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1.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 1-16, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541693

RESUMO

Small ruminants are increasing in popularity as both production and companion animals in the United States. Among sheep, goats, and camelids, there are many disease processes and management techniques that have the potential to result in painful or noxious stimuli. In these species, many medications and therapeutic techniques can be used to reduce or eliminate the long-term consequences of pain. This review focuses on the commonly used medications available for pain management of small ruminants and discusses the benefits and negative aspects of their use.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Dor/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cabras , Ovinos
2.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 17-31, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541697

RESUMO

Small ruminants are increasing in popularity as production and companion animals in the United States, and among sheep, goats, and camelids there are many disease processes and management techniques that have the potential to result in painful or noxious stimuli. In these species, many medications and therapeutic techniques can be used to reduce or eliminate the long-term consequences of pain. In this second portion of the review, we focus on the application of pain management in these species. These strategies include mono- and multimodal and the use of precision pain management, such as epidural drug administration, regional perfusions, and transdermal applications.


Assuntos
Camelídeos Americanos , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Dor/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Analgesia/métodos , Analgesia/veterinária , Animais , Cabras , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Estados Unidos
3.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(5): 2213-2219, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388661

RESUMO

Endoparasitic nematode infection could have negative impacts on performances of sheep and goats. However, supplementary protein and minerals can also affect nematodes. This paper reviews present information on the importance of protein and minerals supplementation as means to control nematode infection in small ruminants. Protein supplementation seems to improve host resilience by diverting metabolizable protein (MP) towards dealing with detrimental effects of the infection and thus improve production and reproductive performances of animal. A large body of evidence shows that supplementation of copper, iron, and zinc can also enhance host resistance against nematode infection as shown by decreased fecal egg count (FEC) and worm burdens. As such, protein and mineral supplementations can play a major role in sustainable control of parasitic nematode infection and thus reduce reliance on chemotherapic drugs.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Minerais/metabolismo , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Carneiro Doméstico
4.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 240-246, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234614

RESUMO

Ozone (O3) is a triatomic form of oxygen. As O3 rapidly dissociates into water and releases a reactive form of oxygen that may oxidize cells, the gas mixture of O3/O2 is used in medicine. ATP is widely available for cellular activity. O3 can be administered via the systemic and local routes. Although O3 is known as one of the most powerful oxidants, it also promotes antioxidant enzymes. Additionally, it stimulates some of the cells of the immune system and inactivates pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, yeasts, protozoa, and viruses. Owing to these activities, O3 is used to improve several diseases, both in human and in veterinary medicine. Considering the wide scope of O3 application, the aim of this review was to reiterate the mechanisms of action of O3 and its utilization in different mammalian species (bovine, ovine-caprine, equine, canine, porcine).


Assuntos
Ozônio/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Cabras , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Cavalos , Oxidantes , Oxirredução , Ozônio/administração & dosagem , Pró-Fármacos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 114, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benzimidazole (BZ) resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes is a worldwide problem for livestock production, particularly in small ruminants. Assignment of the emergence of resistance using sensitive and reliable methods is required to adopt the correct strategies for control. In Sudan, BZ resistant Haemonchus contortus populations were recently reported in goats in South Darfur. This study aimed to provide additional data regarding albendazole efficacy and to describe the prevailing molecular BZ resistance mechanisms. METHODS: Faecal egg count reduction and egg hatch tests (EHT) were used to evaluate albendazole efficacy in three different areas of South Darfur using naturally (Rehed Al-Birdi and Tulus) and experimentally infected (Tulus and Um Dafuq) goats. Using samples from Central, East and South Darfur, pyro- and Sanger sequencing were used to detect the polymorphisms F167Y, E198A and F200Y in H. contortus isotype 1 ß-tubulin in DNA extracted from pooled third-stage larval (L3) samples (n = 36) on days 0 and 10 during trials, and from pooled adult male H. contortus (treated goats, n = 14; abattoirs, n = 83) including samples from populations previously found to be resistant in South Darfur. RESULTS: Albendazole efficacies at 5, 7.5 and 10 mg/kg doses were 73.5-90.2% on day 14 in natural and experimental infections while 12.5 mg/kg showed > 96.6% efficacy. EC50 in the EHT were 0.8 and 0.11 µg/ml thiabendazole in natural and experimental infection trials, respectively. PCRs detected Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus and Cooperia in L3 samples from albendazole-treated goats. Haemonchus contortus allele frequencies in codons 167 and 200 using pyrosequencing assays were ≤ 7.4% while codon 198 assays failed. Sanger sequencing revealed five novel polymorphisms at codon 198. Noteworthy, an E198L substitution was present in 82% of the samples (L3 and adults) including all post-treatment samples. Moreover, E198V, E198K and potentially E198I, and E198Stop were identified in a few samples. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of E198L in BZ resistant H. contortus and the second where this is the predominant genotype associated with resistance in any strongyle species. Since this variant cannot be quantified using pyrosequencing, the results highlight important limitations in the general applicability of pyrosequencing to quantify BZ resistance genotypes.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Códon , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Haemonchus/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tubulina (Proteína)/genética , Albendazol/farmacologia , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Cabras , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sudão , Trichostrongyloidea/genética , Trichostrongylus/genética
6.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108607, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122611

RESUMO

Parasitic infections are associated with profound changes in the structure and function of the gut microbiome in various host-parasite systems. Here we examined the microbial composition and function in the abomasum, proximal colon and feces of Haemonchus contortus-infected goats after a partial anthelmintic drug clearance. A single-dose treatment of H. contortus-infected goats with Cydectin (moxidectin) resulted in an 83.9 % and 61.8 % reduction in fecal egg counts (EPG) and worm burden, respectively (P < 0.01), and restored abomasal pH to a normal baseline level. The treatment significantly increased the abundance of Proteobacteria, particularly that of Campylobacter, in the proximal colon. It also significantly affected several basic pathways, including bacterial secretion, butyrate metabolism, and LPS biosynthesis, and seemingly reduced the cellulolytic capacity in the colon. Several network modules displayed a strong correlation with EPG and worm burden. The Mantel test indicated a strong correlation between treatment related network topologies of the operational taxonomic units (OTU) belonging to Actinobacteria and Rikenellaceae and EPG and worm burden levels, respectively. Furthermore, microbial signatures that may better predict anthelmintic efficacy were identified. A signature or balance represented by the log ratio of the abundance of Verrucomicrobiaceae and Camplyobacteraceae had a strong correlation with EPG (r = 0.80). These novel insights into the interactions between H. contortus and gut microbiome in the caprine host and the consequence of a partial anthelmintic clearance on animal health and well-being may facilitate the design of more effective next-generation anthelmintics.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/veterinária , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/microbiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Haemonchus , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Carga Parasitária/veterinária , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Vet Rec ; 186(11): 349, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a previous study, we found that rates of antibiotic residues in goat carcasses in Missouri were three times the published national average, warranting further research in this area. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of goat veterinarians to determine attitudes and practices regarding antibiotics, recruiting 725 veterinarians listed on the American Association of Small Ruminant Practitioners (AASRP) website and 64 Missouri Veterinary Medical Association (MVMA) veterinarians. RESULTS: We collected 189 responses (26.1%) from AASRP members (170 valid) and 8 (12.5%) from MVMA veterinarians totalling 178 responses. While the vast majority of all veterinarians indicated that they prescribed antibiotics less than half of the time, Missouri veterinarians indicated that they spent more time treating goats for overt disease like intestinal parasites and less time on proactive practices such as reproductive herd health management comparatively. While veterinarians agreed that antibiotic resistance was a growing concern, veterinarians outside of Missouri seemed more confident that their own prescription practices was not a contributor. Although nationally most veterinarians felt that attending continuing education classes was beneficial, 73.4% in other states attended classes on antibiotic use compared to only four of the nine Missouri veterinarians. CONCLUSION: Missouri veterinarians had less veterinary experience than veterinarians in other states, and this, in conjunction with low continuing education requirements in Missouri relative to most other states, may hinder development of more proactive and effective client-veterinary relationships.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Médicos Veterinários/psicologia , Adulto , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Educação Continuada/legislação & jurisprudência , Educação em Veterinária/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Cabras , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Missouri , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Médicos Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina Veterinária/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 17-30, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029182

RESUMO

Control of gastrointestinal nematodes has been based on anthelmintics. However, this strategy is unsustainable owing to anthelmintic resistance. Parasitic nematodes have biologic and genetic features that favor the development of drug resistance, making the emergence of resistant nematodes inevitable. The rate of resistance development is affected controllable factors. There is a need to change the paradigm of how gastrointestinal nematodes are controlled to decrease the rate at which resistance develops. This article reviews the biology and prevalence of anthelmintic resistance, and provides recommendations for diagnosing resistance and for strategies that should be implemented to reduce the development of resistance.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Gado/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
9.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 31-43, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029187

RESUMO

Refugia-based strategies are intended to help slow the development of anthelmintic resistance by providing a population of parasites that are not exposed to the treatment. Evidence from field studies is lacking. There is no single way to incorporate refugia into a parasite control program. There are many options available varying greatly in complexity and practicality, and none are suitable for all situations. Incorporating refugia into production systems typically requires a change in farmer mindset and greater input of time, labor, and/or technology, but is necessary to help preserve anthelmintic efficacy and promote sustainable animal production systems.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bovinos , Resistência a Medicamentos , Cabras , Gado/parasitologia , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Ovinos
10.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 73-87, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029190

RESUMO

Strongylid gastrointestinal nematodes are an important cause of disease and economic loss in small ruminants. These parasites are important in most of the United States, with the bloodsucking parasite Haemonchus contortus being the predominant species of concern. Sheep and goats are infected while grazing, and the biology of infective larvae on pastures is important in the design of parasite management programs. Widespread resistance to anthelmintics requires strategies designed to preserve remaining drug activity; these include combination treatments with multiple classes of anthelmintics and targeted treatments.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
11.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(1): 89-107, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029191

RESUMO

It is increasingly difficult to manage and control gastrointestinal nematode parasites in pasture-based ruminant livestock operations because of the high prevalence of anthelmintic resistance. Anthelmintics should be combined with alternative forms of control. Sustainable tools include copper oxide wire particles and condensed tannin-rich plants, which target primarily Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants. Nematophagous fungi reduce larvae on pasture and target nematode larvae in feces of most livestock species. In addition, and perhaps most importantly, genetic selection focuses on parasite resistance. Producers should use as many tools as possible to minimize the need for pharmaceutical interventions and optimize animal production.


Assuntos
Hemoncose/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Cobre/administração & dosagem , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Haemonchus/isolamento & purificação , Gado/parasitologia , Proantocianidinas/administração & dosagem , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
12.
Parasitol Int ; 76: 102063, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978599

RESUMO

Pour-on eprinomectin was recently registered for lactating small ruminants. Given the high prevalence of benzimidazole resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy goats, many farmers use eprinomectin exclusively to treat their animals. On a French dairy goat farm, a veterinary practitioner noted a poor response to two types of eprinomectin treatment (pour-on application and injectable formulation). Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of both formulations of eprinomectin, as well as moxidectin and fenbendazole, using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) according to the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines. Nematode species were identified at days 0 and post-treatment days 14 after bulk larval cultures, by morphology and real-time PCR. Plasma concentrations of eprinomectin were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at post-treatment days 2 and 5 in the eprinomectin-treated groups. Egg count reductions were poor in animals treated with topical (-16.7%; 95% CI:[-237; 59]) or subcutaneous (21.5%; 95% CI:[-126; 73]) eprinomectin, and with fenbendazole (-5.8%; 95% CI:[-205; 63]). Haemonchus contortus was the main species identified by morphology and by real-time PCR before and after treatment. The plasma concentrations of eprinomectin were determined in all eprinomectin-treated animals and were above 2 ng/ml at post-treatment day 2, indicating that the lack of effect was not due to low exposure of the worms to the drug. Interestingly, moxidectin remained effective in all infected animals. This is the first report of multiple resistance to eprinomectin and benzimidazole in H. contortus on a French dairy goat farm with moxidectin as a relevant alternative.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Benzimidazóis/sangue , Fazendas , Feminino , França , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Ivermectina/sangue , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas
13.
Vet Parasitol ; 277: 108992, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835054

RESUMO

Eprinomectin (EPM) has been recently granted a marketing authorisation in the European Union for use in goats, with a zero-day milk withdrawal period. Considering the high prevalence of benzimidazole resistance worldwide and the economic implications of managing milk residues, EPM may today be considered the main (or even the only) affordable treatment option, at least in dairy goats in the EU. However, the chosen dose (1 mg/kg) seems to be suboptimal, especially for lactating goats, and the chosen route of administration (Pour-on) highly subject to inter-individual variability. Considering the scarcity of anthelmintic resources, such a dosage regimen might threat the sustainability of this crucial drug in goat milk production and needs to be urgently discussed and reassessed.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios/normas , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Indústria de Laticínios/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria de Laticínios/tendências , União Europeia , Feminino , Cabras , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem
14.
Pol J Vet Sci ; 22(4): 753-760, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867918

RESUMO

We described a first case of resistance to eprinomectin in goat herd in Poland in which resistance to benzimidazoles had been previously reported. The herd was established in 2011 by purchasing several goats from a single herd in south-eastern Poland. Resistance to benzimidazoles in the herd was first reported in 2017. Shortly after the owner started to signal low effectiveness of the treatment with eprinomectin. In June 2018 the larval development test from pooled faecal sample was performed and the results indicated the presence of resistance to macrocyclic lactones and levamisole. In July 2018 a faecal egg count (FEC) reduction test was performed in 39 animals with levamisole, eprinomectin and one untreated control group. Drugs were used in doses recommended for goats. Three methods of calculation of FEC reduction were compared. After eprinomectin treatment, FEC reduction ranged from 0 to 20%, depending on the method of calculation. FEC reduction following levamisole treatment was 100%. Main species present in the faecal samples after treatment and in larvicidal concentrations in larval development test was Haemonchus contortus. This is the first report of anthelminthic resistance to macrocylic lactones (eprinomectin) in goats in Poland.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas
15.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 18: 100325, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796185

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) have been identified in Australia as a major problem in goat production, with few anthelmintics registered for use in goats. Therefore, anecdotally many producers use anthelmintics that have not been registered for goats. Using unregistered products could increase selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance as well as safety and/or meat or milk chemical residues of products from treated goats. This producer survey was conducted in 2014 to establish Australian goat producer knowledge, perception and practises of GIN treatment and control. Eighty-eight producers responded to the survey. Of these respondents, 90% thought that GINs were a problem for the Australian goat industry, and 73% considered GINs had caused production losses or health impacts for their goats during the 5 years prior to the survey. With regard to anthelmintic resistance, 7% believed that anthelmintic resistance was not a problem at all, 93% acknowledged anthelmintic resistance was a problem in Australian goats herds, with 25% of these reporting their properties as being affected. The majority (81%) of respondents believed the number of anthelmintics registered for goats was inadequate for effective GIN control. Of the 85% of producers who used an anthelmintic during the survey period, 69% had used a treatment not registered for use in goats. Fifty respondents listed the anthelmintic dosage used, and 50% of those had used a dose rate greater than the recommended label dose. The average frequency of administration of anthelmintic was 2.5 times per annum. Of the 51% of respondents who listed the frequency of their treatments given during the survey period, 16% administered four or more treatments annually to the majority of their goats and 8% administered treatments on an "as needed" basis. Faecal egg count (FEC) had been performed on 72% of properties in at least one of the six years covered by the survey. These results indicated that the majority of surveyed producers use anthelmintics that are not registered for use in goats and at different dose rates to label. These practises have the potential for increasing the spread of anthelmintic resistance in the GIN populations of goats and sheep. Further, giving dose rates in excess of label recommendations could impact goat safety and/or product residues. Further research is needed to investigate these risks and evaluate more sustainable GIN control options for goat herds. In addition more effective dissemination of information is necessary for the improvement of the Australian goat industry.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Uso Off-Label/veterinária , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Austrália , Resistência a Medicamentos , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Cabras , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Uso Off-Label/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226242, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821358

RESUMO

Brucellosis in sheep and goats, a zoonotic disease primarily associated with Brucella melitensis infections, causes significant economic losses and public health concerns worldwide. Although control measures are effective, economic limitations and nomadic lifestyles may limit vaccination coverage, and test and removal policies may not be feasible. In this study, we evaluated the effects of therapy with a long acting antimicrobial tulathromycin on the pathogenesis of brucellosis. Thirty-five goats were randomly assigned for experimental infection with B. melitensis strain 16M while open or during mid-gestation. Approximately half of the animals in each group were then treated with tulathromycin and subsequently assessed for the development of humoral responses to infection, clinical presentation, and bacterial dissemination and colonization. All animals, regardless of treatment group were successfully challenged with B. melitensis 16M demonstrated by bacterial recovery from conjunctival swabs and development of positive antibody titers. In goats infected while open, no animals aborted and Brucella was recovered from only one animal in tulathromycin-treated and one animal from the untreated group. Tulathromycin treatment of pregnant goats did not prevent abortion nor did it reduce bacterial dissemination, colonization, or shedding. Our data suggests that treatment of goats in mid-gestation with tulathromycin at the labeled dose does not influence disease pathogenesis or tissue colonization after experimental B. melitensis challenge.


Assuntos
Brucella melitensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Brucelose/veterinária , Dissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Heterocíclicos/uso terapêutico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/veterinária , Aborto Espontâneo , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Brucelose/complicações , Brucelose/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Cabras , Gravidez
17.
Microb Pathog ; 137: 103781, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593757

RESUMO

Sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) [1] is one of the most common problems of dairy animals causing great economical loss due to decreased milk production. Here we determined the antioxidant effect of sodium butyrate (NaB) [2] in experimentally induced SARA and its effects on mammary epithelial tissues of goat. Goats (n = 12) were equally divided into two groups: high-concentrate (HC) as control group fed with HC diet (concentrate: forage = 6:4) whereas HC + NaB as treatment group fed HC diet with NaB at 1% by weight for 24 weeks. Mammary epithelial tissue samples were analyzed for the expression of genes and proteins responsible for oxidative stress as well as biochemical markers of antioxidant activity in the form of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). The total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of antioxidant enzymes was also calculated. Butyrate induced antioxidant effect by increasing mRNA and protein abundance of antioxidants in mammary gland of HC + NaB group compared to HC group. Likewise, the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) was significantly increased and Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was decreased in HC + NaB group compared to HC group. It is concluded that oxidative stress in mammary gland of goats induced by high concentrate diet was alleviated by NaB supplementation.


Assuntos
Acidose/metabolismo , Acidose/veterinária , Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Acidose/tratamento farmacológico , Acidose/fisiopatologia , Animais , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio/metabolismo , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/genética , Doenças das Cabras/metabolismo , Doenças das Cabras/fisiopatologia , Cabras , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo
18.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(4): 420-429, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183876

RESUMO

Tulathromycin is a macrolide antibiotic commonly used for the treatment of respiratory disease in food animal species including goats. Recent research in pigs has suggested that the presence of disease could alter the pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in animals with respiratory disease. The objectives of this study were (a) compare the plasma pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in healthy goats as well as goats with an induced respiratory disease; and (b) to compare the tissue residue concentrations of tulathromycin marker in both groups. For this trial, disease was induced with Pasteurella multocida. Following disease induction, tulathromycin was administered. Samples of plasma were collected at various time points up to 312 hr posttreatment, when study animals were euthanized and tissue samples were collected. For PK parameters in plasma, Vz (control: 28.7 ± 11.9 ml/kg; experimental: 57.8 ± 26.6 ml/kg) was significantly higher (p = 0.0454) in the experimental group than the control group, and nonsignificant differences were noted in other parameters. Among time points significantly lower plasma concentrations were noted in the experimental group at 168 hr (p = 0.023), 216 hr (p = 0.036), 264 hr (p = 0.0017), 288 hr (p = 0.0433), and 312 hr (p = 0.0486). None of the goats had tissue residues above the US bovine limit of 5 µg/g at the end of the study. No differences were observed between muscle, liver, or fat concentrations. A significantly lower concentration (p = 0.0095) was noted in the kidneys of experimental goats when compared to the control group. These results suggest that the effect of respiratory disease on the pharmacokinetics and tissue residues appear minimal after experimental P. multocida infection, however as evidenced by the disparity in Cmax , significant differences in plasma concentrations at terminal time points, as well as the differences in kidney concentrations, there is the potential for alterations in diseased versus clinical animals.


Assuntos
Dissacarídeos/farmacocinética , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Cabras/metabolismo , Compostos Heterocíclicos/farmacocinética , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Pasteurella multocida , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacocinética , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Área Sob a Curva , Dissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Resíduos de Drogas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras/sangue , Meia-Vida , Compostos Heterocíclicos/uso terapêutico , Fígado , Músculo Esquelético , Infecções por Pasteurella/tratamento farmacológico
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 184, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since pastoralists in South Darfur, Sudan, had complained about lack of albendazole (ABZ) efficacy to control nematodes in goats, the frequency of infection with gastrointestinal helminths was studied before in vivo faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were conducted using ABZ orally either at the dose recommended for sheep, 5 mg/kg body weight (bw) or at 10 mg/kg bw. Experiments included goats naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes or experimentally infected with local Haemonchus contortus isolates. Three study areas (Nyala, Beleil and Kass) were visited in autumn or winter. RESULTS: Out of 478 screened goats, 82.4% were infected with gastrointestinal helminths and 82% were shedding eggs of strongyle nematodes with 90% of the strongyle larvae representing Haemonchus spp. A FECRT using naturally infected goats (n = 225: 71 untreated, 104 and 50 treated with 5 and 10 mg ABZ/kg bw, respectively) detected reduced ABZ efficacy in Nyala and Kass. Paired and unpaired FECRT calculations detected reductions of 72-92% with samples taken at 8 days post treatment with 5 mg ABZ/kg bw and of 85-94% with 10 mg ABZ/kg bw. The FECRT based on day 14 post treatment samples showed reductions of 69-77% with 5 mg/kg and of 75-87% with 10 mg ABZ/kg bw. In Beleil, ABZ efficacy was 95%. In the egg hatch test EC50 values for Nyala and Kass ranged from 0.12-0.24 µg thiabendazole/ml, corresponding to benzimidazole resistant phenotypes. Only Haemonchus spp. larvae were present after treatments in coprocultures. When the efficacy was evaluated experimentally using isolates of H. contortus from Nyala and Kass, the 5 mg ABZ/kg dose revealed reductions of 76-78% on day 8 and of 62-70% on day 14 with the unpaired method. Using 10 mg ABZ/kg, the FECR was still only 77-82%. CONCLUSIONS: Both, in vivo and in vitro methods detected resistant H. contortus populations in goats from South Darfur State. The time point 14 days post treatment was more sensitive for detection of ABZ resistance than 8 days post treatment. This is the first report on the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in Sudan confirming that anthelmintic resistance selection is occurring in African subsistence farming systems.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/epidemiologia , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Hemoncose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Prevalência , Sudão/epidemiologia
20.
Acta Parasitol ; 64(3): 456-463, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165992

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Concordance of multiple anthelmintic resistances for gastrointestinal nematodes in small ruminants by three average-based and two individually based fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests was evaluated and corrected. METHODS: Sheep and goats (≥ 8 weeks) from five farms were randomly assigned to three treatment groups (I, II, III; n = 10 per group) and one untreated control group (Group IV; n = 10). Group I received fenbendazole at the dose rate of 5 and 10 mg/kg, Group II received ivermectin at the dose rate of 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg, and Group III received levamisole at the dose rate of 8 and 12 mg/kg body weight orally for sheep and goat, respectively. Three average-based methods of FECR (FECR1, FECR2 and FECR3) and two individually based methods of FECR (iFECR1 and iFECR2) were evaluated. RESULTS: For fenbendazole resistance, Spearman correlation coefficient for FECR1 was non-significant with other formulae, but for FECR2 with FECR3, FECR3 with iFECR1 and iFECR1 with iFECR2 coincidence was significant at 1%, while for FECR2 with iFECR2 and FECR3 with iFECR2 it was significant at 5%. Spearman correlation coefficients for ivermectin resistance were significant at 1% level and for levamisole it showed significant coincidence at 1% for FECR1 with FECR2 and iFECR1, FECR2 with FECR3 and iFECR1, and iFECR1 with iFECR2, while for FECR1 with FECR3 and iFECR2 coincidence was significant at 5% level. Concordance of kappa values indicated that the coincidence of the prevalence of anthelmintic resistance (95% CI) among the five farms was non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Concordance between the standard average-based FECR and individually based methods suggests that either method could be applied to small ruminant farms.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Resistência a Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/métodos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Fenbendazol/administração & dosagem , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/tratamento farmacológico , Cabras , Índia , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Levamisol/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Nematoides/fisiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/tratamento farmacológico
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