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1.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 149-174, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541696

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is the most important cause of clinical mastitis in goats, and non-aureus staphylococci is the most common isolate from subclinical mastitis. Environmental streptococci are a severe problem. Somatic cell counts and California mastitis test are a screening test for mastitis and an indicator of poor udder health, but values should be interpreted differently than with dairy cattle. Somatic cell scores likely are a more useful way of viewing data. High bacterial counts in milk are common; mastitis may be involved as a cause. Proper udder preparation, milking procedure, and postmilking management are key factors in mastitis control.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/fisiologia , Mastite/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/microbiologia , Mastite/diagnóstico , Mastite/microbiologia , Mastite/prevenção & controle , Leite/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária
2.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 33-54, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541701

RESUMO

This article discusses key welfare issues for small ruminants and gives practical management advice. Welfare assessment is vital to ensure that optimal conditions are provided. Practitioners can play a key role in identifying areas of potential welfare compromise and implement interventions. With the knowledge and careful identification of indicators of welfare, practitioners and producers can develop a management plan that can ensure proper nutrition, environment, and health to allow for natural behaviors and a positive affective state; identification of animal health and management issues; and (3) allocation of adequate resources to improve the welfare of sheep and goats.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bem-Estar do Animal/organização & administração , Cabras , Ovinos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Ruminantes , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle
3.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 3, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407892

RESUMO

Unlike the successful immunization of native H. contortus antigens that contributed to the realization of the first commercial vaccine Barbervax, not many studies revealed the encouraging protective efficacies of recombinant H. contortus antigens in laboratory trials or under field conditions. In our preliminary study, H. contortus α/ß-hydrolase domain protein (HcABHD) was demonstrated to be an immunomodulatory excretory-secretory (ES) protein that interacts with goat T cells. We herein evaluated the protective capacities of two HcABHD preparations, recombinant HcABHD (rHcABHD) antigen and anti-rHcABHD IgG, against H. contortus challenge via active and passive immunization trials, respectively. Parasitological parameter, antibody responses, hematological pathology and cytokine profiling in unchallenged and challenged goats were monitored and determined throughout both trials. Subcutaneous administration of rHcABHD with Freund adjuvants elicited protective immune responses in challenged goats, diminishing cumulative fecal egg counts (FEC) and total worm burden by 54.0% and 74.2%, respectively, whereas passive immunization with anti-rHcABHD IgG conferred substantial protection to challenged goats by generating a 51.5% reduction of cumulative FEC and a 73.8% reduction of total worm burden. Additionally, comparable changes of mucosal IgA levels, circulating IgG levels, hemoglobin levels, and serum interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-17A levels were observed in rHcABHD protein/anti-rHcABHD IgG immunized goats in both trials. Taken together, the recombinant version of HcABHD might have further application under field conditions in protecting goats against H. contortus infection, and the integrated immunological pipeline of ES antigen identification, screening and characterization may provide new clues for further development of recombinant subunit vaccines to control H. contortus.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/imunologia , Proteínas de Helminto/uso terapêutico , Vacinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/uso terapêutico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Hemoncose/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Vacinas Sintéticas/uso terapêutico
4.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466238

RESUMO

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a transboundary viral disease that threatens more than 1.74 billion goats and sheep in approximately 70 countries globally. In 2015, the international community set the goal of eradicating PPR by 2030, and, since then, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) have jointly developed and implemented the Global Control and Eradication Strategy for PPR. Here, data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Statistical Database (FAOSTAT), the OIE World Animal Health Information System (WAHIS), Regional Roadmap Meetings, and countries' responses to PPR Monitoring and Assessment Tool (PMAT) questionnaires were analyzed to inform on current progress towards PPR eradication. OIE recorded the use of over 333 million doses of vaccine in 12 countries from 2015 to 2018, 41.8% of which were used in Asia and 58.2% in Africa. Between 2015 and 2019, a total of 12,757 PPR outbreaks were reported to OIE: 75.1% in Asia, 24.8% in Africa, and 0.1% in Europe. The number of global outbreaks in 2019 fell to 1218, compared with 3688 in 2015. Analysis of vaccine use and PPR outbreaks in countries indicates that disease control strategies, particularly vaccination campaigns and vaccine distribution strategies, still require scientific evaluation. It is imperative that vaccination is undertaken based on the epidemiology of the disease in a region and is coordinated between neighboring countries to restrict transboundary movements. Strengthening surveillance and post-vaccination sero-monitoring at the national level is also essential. The PPR vaccine stock/bank established by FAO, OIE, and other partners have improved the quality assurance and supply of vaccines. However, to achieve PPR eradication, filling the funding gap for vaccination campaigns and other program activities will be critical.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Saúde Global , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Programas de Imunização/tendências , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/epidemiologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233611, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569297

RESUMO

Trade in animals and animal products is a key factor in the transmission of infectious diseases. Livestock traders play an important role in this process, yet there is little knowledge of traders' perceptions of animal disease or their associated actions. The aim of this study was to investigate perceptions and practices of Zambian small ruminant traders with regard to sheep and goat health and disease. It also analysed how existing perceptions and practices might affect risks of disease transmission through trade. A case study was performed at the two largest small livestock markets in Zambia: the Lusaka market in the capital and the Kasumbalesa market near the border with the Democratic Republic of Congo. Semi-structured interviews with 47 traders performed in April-May and September 2018 represent the core material. Zambian small ruminant traders frequently trade animals that have clinical signs of disease, either because they appear unaware or indifferent to the associated risks, experience financial constraints or assign responsibility for disease prevention to other value chain actors. In their decision about whether or not to sell a visibly sick small ruminant, traders appear to consider whether the clinical sign is perceived as 'natural' or the result of an illness, whether the buyer is aware of the animal's health condition, and whether the animal is sold for consumption or breeding purposes. Traders appear to regard the veterinary certificate required to transport small ruminants in Zambia as proof of health, placing the responsibility for potential disease in traded animals on the veterinary authorities. In their description of a model trader, taking good care of and being sensitive to customer needs was emphasized, indicating that an efficient way to encourage traders to change their behaviour is to influence customer demands. In contrast to the focus in previous studies on identifying and filling knowledge gaps, the present study show that lack of knowledge is not central to why traders engage in disease-transmitting behaviour. Greater awareness of other reasons for certain perceptions and practices could lead to the formulation of risk communication strategies and mitigation measures that are relevant for the local context, as well as alternative strategies for changing trader behaviour.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Cabras , Humanos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Zâmbia
6.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(4): 589-593, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552528

RESUMO

Since 2007, the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-South Tyrol (Italy) has carried out a compulsory eradication program against caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats. A drastic seroprevalence reduction was achieved during the initial phase (2007-2011); however, a tailing phenomenon has been observed during the latest years, hampering the achievement of the final goal. CAEV belongs to a group of lentiviruses, called small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs), which are antigenically related and can infect both goats and sheep. We investigated the possible link between the tailing phenomenon in goats and the role of sheep as a virus reservoir by comparing serologic results between multispecies farms (where goats and sheep coexist) and monospecies farms (goats only). Goats on multispecies farms had a higher prevalence and seroconversion rate (even if to a rather moderate extent), higher antibody titers, and a higher probability of conclusive results in the genotyping analysis, with more frequent identification of SRLV genotype A (sheep-related) infections. Sheep can serve as a SRLV reservoir, thus contributing to scattered positive tests in goats, causing the tailing phenomenon.


Assuntos
Vírus da Artrite-Encefalite Caprina/fisiologia , Erradicação de Doenças , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Carneiro Doméstico/virologia , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Itália , Infecções por Lentivirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Lentivirus/virologia , Prevalência , Soroconversão
7.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 103-109, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171998

RESUMO

In the context of significant public health benefits of brucellosis control and shrinking public resources for livestock vaccination, this paper considers the willingness of small ruminant livestock owners to pay for vaccination of their animals against brucellosis. The willingness to pay is estimated through a binary choice contingent valuation approach using data from a rural household survey specially designed for this purpose. The survey was conducted in southern Tajikistan, one of its poorest regions, in March 2009. The study used a non-parametric method for estimating the willingness to pay and a parametric (Probit) model for identifying determinants. The results show that households, including poor households, were willing to pay for continuing vaccination of their sheep and goats against brucellosis. Controlling for other attributes of willingness to pay, there was practically no correlation between willingness to pay and household asset level. This means both poor and rich alike are willing to pay for the service. On the other hand, the results also show that the willingness to pay was comparatively higher in households with relatively higher levels of education of adult females. This suggests that an awareness campaign targeted at female members of households would enhance the ownership and coverage of cost recovery programs and should form an integral part of any efforts towards introducing financial participation from sheep and goat owners for brucellosis vaccination.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Propriedade , Ovinos , Tadjiquistão
8.
Vet Parasitol ; 279: 109045, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045836

RESUMO

Haemonchus contortus transthyretin domain-containing protein (HcTTR) with 136 amino acids belongs to a transthyretin-like (TTL) family member. In our previous study, it was reported that HcTTR was a novel antagonist of the goat cytokine Interleukin 4 (IL-4), and was involved in the regulation of host immune responses, implying that it might be applied for therapeutic strategies or vaccine development against the infection of H. contortus. Thus, the protective capacities of HcTTR against H. contortus infections via active and passive immunization trials were examined. For the passive protection trials, H. contortus-infected goats were intravenously immunized twice with 5 mg of total IgG containing anti-rHcTTR goat polyclonal antibodies. The results showed that the significant rates of reduction in egg shedding and worm burden was 58.12% and 64.61%, respectively, as compared with the positive control group. For the active protection trials, local goats were vaccinated twice with 500 µg of recombinant HcTTR to generate antigen-specific circulating antibodies, resulting in 63.7% reduction in eggs shedding and 66.4% reduction in worm burdens after H. contortus challenge. In both passive and active trials, the immunized goats displayed higher mucosal IgA levels and less anaemic compared to the challenged positive controls. Pen trials indicated that HcTTR generated partial immune protective effects against H. contortus challenge and it could be a promising vaccine candidate for development of effective strategy to control H. contortus.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/imunologia , Proteínas de Helminto/uso terapêutico , Imunização Passiva/veterinária , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas
9.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 159-171, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029181

RESUMO

This article summarizes the state of the art in vaccine research against parasitic helminths in sheep and cattle. Optimization of antigen production (eg, recombinant expression) and antigen delivery, followed by extensive field testing, is still required for further development of vaccines. Helminth vaccines should sufficiently reduce parasite transmission to protect vaccinated animals against parasite-induced disorders and production loss. Vaccine efficacy requirements depend on the parasite's epidemiology and farm management, both of which vary in different geographic regions and are influenced by climate. Vaccination is likely to be part of integrated worm control, together with other worm control measures.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Helmintos/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas/imunologia
10.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 187-203, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029184

RESUMO

Ruminant coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria species, is a significant and widespread enteric disease in young livestock worldwide. High morbidities and significant mortalities may be observed. For disease diagnosis, fecal samples from clinically ill animals should be analyzed for both, identity (ie, pathogenicity) of Eimeria species and excreted oocyst amount. To prevent coccidiosis-related economic losses, management measures to reduce infection pressure and improve general animal health are crucial. Anticoccidial drugs are widely used to control clinical and subclinical disease. Treatment is most efficient when applied prophylactically or metaphylactically. To avoid development of parasite drug resistance, drugs should be used sustainably.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Gado/parasitologia , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle
11.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 73-87, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029190

RESUMO

Strongylid gastrointestinal nematodes are an important cause of disease and economic loss in small ruminants. These parasites are important in most of the United States, with the bloodsucking parasite Haemonchus contortus being the predominant species of concern. Sheep and goats are infected while grazing, and the biology of infective larvae on pastures is important in the design of parasite management programs. Widespread resistance to anthelmintics requires strategies designed to preserve remaining drug activity; these include combination treatments with multiple classes of anthelmintics and targeted treatments.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(4): 1633-1644, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32012445

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects ruminants and pigs. Countries with large exports of livestock products are highly vulnerable to economic damage following an FMD incursion. The faster disease spread is controlled, the lower the economic damage. During the past decades, the structure of livestock production has dramatically changed. To maintain the relevance of contingency plans, it is important to understand the effects of changes in herd structure on the spread and control of infectious diseases. In this study, we compare the spread and control of FMD based on 2006/2007 and 2018 livestock data. Spread of FMD in Denmark was simulated using the DTU-DADS model, applying different control measures. The number of cattle, swine and sheep/goat herds reduced from about 50,000 in total in 2006/2007 to about 33,000 in 2018. During this period, the average number of outgoing animal movements and the exports of swine and swine products increased by about 35% and 22%, respectively. This coincided with an overall increase in herd size of 14%. Using the EU and national control measures (Basic: 3 days standstill, depopulation of detected herds followed by cleaning and disinfection and establishment of control zones, where tracing, surveillance and contact restrictions are implemented), we found that the simulated epidemics in 2018 would be about 50% shorter in duration, affect about 50% fewer herds but cause more economic damage, compared to epidemics using 2006/2007 data. When 2006/2007 data were used, Basic + pre-emptive depopulation (Depop) overall was the optimal control strategy. When 2018 data were used, this was the case only when epidemics were initiated in cattle herds, whereas when epidemics were initiated in sow or sheep/goats herds, basic performed as well as Depop. The results demonstrate that regular assessment of measures to control the spread of infectious diseases is necessary for contingency planning.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Fazendas , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Simulação por Computador , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/fisiologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Gado , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle
13.
Prev Vet Med ; 174: 104850, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794918

RESUMO

Vaccination is the main tool for control of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) because of the availability of effective and safe vaccines that provide long lasting protection. However vaccination campaigns may not always provide sufficient herd immunity needed to prevent disease outbreaks because of logistic problems with vaccination such as inappropriate cold chain and vaccine delivery methods, and the rapid population turnover of small ruminants. This study was carried out to assess post-vaccination herd immunity against PPR and inter-vaccination population turnover in small ruminant flocks in Metema district, northwest Ethiopia where frequent PPR outbreaks occur despite regular vaccination. A total of 412 serum samples were collected from selected small ruminants in 72 flocks (average flock size of 33.4 and standard deviation of 30) above three months of age in three kebeles immediately before a vaccination program. One month after the vaccination using freeze dried live attenuated vaccine, 359 serum samples were collected from randomly selected small ruminants in the same flocks. The collected serum samples were analyzed to determine the seropositivity using a monoclonal antibody-based C-ELISA. The pre-vaccination seropositivity of 72.3% (95% CI: 67.8-76.4) increased to 93.9% (95% CI: 90.9-95.9) post-vaccination (P < 0.001). The observed seropositivity following vaccination was above the recommended herd immunity threshold (80%) required to reduce the transmission of infection in the population sufficient to eliminate virus. A survey of sampled flocks six months post-sampling indicated only 68% of animals were still present in these flocks. This population turnover reduces the herd immunity to about 64% which is below the required threshold for control. The high level of herd immunity achieved post-vaccination indicates good vaccine quality, cold chain maintenance and effective vaccine delivery in the district's vaccination campaigns. The decrease in herd immunity associated with population turnover and annual vaccination intervals represents a challenge to effective control and suggests changes to the timing or frequency of the vaccination is required.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Coletiva , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Etiópia , Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Cabras , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/imunologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/imunologia
14.
Prev Vet Med ; 174: 104808, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710946

RESUMO

Pastoralist areas of Ethiopia are vulnerable to drought, causing livelihood loss and famine. One approach to increasing pastoralist resilience is the control of livestock disease, but there is limited information from pastoralist areas to inform control strategies. This study aimed to explore pastoralist concepts of small ruminant disease and implications for infectious disease surveillance and control in the pastoralist Afar Region. During 2013-14, qualitative and quantitative methods were applied in two villages of one district in the mid-west of the region. Semi-structured group interviews, incorporating participatory tools, explored pastoralist knowledge of small ruminant diseases and their impact. These were followed by multiple visits in different seasons to 70 households for semi-structured and informal interviews, observation of management practices, clinical examinations, and weekly questionnaires of mortality and morbidity. Thematic analysis was applied to interview transcripts and field notes, and descriptive statistical analysis to quantitative data. Afar concepts of disease causation, terminology and treatment were predominantly naturalistic, related to observable signs and physical causes, rather than personalistic factors (misfortune due to magical or spiritual agents). Disease occurrence was associated with malnutrition and adverse weather, and disease spread with contact between animals during grazing, watering and migration. Disease occurrence varied by season with most syndromes increasing in frequency during the dry season. Names for disease syndromes were related to the main clinical sign or body part affected; 70 terms were recorded for respiratory syndromes, diarrhoea, sheep and goat pox, lameness, skin diseases, ectoparasites, urinary and neurological syndromes and abortion. Some syndromes with pathognomonic signs could be linked to biomedical diagnoses but most were non-specific with several possible diagnoses. The syndromes causing greatest impact were diarrhoea and respiratory disease, due to mortality, reduced milk production, weight loss, abortion, weak offspring and reduced market value. Afar applied a range of traditional methods and modern medicines to prevent or treat disease, based on livestock keeper knowledge, advice of local specialists and occasionally advice from district veterinarians or animal health workers. In relation to surveillance for peste des petits ruminants (PPR), several terms were used for PPR-like syndromes, depending on the predominance of respiratory or diarrhoea signs. Therefore, whenever these terms are encountered during surveillance, the associated disease events should be fully investigated and samples collected for laboratory confirmation. The Afar naturalistic concepts of disease parallel biomedical concepts and provide a good foundation for communication between veterinarians and pastoralists in relation to PPR surveillance and control measures.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças das Cabras/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/psicologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/psicologia , Animais , Etiópia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/prevenção & controle , Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes/virologia , Vírus da Peste dos Pequenos Ruminantes , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(1): 387-396, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31620958

RESUMO

Brucellosis is an important zoonosis worldwide. In livestock, it frequently causes chronic disease with reproductive failures that contribute to production losses, and in humans, it causes an often-chronic febrile illness that is frequently underdiagnosed in many low- and middle-income countries, including India. India has one of the largest ruminant populations in the world, and brucellosis is endemic in the country in both humans and animals. In November 2017, the International Livestock Research Institute invited experts from government, national research institutes, universities, and different international organizations to a one-day meeting to set priorities towards a "One Health" control strategy for brucellosis in India. Using a risk prioritization exercise followed by discussions, the meeting agreed on the following priorities: collaboration (transboundary and transdisciplinary); collection of more epidemiological evidence in humans, cattle, and in small ruminants (which have been neglected in past research); Economic impact studies, including cost effectiveness of control programmes; livestock vaccination, including national facilities for securing vaccines for the cattle population; management of infected animals (with the ban on bovine slaughter, alternatives such as sanctuaries must be explored); laboratory capacities and diagnostics (quality must be assured and better rapid tests developed); and increased awareness, making farmers, health workers, and the general public more aware of risks of brucellosis and zoonoses in general. Overall, the meeting participants agreed that brucellosis control will be challenging in India, but with collaboration to address the priority areas listed here, it could be possible.


Assuntos
Brucelose Bovina/prevenção & controle , Brucelose , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Prioridades em Saúde , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Brucelose/veterinária , Bovinos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/economia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Cabras , Humanos , Índia , Saúde Única , Ovinos
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 276: 108973, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785456

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to measure the effect of the nutritional status of Creole goat kids on the host responses and the nematode population established after an experimental H. contortus infection. Fifty six kids were fed with 4 diets corresponding to 2 nutritional statuses: the low nutritional status (HAY, hay ad libitum and HB, Hay ad libitum + banana) and the high nutritional status (HS, hay ad libitum + soya meal and HSB, hay ad libitum + banana + soya meal). For each diet, 8 kids were experimentally infected with 10,000 H. contortus infective larvae (L3) and 6 kids were kept as non-infected controls. From the day of infection until 6 weeks post-infection, samples were collected to measure individual intake, total tract digestibility, parasitological and hematological parameters. The dry matter intake (DMI), the average daily gain (ADG), the crude protein (CP) and the digestible CP intake were higher in goats fed the HS and HSB diets, but no statistically significant interaction between the nutritional status and the infection was observed. The packed cell volume (PCV), the red blood cell counts (RBC) and the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were higher with the HS and the HSB diets. In kids with the high nutritional status the nematode burden and pathophysiological impact of the infection were significantly lower but not the FEC. In conclusion, this reduced establishment rate was associated with an increased production of eggs by the female parasites and suggested a phenomenon of density-dependent prolificacy of H. contortus probably inherent to the fitness of the parasite population.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Anemia/prevenção & controle , Anemia/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/normas , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Eosinófilos/citologia , Fezes/química , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/fisiopatologia , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Pepsinogênio A/sangue
17.
Viruses ; 12(1)2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861451

RESUMO

Small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) control programs are mainly based on diagnostic tests performed on blood samples collected from sheep and goats. Since blood sampling is costly and stressful for the animals, we evaluated whether milk could be used as an inexpensive and easily collectable matrix for SRLV detection. We therefore compared SRLV detection via two commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in blood and corresponding milk samples from 321 goats originating from eight different SRLV-infected farms in Flanders (Belgium). The IDscreen® ELISA had a better relative sensitivity (97% vs 93%) and specificity (100% and 97%) than the Elitest® ELISA for SRLV-specific antibody detection in milk compared to serum. The higher sensitivity correlates with a 10-fold higher analytical sensitivity of the IDscreen® test. In contrast to the overall good ELISA results, qPCR on milk cell pellets lacked sensitivity (81%) and specificity (88%), compared to molecular detection in blood leucocyte pellets. Our results show that serology is more suitable than qPCR for SRLV diagnosis, and that milk may represent an interesting matrix for a preliminary evaluation of a herd's infection status. Serum remains however the sample of choice for control programs where it is important to identify positive animals with the highest sensitivity.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Lentivirus , Leite/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Doenças das Cabras/sangue , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Lentivirus/genética , Lentivirus/imunologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos
18.
Vet Rec ; 185(24): 759, 2019 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690642

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is evidence for a link between vitamin D deficiency and active tuberculosis (TB). In human beings, several trials have evaluated the role of vitamin D supplementation in TB treatment with conflicting results. However, the role of vitamin D supplementation in animal TB control has received less attention. The authors evaluated the benefit of vitamin D supplementation for preventing mycobacterial infection or reducing TB lesions (TBL) in a controlled trial with goats naturally exposed to Mycobacterium caprae. METHODS: Two groups of goats, a vitamin D-supplemented group and a non-supplemented control group, were housed for 10 months in direct contact with M caprae-infected adult goats. Upon contact with the infected adult goats, all animals were TB-tested every two months. RESULTS: No experimental evidence of a protective effect of vitamin D supplementation based on M caprae culture prevalence, TBL prevalence, median TBL score or the proportion of single versus multiple organs presenting TBL was observed. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that, in the conditions used in this study, vitamin D supplementation in goats does not reduce TB infection risk nor the diffusion and severity of TBL. In addition, vitamin D-supplemented goats presented hyperphosphataemia and renal injury with calcifications suggestive of vitamin D intoxication.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Nefropatias/veterinária , Infecções por Mycobacterium/veterinária , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/efeitos adversos , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/induzido quimicamente , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Hiperfosfatemia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperfosfatemia/veterinária , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Mycobacterium/classificação , Infecções por Mycobacterium/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium/prevenção & controle , Vitamina D/farmacologia
19.
Can J Vet Res ; 83(4): 261-266, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571725

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the protective efficacy of a novel Brucella vaccine formulation in goats. Twenty black goats were separated into 2 groups. Group A was injected with 3.0 × 109 CFU (colony-forming units)/mL of a Salmonella-based delivery system harboring only vector (pMMP65). Group B was immunized with 3.0 × 109 CFU/mL of the vaccine, a mixture of 3 Brucella vaccine strains (using a Salmonella-based delivery system) expressing each recombinant B. abortus Omp3b, BCSP31, and SOD protein. No Salmonella delivery strain was isolated from all tested lymph nodes and parenchymal organs. Serum immunoglobulin (Ig) G titers and interferon gamma concentrations were significantly higher in group B than those in group A. After intraconjunctival challenge with virulent B. abortus strain 544, 40% of the vaccinated animals in group B were protected against B. abortus infection. The infection index and colonization of B. abortus in tested tissues was significantly lower in group B than group A. We conclude that this Brucella vaccine induces significant antigen-specific immune responses and provides effective protection against B. abortus infection in goats. Further studies are needed to enhance the protection rate of this Brucella vaccine and to discover its practical application in small ruminants.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Vacina contra Brucelose/imunologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Salmonella/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Especificidade de Anticorpos , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Vacina contra Brucelose/efeitos adversos , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Interferon gama/sangue
20.
Vet Q ; 39(1): 143-152, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524561

RESUMO

High endemicity of Johne's disease (JD) in herds adversely affects heavy milk yielding breeds by reducing the per animal productivity and 'productive life-span'. This review evaluates different vaccines used for its control and summarizes the benefits of 'global vaccine' in the four major domestic livestock species, namely goat, sheep, buffalo and cattle. Vaccines developed by using 'native strains' revealed both 'therapeutic' and preventive effects in domestic livestock. The 'therapeutic' role of vaccine in animals suffering from clinical JD turned out to be valuable in some cases by reversing the disease process and animals returning back to health and production. Good herd management, improved hygiene, 'test and cull' methodology, proper disposal of animal excreta and monitoring of MAP bio-load were also regarded as crucial in the 'therapeutic' management of JD. Vaccine approaches have been widely adopted in JD control programs and may be considered as a valuable adjunct in order to utilize huge populations of otherwise un-productive livestock. It has been shown that vaccination was the preeminent strategy to control JD, because it yielded approximately 3-4 times better benefit-to-cost ratios than other strategies. Internationally, 146 vaccine trials/studies have been conducted in different countries for the control of JD and have shown remarkable reduction in its national prevalence. It is concluded that for JD, there cannot be global vaccines or diagnostic kits as solutions have to come from locally prevalent strains of MAP. Despite some limitations, vaccines might still be an effective strategy to reduce or eradicate JD.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/farmacologia , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis/imunologia , Paratuberculose/prevenção & controle , Animais , Búfalos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Gado , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Vacinação/veterinária
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