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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3102-3105, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467701

RESUMO

Trollius chinensis is a traditional Chinese medicinal material in China, the wild resource of T. chinensis are now exhausted, and commercial medicinal T. chinensis mainly depends on artificial cultivation. As one of the most severely happened diseases at the seedling period, damping off has been a serious threaten to the breeding of T. chinensis seedlings. However, no related research have been reported so far. So, the authors collected damping-off samples of T. chinensis in 2018 from seedling breeding nursery in Guyuan, Hebei province, and carried out study on taxonomic identification of the pathogen. Damping off occurs in the T. chinensis production area from mid-May to late June every year. At the beginning, brown lesions were observed on the basal stem, then the lesions circumferential expanded and constricted, and finally resulted in the fall and death of T. chinensis seedlings. Pathogenic isolate was growing rapidly on the PDA medium, well developed aerial mycelia were grey white at first, then turned brown gradually, and a great number of small dark brown sclerotia were developed in the middle and periphery of the colony. Mycelial diameter of the pathogen was about 7 to 10 µm, near right angle or acute angle branches, near branches with septa, branches and septa with constriction. After the healthy T. chinensis seedlings were inoculated by pathogenic isolate, damping-off was observed soon, and the symptom was as same as those observed in the field. Through homogenous blast, the rDNA-ITS sequence of the pathogenic isolate shown 99.49% to 99.84% homology with Rhizoctonia solani, R. solani AG-1 IC mycelium anastomosis group and Thanatephorus cucumeris, the sexual type of Rhizoctonia. Furthermore, obvious mycelial anastomosis phenomena were observed when the pathogenic isolate and R. solani AG-1 IC strain were confronting cultured. Based on the results above, the pathogenic isolate causing damping off of T. chinensis was identified as R. solani AG-1 IC mycelial anastomosis group. RESULTS:: in the present work have important significance for further research on basic biology of the pathogen and integrated control of damping off causing by it on T. chinensis.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas , Plântula , Basidiomycota , Melhoramento Vegetal , Rhizoctonia
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245865, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495149

RESUMO

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a tremendous threat to vegetables across the globe, including in Pakistan. The present work was conducted to investigate the genetic variability of CMV isolates infecting pea and spinach vegetables in the Pothwar region of Pakistan. Serological-based surveys during 2016-2017 revealed 31.70% overall CMV disease incidence from pea and spinach crops. Triple-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) revealed that all the positive isolates belong to CMV subgroup II. Two selected cDNA from ELISA-positive samples representing each pea and spinach crops were PCR-amplified (ca.1100 bp) and sequenced corresponding to the CMV CP gene which shared 93.7% nucleotide identity with each other. Both the sequences of CMV pea (AAHAP) and spinach (AARS) isolates from Pakistan were submitted to GenBank as accession nos. MH119071 and MH119073, respectively. BLAST analysis revealed 93.4% sequence identity of AAHAP isolate with SpK (KC763473) from Iran while AARS isolate shared maximum identity (94.5%) with the strain 241 (AJ585519) from Australia and clustered with some reference isolates of CMV subgroup II from UK (Z12818) and USA (AF127976) in a Neighbour-joining phylogenetic reconstruction. A total of 59 polymorphic (segregating) sites (S) with nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.06218 was evident while no INDEL event was observed in Pakistani isolates. The evolutionary distance of Pakistani CMV isolates was recorded as 0.0657 with each other and 0.0574-0.2964 with other CMV isolates reported elsewhere in the world. A frequent gene flow (Fst = 0.30478 <0.33) was observed between Pakistani and earlier reported CMV isolates. In genetic differentiation analysis, the value of three permutation-based statistical tests viz; Z (84.3011), Snn (0.82456), and Ks* (4.04042) were non-significant. The statistical analysis revealed the values 2.02535, 0.01468, and 0.71862 of Tajima's D, Fu, & Li's F* and D* respectively, demonstrating that the CMV population is under balancing selection.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Cucumovirus , Cucumovirus/genética , Variação Genética , Paquistão , Ervilhas , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas , Spinacia oleracea
3.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361827

RESUMO

Grammicin, a polyketide metabolite produced by the endolichenic fungus Xylaria grammica KCTC 13121BP, shows strong nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita. This study was performed to elucidate the grammicin biosynthesis pathway of X. grammica KCTC 13121BP and to examine the nematicidal activity of the biosynthesis intermediates and derivatives against M. incognita. Two grammicin biosynthesis intermediates were isolated from a T-DNA insertion transformant (strain TR-74) of X. grammica KCTC 13121BP and identified as 2-(hydroxymethyl)cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (compound 1) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (compound 2), which were also reported to be intermediates in the biosynthesis pathway of patulin, an isomer of grammicin. This indicates that the grammicin biosynthesis pathway overlaps almost with that of patulin, except for the last few steps. Among 13 grammicin biosynthesis intermediates and their derivatives (except grammicin), toluquinol caused the highest M. incognita J2 mortality, with an LC50/72 h value of 11.13 µg/mL, which is similar to grammicin with an LC50/72 h value of 15.95 µg/mL. In tomato pot experiments, the wettable powder type formulations (WP) of toluquinol (17.78 µg/mL) and grammicin (17.78 µg/mL) also effectively reduced gall formation on the roots of tomato plants with control values of 72.22% and 77.76%, respectively, which are much higher than abamectin (16.67%), but lower than fosthiazate (100%). The results suggest that toluquinol can be used directly as a biochemical nematicide or as a lead molecule for the development of new synthetic nematicides for the control of root-knot nematode diseases.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Policetídeos/farmacologia , Tylenchoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia
4.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(15): 8900-8922, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370034

RESUMO

In eukaryotes, the major nuclear export pathway for mature mRNAs uses the dimeric receptor TAP/p15, which is recruited to mRNAs via the multisubunit TREX complex, comprising the THO core and different export adaptors. Viruses that replicate in the nucleus adopt different strategies to hijack cellular export factors and achieve cytoplasmic translation of their mRNAs. No export receptors are known in plants, but Arabidopsis TREX resembles the mammalian complex, with a conserved hexameric THO core associated with ALY and UIEF proteins, as well as UAP56 and MOS11. The latter protein is an orthologue of mammalian CIP29. The nuclear export mechanism for viral mRNAs has not been described in plants. To understand this process, we investigated the export of mRNAs of the pararetrovirus CaMV in Arabidopsis and demonstrated that it is inhibited in plants deficient in ALY, MOS11 and/or TEX1. Deficiency for these factors renders plants partially resistant to CaMV infection. Two CaMV proteins, the coat protein P4 and reverse transcriptase P5, are important for nuclear export. P4 and P5 interact and co-localise in the nucleus with the cellular export factor MOS11. The highly structured 5' leader region of 35S RNAs was identified as an export enhancing element that interacts with ALY1, ALY3 and MOS11 in vitro.


Assuntos
Regiões 5' não Traduzidas , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/virologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular , Arabidopsis/virologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Caulimovirus/genética , Caulimovirus/metabolismo , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , RNA Viral/química , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por RNA/metabolismo
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5102, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429405

RESUMO

Range shifts of infectious plant disease are expected under climate change. As plant diseases move, emergent abiotic-biotic interactions are predicted to modify their distributions, leading to unexpected changes in disease risk. Evidence of these complex range shifts due to climate change, however, remains largely speculative. Here, we combine a long-term study of the infectious tree disease, white pine blister rust, with a six-year field assessment of drought-disease interactions in the southern Sierra Nevada. We find that climate change between 1996 and 2016 moved the climate optimum of the disease into higher elevations. The nonlinear climate change-disease relationship contributed to an estimated 5.5 (4.4-6.6) percentage points (p.p.) decline in disease prevalence in arid regions and an estimated 6.8 (5.8-7.9) p.p. increase in colder regions. Though climate change likely expanded the suitable area for blister rust by 777.9 (1.0-1392.9) km2 into previously inhospitable regions, the combination of host-pathogen and drought-disease interactions contributed to a substantial decrease (32.79%) in mean disease prevalence between surveys. Specifically, declining alternate host abundance suppressed infection probabilities at high elevations, even as climatic conditions became more suitable. Further, drought-disease interactions varied in strength and direction across an aridity gradient-likely decreasing infection risk at low elevations while simultaneously increasing infection risk at high elevations. These results highlight the critical role of aridity in modifying host-pathogen-drought interactions. Variation in aridity across topographic gradients can strongly mediate plant disease range shifts in response to climate change.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Mudança Climática , Doenças das Plantas , Ribes , Clima , Secas , Florestas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas , Prevalência , Água
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445203

RESUMO

Wheat is a major staple food crop worldwide, due to its total yield and unique processing quality. Its grain yield and quality are threatened by Fusarium head blight (FHB), which is mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum. Salicylic acid (SA) has a strong and toxic effect on F. graminearum and is a hopeful target for sustainable control of FHB. F. graminearum is capable of efficientdealing with SA stress. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we characterized FgMFS1 (FGSG_03725), a major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporter gene in F. graminearum. FgMFS1 was highly expressed during infection and was upregulated by SA. The predicted three-dimensional structure of the FgMFS1 protein was consistent with the schematic for the antiporter. The subcellular localization experiment indicated that FgMFS1 was usually expressed in the vacuole of hyphae, but was alternatively distributed in the cell membrane under SA treatment, indicating an element of F. graminearum in response to SA. ΔFgMFS1 (loss of function mutant of FgMFS1) showed enhanced sensitivity to SA, less pathogenicity towards wheat, and reduced DON production under SA stress. Re-introduction of a functional FgMFS1 gene into ∆FgMFS1 recovered the mutant phenotypes. Wheat spikes inoculated with ΔFgMFS1 accumulated more SA when compared to those inoculated with the wild-type strain. Ecotopic expression of FgMFS1 in yeast enhanced its tolerance to SA as expected, further demonstrating that FgMFS1 functions as an SA exporter. In conclusion, FgMFS1 encodes an SA exporter in F. graminearum, which is critical for its response to wheat endogenous SA and pathogenicity towards wheat.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fusarium/metabolismo , Genes Fúngicos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/microbiologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Fusarium/genética
7.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361746

RESUMO

New agricultural strategies aim to reduce the use of pesticides due to their damage to the environment and humans, and the caused resistance to pathogens. Therefore, alternative sources of antifungal compounds from plants are under investigation lately. Extracts from plants have a wide composition of chemical compounds which may complicate the development of pathogen resistance. Botrytis cinerea, causing grey mould, is an important horticultural and ornamental pathogen, responsible for the relevant yield and quality losses. B. cinerea isolated from a different plant host may differ in the sensitivity to antifungal substances from plants. Assessing the importance of research covering a wide range of pathogens for the rapid development of biopesticides, this study aims to determine the sensitivity of the B. cinerea isolate complex (10 strains) to plant extracts, describe morphological changes caused by the extract treatment, and detect differences between the sensitivity of different plant host isolates. The results showed the highest sensitivity of the B. cinerea isolates complex to cinnamon extract, and the lowest to laurel extract. In contrast, laurel extract caused the most changes of morphological attributes in the isolates. Five B. cinerea isolates from plant hosts of raspberry, cabbage, apple, bell pepper, and rose were grouped statistically according to their sensitivity to laurel extract. Meanwhile, the bell pepper isolate separated from the isolate complex based on its sensitivity to clove extract, and the strawberry and apple isolates based on their sensitivity to cinnamon extract.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Hifas/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Agentes de Controle Biológico/isolamento & purificação , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Botrytis/isolamento & purificação , Brassica/microbiologia , Capsicum/microbiologia , Cinnamomum camphora/química , Fragaria/microbiologia , Humanos , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hifas/isolamento & purificação , Malus/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Syzygium/química , Vitis/microbiologia
8.
Phytochemistry ; 190: 112884, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388481

RESUMO

This study analyzed the genetic variability and biochemical characteristics of edible and ornamental accessions of pepper, Capsicum annuum, in response to root and basal rot disease (RCR), caused by Phytophthora capsici, using resistance screening and genetic variability via Inter Simple Sequence Repeat marker (ISSR), bio-mass parameters, and enzymatic activity of Peroxidase or peroxide reductases (POX), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Polyphenol oxidase (PPOs), Catalase (CAT), Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), ß-1,3-glucanase and phenolic content. The resistance in C. annuum '37ChilPPaleo', '19OrnP-PBI' and '23CherryPOrsh' and susceptibility in '2BP-PBI', '24BP-301' and '26BPRStarlet' accessions were confirmed. Nineteen out of 21 ISSR primers generated 185 polymorphic bands with a mean percentage band of 98.5 %, and an average number of bands of 9.9 per primer. Biomass parameters were significantly higher in resistant genotypes than the susceptible ones and non-inoculated controls. All the seven candidate enzymes were highly up-regulated in the resistant C. annuum accessions '19OrnP-PBI', '37ChillP-Paleo' and '23CherryP-Orsh' inoculated with P. capsici The mean level of enzyme activity varied from 1.5 to 5.6-fold higher in the resistant C. annuum, of which SOD was increased by 5.6 fold, followed by PAL 4.40 and PPO 3.75 fold in comparison to susceptible and non-inoculated controls. Overall, there was no significant correlation between resistance and genetic variability, and also between genetic variability and enzyme activity levels. However, there was a highly significant correlation between the resistance, bio-mass parameters and enzyme activity levels.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Phytophthora , Capsicum/genética , Variação Genética , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361121

RESUMO

The first line of plant defence responses against pathogens can be induced by the bacterial flg22 and can be dependent on various external and internal factors. Here, we firstly studied the effects of daytime and ethylene (ET) using Never ripe (Nr) mutants in the local and systemic defence responses of intact tomato plants after flg22 treatments. Flg22 was applied in the afternoon and at night and rapid reactions were detected. The production of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide was induced by flg22 locally, while superoxide was induced systemically, in wild type plants in the light period, but all remained lower at night and in Nr leaves. Flg22 elevated, locally, the ET, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) levels in the light period; these levels did not change significantly at night. Expression of Pathogenesis-related 1 (PR1), Ethylene response factor 1 (ERF1) and Defensin (DEF) showed also daytime- and ET-dependent changes. Enhanced ERF1 and DEF expression and stomatal closure were also observable in systemic leaves of wild type plants in the light. These data demonstrate that early biotic signalling in flg22-treated leaves and distal ones is an ET-dependent process and it is also determined by the time of day and inhibited in the early night phase.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Etilenos/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Transdução de Sinais
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(34): 9735-9742, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427095

RESUMO

Cyproconazole (CPZ), a representative chiral triazole fungicide, is widely used to control Fusarium head blight (FHB). In this study, the stereoselective efficiency of CPZ was investigated in vitro and in planta. Consistent results were observed between the in vitro bioassay and the in planta visual disease rating, with the control efficacy ordered RS-CPZ > RR-CPZ > SR-CPZ > SS-CPZ. Unexpectedly, the in planta deoxynivalenol level was in the order RR-CPZ > RS-CPZ > SS-CPZ > SR-CPZ, while RS-CPZ inhibited the deoxynivalenol production and ergosterol biosynthesis in Fusarium graminearum. We further investigated that the Tri genes were upregulated in Fusarium graminearum of the RS-CPZ group, and SR-CPZ preferentially degraded in wheat. An extra action mode of CPZ was inferred to stimulate the production of deoxynivalenol. These findings revealed the stereoselective efficiency of CPZ stereoisomers against FHB and provided new insights into the mechanism of action of triazole fungicides against FHB and deoxynivalenol.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Doenças das Plantas , Estereoisomerismo , Triazóis/farmacologia , Tricotecenos
11.
Science ; 373(6555): 655-662, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353948

RESUMO

We report de novo genome assemblies, transcriptomes, annotations, and methylomes for the 26 inbreds that serve as the founders for the maize nested association mapping population. The number of pan-genes in these diverse genomes exceeds 103,000, with approximately a third found across all genotypes. The results demonstrate that the ancient tetraploid character of maize continues to degrade by fractionation to the present day. Excellent contiguity over repeat arrays and complete annotation of centromeres revealed additional variation in major cytological landmarks. We show that combining structural variation with single-nucleotide polymorphisms can improve the power of quantitative mapping studies. We also document variation at the level of DNA methylation and demonstrate that unmethylated regions are enriched for cis-regulatory elements that contribute to phenotypic variation.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Zea mays/genética , Centrômero/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas , Metilação de DNA , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tetraploidia , Transcriptoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
Science ; 373(6556): 774-779, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385392

RESUMO

The oomycete Phytophthora infestans is a damaging crop pathogen and a model organism to study plant-pathogen interactions. We report the discovery of a family of copper-dependent lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) in plant pathogenic oomycetes and its role in plant infection by P. infestans We show that LPMO-encoding genes are up-regulated early during infection and that the secreted enzymes oxidatively cleave the backbone of pectin, a charged polysaccharide in the plant cell wall. The crystal structure of the most abundant of these LPMOs sheds light on its ability to recognize and degrade pectin, and silencing the encoding gene in P. infestans inhibits infection of potato, indicating a role in host penetration. The identification of LPMOs as virulence factors in pathogenic oomycetes opens up opportunities in crop protection and food security.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo , Phytophthora infestans/enzimologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Solanum tuberosum/parasitologia , Cobre , Oxigenases de Função Mista/química , Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Oxirredução , Phytophthora infestans/genética , Phytophthora infestans/patogenicidade , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Fatores de Virulência/química , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
13.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(16-17): 6143-6158, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342710

RESUMO

Tomato is an important crop grown worldwide. Various plant diseases cause massive losses in tomato plants due to diverse biotic agents. Bacterial spot of tomato (BST) is a worldwide disease that results in high losses in processed and fresh tomato. Xanthomonas perforans, an aerobic, single-flagellated, rod-shaped, Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacterium, is one of the leading causes of BST. Over the past three decades, X. perforans has increasingly been reported from tomato-growing regions and became a major bacterial disease. X. perforans thrives under high humidity and high temperature, which is commonplace in tropical and subtropical climates. Distinguishing symptoms of BST are necrotic lesions that can coalesce and cause a shot-hole appearance. X. perforans can occasionally cause fruit symptoms depending on disease pressure during fruit development. Short-distance movement in the field is mainly dependent on wind-driven rain, whereas long distance movement occurs through contaminated seed or plant material. X. perforans harbors a suite of effectors that increase pathogen virulence, fitness, and dissemination. BST management mainly relies on copper-based compounds; however, resistance is widespread. Alternative compounds, such as nanomaterials, are currently being evaluated and show high potential for BST management. Resistance breeding remains difficult to attain due to limited resistant germplasm. While the increased genetic diversity and gain and loss of effectors in X. perforans limits the success of single-gene resistance, the adoption of effector-specific transgenes and quantitative resistance may lead to durable host resistance. However, further research that aims to more effectively implement novel management tools is required to curb disease spread. KEY POINTS: • Xanthomonas perforans causes bacterial spot on tomato epidemics through infected seedlings and movement of plant material. • Genetic diversity plays a major role in shaping populations which is evident in loss and gain of effectors. • Management relies on copper sprays, but nanoparticles are a promising alternative to reduce copper toxicity.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Xanthomonas , Cobre , Doenças das Plantas , Xanthomonas/genética
14.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104913, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446189

RESUMO

A series of novel butenolide derivatives containing an amide were designed and synthesized with flupyradifurone as the lead compound. The biological activities test found that this series of compounds did not exhibit insecticidal activity, but had good antibacterial activities. Among all target compounds, compound 19 showed good antibacterial activity in vitro against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), with an EC50 value of 35.8 mg/L, which was superior to that of bismerthiazol (73.5 mg/L). Under greenhouse conditions, the curative and protective activities of compound 19 against bacterial leaf blight were 40.9% and 48.9% at 100 mg/L, respectively, which were superior to those of bismerthiazol (31.2% and 31.4%). In addition, compound 19 can not only cause changes in the cell surface morphology of Xoo, but also increase the activity of rice defense enzymes. The mechanism of action studies showed that the protective activity of compound 19 against rice bacterial leaf blight is closely related to the improvement of defense-related enzyme activities and the upregulation of proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation.


Assuntos
Oryza , Xanthomonas , 4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Amidas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxidiazóis , Doenças das Plantas
15.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104916, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446192

RESUMO

Soybean root rot occurs globally and seriously affects soybean production. To avoid the many disadvantages of chemical fungicides, the addition of Bacillus is gradually becoming an alternative strategy to tackle soybean root rot. However, the molecular mechanism of phytopathogenic fungi in this process by Bacillus inhibition is rarely reported. In this study, we isolated a strain of B. subtilis HSY21 from soybean rhizosphere soil, which had an inhibition rate of 81.30 ± 0.15% (P < 0.05) against Fusarium oxysporum. The control effects of this strain against soybean root rot under greenhouse and field conditions were 63.83% and 57.07% (P < 0.05), respectively. RNA-seq analysis of F. oxysporum after treatment with strain HSY21 revealed 1445 downregulated genes and 1561 upregulated genes. Among them, genes involved in mycelial growth, metabolism regulation, and disease-related enzymes were mostly downregulated. The activities of cellulase, ß-glucosidase, α-amylase, and pectin-methyl- galacturonase as well as levels of oxalic acid and ergosterol in F. oxysporum were significantly decreased after HSY21 treatment. These results demonstrated that B. subtilis HSY21 could effectively control F. oxysporum by inhibiting its growth and the expression of pathogenic genes, thus indicating that this strain may be an ideal candidate for the prevention and control of soybean root rot.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Fusarium/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Soja/genética , Virulência
16.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104917, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446193

RESUMO

Fusarium head blight(FHB)caused by Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) is one of the most important diseases around the world. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a type of mycotoxin produced by FGSC when infecting cereal crops. It is a serious threat to the health of both humans and livestock. Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP), a conserved metabolic enzyme found in many plants and pathogens, catalyzes the formation of trehalose. N-(phenylthio) phthalimide (NPP) has been reported to inhibit the normal growth of nematodes by inhibiting the activity of TPP, but this inhibitor of nematodes has not previously been tested against F. graminearum. In this study, we found that TPP in F. graminearum (FgTPP) had similar secondary structures and conserved cysteine (Cys356) to nematodes by means of bioinformatics. At the same time, the sensitivity of F. graminearum strains to NPP was determined. NPP exhibited a better inhibitory effect on conidia germination than mycelial growth. In addition, the effects of NPP on DON biosynthesis and trehalose biosynthesis pathway in PH-1 were also determined. We found that NPP decreased DON production, trehalose content, glucose content and TPP enzyme activity but increased trehalose-6-phosphate content and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) enzyme activity. Moreover, the expression of TRI1, TRI4, TRI5, TRI6, and TPP genes were downregulated, on the contrary, the TPS gene was upregulated. Finally, in order to further determine the control ability of NPP on DON production in the field, we conducted a series of field experiments, and found that NPP could effectively reduce the DON content in wheat grain and had a general control effect on FHB. In conclusion, the research in this study will provide important theoretical basis for controlling FHB caused by F. graminearum and reducing DON production in the field.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Tricotecenos , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases , Ftalimidas/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas
17.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104939, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446206

RESUMO

Fusarium root rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum is an aggressive disease-causing damping-off, root rot, and vascular wilt in all peas growing fields. The disease can cause 100% yield losses under favorable conditions. The present study aims to control Fusarium root rot using Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, singly or in combinations. The results showed that all treatments significantly enhanced not only the plant growth, total phenol, activities of antioxidant enzymes, but also, the yield and seed quality. Several changes in the anatomical, physiological, and characteristics of the treated plants were also recorded. Compared to the untreated control treatment, under greenhouse conditions, the maximum reduction of the disease severity (80%) was achieved by the synergistic triple treatment consists of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, Trichoderma harzianum, and Pseudomonas fluorescens, as they gave the best growth and yield parameters. The same combination showed the highest activity of the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (57.1%), as well as the highest total phenol content (117.7%), over the control. The synergistic triple increased the contents of protein (64.6%), total soluble sugars (48.5%), and total carbohydrate (24.8%) in seeds of pea compared with the control. The synergistic triple treatment led to an increase in the thickness of the root section (25%), the thickness of the cortex (24.8%), the thickness of the vascular cylinder (31.5%), and the diameter of the xylem vessels (81.5%) of the root. Based on their efficiency and eco-safety, this synergistic triple might be very effective for controlling root rot disease of pea caused by F. oxysporum, as well as improve the growth, yield, and seed quality.


Assuntos
Fusarium , Trichoderma , Hypocreales , Ervilhas , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
18.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 178: 104942, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446208

RESUMO

Rice sheath blight is a destructive fungal disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani. To find a safe and green measure, the biological activity of six plant extracts against R. solani was determined by mycelial growth rate method. The results showed that magnolol possessed better antifungal activities against R. solani, with an EC50 value of 7.47 mg/L. further action mechanism of magnolol against R. solani was carried out. Studies by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the morphology of R. solani mycelia was deformation and surface folds. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation on treated R. solani showed that magnolol could induce cytoplasmic membrane rupture and cytoplasmic membrane even disappeared completely accompanied with cellular debris was covered around this fungal, and the mycelia treated with magnolol showed fluorescence after PI staining. Further study showed that the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of chitinase, ß-1,3-glucanase and relative conductivity of mycelia were increased, while the content of soluble protein and activities of catalase (CAT), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and NAD-malate dehydrogenase (NAD-MDH) were significantly decreased. These results indicated that magnolol could significantly damage the plasma membrane of R. solani, and interfere with cell respiratory metabolism, thus inhibiting the growth of mycelium.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas , Rhizoctonia , Compostos de Bifenilo , Membrana Celular , Lignanas
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450827

RESUMO

Decrease in crop yield and degradation in product quality due to plant diseases such as rust and blast in pearl millet is the cause of concern for farmers and the agriculture industry. The stipulation of expert advice for disease identification is also a challenge for the farmers. The traditional techniques adopted for plant disease detection require more human intervention, are unhandy for farmers, and have a high cost of deployment, operation, and maintenance. Therefore, there is a requirement for automating plant disease detection and classification. Deep learning and IoT-based solutions are proposed in the literature for plant disease detection and classification. However, there is a huge scope to develop low-cost systems by integrating these techniques for data collection, feature visualization, and disease detection. This research aims to develop the 'Automatic and Intelligent Data Collector and Classifier' framework by integrating IoT and deep learning. The framework automatically collects the imagery and parametric data from the pearl millet farmland at ICAR, Mysore, India. It automatically sends the collected data to the cloud server and the Raspberry Pi. The 'Custom-Net' model designed as a part of this research is deployed on the cloud server. It collaborates with the Raspberry Pi to precisely predict the blast and rust diseases in pearl millet. Moreover, the Grad-CAM is employed to visualize the features extracted by the 'Custom-Net'. Furthermore, the impact of transfer learning on the 'Custom-Net' and state-of-the-art models viz. Inception ResNet-V2, Inception-V3, ResNet-50, VGG-16, and VGG-19 is shown in this manuscript. Based on the experimental results, and features visualization by Grad-CAM, it is observed that the 'Custom-Net' extracts the relevant features and the transfer learning improves the extraction of relevant features. Additionally, the 'Custom-Net' model reports a classification accuracy of 98.78% that is equivalent to state-of-the-art models viz. Inception ResNet-V2, Inception-V3, ResNet-50, VGG-16, and VGG-19. Although the classification of 'Custom-Net' is comparable to state-of-the-art models, it is effective in reducing the training time by 86.67%. It makes the model more suitable for automating disease detection. This proves that the proposed model is effective in providing a low-cost and handy tool for farmers to improve crop yield and product quality.


Assuntos
Pennisetum , Agricultura , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Doenças das Plantas
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450916

RESUMO

Coffee Leaf Rust (CLR) is a fungal epidemic disease that has been affecting coffee trees around the world since the 1980s. The early diagnosis of CLR would contribute strategically to minimize the impact on the crops and, therefore, protect the farmers' profitability. In this research, a cyber-physical data-collection system was developed, by integrating Remote Sensing and Wireless Sensor Networks, to gather data, during the development of the CLR, on a test bench coffee-crop. The system is capable of automatically collecting, structuring, and locally and remotely storing reliable multi-type data from different field sensors, Red-Green-Blue (RGB) and multi-spectral cameras (RE and RGN). In addition, a data-visualization dashboard was implemented to monitor the data-collection routines in real-time. The operation of the data collection system allowed to create a three-month size dataset that can be used to train CLR diagnosis machine learning models. This result validates that the designed system can collect, store, and transfer reliable data of a test bench coffee-crop towards CLR diagnosis.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Café , Coleta de Dados , Doenças das Plantas , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto
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