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1.
Vet Parasitol ; 277: 108992, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835054

RESUMO

Eprinomectin (EPM) has been recently granted a marketing authorisation in the European Union for use in goats, with a zero-day milk withdrawal period. Considering the high prevalence of benzimidazole resistance worldwide and the economic implications of managing milk residues, EPM may today be considered the main (or even the only) affordable treatment option, at least in dairy goats in the EU. However, the chosen dose (1 mg/kg) seems to be suboptimal, especially for lactating goats, and the chosen route of administration (Pour-on) highly subject to inter-individual variability. Considering the scarcity of anthelmintic resources, such a dosage regimen might threat the sustainability of this crucial drug in goat milk production and needs to be urgently discussed and reassessed.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios/normas , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Indústria de Laticínios/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria de Laticínios/tendências , União Europeia , Feminino , Cabras , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem
2.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(4): 753-760, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867918

RESUMO

We described a first case of resistance to eprinomectin in goat herd in Poland in which resistance to benzimidazoles had been previously reported. The herd was established in 2011 by purchasing several goats from a single herd in south-eastern Poland. Resistance to benzimidazoles in the herd was first reported in 2017. Shortly after the owner started to signal low effectiveness of the treatment with eprinomectin. In June 2018 the larval development test from pooled faecal sample was performed and the results indicated the presence of resistance to macrocyclic lactones and levamisole. In July 2018 a faecal egg count (FEC) reduction test was performed in 39 animals with levamisole, eprinomectin and one untreated control group. Drugs were used in doses recommended for goats. Three methods of calculation of FEC reduction were compared. After eprinomectin treatment, FEC reduction ranged from 0 to 20%, depending on the method of calculation. FEC reduction following levamisole treatment was 100%. Main species present in the faecal samples after treatment and in larvicidal concentrations in larval development test was Haemonchus contortus. This is the first report of anthelminthic resistance to macrocylic lactones (eprinomectin) in goats in Poland.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas
3.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(4): 420-429, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183876

RESUMO

Tulathromycin is a macrolide antibiotic commonly used for the treatment of respiratory disease in food animal species including goats. Recent research in pigs has suggested that the presence of disease could alter the pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in animals with respiratory disease. The objectives of this study were (a) compare the plasma pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in healthy goats as well as goats with an induced respiratory disease; and (b) to compare the tissue residue concentrations of tulathromycin marker in both groups. For this trial, disease was induced with Pasteurella multocida. Following disease induction, tulathromycin was administered. Samples of plasma were collected at various time points up to 312 hr posttreatment, when study animals were euthanized and tissue samples were collected. For PK parameters in plasma, Vz (control: 28.7 ± 11.9 ml/kg; experimental: 57.8 ± 26.6 ml/kg) was significantly higher (p = 0.0454) in the experimental group than the control group, and nonsignificant differences were noted in other parameters. Among time points significantly lower plasma concentrations were noted in the experimental group at 168 hr (p = 0.023), 216 hr (p = 0.036), 264 hr (p = 0.0017), 288 hr (p = 0.0433), and 312 hr (p = 0.0486). None of the goats had tissue residues above the US bovine limit of 5 µg/g at the end of the study. No differences were observed between muscle, liver, or fat concentrations. A significantly lower concentration (p = 0.0095) was noted in the kidneys of experimental goats when compared to the control group. These results suggest that the effect of respiratory disease on the pharmacokinetics and tissue residues appear minimal after experimental P. multocida infection, however as evidenced by the disparity in Cmax , significant differences in plasma concentrations at terminal time points, as well as the differences in kidney concentrations, there is the potential for alterations in diseased versus clinical animals.


Assuntos
Dissacarídeos/farmacocinética , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Cabras/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos/farmacocinética , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Pasteurella multocida , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Área Sob a Curva , Dissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Resíduos de Drogas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras/sangue , Meia-Vida , Compostos Heterocíclicos/uso terapêutico , Fígado , Músculo Esquelético , Infecções por Pasteurella/tratamento farmacológico
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 216, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anthelmintics in goats raised under mountain farming conditions in northern Italy. On 8 goat farms (n = 143 animals), a faecal egg count reduction (FECR) test was done after farmers conducted their routine anthelmintic treatments. Furthermore, on 5 goat farms (n = 135 animals) a FECR test was done under controlled conditions applying oral formulations of a macrocyclic lactone (ML), benzimidazole (BZ) (partly in combination with salicylanilide (SA)) or a combination of imidazothiazole (IT) and SA on the same farm. AR was assumed if FECR and the upper confidence interval (CI) was < 95% and the lower 95% CI was < 90%. RESULTS: Underdosing was found in 6 of the 8 farms tested after routine treatments. Out of the 6 routinely ML-treated goat flocks, only three were found where ML showed adequate efficacy. FECR in all others ranged between 64 and 93%. In one flock Trichostrongylus spp. and in one Haemonchus spp. larvae were identified after treatment. BZ-treated flocks had an efficacy of 99 and 37%. Larvae identified after treatment were Trichostrongylus spp. in one and Haemonchus spp. in the other flock. Under controlled conditions, ML had an adequate efficacy on 4 farms and a FECR of 88% on another one. BZ was effective on all farms. The combination of BZ and SA had a FECR of 99% on the farm it was tested. IT + SA in combination was effective on 2 farms and had a FECR of 91% on a third farm. Larvae identified after treatment were composed of Haemonchus spp. (ML and BZ), Trichostrongylus spp. (BZ) and Teladorsagia spp. (BZ and SA). CONCLUSIONS: This first report on the prevalence of AR in goats in the mountainous region of South Tyrol reveals a low efficacy of the most commonly used anthelmintics after routine treatments. This might be explained by a high level of underdosing as observed in the farms. However, results from the controlled FECR tests suggest that the observed level of AR was lower but cannot be solely explained by underdosing.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Fazendas , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Itália , Masculino , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária
5.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(4): 452-460, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206719

RESUMO

Values for pharmacokinetic variables are usually obtained in healthy animals, whereas drugs are frequently administered to diseased animals. This study investigated cefquinome pharmacokinetics in healthy goats and goats with experimentally induced mastitis. Five adult lactating goats received 75 mg of cefquinome intramammary infusion using a commercially available product into one udder half in healthy goats and goats with clinical mastitis that was induced by intracisternal infusion of 100 cfu of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 suspended in 5 ml of sterile culture broth. Cefquinome concentrations were determined in plasma and skimmed milk samples using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Pharmacodynamics was investigated using the California Mastitis Test and pH of milk. Experimentally induced mastitis significantly increased the California Mastitis Test score and pH, and decreased the maximal cefquinome concentration and shortened the half-life in milk when compared to healthy goats. In conclusion, mastitis facilitated the absorption of cefquinome from the mammary gland of lactating goats and induced marked changes in milk pH, emphasizing the importance of performing pharmacokinetic studies of antimicrobial agents in infected animals.


Assuntos
Cefalosporinas/farmacocinética , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Mastite/veterinária , Leite/química , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Lactação , Mastite/tratamento farmacológico , Mastite/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus
6.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 184, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since pastoralists in South Darfur, Sudan, had complained about lack of albendazole (ABZ) efficacy to control nematodes in goats, the frequency of infection with gastrointestinal helminths was studied before in vivo faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were conducted using ABZ orally either at the dose recommended for sheep, 5 mg/kg body weight (bw) or at 10 mg/kg bw. Experiments included goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes or experimentally infected with local Haemonchus contortus isolates. Three study areas (Nyala, Beleil and Kass) were visited in autumn or winter. RESULTS: Out of 478 screened goats, 82.4% were infected with gastrointestinal helminths and 82% were shedding eggs of strongyle nematodes with 90% of the strongyle larvae representing Haemonchus spp. A FECRT using naturally infected goats (n = 225: 71 untreated, 104 and 50 treated with 5 and 10 mg ABZ/kg bw, respectively) detected reduced ABZ efficacy in Nyala and Kass. Paired and unpaired FECRT calculations detected reductions of 72-92% with samples taken at 8 days post treatment with 5 mg ABZ/kg bw and of 85-94% with 10 mg ABZ/kg bw. The FECRT based on day 14 post treatment samples showed reductions of 69-77% with 5 mg/kg and of 75-87% with 10 mg ABZ/kg bw. In Beleil, ABZ efficacy was 95%. In the egg hatch test EC50 values for Nyala and Kass ranged from 0.12-0.24 µg thiabendazole/ml, corresponding to benzimidazole resistant phenotypes. Only Haemonchus spp. larvae were present after treatments in coprocultures. When the efficacy was evaluated experimentally using isolates of H. contortus from Nyala and Kass, the 5 mg ABZ/kg dose revealed reductions of 76-78% on day 8 and of 62-70% on day 14 with the unpaired method. Using 10 mg ABZ/kg, the FECR was still only 77-82%. CONCLUSIONS: Both, in vivo and in vitro methods detected resistant H. contortus populations in goats from South Darfur State. The time point 14 days post treatment was more sensitive for detection of ABZ resistance than 8 days post treatment. This is the first report on the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in Sudan confirming that anthelmintic resistance selection is occurring in African subsistence farming systems.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/epidemiologia , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Prevalência , Sudão/epidemiologia
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(8): 2269-2278, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152335

RESUMO

Natural compounds from medicinal plants provide safe and sustainable alternatives to synthetic anthelmintics. In this study, we assessed in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of Cassia occidentalis (NH-A) and Euphorbia hirta (NH-B) and compared it with levamisole-HCl. The shoots of NH-A and whole plant of NH-B were used to prepare extracts using 70% methanol which were used in the in vitro and in vivo assays. In vitro assays of crude methanolic extracts (CMEs) of NH-A and NH-B on larvae of mixed gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) of goats revealed mortalities of 95.7% (at 100 mg ml-1) and 98.1% (at 50 mgml-1) 24 h postexposure. In vivo assays of NH-A administered orally at doses of 100, 300, 900, and 2700 mg kg-1 bwt revealed dose- and time-dependent anthelmintic effects in goats experimentally infected with mixed species of GINs. NH-B exhibited similar properties when administered at doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg kg-1 bwt. Both NH-A (900 mg kg-1 bwt) and levamisole (7.5 mg kg-1 bwt) achieved a 100% reduction in fecal egg count per gram (EPG) on day 21 and day 14 respectively posttreatment. NH-B (400 mg kg-1 bwt) achieved 93.1% and 86.1% reduction in fecal EPG 7 and 14 days postexposure respectively compared with 88.2% and 82.3% reduction with levamisole-HCl 7 and 14 days postexposure. Our results show that extracts of both plants can disrupt helminth lifecycles by suppressing the egg-laying capacity in adult worms but also kill their infective larvae. Future studies should aim at establishing synergies or antagonisms between the two plant extracts and further development for control of helminths in goats.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Euphorbia/química , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Senna (Planta)/química , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Levamisol , Nematoides , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Uganda/epidemiologia
8.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(3): 456-463, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165992

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Concordance of multiple anthelmintic resistances for gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants by three average-based and two individually based fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests was evaluated and corrected. METHODS: Sheep and goats (≥ 8 weeks) from five farms were randomly assigned to three treatment groups (I, II, III; n = 10 per group) and one untreated control group (Group IV; n = 10). Group I received fenbendazole at the dose rate of 5 and 10 mg/kg, Group II received ivermectin at the dose rate of 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg, and Group III received levamisole at the dose rate of 8 and 12 mg/kg body weight orally for sheep and goat, respectively. Three average-based methods of FECR (FECR1, FECR2 and FECR3) and two individually based methods of FECR (iFECR1 and iFECR2) were evaluated. RESULTS: For fenbendazole resistance, Spearman correlation coefficient for FECR1 was non-significant with other formulae, but for FECR2 with FECR3, FECR3 with iFECR1 and iFECR1 with iFECR2 coincidence was significant at 1%, while for FECR2 with iFECR2 and FECR3 with iFECR2 it was significant at 5%. Spearman correlation coefficients for ivermectin resistance were significant at 1% level and for levamisole it showed significant coincidence at 1% for FECR1 with FECR2 and iFECR1, FECR2 with FECR3 and iFECR1, and iFECR1 with iFECR2, while for FECR1 with FECR3 and iFECR2 coincidence was significant at 5% level. Concordance of kappa values indicated that the coincidence of the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance (95% CI) among the five farms was non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Concordance between the standard average-based FECR and individually based methods suggests that either method could be applied to small ruminant farms.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/métodos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Fenbendazol/administração & dosagem , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Cabras , Índia , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Levamisol/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Nematoides/fisiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(8): 2127-2137, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076996

RESUMO

Therapeutic management of contagious caprine pleuroneumonia (CCPP) involves mostly the use of oxytetracycline followed by enrofloxacin and rarely tylosin. In many parts of the world including India, the former antibiotics are commonly available than the latter. Therefore, prolonged use of the same leads to the development of antibiotic resistance and decreased efficacy of drug. Besides, inflammatory and allergic pathogenesis of CCPP envisages combination therapy. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the combination therapy using different antibiotics (oxytetracycyline @ 10: group I, enrofloxacin @ 5 group II, and tylosin: group III, @ 10 mg/kg body weight), along with anti-inflammatory (meloxicam @ 0.5 mg/kg) and anti-allergic (pheneramine maleate @ 1.0 mg/kg) drugs. These drugs were given intramuscularly at the interval of 48 h for four times in three test groups (n = 10) of Pashmina goats, viz. groups I, II, and III, respectively, affected with CCPP. Group IV (n = 10) was kept as healthy control when group V (n = 10) treated with oxytetracycline @ 10 mg/kg alone was used as positive control. Clinical signs, clinical parameters, pro-inflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)), and oxidative stress indices (total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS)) were evaluated at hours 0, 48, 96, and 144 of experimental trial. Tylosin-based combination therapy resulted in a rapid and favorable recovery resulting in restoration of normal body temperature (102.46 ± 0.31 °F), respiration rate (16.30 ± 0.79 per minute), and heart rate (89.50 ± 2.63 per minute) compared to the oxytetracycline (102.95 ± 0.13, 21.30 ± 1.12, 86.00 ± 2.33, respectively) and enrofloxacin (102.97 ± 0.19, 21.00 ± 1.25, 90.00 ± 2.58, respectively) treated groups. By hour 144, all the groups showed restoration of clinical parameters of normal health and diminishing signs of CCPP, viz. fever, dyspnea, coughing, nasal discharge, weakness, and pleurodynia. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in levels of TNF-α and non-significant (P > 0.05) decrease in levels of TOS and an increase in levels of TAS were noted from hour 0 to 144 in all the test groups. Within the groups, no significant (P > 0.05) change was noted in TNF-α, TOS, and TAS levels; however, TNF-α levels were comparatively lower in group III. Hematological parameters did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). From these findings, it can be inferred that tylosin-based combination therapy is relatively better for early, rapid, and safe recovery besides minimizing inflammatory and oxidative cascade in CCPP affected Pashmina goats compared to oxytetracycline- and enrofloxacin-based therapies.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Pleuropneumonia Contagiosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tilosina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antialérgicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada/veterinária , Enrofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Cabras , Índia , Meloxicam/uso terapêutico , Oxitetraciclina/uso terapêutico , Feniramina/uso terapêutico , Pleuropneumonia/veterinária , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma
10.
Exp Parasitol ; 201: 34-41, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034815

RESUMO

Ovine Eimeria spp. infections cause increased mortality, reduced welfare and substantial economic losses, and anticocccidials are important for their control. Recent reports of anticoccidial resistance against ovine Eimeria spp. necessitate the development of in vitro methods for the detection of reduced anticoccidial efficacy, especially since the in vivo methods are both expensive, time consuming and requires the use of otherwise healthy animals. The aim of the present study was therefore to approach a preliminary standardization of in vitro assays for evaluation of the efficacy of the most commonly used anticoccidials in ruminants. For this purpose, apart from the evaluation of inhibition of oocyst sporulation, most effort was concentrated on assessment of the capacity of the different anticoccidials to inhibit both the invasion and further development (up to the first schizogony) of E. ninakohlyakimovae sporozoites in bovine colonic epithelial cells (BCEC). For this purpose, infected cultures were monitored 1, 8 and 15 days post infection to determine the infection rate, number of immature schizonts and number, size and appearance of mature schizonts, respectively. No clear inhibitory effect was found with any of the anticoccidial formulations tested, and we could not identify why there were no measurable effects from the different anticoccidials. Despite the lack of positive results, further investigations should be encouraged, as this could decrease the need for animal experiments and could be used in the initial assessment of anticoccidial efficacy of new drugs.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/farmacologia , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Colo/citologia , Colo/parasitologia , Decoquinato/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Eimeria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Células Epiteliais/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Cabras , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/parasitologia , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Oocistos/isolamento & purificação , Esquizontes/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquizontes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Esporozoítos/isolamento & purificação , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Triazinas/farmacologia
11.
Acta Trop ; 196: 15-21, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028722

RESUMO

An in vivo study was carried out to investigate the ultrastructural effects of triclabendazole (TCBZ) on immature Fasciola gigantica in a goat model. Five goats were infected with an oral gavage of 150 metacercarial cysts of F. gigantica and anthelmintic treatment occurred at 4 weeks post infection with an oral dose of 10 mg/kg. They were euthanized at 0 (untreated), 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post treatment (h pt). Juvenile flukes were recovered from each of the goat's liver and processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The untreated control flukes showed normal ultrastructure and no apparent changes were observed at 24 h pt. At 48 h pt, moderate levels of disruption were observed to the tegument and minor changes to the sub-tegument which included widespread blebbing and disruption of apical tegumental membrane, swollen mitochondria, reduced number of secretory bodies, swelling of basal infolds leading to severe vacuolation, and relatively mild disruption to the subtegumental muscle fibres, parenchyma and tegumental cells, whereas the gastrodermal cells appeared less affected. By 72 h pt, sloughing of the tegumental syncytium was evident leading to the exposure of the basal lamina and the disruption was severe in the subtegument too. At 96 h pt, the flukes were totally devoid of tegument and the disruption was extremely severe, distorting the ultrastructure of the entire fluke's body. The results of the present study revealed that the flukes showed time-dependent progressive disruption to the internal tissues which became increasingly severe over time pt. This is the first study to detail the time-scale and impacts on ultrastructural morphology of the in vivo TCBZ treatment of the immature tropical liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica.


Assuntos
Fasciola/efeitos dos fármacos , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Triclabendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Fasciola hepatica , Fasciolíase/tratamento farmacológico , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Cabras , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(3): 2443-2452, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612791

RESUMO

Escherichia coli is a cause of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cattle and goats, and sometimes causes severe clinical disease that may result in death of the animal. Previous investigation showed that ginsenoside Rg1 extracted from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae) has an anti-inflammatory effect on the sepsis induced by E. coli lipopolysaccharide via competitive binding to toll-like receptor 4. We hypothesized that intravenous injection of Rg1 had therapeutic effect on mastitis experimentally induced by intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide in lactating goats. In this study, 9 lactating goats were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 groups: (1) lipopolysaccharide intramammary infusion + saline intravenous injection, (2) lipopolysaccharide intramammary infusion + Rg1 intravenous injection, and (3) saline intramammary administration + saline intravenous injection. Because no adverse clinical signs were observed after intramammary infusion of saline and intravenous injection of Rg1 in a preliminary experiment, and available qualified goats were limited in this study, this treatment was not included in this study. One udder half of each goat received intramammary infusion of lipopolysaccharide (50 µg/kg of body weight; groups 1 and 2) or saline solution (group 3), and the other half was infused with 2 mL of saline solution at h 0. Afterward, intravenous injections of saline solution (groups 1 and 3) or Rg1 (2.5 mg/kg of body weight; group 2) were administered at h 2 and 4 post-lipopolysaccharide challenge. Blood and milk samples were collected 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 48, and 72 h post-lipopolysaccharide challenge, and clinical signs were monitored hourly after lipopolysaccharide challenge within the first 10 h and at the same time points as blood samples. The results showed that Rg1 treatment downregulated rectal temperature, udder skin temperature, udder girth, milk somatic cell count, and N-acetyl-ß-d-glucosaminidase and upregulated milk production, lactose, and recovered blood components, such as white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, total proteins, albumin, and globulin. Considering the positive therapeutic effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in goats presented in this study as well as the anti-inflammatory activity found previously, the botanical Rg1 deserves further study as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of E. coli mastitis in dairy animals.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Feminino , Ginsenosídeos/química , Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Cabras , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Distribuição Aleatória
13.
J Helminthol ; 93(5): 529-532, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039771

RESUMO

This study assessed the efficacy of closantel vis-à-vis herbal extracts with known anti-parasitic properties, against fenbendazole-resistant nematodes in goats maintained under a semi-intensive system of management at the University goat farm, Jabalpur. Fifty goats were randomly assigned to five groups, each comprising 10 animals, irrespective of their breed, age and sex. Each animal in Group I, II and III was orally administered with aqueous leaf extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) at 1 g/kg body weight, sitaphal (Annona squamosa) at 1.5 g/kg body weight and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) at 1 g/kg body weight, respectively, whereas Group IV was an untreated control group. Each animal in Group V was orally treated with closantel at 10 mg/kg body weight. During the course of the study, all animals were maintained under an identical semi-intensive system of management. Compared to the untreated control group (Group IV), there was no conspicuous reduction in post-treatment (day 10) faecal egg counts (FEC) in animals administered with the herbal extracts (Groups I, II and III), which is suggestive of poor anti-parasitic activity. However, using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), the overall efficacy of closantel was recorded as 95.64%. This supports the rotational use of closantel as a preferred choice over the benzimidazole group of anthelmintics and/or herbal extracts to meet the acute challenge of in situ development of drug-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes, especially Haemonchus contortus.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Fenbendazol/farmacologia , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Salicilanilidas/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Animais , Annona/química , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Azadirachta/química , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Índia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Folhas de Planta/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Salicilanilidas/administração & dosagem , Tabaco/química
14.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 66(1): 22-27, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246294

RESUMO

Hemoplasma "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos" infections in cattle have been reported in East Asia, Europe, and South America, whereas same cases were documented in buffalo and cattle in Southern China. From April 2018 to May 2018, a mycoplasma epidemic was reported in the mountainous area of central China; Boophilus microplus has also been documented, causing severe haematuria in goats and sheep. The infected animals slowly recovered after diminazene aceturate and praziquantel treatment. To determine whether the hemoplasma caused this infection, 67 blood samples (42 from goats, 25 from sheep) and 132 B. microplus samples were collected for PCR and sequence analysis. The results showed that 19 out of the 42 goat blood samples, 10 out of the 25 sheep blood samples, and 70 out of the 132 B. microplus samples (53%) tested positive for "C. M. haemobos". This study provides molecular evidence of "C. M. haemobos" infections in goat and sheep, and that B. microplus harbours "C. M. haemobos".


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , China/epidemiologia , Diminazena/análogos & derivados , Diminazena/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Cabras , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/etiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia
15.
Animal ; 13(7): 1498-1507, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30419992

RESUMO

Plant secondary metabolites (PSM) are one of the promising options to control gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep and goats. The objective of this study was to assess the abilities of sheep and goats to self-medicate with tannin-rich sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) (SF) when infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, using a cafeteria and an operant conditioning trial. Hypotheses were that parasitized (P) lambs and goat kids would show greater intake and preference for SF than their non-parasitized (NP) counterparts, that kids would eat more SF than lambs (due to their lower resistance against parasites and their greater ability to consume PSM), and that SF intake would increase over time for P animals. We used 20 female kids and 20 ewe lambs aged 3 months. Half of the animals per species (n = 10) were experimentally infected with 170 L3 larvae of Haemonchus contortus/kg of BW (P). The other half were free from parasites throughout the study (NP). Five weeks after infection, animals were exposed to a 24-day cafeteria trial (three 8-day periods) offering a free choice between two legume pellets: SF (3.8% condensed tannins) and alfalfa (ALF, Medicago sativa; no tannin). Subsequently, animals were involved in an operant conditioning trial of two 4-day long sessions, to assess in short-term tests their motivation to walk for a SF reward when offered in choice with freely available ALF. In the cafeteria trial, SF preference was greater in kids than in lambs, particularly in the first two periods. We did not observe a greater preference for SF in P animals, which was even greater in NP animals for periods 1 and 2. Sainfoin intake increased through periods for P animals, which led to similar SF preferences for all groups during period 3. In the operant-conditioning trial, motivation to get the SF reward was similar between P and NP animals. These results support the hypotheses that goats are more willing to consume tanniferous feeds than sheep, and that P animals increased SF intake through time. However, the emergence of a curative self-medicative behaviour was not supported, as P individuals did not show greater SF intake, preference, nor a greater motivation to get SF than NP animals, regardless of animal species. These findings are discussed with previous results and some explanations are presented.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Automedicação/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Condicionamento Operante , Dieta/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , França , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Haemonchus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Haemonchus/fisiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Medicago sativa/química , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Carneiro Doméstico
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(38): 9995-10002, 2018 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173520

RESUMO

The present study aims to reveal the mechanisms of hepatocyte apoptosis induced by dietary feeding. Eighteen midlactating goats were randomly divided into three groups: the low concentrate group (LC), the high concentrate group (HC), and the sodium butyrate (SB)-supplemented group (SHC). After 10 weeks, the HC diet successfully induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA), which increased the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cytokine concentrations and the expression of genes and proteins related to inflammation and apoptosis. The addition of SB to the HC diet notably decreased the levels of those parameters. Additionally, Bcl2 mRNA and protein expression was lower in the HC group than those in the LC and SHC groups. Furthermore, the HC diet reduced the percentages of caspase 3 and 8 promoter methylation compared to those of goats fed the LC diet, whereas the SHC diet partially recovered the methylation ratio to reduce caspase 3 and 8 expression. Collectively, HC diet-induced SARA caused hepatocyte apoptosis via activating the extrinsic apoptosis pathway, whereas dietary addition of SB depressed the inflammatory response and attenuated hepatocyte apoptosis. DNA methylation contributed to regulation of the expression of key apoptotic genes in the livers of lactating goats.


Assuntos
Acidose/veterinária , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatócitos/citologia , Rúmen/metabolismo , Acidose/tratamento farmacológico , Acidose/metabolismo , Acidose/fisiopatologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Doenças das Cabras/metabolismo , Doenças das Cabras/fisiopatologia , Cabras , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 197: 203-211, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177478

RESUMO

Hydrometra is characterized by the accumulation of fluid within the uterus due to the persistence of corpus luteum. The diagnosis of this disorder occurs with an ultrasonic exam. This study evaluated uterine drainage and fertility rates in goats after the use of d-cloprostenol in association or not with Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) treatment. Twenty Saanen goats, diagnosed with hydrometra, received three 37.5-µg doses of d-cloprostenol laterovulvarly at 10-day intervals. On D5, the goats were assigned into two groups receiving 1 mL of GnRH or saline solution intramuscularly. Ultrasonography (US) was performed from D0 to D25. An US approach was used to rank hydrometra in scores. The pregnancy rate was assessed 45 and 90 days after the end of treatment. The uterine fluid was totally drained after the first and second administration of d-cloprostenol in 50% and 95% of the goats, respectively. In one female, full emptying of the uterus occurred only after D20. US performed at 45 and 90 days after the end of treatment indicated there was a pregnancy rate of 45.0% and 55.0%, respectively. Fertility did not differ between the GnRH-treated and control goats. Those goats not pregnant at 45 days had a follicular cyst, hydrosalpinx or hydrometra. At 90 days, no change was observed in the hydrosalpinx, and four goats had hydrometra. The use of three doses of d-cloprostenol 10 days apart was efficient for induction of draining the contents of the uterus, resulting in a relatively acceptable pregnancy rate. This treatment associated with the US approach can be important when applied in the field.


Assuntos
Cloprostenol/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Doenças Uterinas/veterinária , Animais , Dinoprosta , Sincronização do Estro , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Cabras/fisiopatologia , Cabras , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Inseminação Artificial , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Reprodução , Estações do Ano , Ultrassom , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Doenças Uterinas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Uterinas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Uterinas/fisiopatologia
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(34): 8999-9009, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30078321

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to explore the impact of sodium butyrate on d-glutamyl- meso-diaminopimelic acid (iE-DAP)-induced liver inflammation in dairy goats during subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) caused by high-concentrate feed. To achieve this aim, 12 lactating dairy goats were randomly divided into two groups: a high-concentrate feed group ( n = 6, concentrate/forage = 6:4) as the control group and a sodium butyrate (SB) with high-concentrate feed group ( n = 6, concentrate/forage = 6:4, with 1% SB by wt.) as the treatment group. A rumen pH below 5.6 lasted for at least 4 h/d due to long-term HC feeding. The concentration of iE-DAP was significantly lower (11.67 ± 3.85 µg/mL, and 7.74 ± 1.46 µg/mL, at the fourth h and sixth h of feeding, respectively) in the SB-treated group than that in the HC group (51.45 ± 5.71 µg/mL, and 18.31 ± 3.83 µg/mL, at the fourth h and sixth h of feeding, respectively). Meanwhile, SB significantly suppressed the mRNA expression of inflammatory genes (NOD1, RIPK2, TAK1, NF-κB/p65, ERK, JNK2, p38, IL-1ß, TNF-α, CCL5, CCL20, CXCL12, FOS, ß-defensin/LAP). Moreover, the protein expression of NOD1, p-IκBα, p-NF-κB/p-p65, p-ERK1/2, p-JNK, p-p38, and HDAC3 was significantly downregulated in the HC+SB group. In conclusion, iE-DAP-induced inflammation and liver disruption generated by the HC diet was mitigated by SB treatment.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Diaminopimélico/análogos & derivados , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Acidose/tratamento farmacológico , Acidose/imunologia , Acidose/metabolismo , Acidose/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Quimiocina CCL20/genética , Quimiocina CCL20/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Ácido Diaminopimélico/efeitos adversos , Doenças das Cabras/etiologia , Doenças das Cabras/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/metabolismo , Cabras , Fígado/imunologia , Hepatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/imunologia , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Rúmen/metabolismo
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(9): 7804-7807, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30007804

RESUMO

In light of the scarcity of information about the occurrence and epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS) in small ruminants in general, and particularly dairy goats, we launched this limited-scope study. The findings reported here show the detection of MRSA and MRCNS in goat milk and teat skin samples from dairy goat herds in the state of Ohio. A total of 120 milk samples and 120 teat-swab samples were collected from 5 farms. After conventional isolation and phenotypic characterization of the staphylococci colonies, bacterial isolates were tested by PCR assay targeting the genes nuc to identify Staphylococcus aureus and mecA to detect MRSA and MRCNS. The clonal complexes of MRSA isolates was also determined by multiloccus sequence typing. Fifteen (6.2%) positive S. aureus samples were found in this study: 9 from milk and 6 from teat skin samples. Four (2%) MRSA isolates were detected and, using multiloccus sequence typing genotyping, these were designated to clonal complexes CC133 (n = 2; milk samples) and CC5 (n = 2; teat skin). Three (1.25%) coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates from the teat skin also harbored the mecA gene. Although, the MRSA isolated from milk samples is not a typical human-associated lineage, the CC5 clone isolated from teat skin is a common and widespread clonal complex associated with humans, suggesting that this extramammary niche could be a relevant reservoir of methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Furthermore, the fact that 75% of MRSA were recovered from 1 farm showing poor hygiene practices strengthens the hypothesis that good hygiene practices could be useful to prevent persistence and spread of MRSA at a farm level.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Coagulase/metabolismo , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Cabras , Meticilina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ohio , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia
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