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1.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 405, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apart from the huge worldwide economic losses often occasioned by bovine coronavirus (BCoV) to the livestock industry, particularly with respect to cattle rearing, continuous surveillance of the virus in cattle and small ruminants is essential in monitoring variations in the virus that could enhance host switching. In this study, we collected rectal swabs from a total of 1,498 cattle, sheep and goats. BCoV detection was based on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Sanger sequencing of the partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region for postive samples were done and nucleotide sequences were compared with homologous sequences from the GenBank. RESULTS: The study reports a BCoV prevalence of 0.3%, consisting of 4 positive cases; 3 goats and 1 cattle. Less than 10% of all the animals sampled showed clinical signs such as diarrhea and respiratory distress except for high temperature which occurred in > 1000 of the animals. However, none of the 4 BCoV positive animals manifested any clinical signs of the infection at the time of sample collection. Bayesian majority-rule cladogram comparing partial and full length BCoV RdRp genes obtained in the study to data from the GenBank revealed that the sequences obtained from this study formed one large monophyletic group with those from different species and countries. The goat sequences were similar to each other and clustered within the same clade. No major variations were thus observed between our isolates and those from elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Given that Ghana predominantly practices the extensive and semi-intensive systems of animal rearing, our study highlights the potential for spillover of BCoV to small ruminants in settings with mixed husbandry and limited separation between species.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Bovino/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus Bovino/genética , Diarreia/veterinária , Gana/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Replicase/genética , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/veterinária , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/veterinária , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
2.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 393-396, 2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935515

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and changing patterns of Schistosoma japonicum infections in goats in Dantu District of Zhenjiang City, so as to provide the scientific data for the management of in livestock. METHODS: The S. japonicum infections were detected using a miracidial hatching test (one test for one stool specimen) in goats grazed in settings with snail habitats in Dantu District of Zhenjiang City at spring and autumn of each year from 2004 to 2019, and the prevalence and intensity of S. japonicum infections were estimated. RESULTS: A total of 21 836 goat stool samples were detected from 2004 to 2019, and 86 were positive for S. japonicum (0.39% prevalence). The highest prevalence of S. japonicum infections in goats was seen in 2004 (1.25%) and no infections were detected in goats since 2013. S. japonicum-infected goats were identified in marshland-type endemic areas and plain regions with waterway networks, and there was a significant difference in the prevalence of S. japonicum infections in goats between these two types of endemic areas (0.50% vs. 0.15%; χ2 = 11.566, P < 0.05). The prevalence of S. japonicum infections was significantly greater in goats at ages of more than 10 months (0.51%) and over 10 months (0.44%) than in other goats (χ2 = 13.088, P < 0.05), and higher prevalence was found in autumn than in spring (0.54% vs. 0.27%; χ2 = 9.597, P < 0.05). In addition, there were 76.74% of S. japonicum-infected goats with intensity of"+++"and"++++". CONCLUSIONS: Although the high prevalence of S. japonicum infections has been effectively controlled in goats in Dantu District, goat remains to be an important source of S. japonicum infections that should be given a high priority for control to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Schistosoma japonicum , Esquistossomose Japônica , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Prevalência , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/veterinária , Caramujos
4.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e11, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787418

RESUMO

This study investigated the occurrence and phylogenetic relationship of protozoan parasites and Ehrlichia infecting domestic animals from three municipalities in uMkhanyakude district of KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. A total of 208 blood samples collected from clinically healthy cattle, sheep, goats and dogs from uMkhanyakude district were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, using either genus or species-specific primers to determine the occurrence and phylogenetic relationship of various protozoan parasites and Ehrlichia of veterinary importance. A total of 5/109 (4.6%) cattle were PCR-positive for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii, 33/109 (30.3%) for Babesia bovis, 24/109 (22.02%) for Babesia bigemina and 20/109 (18.3%) for Trypanosoma sp., while 3/10 (30%) of sheep were PCR-positive for Theileria ovis and none of the goats were positive for any of the detected pathogens. The co-infection of 4/109 (3.7%) B. bovis and B. bigemina was detected in cattle. Only Ehrlichia canis was detected in dogs with infection rate of 20/48 (41.7%). Sequences of PCR-positive isolates (B. bovis, B. bigemina, E. canis, T. ovis and T. gondii) showed that they were closely related to their relevant species from various countries. These findings have expanded our knowledge about the prevalence and phylogenetic similarity between protozoan parasites and Ehrlichia isolates of South African origin. To date, this is the first study in South Africa to detect T. gondii infections from cattle blood using PCR.


Assuntos
Babesiose/parasitologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Theileriose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Animais , Babesia/classificação , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/microbiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ehrlichia canis/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichiose/microbiologia , Ehrlichiose/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/microbiologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/microbiologia , Trypanosoma/classificação , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase/microbiologia , Tripanossomíase/parasitologia
5.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2147-2163, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653984

RESUMO

Small ruminants (e.g., sheep and goats) contribute considerably to the cash income and nutrition of small farmers in most countries in Africa and Asia. Their husbandry is threatened by the highly infectious transboundary viral disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR) caused by peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV). Given its social and economic impact, PPR is presently being targeted by international organizations for global eradication by 2030. Since its first description in Côte d'Ivoire in 1942, and particularly over the last 10 years, a large amount of molecular epidemiological data on the virus have been generated in Africa. This review aims to consolidate these data in order to have a clearer picture of the current PPR situation in Africa, which will, in turn, assist authorities in global eradication attempts.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo/genética , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras/virologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/transmissão , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/classificação , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Ovinos/virologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235862, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645099

RESUMO

Brucellosis is an endemic disease in food-producing animals in Mosul, Iraq. The objectives of the study reported here were: (i) to identify and assess the evidence and knowledge gaps in published studies that have examined brucellosis in different food-producing animals in Mosul, Iraq; using systematic review approach, and (ii) to quantify the seroprevalence of brucellosis in the city using meta-analysis approach. Google Scholar was used as a search engine to track pertinent peer-reviewed research reports. The search was conducted on November 24, 2019. Keywords used were: brucella, animal, Mosul, Iraq. Peer-reviewed published studies, MSc theses, and PhD dissertations written in Arabic or English were included. Duplicate records were removed, and the screening process was conducted at three levels: titles, abstracts, and full-text articles. Identified studies that have reported the seroprevalence of brucellosis were included in a meta-analysis to calculate an overall prevalence. A total of 214 records were initially identified. Seventeen research reports were added from personal contact and qualified articles' references list. Thirty six articles were qualified for review after removing 35 duplicate records, 155 titles, 11 abstracts, and 5 full text articles. Seventeen studies reported the prevalence of brucellosis, 11 studies assessed different serological tests for diagnosis of brucellosis, 9 studies isolated Brucella spp. from animal specimens and/or animal products, and 4 studies assessed vaccination procedures against brucellosis. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in food-producing animals in Mosul over a period of 40 years was 14.14%, including 14.46% for sheep, 12.99% for goats, 11.69% for cattle, and 22.64% for buffalo. The study concluded that the disease is evident in the city with increasing trends over the years, buffalo shows high seroprevalence, the degree of agreement of Rose-Bengal test as a screening test is fair compared to more accurate serological tests such as ELISA; and the disease constitutes a public health concern in the city. Additional studies are important to identify the overlooked predisposing factors, estimate the abortion rate attributable to brucellosis in food-producing animals, and evaluate efficacy of vaccination programs in reducing the prevalence of brucellosis and/or abortion rate.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Búfalos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008461, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706772

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease that has important veterinary and public health consequences as well as economic impact in sub Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four selected districts of Borena Pastoral setting in Southern Ethiopia from October 2017 to February 2018 to estimate the prevalence of brucellosis and assess associated risk factors in cattle, sheep, goats and occupationally associated humans. A total of 750 cattle, 882 sheep and goats and 341 human subjects were screened for evidence of brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) with positive results confirmed by Competitive-ELISA(c-ELISA). Structured questionnaires were used for collection of metadata from individual animals, herders and animal attendants to test the association between explanatory and outcome variables. The overall animal level prevalence was 2.4% (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.4-3.7) in cattle, 3.2% (95% CI: 2.1-4.6) in sheep and goats, and 2.6% (95% CI: 1.2-5) in humans occupationally linked to livestock production systems. Herd size, parity, and history of abortion were risk factors associated with Brucella seropositivity (P<0.05) in cattle whereas in sheep and goats the results showed that district, age group, flock size, and history of abortion were significantly associated risk factors with Brucella seropositivity (P<0.05). Assisting calving and presence of seropositive animals in a household (P<0.05) were significantly associated with Brucella seropositivity in humans. Evidence of brucellosis in various animal species and the associated human population illustrates the need for a coordinated One Health approach to controlling brucellosis so as to improve public health and livestock productivity.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Animais , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
8.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e8, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32633986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is currently no scientific evidence regarding the current climatic or other epidemiological factors that could influence the occurrence of heartwater in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to determine whether climatic changes or other epidemiological factors influence the occurence of heartwater in South Africa. METHOD: A survey was conducted to scrutinise these factors using both veterinarians and farmers working in known areas in which heartwater had previously been confirmed to establish the value of each of these factors. Based on the observations, meaningful tendencies were noted, and conclusions drawn. RESULTS: These include changes in the spatial distribution of heartwater in many areas, with serious expansion, in some instances, of up to 150 km. In total, 48% of veterinarians and 42% of farmers reported seeing increase in the number of farms affected by heartwater. Climate change as a causative factor indicated by observations of increased average temperatures, milder frosts, less rain and shorter rainy seasons was identified by the majority of farmers but not by as many veterinarians. Respondents in both groups considered vegetation change an important factor. Increasing number of wildlife, especially antelope, was seen as a major factor by most veterinarians and also by many farmers. Both groups identified the movement of livestock and wildlife as an increasingly important factor that should be of major concern for both industries because it leads to the avoidable spread of many diseases apart from heartwater. CONCLUSION: Movement controls should be reinstated and reinforced by vigorously enforced legislation. The role of genetically determined resistance or resilience to heartwater infection in ruminants should be investigated. Breeding better adapted animals could provide part of a sustainable approach to the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hidropericárdio/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Médicos Veterinários/psicologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/psicologia , Doenças das Cabras/psicologia , Cabras , Hidropericárdio/psicologia , Incidência , Percepção , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/psicologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008194, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598388

RESUMO

Rabies virus infections normally cause universally lethal encephalitis across mammals. However, 'abortive infections' which are resolved prior to the onset of lethal disease have been described in bats and a variety of non-reservoir species. Here, we surveyed rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers in 332 unvaccinated livestock of 5 species from a vampire bat rabies endemic region of southern Peru where livestock are the main food source for bats. We detected rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers in 11, 5 and 3.6% of cows, goats and sheep respectively and seropositive animals did not die from rabies within two years after sampling. Seroprevalence was correlated with the number of local livestock rabies mortalities reported one year prior but also one year after sample collection. This suggests that serological status of livestock can indicate the past and future levels of rabies risk to non-reservoir hosts. To our knowledge, this is the first report of anti-rabies antibodies among goats and sheep, suggesting widespread abortive infections among livestock in vampire bat rabies endemic areas. Future research should resolve the within-host biology underlying clearance of rabies infections. Cost-effectiveness analyses are also needed to evaluate whether serological monitoring of livestock can be a viable complement to current monitoring of vampire bat rabies risk based on animal mortalities alone.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Raiva/veterinária , Remissão Espontânea , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Peru , Raiva/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(2): 121-127, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418380

RESUMO

Pakistan is at intersection of hyperendemic regions for hydatidosis. Current study aimed to determine the prevalence of hydatid cysts and cyst characteristics in different intermediate hosts (sheep, goats, cattle and buffaloes) across the 4 provinces of Pakistan. A total of 991 sheep, 1,478 goats, 1,602 cattle and 1,343 buffaloes were examined for presence of hydatid cysts during 2 years (January 2016-December 2018). Differences in frequency of hydatidosis were observed with highest overall prevalence in buffaloes (11.9%) and sheep (11.5%). Highest prevalence and burden of infection were observed in older age animals (23.8%, 9.78±0.49) and females (26.5%, 12.53±0.67). Data for seasonal prevalence alluded to year-round presence of disease with non-significant statistical difference. Organ predilection indicated liver as the most preferred site of cyst localization followed mainly by lungs. An over-dispersion pattern was observed in all infected animals as majority of cysts belonged <10 cysts per infected host category. Highest percentage of fertile cysts was observed in liver of sheep. Interestingly, solitary form of cysts had higher fertility rate than multiple form. Amid lack of data and wide gap of knowledge, this study would try to fill up the lacunae regarding this neglected tropical disease. Extensive rearing of livestock, unregulated official slaughter and home slaughtering have played role in adaptability of E. granulosus in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Búfalos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Bovinos/parasitologia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Equinococose/parasitologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6407-6411, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331882

RESUMO

Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) is a chronic disease caused by a retrovirus from the Lentivirus genus. No effective vaccines or treatments exist, and therefore genetic selection for CAE resistance might be a feasible alternative. To our best knowledge, no other studies have investigated the genetic architecture of CAE resistance in dairy goats. In this context, this study was designed to estimate genetic parameters for CAE infection in Alpine and Saanen goats using a Bayesian threshold model. A total of 542 adult goats (and >3-generation pedigree), which were group-housed in a population with high CAE prevalence, were tested based on a serological infection assessment test (negative = 1 or positive = 2) and used for this study. Genetic parameters were estimated using the BLUPF90 family programs. There was considerable genetic variability for CAE resistance, and pedigree-based heritability was significantly different from zero (0.026 < heritability < 0.128). Our findings indicate that the prevalence of CAE in goat herds can be reduced or eliminated through direct genetic selection for CAE resistance in addition to proper management strategies.


Assuntos
Vírus da Artrite-Encefalite Caprina , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Infecções por Lentivirus/genética , Infecções por Lentivirus/virologia
12.
J Parasitol ; 106(3): 360-368, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227225

RESUMO

Anaplasmosis is caused by a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium of the genus Anaplasma with the pathogen having a zoonotic impact. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of anaplasmosis in Pakistan, to unravel the association of potential risk factors, and to investigate the effect on hematological parameters in affected small ruminants. A total of 150 (n = 75 sheep; n = 75 goats) blood samples were initially screened microscopically and then subjected to PCR targeting the amplification of the 16S rRNA gene fragment of Anaplasma. The PCR-based positive samples were then processed for sequencing. Statistical analysis regarding risk factors was performed using R software. The study revealed an overall 29.33% (44/150) prevalence of anaplasmosis in small ruminants. Sheep had higher (P > 0.05) prevalence (32%) as compared to goats (25.30%). The final statistical model resulting from backward elimination showed only tick infestation as a significant predictor of infection status. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma spp. revealed 9 study isolates clustered together and showed a close resemblance (99%) with Anaplasma ovis isolate (DQ837600) from Hungary. One of the isolates showed (99%) similarity with the isolate of Anaplasma marginale (MH155594) from Iraq. Furthermore, the hematological parameters pack cell volume, red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, granulocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes, and platelet count were decreased in Anaplasma-positive animals. This is the first study at the molecular level to characterize Anaplasma spp. in small ruminants of Pakistan, and it will be useful in developing control strategies for anaplasmosis.


Assuntos
Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasmose/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Anaplasma/classificação , Anaplasma/fisiologia , Anaplasmose/sangue , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/sangue , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/sangue , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Incidência , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Alinhamento de Sequência , Fatores Sexuais , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/sangue , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/sangue , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(7): 6672-6678, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32331887

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to use longitudinal data to examine the relationships between blood concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and glucose during the transition period in dairy goats. Weekly blood samples were collected from Saanen goats from a commercial herd in Australia [1-7 yr; body weight 70 ± 16.0 kg; body condition score 2.5 ± 0.3; and daily milk yield 2.4 ± 0.73 L/d; all mean ± standard deviation (SD)]. The weekly prevalence of goats above hyperketonemic levels (BHB ≥0.8 mmol/L) was approximately 6 times greater postpartum than antepartum. As well, of the 935 goats sampled antepartum, 50 (5%) had at least 1 hyperketonemic event, and 823 (88%) had at least 1 event of NEFA above the threshold (≥0.3 mmol/L). Of 847 goats tested postpartum, 258 (30%) had at least 1 hyperketonemic event, and 690 goats (81%) had at least 1 event of NEFA above the threshold (≥ 0.7 mmol/L). Substantial variation was found when analyzing the mean days of maximum NEFA and maximum BHB concentrations antepartum (-11 ± 6.6 and -14 ± 7.2 d, respectively, mean ± SD) and postpartum (14 ± 6.6 and 9 ± 6.8 d, respectively, mean ± SD). We observed moderate to strong relationships between NEFA and BHB concentrations (r = 0.66) and between NEFA and glucose concentrations (r = -0.46) throughout the transition period. Our results suggested that 3 to 16 d in milk is the best sampling window for monitoring hyperketonemia in dairy goats, and that results from simultaneous BHB and glucose tests provide an improved indication of the fat mobilization and energy status of the herd when measured close to this timeframe.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Cabras/sangue , Animais , Austrália , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/sangue , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cetose/epidemiologia , Cetose/veterinária , Lactação , Estudos Longitudinais , Leite/química , Período Pós-Parto/sangue , Prevalência
14.
Exp Parasitol ; 212: 107872, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165145

RESUMO

Theileriosis is a widespread and economically important disease of small ruminants in Pakistan. Ruminants are the intermediate hosts in the lifecycle of Theileria spp., with ticks of the family Ixodidae being the definitive hosts. To better understand the distribution and prevalence of theileriosis in Pakistan, a molecular survey was performed in small ruminants from the Lower Dir district of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. A total of 200 healthy sheep and goats were screened from Maidan, Samar Bagh and Munda districts of district Dir Lower, Pakistan during December (2017) to April (2018). DNA samples were screened through nested PCR using universal primers. The amplified 492-498 bp amplicon was subjected to RLB analysis which was based on the hypervariable of the 18S rRNA gene to test for the presence of genotypes of Theileria in blood samples. A phylogeny was constructed to determine the species of Theileria genotypes. Nested PCR results indicated 53.5% prevalence of one or more Theileria genotypes in the blood of the host animal. From RLB assay, 27 animals (13.5%) showed infection with only a single species of Theileria while 80 animals (40%) showed coinfection by multiple Theileria spp. Based on the 18S rRNA phylogeny, the unknown genotype is of the species Theileria luwenshuni and is closely related to Chinese isolates. The present finding is the first report on molecular diagnosis of Theileria luwenshuni in small ruminants in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/parasitologia , Distribuição por Idade , Análise de Variância , Animais , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/genética , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Genótipo , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Hibridização Genética , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Sondas de Oligonucleotídeos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Distribuição por Sexo , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Theileria/classificação , Theileria/genética , Theileriose/epidemiologia
15.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e75, 2020 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172709

RESUMO

A prevalence study was conducted on German sheep flocks including goats if they cohabitated with sheep. In addition, a novel approach was applied to identify an infection at the herd-level before lambing season with preputial swabs, suspecting venereal transmission and ensuing colonisation of preputial mucosa with Coxiella (C.) burnetii. Blood samples and genital swabs were collected from breeding males and females after the mating season and were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) respectively. In total, 3367 animals were sampled across 71 flocks. The true herd-level prevalence adjusted for misclassification probabilities of the applied diagnostic tests using the Rogan-Gladen estimator for the prevalence estimate and a formula by Lang and Reiczigel (2014) for the confidence limits, ranged between 31.3% and 33% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 17.3-45.5) detected by the ELISA and/or qPCR. Overall 26-36.6% (95% CI 13-56.8) were detected by ELISA, 13.9% (95% CI 4.5-23.2) by the qPCR and 7.9-11.2% (95% CI 0.08-22.3) by both tests simultaneously. The range of results is due to data obtained from literature with different specifications for test quality for ELISA. Among eight farms with females shedding C. burnetii, three farms (37.5%) could also be identified by preputial swabs from breeding sires. This indicates less reliability of preputial swabs if used as a single diagnostic tool to detect C. burnetii infection at the herd-level.


Assuntos
Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Febre Q/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Animais , Feminino , Genitália Feminina/microbiologia , Genitália Masculina/microbiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Masculino , Prevalência , Febre Q/diagnóstico , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Febre Q/microbiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 280: 109087, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220696

RESUMO

Mixed grazing of breeding goats and cattle (goats to cattle ratio: about 50 %, based on metabolic weight) was monitored for 2 years on a rotational pasture with the two species grazing together, then for 5 years with cattle grazing immediately after goats. For both modalities, the level of goat parasite infection was not significantly different from that of the control groups. Nevertheless, the association allowed a slight improvement in kid growth and goat productivity, probably in relation to a better food quality. The response of adult goats to mixed grazing is therefore very different from that previously obtained with kids post-weaning. The question of the relationship between heterogeneity of pastures, knowledge of their environment, grazing behaviour of adult goats and risk of infection with gastrointestinal nematodes requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Comportamento Alimentar , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Nematoides/fisiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/fisiologia , Pradaria , Guadalupe/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227491, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017771

RESUMO

Between 2007 and 2010 a Q fever epidemic in Dutch dairy goat farms caused a large Q fever outbreak in human residents in the southern part of the Netherlands. Here we characterize the transmission of Coxiella burnetii, the aetiological agent of Q fever, between infected and susceptible dairy goat farms by estimating a spatial transmission kernel. In addition, we characterize the zoonotic transmission of C. burnetii by estimating the spatial kernel for transmission from infected farms to neighbouring residents. Whereas the range of between-farm transmission is comparable to the scale of the Netherlands, likely due to long-range between-farm contacts such as animal transport, the transmission risk from farms to humans is more localized, although still extending to 10 km and beyond. Within a range of about 10 km, the transmission risk from an infected goat farm to a single resident is of the same order of magnitude as the farm-to-farm transmission risk per animal in a receiving farm. We illustrate how, based on the estimated kernels, spatial patterns of transmission risks between farms and from farms to residents can be calculated and visualized by means of risk maps, offering further insight relevant to policy making in a one-health context.


Assuntos
Febre Q/transmissão , Animais , Número Básico de Reprodução , Fazendas , Geografia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras/microbiologia , Humanos , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
18.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e014819, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049141

RESUMO

Despite the global importance of the zoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii, little is known regarding its infection in the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe (DRSTP). This is the first report of antibodies to T. gondii in cattle, sheep, goats and pigs from the DRSTP. Antibodies were assessed by the modified agglutination test (MAT), with a cut-off titer of 100 for cattle and 20 for sheep, goats and pigs. The present study revealed an overall seroprevalence of 55.8%; 27.1% in 48 cattle, 68.4% in 98 sheep, 70.1% in 97 goats and 43.7% in 103 pigs. The south geographical area for cattle, the central area for sheep, and adult age and living in the central region for goats were found to be risk factors for seropositivity to T. gondii. These results support the scenario of a considerable presence of sporulated oocysts as well as of infected intermediate hosts in the local environment. Consumption of raw or undercooked meat should be considered as an important potential source of infection for animals and humans in the DRSTP.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Fatores de Risco , São Tomé e Príncipe/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
19.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 17-30, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029182

RESUMO

Control of gastrointestinal nematodes has been based on anthelmintics. However, this strategy is unsustainable owing to anthelmintic resistance. Parasitic nematodes have biologic and genetic features that favor the development of drug resistance, making the emergence of resistant nematodes inevitable. The rate of resistance development is affected controllable factors. There is a need to change the paradigm of how gastrointestinal nematodes are controlled to decrease the rate at which resistance develops. This article reviews the biology and prevalence of anthelmintic resistance, and provides recommendations for diagnosing resistance and for strategies that should be implemented to reduce the development of resistance.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Gado/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
20.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 73-87, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029190

RESUMO

Strongylid gastrointestinal nematodes are an important cause of disease and economic loss in small ruminants. These parasites are important in most of the United States, with the bloodsucking parasite Haemonchus contortus being the predominant species of concern. Sheep and goats are infected while grazing, and the biology of infective larvae on pastures is important in the design of parasite management programs. Widespread resistance to anthelmintics requires strategies designed to preserve remaining drug activity; these include combination treatments with multiple classes of anthelmintics and targeted treatments.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
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