. Distance to the nearest road (OR = 1.007 [95% CI: 1.001-1.014]), price of mutton (OR = 1.904 [95% CI: 1.358-2.668]) and mean monthly temperature in July (OR 1.156 = [95% CI: 1.110-1.204]) showed positive effects on PPR outbreaks. Negative effects were observed for number of large-scale farms (OR = 0.962 [95% CI: 0.940-0.985]). We also found that observed patterns of seasonality were characterized by peaks in April of 2014. Spatio-temporal clusters occurred in Yunnan, Jiangsu, Anhui, Heilongjiang province and Chongqing municipality. Hunan province reported PPR occurrences every year from 2014 to June 2018. Yunnan, Jiangsu and Anhui province have 56, 33 and 30 epidemic locations, respectively. PPR infections were first reported as the cause of death for 19 wild bharals in Qinghai province in 2018. All of this suggests that domestic trading of sheep and goats may be closely related to the spread of PPR. Prophylactic immunization in suspected animal populations or areas is recommended for the control of PPR and wild small ruminants should be monitored. Results presented here provide improved knowledge about PPR dynamics in PR China, which could be helpful in designing more effective prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Modelos Logísticos , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal
18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(7): 1807-1815, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228086

RESUMO

Mortality of domestic small ruminants caused by contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) and Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is frequently reported in Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between June, 2016 and July, 2017 to identify risk factors for small ruminants exposure to Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (M. capripneumoniae), the causative agent of CCPP, and small ruminant morbillivirus (SRMV), the causative agent of PPR. Antibody detection was done using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (cELISA); similarly, a semi-structured questionnaire was administered in flocks where serum samples were collected. Individual seropositivity for M. capripneumoniae was 6.5% (n = 676) and 4.2% (n = 285) in goats and sheep respectively, whereas SRMV was 28.6% in goats (n = 676) and 31.9% in sheep (n = 285). Multivariable analysis indicated that mixing of flocks was a risk factor for exposure to M. capripneumoniae (χ2 = 3.9, df = 1, p = 0.05) and SRMV (χ2 = 6.3, df = 1, p = 0.01) in goats. Age was a protective factor for SRMV seropositivity in both goats (χ2 = 7.4, df = 1, p = 0.006) and sheep (χ2 = 10.2, df = 1, p = 0.006). SRMV seropositivity in goats was also influenced by grazing in contact with wild animals (χ2 = 5.9, df = 1, p = 0.02) and taking animals to the animal markets (χ2 = 8.2, df = 1, p = 0.004). M. capripneumoniae and SRMV are influenced by several risk factors and their control needs concerted efforts between stakeholders, which may include community involvement in mandatory vaccination and animals' movement control.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma capricolum/fisiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/fisiologia , Pleuropneumonia Contagiosa/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Cabras , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
19.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(4): 1784-1788, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050188

RESUMO

During the period spanning November 2013 to November 2018, 294 outbreak cases of PPR were diagnosed. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis was performed to determine whether or not areas and time periods with significant aggregation of PPR outbreaks occurred. High-risk areas for PPR outbreaks in China were detected using the presence-only maximum entropy ecological niche model. The analysis identified three statistically significant disease clusters. Precipitation of driest month was identified as the most important predictor for PPRV occurrence.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Modelos Teóricos , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Medição de Risco , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Análise Espacial
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 177, 2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a severe infectious disease in both domestic and wild small ruminants. Due to its heavy economic burden and hence social and health impacts on human populations, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) have targeted PPR for eradication by 2030. In order to plan and implement a successful eradication program, factual status assessments prior to devising disease control strategies is a vital criterion. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize PPR virus from a rising wave of outbreaks in southern Iran. RESULTS: Twenty-one clinical samples, including blood as well as oral, nasal and ocular swabs were collected from ten sick animals in 4 various herds and were examined with ELISA and RT-PCR for the presence of PPR virus antigen and genome, respectively. The virus was successfully isolated in primary lamb kidney cell culture and identified by RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced N genes revealed that, while the earliest reports of Iran's outbreaks were grouped into clusters with Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Africa, in this study reported sequences were grouped with samples from Pakistan, Tajikistan and China in particular. This observation suggests a shift in PPRV flow from the western borders of the country to the eastern neighboring countries. CONCLUSIONS: Lineage IV of PPR virus is presently circulating in Iran, with certain levels of genetic diversity. Present study along with previous reports demonstrates the dispersal patterns and movements of PPR virus, which highlights the reversal pattern of virus flow in recent years. Such information is necessary to understand PPRV molecular epidemiology and to develop more proper control strategies to eradicate the disease in the planned time.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/genética , Animais , Antígenos Virais/análise , Células Cultivadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Genoma Viral , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
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