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1.
Vet Parasitol ; 276: 108973, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785456

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to measure the effect of the nutritional status of Creole goat kids on the host responses and the nematode population established after an experimental H. contortus infection. Fifty six kids were fed with 4 diets corresponding to 2 nutritional statuses: the low nutritional status (HAY, hay ad libitum and HB, Hay ad libitum + banana) and the high nutritional status (HS, hay ad libitum + soya meal and HSB, hay ad libitum + banana + soya meal). For each diet, 8 kids were experimentally infected with 10,000 H. contortus infective larvae (L3) and 6 kids were kept as non-infected controls. From the day of infection until 6 weeks post-infection, samples were collected to measure individual intake, total tract digestibility, parasitological and hematological parameters. The dry matter intake (DMI), the average daily gain (ADG), the crude protein (CP) and the digestible CP intake were higher in goats fed the HS and HSB diets, but no statistically significant interaction between the nutritional status and the infection was observed. The packed cell volume (PCV), the red blood cell counts (RBC) and the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were higher with the HS and the HSB diets. In kids with the high nutritional status the nematode burden and pathophysiological impact of the infection were significantly lower but not the FEC. In conclusion, this reduced establishment rate was associated with an increased production of eggs by the female parasites and suggested a phenomenon of density-dependent prolificacy of H. contortus probably inherent to the fitness of the parasite population.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Anemia/prevenção & controle , Anemia/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/normas , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Eosinófilos/citologia , Fezes/química , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/fisiopatologia , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Pepsinogênio A/sangue
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 520, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cysticercosis caused by the metacestode larval stage of Taenia hydatigena is a disease of veterinary and economic importance. A considerable level of genetic variation among isolates of different intermediate hosts and locations has been documented. Generally, data on the genetic population structure of T. hydatigena is scanty and lacking in Nigeria. Meanwhile, similar findings in other cestodes like Echinococcus spp. have been found to be of epidemiological importance. Our aim, therefore, was to characterize and compare the genetic diversity of T. hydatigena population in Nigeria based on three mitochondrial DNA markers as well as to assess the phylogenetic relationship with populations from other geographical regions. METHODS: In the present study, we described the genetic variation and diversity of T. hydatigena isolates from Nigerian sheep and goats using three full-length mitochondrial genes: the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1), NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1), and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5). RESULTS: The median-joining network of concatenated cox1-nad1-nad5 sequences indicated that T. hydatigena metacestodes of sheep origin were genetically distinct from those obtained in goats and this was supported by high FST values of nad1, cox1, and concatenated cox1-nad1-nad5 sequences. Genetic variation was also found to be higher in isolates from goats than from sheep. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, the present study described the genetic variation of T. hydatigena population for the first time in Nigeria using full-length mitochondrial genes and suggests the existence of host-specific variants. The population indices of the different DNA markers suggest that analysis of long mitochondrial DNA fragments may provide more information on the molecular ecology of T. hydatigena. We recommend that future studies employ long mitochondrial DNA sequence in order to provide reliable data that would explain the extent of genetic variation in different hosts/locations and the biological and epidemiological significance.


Assuntos
Genes Mitocondriais , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Taenia/genética , Teníase/veterinária , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Cabras , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Nigéria , Filogenia , Ovinos , Taenia/classificação , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Teníase/parasitologia
3.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(5): 474-478, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and molecular features of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats from Anhui Province and neighboring provinces. METHODS: A total 832 and 781 fresh fecal samples were collected from seven large-scale sheep farms and ten large-scale goat farms in Anhui Province and neighboring provinces of Henan, Jiangsu and Shandong. The prevalence and species of Cryptosporidium were investigated in the fecal samples from the sheep and goats in the study areas using nested PCR assay based on the Cryptosporidium-specific SSU rDNA gene, and the subgenotypes of C. parvum and C. ubiquitum were characterized by amplification and sequencing of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 5.8% (48/832) in sheep and 8.7% (68/781) in goats in Anhui Province and neighboring provinces, respectively. The SSU rDNA gene-based PCR assay identified C. xiaoi and C. ubiquitum in sheep and C. parvum in goats, and subtyping revealed that all C. ubiquitum subgenotypes belonged to XIIa subtype 2 and C. parvum subgenotypes belonged to IIdA19G1. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of zoonotic C. ubiquitum XIIa subtype 2 and C. parvum subtype IIdA19G1 suggests that sheep and goats may serve as a potential source for human Cryptosporidium infections.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Doenças das Cabras , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
4.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 225-236, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578846

RESUMO

Hydatidosis or echinococcosis is considered to be one of the most common zoonotic diseases of the animals. Infection occurs when intermediate hosts such as camel, cattle, sheep, and goats ingested food or water contaminated with eggs from the definitive host (dog). This is a cross-sectional study which was carried out in one of the biggest abattoirs in Makkah in the west of Saudi Arabia. A total number of 38302 goats were examined and recorded at Makkah abattoirs. The examination had been performed to all slaughtered animals on two organs (spleen and heart) for detection of any hydatid cysts during the period from July 2018 until December 2018. The study included also histopathological tissue evaluation. The total infections number of hydatidosis in goats is 0.23%. The infected hearts were 40.35% whereas the infected spleen was 48.48% subsequently in local animals. The imported animals were 2124, the infected animals in heart were 59.64%, whereas the infected animal involving spleen were 51.51%. Meanwhile, results of histopathological examination had shown that most of the hydatid cysts in goats caused progressive focal pressure and degenerative changes in the surrounding tissue.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Doenças das Cabras , Coração , Baço , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Equinococose/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Coração/parasitologia , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita , Baço/parasitologia
5.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105126, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394078

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal (GIT) parasite infections result in significant economic losses to ruminant livestock production. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with GIT parasite infections in livestock from Ghana, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in cattle and small ruminants kept under different management systems in the Coastal Savannah zone from October 2014 to February 2015. Faecal samples were collected from 328 cattle and 502 small ruminants (sheep and goats) and examined by formal ether concentration microscopy. The management systems and environmental conditions of the farm or household were observed, and a questionnaire administered to the livestock owners. Overall, 90.8% (754/830) of livestock were infected with at least one of ten different parasites (Eimeria, Strongylid nematodes, Toxocara, Trichuris, Schistosoma, Dicrocoelium, Paramphistomum, Fasciola, Moniezia and Thysaniezia), with Eimeria the most prevalent (78.4%). Most (64.5%) livestock had coinfections with two to five parasites with parasite intensity mostly light and at least one parasite was found in 98.6% (140/142) of the herds. Binary logistic regression models were generated to assess the risk factors associated with infection. Earthen floor was positively associated with strongylid infection, multiple ruminant species with Paramphistomum infection and flock size (>25 animal) with Thysaniezia, Dicrocoelium and Fasciola infections. Separating young animals from older animals was negatively associated with Strongylid infection, feed supplementation with Thysaniezia infection and small ruminant species with Paramphistomum and Toxocara infections. The findings from this study suggests that good sanitation, proper husbandry practices and improved nutrition can improve livestock health and production in Ghana.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Gado , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 405, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcoptic mange is a broadly distributed parasitic disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei that affects wild mammals from all over the world, including the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica). Selective culling of the scabietic individuals is the main management measure for disease control in Iberian ibex populations. Although visual identification of mange-compatible lesions is the reference method to decide the target individual, both false negative and positive cases are common in the wild. The aim of this work is to determine the sensitivity (SE), and the specificity (SP) of selective culling after evaluating 403 ibexes hunted in the Sierra Nevada Nature Space for sarcoptic mange control between 2002 and 2015. METHODS: A combination of skin scrapings and potassium hidroxide (KOH) skin digestion was used for sarcoptic mange diagnosis. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to assess the effects of sex, age (juveniles and adults) and period of the year (wet and dry periods) on the SE and SP of the visual diagnosis method. RESULTS: The SE obtained for the visual determination of scabietic ibexes was 87.14%, whereas the SP was 60.71%. According to our model selection, SE of the visual diagnosis was explained by the additive effects of age and the period of the year. In fact, SE was lower in juveniles (64.76%) than in adults (94.26%) and during the dry period (73.44%) as compared to the wet period (92.09%). On the other hand, SP was best explained by the GLM including the additive effects of sex and the period of the year. The visual diagnosis of sarcoptic mange resulted less specific in females (22.73%) than in males (74.19%) and during the wet (55.22%) than in the dry period (82.35%). CONCLUSIONS: Maximizing SE and SP is essential to achieving a high rate of removal of affected individuals from the environment without eliminating potentially resistant individuals. Selective culling must be conservative during the wet period and with females due to the lower SP. Conversely, visual diagnosis of scabietic juveniles and during the dry period has to be improved, due to the lower SE.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Cabras/parasitologia , Escabiose/veterinária , Pele/patologia , Animais , Clima , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Masculino , Sarcoptes scabiei , Escabiose/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores Sexuais , Pele/parasitologia , Espanha
7.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107736, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442455

RESUMO

Goats are frequently described as an intermediate host for the protozoan Neospora caninum, manifesting the disease mainly by recurrent abortions with placentitis and encephalitis in fetuses. Several reports of natural and experimental infections in cattle and mice show differences in the immune response, and the outcome of the infection can be variable depending on the species affected and by the behavior of the infective strain. This study describes for the first time two Neospora caninum strains isolated from naturally infected goats from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. One placenta and one brain from different goats were processed for a first bioassay in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Subsequently, a second bioassay was performed by inoculating the processed brain samples from gerbils into Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) knockout mice (KO mice). Tachyzoites collected from the peritoneal fluid of the KO mice were inoculated into VERO cell monolayers, where they presented a very slow growth rate. The tachyzoites were also inoculated into BALB/c mice with a dose of 106 tachyzoites per animal. After a 5-week follow up, the animals infected with both of the strains developed a strong polarized Th1 response with increased serum and spleen gene expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (mainly IFN-γ and TNF-α) in the first week. Tissue lesions were mild in the animals infected with both strains. Despite the strong immune response preventing an infection in the visceral organs, the parasite was able to reach the brain, causing progressive brain lesions from the second to fifth week post infection. The NC-goat1-infected mice presented with severe meningoencephalitis, but the NC-goat2-infected animals had considerable histological brain lesions only at week 5. Immunohistochemical analysis of the mouse brains revealed a different pattern of inflammatory cells compared to the naturally infected goats. A severe inflammatory infiltrate of CD3+ T lymphocytes was found in the NC-goat1-infected mice. A more discrete infiltrate of CD3+ T cells was found in the NC-goat2-infected animals. Additionally, IBA1 IHC revealed an intense microglial reaction and monocyte perivascular cuffs in the NC-goat1-infected animals and lower microglia/monocyte infiltrates in the NC-goat2-infected mice. This work contributes knowledge on the pathogenicity of new Neospora caninum strains in mice, comparable with other well-established mouse models of the disease, and demonstrates the importance of studying goats as an intermediate host of this parasite.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Neospora/patogenicidade , Animais , Bioensaio/veterinária , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Gerbillinae , Doenças das Cabras/patologia , Cabras , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Pâncreas/patologia , Placenta/patologia , Gravidez , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Células Vero
8.
Prev Vet Med ; 170: 104738, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421505

RESUMO

The zoonotic protozoa Toxoplasma gondii is one of the major abortive pathogens in small ruminants. Nevertheless, data on T. gondii infection in goats during lactation and on the presence of T. gondii in goat milk are lacking. A longitudinal study was planned in a T. gondii naturally infected dairy goat farm with the aim of (i) evaluating the variation of anti-T. gondii antibodies in blood and milk during the lactation; (ii) identifying the optimal phase during lactation for T. gondii monitoring; (iii) detecting the presence of T. gondii DNA in the milk. From March to July 2017, 30 goats in a farm were fortnightly visited seven times and sampled for blood and, when in lactation, for milk. Individual data regarding age, reproductive disorders, and the day of lactation were recorded. For the detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies in blood and milk a commercial ELISA kit was used. Milk samples (n = 63) of selected nine seropositive animals were also molecularly analysed to amplify a sequence within the ITS1 region of T. gondii. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 63.3% (19/30); a high agreement was obtained between serum and milk results (Spearman's coefficient = 0.793 and Kendall's tau = 0.624), particularly between the 15th and the 60th day of lactation. In the statistical analysis, performed with generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs), the variable "phase of lactation" was strongly associated to ELISA values obtained in both serum and milk (p-value = 0.0001, F = 5.197, and p-value = 0.016, F = 2.755, respectively). Finally, molecular analyses revealed the presence of parasitic DNA in 20.6% (13/63) of milk samples, with a discontinuous parasite excretion; statistical analyses did not reveal any association among the parasite excretion and the considered variables. Milk could be considered as a valid alternative to blood for monitoring T. gondii infection in goat herds. Moreover, the detection of T. gondii DNA in milk enhanced the possibility for raw goat's milk consumption to be considered as a risk to public health.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/metabolismo , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Leite/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Itália/epidemiologia , Lactação , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
9.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(5): 770-773, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378198

RESUMO

Following treatment for pneumonia, a 1-y-old female Nubian goat was presented because of a persistent fever for 3 mo and peripheral lymphadenopathy for 1 mo. Cytology and histology of the superficial cervical and prefemoral lymph nodes demonstrated a moderate-to-marked "left-shifted" lymphoid population, suggestive of lymphoma, and extremely rare extracellular, 2-4 µm, oval, basophilic yeast, consistent with Histoplasma capsulatum. On immunohistochemistry, >95% of the lymphocytes demonstrated positive cytoplasmic and membranous immunoreactivity for CD3. Histoplasma spp. urine antigen and serum antibody testing were positive and negative, respectively. Panfungal PCR and sequencing of DNA extracted from scrolls of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue yielded matches to H. capsulatum with 99-100% identity. Given the poor prognosis and persistent pyrexia, the animal was euthanized. Postmortem examination confirmed concurrent multicentric, intermediate-size, T-cell, lymphoblastic lymphoma and histoplasmosis; lesions consistent with intestinal coccidiosis and suspected pulmonary Rhodococcus equi were also noted. Although dimorphic fungi have been described previously in goats, lesions of Histoplasma spp. had not been documented in this species, to our knowledge. Given the low disease burden, it is suspected that the lymphoma was primary, leading to an immunocompromised state and development of secondary, opportunistic infections.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Histoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Histoplasmose/veterinária , Linfoma/veterinária , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/patologia , Cabras , Histoplasmose/diagnóstico , Histoplasmose/parasitologia , Histoplasmose/patologia , Linfoma/diagnóstico , Linfoma/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 257, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious abortion in ruminants is a problem in animal husbandry worldwide. It is important to obtain a diagnosis, to make sure that proper control measures can be instituted, but most abortion cases remain without an etiologic diagnosis. This report describes the presence of Arcobacter species and several neglected opportunistic abortifacient agents in ruminant abortion cases showing or not co-infections among at least one of the major recognized protozoal, fungal, bacterial and viral abortifacient agents. RESULTS: A total of 67 fetuses (55 cattle and 12 goats) and just one placenta (cattle) were considered. Among the most common abortive agents, Neospora caninum (19,4%), followed by Chlamydophila abortus (4,5%), Listeria monocytogenes 1/2a (2,98%), Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus type 1b (2,98%), Bovine herpesvirus 4 (2,98%), and Aspergillus spp. (2,98%) were detected. The isolated neglected opportunistic bacteria include Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus suis, Trueperella pyogenes, Mannheimia haemolytica, Bacillus cereus and Nocardia spp. Other bacterial species, not associated with abortion by literature, but described as causes of diseases occurring sporadically both in humans and animals, were also detected. Three Arcobacter strains, namely two A. skirrowii and one A. cryaerophilus, were isolated from 3 bovine aborted fetuses, and A. butzleri was isolated from the placenta. CONCLUSIONS: A not negligible isolation of Arcobacter species and other neglected abortifacient agents has to be mentioned, with prevalences that seem to be emerging and replacing or co-placing the major infectious players in bovine and caprine reproductive failure due to abortion disease, even if further studies investigating the aetiological power and transmission routes are needed in order to define the role of these microrganisms in ruminant abortion.


Assuntos
Feto Abortado/microbiologia , Feto Abortado/parasitologia , Feto Abortado/virologia , Arcobacter/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/veterinária , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Aborto Animal/parasitologia , Aborto Animal/virologia , Animais , Arcobacter/classificação , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Itália/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/veterinária , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Placenta/microbiologia , Gravidez , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/veterinária
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 271: 64-67, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303206

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the viability of Haemonchus placei parasitism in experimentally infected goats. For that, 14 75 days old kids male Saanen kids were placed in one of the four experimental groups: GI - infected with 5000 H. placei L3 (n = 4); GII - infected with 5000 H. contortus L3 (n = 4); GIII - infected with 2500 H. contortus L3 + 2500 H. placei L3 (n = 4), and GIV - control, inoculated with distilled water (n = 2). Each kid received, orally, the infective dose in a single inoculum. Based on daily fecal egg counts, the average pre-patent period was determined as 24 days for H. contortus, and 31 days for H. placei. Regarding the Haemonchus spp. recovered at necropsy, the experimental groups GI, GII, and GIII had, respectively, an average of 25.5, 619.5, and 724.75 (120 H. placei, and 604.75 H. contortus) adult specimens, and no immature forms. Under the conditions of this study, the viability of goat infection by H. placei was confirmed, although, with low susceptibility. Nevertheless, the parasitism of this helminth species was more intense when associated with H. contortus. This fact indicates that in common grazing between cattle and young goats, when the latter end up ingesting both Haemonhcus species, especially in a mixed infection, H. placei may also parasitize them.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/fisiologia , Animais , Coinfecção , Fezes/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 346, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oestrosis, caused by the larvae of Oestrus ovis, commonly known as sheep nose bot, is an obligatory cavitary myiasis of sheep and goats. Oestrus ovis is a widespread parasite, but little is known about the prevalence of oestrosis at the global and broad geographical levels. The present study aimed to explore the epidemiology of oestrosis at the global and regional level to estimate prevalences and their associated factors using a systematic approach. This is, to the author's knowledge, the first meta-analysis of oestrosis in sheep and goats. METHODS: Published articles were obtained from nine electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Abstracts, Web of Science, Scopus, UCB library, Medline, Biosis Citation Index, Indian journals and Google Scholar) reporting the prevalence of O. ovis in sheep and goats from 1970 to 2018. Pooled prevalences were estimated using a random effect meta-analysis model. RESULTS: Sixty-six studies were eligible, and data from 40,870 sheep and 18,216 goats were used for quantitative analysis. The random effect estimated prevalence of oestrosis at the global level in sheep was 51.15% (95% CI: 42.80-59.51%) and in goats was 42.19% (95% CI: 33.43-50.95%). The pooled prevalence estimates for Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas were 47.85% (95% CI: 36.04-59.66%), 44.48% (95% CI: 33.09-55.87%), 56.83% (95% CI: 48.92-64.74%) and 34.46% (95% CI: 19.90-49.01%), respectively. Heterogeneity (I2 > 80%) was detected in most pooled estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Oestrosis is highly prevalent in many geographical regions of the world, especially in Europe and Africa. Factors that contribute to the pooled prevalence estimate of oestrosis need to be emphasised in any survey to estimate the true prevalence of oestrosis. Furthermore, there is a need for immunisation or implementation of other preventive measures to reduce the burden of oestrosis in sheep and goats and to improve the health and welfare status.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Miíase/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Larva , Masculino , Miíase/epidemiologia , Nariz/parasitologia , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 184, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since pastoralists in South Darfur, Sudan, had complained about lack of albendazole (ABZ) efficacy to control nematodes in goats, the frequency of infection with gastrointestinal helminths was studied before in vivo faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were conducted using ABZ orally either at the dose recommended for sheep, 5 mg/kg body weight (bw) or at 10 mg/kg bw. Experiments included goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes or experimentally infected with local Haemonchus contortus isolates. Three study areas (Nyala, Beleil and Kass) were visited in autumn or winter. RESULTS: Out of 478 screened goats, 82.4% were infected with gastrointestinal helminths and 82% were shedding eggs of strongyle nematodes with 90% of the strongyle larvae representing Haemonchus spp. A FECRT using naturally infected goats (n = 225: 71 untreated, 104 and 50 treated with 5 and 10 mg ABZ/kg bw, respectively) detected reduced ABZ efficacy in Nyala and Kass. Paired and unpaired FECRT calculations detected reductions of 72-92% with samples taken at 8 days post treatment with 5 mg ABZ/kg bw and of 85-94% with 10 mg ABZ/kg bw. The FECRT based on day 14 post treatment samples showed reductions of 69-77% with 5 mg/kg and of 75-87% with 10 mg ABZ/kg bw. In Beleil, ABZ efficacy was 95%. In the egg hatch test EC50 values for Nyala and Kass ranged from 0.12-0.24 µg thiabendazole/ml, corresponding to benzimidazole resistant phenotypes. Only Haemonchus spp. larvae were present after treatments in coprocultures. When the efficacy was evaluated experimentally using isolates of H. contortus from Nyala and Kass, the 5 mg ABZ/kg dose revealed reductions of 76-78% on day 8 and of 62-70% on day 14 with the unpaired method. Using 10 mg ABZ/kg, the FECR was still only 77-82%. CONCLUSIONS: Both, in vivo and in vitro methods detected resistant H. contortus populations in goats from South Darfur State. The time point 14 days post treatment was more sensitive for detection of ABZ resistance than 8 days post treatment. This is the first report on the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in Sudan confirming that anthelmintic resistance selection is occurring in African subsistence farming systems.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/epidemiologia , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Prevalência , Sudão/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 216, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anthelmintics in goats raised under mountain farming conditions in northern Italy. On 8 goat farms (n = 143 animals), a faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test was done after farmers conducted their routine anthelmintic treatments. Furthermore, on 5 goat farms (n = 135 animals) a FECR test was done under controlled conditions applying oral formulations of a macrocyclic lactone (ML), benzimidazole (BZ) (partly in combination with salicylanilide (SA)) or a combination of imidazothiazole (IT) and SA on the same farm. AR was assumed if FECR and the upper confidence interval (CI) was < 95% and the lower 95% CI was < 90%. RESULTS: Underdosing was found in 6 of the 8 farms tested after routine treatments. Out of the 6 routinely ML-treated goat flocks, only three were found where ML showed adequate efficacy. FECR in all others ranged between 64 and 93%. In one flock Trichostrongylus spp. and in one Haemonchus spp. larvae were identified after treatment. BZ-treated flocks had an efficacy of 99 and 37%. Larvae identified after treatment were Trichostrongylus spp. in one and Haemonchus spp. in the other flock. Under controlled conditions, ML had an adequate efficacy on 4 farms and a FECR of 88% on another one. BZ was effective on all farms. The combination of BZ and SA had a FECR of 99% on the farm it was tested. IT + SA in combination was effective on 2 farms and had a FECR of 91% on a third farm. Larvae identified after treatment were composed of Haemonchus spp. (ML and BZ), Trichostrongylus spp. (BZ) and Teladorsagia spp. (BZ and SA). CONCLUSIONS: This first report on the prevalence of AR in goats in the mountainous region of South Tyrol reveals a low efficacy of the most commonly used anthelmintics after routine treatments. This might be explained by a high level of underdosing as observed in the farms. However, results from the controlled FECR tests suggest that the observed level of AR was lower but cannot be solely explained by underdosing.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Fazendas , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Itália , Masculino , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária
15.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 281: 1-6, 2019 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095943

RESUMO

In this study we have monitored the stress of Iberian ibex at individual level within the course of an experimental infection with Sarcoptes scabiei mites. For this purpose we have measured faecal 11-ketoetiocholanolone (11-k) using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). We used linear mixed models to explore the effects of host sex and age, clinic (mange status) and time (number of days post-infection) on the concentration of faecal 11-k. The most parsimonious model included clinic, time and host age, which explained 76.6% of the variance of the response variable. Moreover, the concentration of faecal 11-k varied greatly between individuals. Our results evidence the stressor nature of the disease and highlight the negative effects on hosts due to cortisol release and activity.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/psicologia , Sarcoptes scabiei/fisiologia , Escabiose/veterinária , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Animais , Etiocolanolona/análogos & derivados , Etiocolanolona/metabolismo , Feminino , Modelos Lineares , Masculino
16.
Exp Parasitol ; 201: 34-41, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034815

RESUMO

Ovine Eimeria spp. infections cause increased mortality, reduced welfare and substantial economic losses, and anticocccidials are important for their control. Recent reports of anticoccidial resistance against ovine Eimeria spp. necessitate the development of in vitro methods for the detection of reduced anticoccidial efficacy, especially since the in vivo methods are both expensive, time consuming and requires the use of otherwise healthy animals. The aim of the present study was therefore to approach a preliminary standardization of in vitro assays for evaluation of the efficacy of the most commonly used anticoccidials in ruminants. For this purpose, apart from the evaluation of inhibition of oocyst sporulation, most effort was concentrated on assessment of the capacity of the different anticoccidials to inhibit both the invasion and further development (up to the first schizogony) of E. ninakohlyakimovae sporozoites in bovine colonic epithelial cells (BCEC). For this purpose, infected cultures were monitored 1, 8 and 15 days post infection to determine the infection rate, number of immature schizonts and number, size and appearance of mature schizonts, respectively. No clear inhibitory effect was found with any of the anticoccidial formulations tested, and we could not identify why there were no measurable effects from the different anticoccidials. Despite the lack of positive results, further investigations should be encouraged, as this could decrease the need for animal experiments and could be used in the initial assessment of anticoccidial efficacy of new drugs.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Colo/citologia , Colo/parasitologia , Decoquinato/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Eimeria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Células Epiteliais/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Cabras , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/parasitologia , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Esquizontes/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquizontes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporozoítos/isolamento & purificação , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Triazinas/farmacologia
17.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 15: 100264, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929941

RESUMO

Serum samples from 423 small ruminants (335 sheep and 97 goats) from 72 farms in 6 districts in the province of Dohuk, north Iraq, were tested for the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii using a latex agglutination test (Latex) and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). When the test results were interpreted in parallel, 42.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 36.7, 47.7) of sheep and 36.1% (95% CI: 26.6, 46.5) of goats were found to have antibodies against Toxoplasma. A multivariable logistic regression model was developed to determine the risk factors for Toxoplasma seropositivity in small ruminant flocks. Factors which increased the risk of infection included the presence of cats near the feed of animals (Odds ratio (OR) = 6.3; 95% CI 1.6, 24.6) and a history of abortions in sheep in the preceding 12 months (OR = 13.4; 95% CI 2.1; 86.7). For every ten goats aborting in the preceding 12 months the odds of seropositivity increased significantly (OR = 6.7; 95% CI 1.3; 32.9). Results of the regression model indicate that for every 1000 Iraqi Dinars (~0.85 USD) spent by the farmers on prophylactic treatment in their flocks the odds of Toxoplasma seropositivity decreased significantly (OR = 0.94; 95% CI 0.90, 0.98). This study contributes to the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in small ruminants in northern Iraq.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Aborto Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Iraque , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/prevenção & controle
18.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 15: 100266, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929943

RESUMO

Coenurus cerebralis is the larval stage of Taenia multiceps, which infects the muscles and brain of goats and, to a lesser extent, sheep. The resulting cerebral and non-cerebral infections caused by the larval form (metacestode) of this cestode are commonly known as coenurosis. A weak emaciated carcass of five months old female goat, on necropsy, revealed numerous parasitic cysts (n = 56, grossly visible) in the visceral cavity including heart, diaphragm, thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity and pelvic inlet. A large number of variable sized parasitic cysts were also observed embedded in the pericardium and myocardium causing functional damage to the heart. The parasite caused extensive tissue damage at gross and microscopic levels in the heart including traumatic destruction of the myocardium with degenerative and necrotic changes and infiltration of mononuclear cells. On parasitological examination, the cysts were identified as Coenurus cerebralis, as the scolices had characteristic four suckers and a rostellum with a double crown of hooks. Further confirmation was done using polymerase chain reaction targeting specific ND1 and CO1 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of CO1 and ND1 genes showed a major branch comprising two clades of T. multiceps grouped as separate entities with the first clade showing T. multiceps/Coenurus cerebralis native CIRG strain (cerebral) being placed in proximity to T. multiceps/Coenurus cerebralis CIRG strain (non-cerebral/visceral) compared to the Chinese strains of T. multiceps. The phylogenetic analysis of ND1 and CO1 genes of C. cerebralis of cerebral and non-cerebral isolates revealed close proximity but expressed in two different disease forms (i.e., visceral coenurosis and neural coenurosis) which indicated that they were very close divergent from a common ancestor. On the basis of the observations it was concluded that goat died due to cardiac dysfunction resulting from severe systemic infection of metacestode of T. multiceps was closely related to isolate that caused neural coenurosis in another goat. Based on the sequencing analysis and phylogenetic information, the possible differences in the clinical manifestation (neural or visceral) could be attributed to the pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Coração/parasitologia , Filogenia , Taenia/classificação , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Taenia/patogenicidade
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(6): 5242-5253, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904305

RESUMO

Milk somatic cell count (SCC) is commonly higher in goats than in cattle and sheep. Furthermore, the ability of milk SCC to predict mastitis is considered lower in goats than in cattle and sheep, and the relevance of somatic cell score (SCS)-based selection in this species has been questioned. To address this issue, we created 2 divergent lines of Alpine goats using artificially inseminated bucks with extreme estimated breeding values for SCS. A total of 287 goats, 158 in high- and 129 in low-SCS lines, were scrutinized for mastitis infections. We subjected 2,688 milk samples to conventional bacteriological analyses on agarose and bacterial counts were estimated for positive samples. The SCS, milk yield, fat content, and protein content were recorded every 3 wk. Clinical mastitis was systematically noted. A subset of 40 goats (20 from each line) was subsequently challenged with Haemonchus contortus and monitored for anemia (blood packed cell volume) and fecal egg counts to see if SCS-based selection had an indirect effect on resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes. Milk production traits, including milk quantity, fat content, and protein content, were similar in both goat lines. In contrast, the raw milk SCC almost doubled between the lines, with 1,542,000 versus 855,000 cells/mL in the high- and low-SCS lines, respectively. The difference in breeding value for SCS between lines was 1.65 genetic standard deviation equivalents. The Staphylococcus spp. most frequently isolated from milk were S. xylosus, S. caprae, S. epidermidis, and S. aureus. The frequency of positive bacteriology samples was significantly higher in the high-SCS line (49%) than in the low-SCS line (33%). The highest odds ratio was 3.49 (95% confidence interval: 11.95-6.25) for S. aureus. The distribution of bacterial species in positive samples between lines was comparable. The average quantity of bacteria in positive samples was also significantly higher in high-SCS goats (69 ± 80 growing colonies) than in low-SCS goats (38 ± 62 growing colonies). Clinical cases were rare and equally distributed between high- (n = 4; 2.5%) and low-SCS (n = 3; 2.3%) lines. Furthermore, the larger the amounts of bacteria in milk the higher the SCS level. Conversely, goats with repeatedly culture-negative udders exhibited the lowest SCC levels, with an average of below 300,000 cells/mL. We therefore confirmed that SCS is a relevant predictor of intramammary infection and hygienic quality of milk in goats and can be used for prophylactic purposes. After challenge with H. contortus, goats were anemic with high fecal egg counts but we found no difference between the genetic lines. This result provides initial evidence that resistance to mastitis or to gastrointestinal nematodes infections is under independent genetic regulation. Altogether, this monitoring of the goat lines indicated that SCS-based selection helps to improve udder health by decreasing milk cell counts and reducing the incidence of infection and related bacterial shedding in milk. Selection for low SCC should not affect a goat's ability to cope with gastrointestinal nematodes.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Mastite/veterinária , Leite/citologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Seleção Genética , Animais , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Resistência à Doença/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças das Cabras/genética , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Haemonchus , Masculino , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/parasitologia , Mastite/genética , Infecções por Nematoides/genética , Infecções por Nematoides/imunologia , Fenótipo
20.
Parasite Immunol ; 41(7): e12625, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883834

RESUMO

Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is an important immune regulatory factor in the immune response of the host. However, little is known about the inhibitor of host IL-2 in Haemonchus contortus infection. In this study, we found that globin domain-containing protein (HCGB) and Protein Y75B8A.8 (HC8) from H contortus excretory and secretory products are two binding proteins of IL-2 in goats. The yeast two-hybrid screening further validated the positive interactions of IL-2 with HCGB and HC8. Meanwhile, we found that HC8 had inhibitory effects on IL-2-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation, while HCGB did not. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis revealed that HC8 could block the IL-2-activated signalling pathway. Our results showed that HC8 was a functional inhibitor of goat IL-2.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Hemoncose/imunologia , Haemonchus/imunologia , Proteínas de Helminto/imunologia , Interleucina-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Interleucina-2/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais
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