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1.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 86-105, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028148

RESUMO

Potato is the most important non-grain food crop in the world. Viruses, particularly potato virus Y (PVY) and potato virus A (PVA), are among the major agricultural pathogens causing severe reduction in potato yield and quality worldwide. Virus infection induces host factors to interfere with its infection cycle. Evaluation of these factors facilitates the development of intrinsic resistance to plant viruses. In this study, a small G-protein as one of the critical signaling factors was evaluated in plant response to PVY and PVA to enhance resistance. For this purpose, the gene expression dataset of G-proteins in potato plant under five biotic (viruses, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and insects) and four abiotic (cold, heat, salinity, and drought) stress conditions were collected from gene expression databases. We reduced the number of the selected G-proteins to a single protein, StSAR1A, which is possibly involved in virus inhibition. StSAR1A overexpressed transgenic plants were created via the Agrobacterium-mediated method. Real-time PCR and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests of transgenic plants mechanically inoculated with PVY and PVA indicated that the overexpression of StSAR1A gene enhanced resistance to both viruses. The virus-infected transgenic plants exhibited a greater stem length, a larger leaf size, a higher fresh/dry weight, and a greater node number than those of the wild-type plants. The maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, stomatal conductivity, and net photosynthetic rate in the virus-infected transgenic plants were also obviously higher than those of the control. The present study may help to understand aspects of resistance against viruses.


Assuntos
Potyvirus , Solanum tuberosum , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/virologia , Potyvirus/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/virologia
2.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20007, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016637

RESUMO

Crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Erikss., is the most important disease impacting cultivated oat (Avena sativa L.). Genetic resistance is the most desirable management strategy. The genetic architecture of crown rust resistance is not fully understood, and previous mapping investigations have mostly ignored temporal variation. A collection of elite oat lines sourced from oat breeding programs in the American Upper Midwest and Canada was genotyped using a high-density genotyping-by-sequencing system and evaluated for crown rust disease severity at multiple time points throughout the growing season in three disease nursery environments. Genome-wide association mapping was conducted for disease severity on each observation date of each trial, area under the disease progress curve for each trial, heading date for each trial, and area under the disease progress curve in a multi-environment model. Crown rust resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected on linkage groups Mrg05, Mrg12, Mrg15, Mrg18, Mrg20, and Mrg33. None of these QTL were coincident with a days-to-heading QTL detected on Mrg02. Only the QTL detected on Mrg15 was detected in multiple mapping models. The QTL on Mrg05, Mrg12, Mrg18, Mrg20, and Mrg33 were detected on only a single observation date and were not detected on observations just days before and after. This result uncovers the importance of temporal variation in mapping experiments which is usually ignored. It is possible that high density temporal data could be used to more precisely characterize the nature of plant resistance in other systems.


Assuntos
Avena , Basidiomycota , Avena/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas
3.
Yi Chuan ; 42(9): 858-869, 2020 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952120

RESUMO

The phenolic phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) is widely produced in plants, and is a key player in many processes of plant physiology, especially in plant immunity. During pathogen infection, SA is accumulated and the SA signaling pathway is activated to induce the expression of defense-related genes. Recently, a series of SA-related studies have been published. These researches filled gaps in the two SA biosynthesis pathways: the isochorismate synthase (ICS) pathway and the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) pathway. The NPR1 (nonexpresser of PR genes 1) and its paralogs, NPR3 and NPR4, were identified as SA receptors. The effect of type II TGAs (TGACG-binding factor) on SA downstream genes was shown to depend on the SA receptor they interacted with. This review will systematically introduce the progress on SA biosynthesis and signal transduction, aiming to provide a theoretical reference for in-depth study of SA regulation on plant development and defense responses.


Assuntos
Transdução de Sinais , Arabidopsis , Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta , Ácido Salicílico
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4382, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873802

RESUMO

Fusarium graminearum is a causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and a deoxynivalenol (DON) producer. In this study, OSP24 is identified as an important virulence factor in systematic characterization of the 50 orphan secreted protein (OSP) genes of F. graminearum. Although dispensable for growth and initial penetration, OSP24 is important for infectious growth in wheat rachis tissues. OSP24 is specifically expressed during pathogenesis and its transient expression suppresses BAX- or INF1-induced cell death. Osp24 is translocated into plant cells and two of its 8 cysteine-residues are required for its function. Wheat SNF1-related kinase TaSnRK1α is identified as an Osp24-interacting protein and shows to be important for FHB resistance in TaSnRK1α-overexpressing or silencing transgenic plants. Osp24 accelerates the degradation of TaSnRK1α by facilitating its association with the ubiquitin-26S proteasome. Interestingly, TaSnRK1α also interacts with TaFROG, an orphan wheat protein induced by DON. TaFROG competes against Osp24 for binding with the same region of TaSnRKα and protects it from degradation. Overexpression of TaFROG stabilizes TaSnRK1α and increases FHB resistance. Taken together, Osp24 functions as a cytoplasmic effector by competing against TaFROG for binding with TaSnRK1α, demonstrating the counteracting roles of orphan proteins of both host and fungal pathogens during their interactions.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença , Fusarium/imunologia , Fusarium/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/imunologia , Proteólise , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Triticum/imunologia
5.
Phytopathology ; 110(10): 1721-1726, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915112

RESUMO

Stem rust is an important disease of cultivated oat (Avena sativa) caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae. In North America, host resistance is the primary strategy to control this disease and is conferred by a relatively small number of resistance genes. Pg2 is a widely deployed stem rust resistance gene that originates from cultivated oat. Oat breeders wish to develop cultivars with multiple Pg genes to slow the breakdown of single gene resistance, and often require DNA markers suited for marker-assisted selection. Our objectives were to (i) construct high density linkage maps for a major oat stem rust resistance gene using three biparental mapping populations, (ii) develop Kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASP) assays for Pg2-linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and (iii) test the prediction accuracy of those markers with a diverse panel of spring oat lines and cultivars. Genotyping-by-sequencing SNP markers linked to Pg2 were identified in an AC Morgan/CDC Morrison recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Pg2-linked SNPs were then analyzed in an AC Morgan/RL815 F2 population and an AC Morgan/CDC Dancer RIL population. Linkage analysis identified a common location for Pg2 in all three populations on linkage group Mrg20 of the oat consensus genetic map. The most predictive markers were identified and converted to KASP assays for use in oat breeding programs. When used in combination, the KASP assays for the SNP loci avgbs2_126549.1.46 and avgbs_cluster_23819.1.27 were highly predictive of Pg2 status in panel of 54 oat breeding lines and cultivars.


Assuntos
Avena/genética , Basidiomycota , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Ligação Genética , Humanos , América do Norte , Doenças das Plantas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008801, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866183

RESUMO

Rice stripe virus (RSV) is one of the most destructive viral diseases affecting rice production. However, so far, only one RSV resistance gene has been cloned, the molecular mechanisms underlying host-RSV interaction are still poorly understood. Here, we show that increasing levels or signaling of brassinosteroids (BR) and jasmonic acid (JA) can significantly enhance the resistance against RSV. On the contrary, plants impaired in BR or JA signaling are more susceptible to RSV. Moreover, the enhancement of RSV resistance conferred by BR is impaired in OsMYC2 (a key positive regulator of JA response) knockout plants, suggesting that BR-mediated RSV resistance requires active JA pathway. In addition, we found that RSV infection suppresses the endogenous BR levels to increase the accumulation of OsGSK2, a key negative regulator of BR signaling. OsGSK2 physically interacts with OsMYC2, resulting in the degradation of OsMYC2 by phosphorylation and reduces JA-mediated defense to facilitate virus infection. These findings not only reveal a novel molecular mechanism mediating the crosstalk between BR and JA in response to virus infection and deepen our understanding about the interaction of virus and plants, but also suggest new effective means of breeding RSV resistant crops using genetic engineering.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oryza , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Transdução de Sinais , Tenuivirus , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/virologia , Tenuivirus/genética , Tenuivirus/metabolismo
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4393, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879321

RESUMO

Rcr3 is a secreted protease of tomato that is targeted by fungal effector Avr2, a secreted protease inhibitor of the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum. The Avr2-Rcr3 complex is recognized by receptor-like protein Cf-2, triggering hypersensitive cell death (HR) and disease resistance. Avr2 also targets Rcr3 paralog Pip1, which is not required for Avr2 recognition but contributes to basal resistance. Thus, Rcr3 acts as a guarded decoy in this interaction, trapping the fungus into a recognition event. Here we show that Rcr3 evolved > 50 million years ago (Mya), whereas Cf-2 evolved <6Mya by co-opting the pre-existing Rcr3 in the Solanum genus. Ancient Rcr3 homologs present in tomato, potato, eggplants, pepper, petunia and tobacco can be inhibited by Avr2 with the exception of tobacco Rcr3. Four variant residues in Rcr3 promote Avr2 inhibition, but the Rcr3 that co-evolved with Cf-2 lacks three of these residues, indicating that the Rcr3 co-receptor is suboptimal for Avr2 binding. Pepper Rcr3 triggers HR with Cf-2 and Avr2 when engineered for enhanced inhibition by Avr2. Nicotiana benthamiana (Nb) is a natural null mutant carrying Rcr3 and Pip1 alleles with deleterious frame-shift mutations. Resurrected NbRcr3 and NbPip1 alleles were active proteases and further NbRcr3 engineering facilitated Avr2 inhibition, uncoupled from HR signalling. The evolution of a receptor co-opting a conserved pathogen target contrasts with other indirect pathogen recognition mechanisms.


Assuntos
Cladosporium , Resistência à Doença/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Solanum , Tabaco , Cladosporium/genética , Cladosporium/metabolismo , Cladosporium/patogenicidade , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Solanum/genética , Solanum/metabolismo , Solanum/microbiologia , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/microbiologia
8.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104695, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980058

RESUMO

In this study, thirty 1,3,4-oxadiazole sulfone derivatives containing 3,4-dichloroisothiazolamide moiety were designed and synthesized, and their antibacterial activities were evaluated. Bioassay results showed that some compounds exhibited excellent antibacterial activities against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) in vitro and in vivo. Notably, the EC50 values of compounds 2 and 3 against Xoo were 0.79 and 0.85 µg/mL, respectively, which were superior to those of the control agents isotianil, bismerthiazol, and thiodiazole copper. In addition, in vivo antibacterial activities revealed that the compound 2 at 50 µg/mL possessed protective and curative activities of 43.99% and 41.06% against Xoo, respectively, which were better than positive controls. Furthermore, the preliminary mechanism study disclosed that compound 2 exhibited effective antibacterial activity against Xoo by inhibiting the formation of extracellular polysaccharides from Xoo, increasing cell permeability, and changing the shape of cells. This study suggested that 1,3,4-oxadiazole sulfone derivatives containing 3,4-dichloroisothiazolamide moiety displayed excellent antibacterial activity and could be further explored and developed as commercial pesticides.


Assuntos
Oryza , Xanthomonas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxidiazóis , Doenças das Plantas , Sulfonas/farmacologia
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1935): 20201303, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962544

RESUMO

Insects and pathogens frequently exploit the same host plant and can potentially impact each other's performance. However, studies on plant-pathogen-insect interactions have mainly focused on a fixed temporal setting or on a single interaction partner. In this study, we assessed the impact of time of attacker arrival on the outcome and symmetry of interactions between aphids (Tuberculatus annulatus), powdery mildew (Erysiphe alphitoides), and caterpillars (Phalera bucephala) feeding on pedunculate oak, Quercus robur, and explored how single versus multiple attackers affect oak performance. We used a multifactorial greenhouse experiment in which oak seedlings were infected with either zero, one, two, or three attackers, with the order of attacker arrival differing among treatments. The performances of all involved organisms were monitored throughout the experiment. Overall, attackers had a weak and inconsistent impact on plant performance. Interactions between attackers, when present, were asymmetric. For example, aphids performed worse, but powdery mildew performed better, when co-occurring. Order of arrival strongly affected the outcome of interactions, and early attackers modified the strength and direction of interactions between later-arriving attackers. Our study shows that interactions between plant attackers can be asymmetric, time-dependent, and species specific. This is likely to shape the ecology and evolution of plant-pathogen-insect interactions.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Ascomicetos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Quercus , Animais , Insetos , Doenças das Plantas
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 111010, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888587

RESUMO

Manganese (Mn) toxicity is common in plants grown on very acid soils. However, some plants species that grow in this condition can take up high amounts of Mn and are referred to as hyperaccumulating species. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of Ilex paraguariensis to accumulate Mn and the effect of excessive concentrations on plant growth and nutrition. For this, a container experiment was conducted using soils from different parent materials (basalt and sandstone), with and without liming, and at six doses of applied Mn (0, 30, 90, 270, 540 and 1,080 mg kg-1). Clonal plants grown for 203 days were harvested to evaluate yield, and leaf tissue samples were evaluated for Mn and other elements. Without liming and with high Mn doses, leaf Mn concentrations reached 13,452 and 12,127 mg kg-1 in sandstone and basalt soils, respectively; concentrations in excess of 10,000 mg kg-1 are characteristic of hyperaccumulating plants. Liming reduced these values to 7203 and 8030 mg kg-1. More plant growth accompanied increased Mn leaf concentrations, with a growth reduction noted at the highest dose in unlimed soils. Elemental distribution showed Mn presence in the mesophyll, primarily in vascular bundles, without high Mn precipitates. Interveinal chlorosis of young leaves associated with high Mn concentration and lower Fe concentrations was observed, especially in sandstone soil without liming. However, the occurrence of this symptom was not associated with decreased plant growth.


Assuntos
Ácidos/farmacologia , Ilex paraguariensis/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/induzido quimicamente , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Ácidos/análise , Compostos de Cálcio/análise , Compostos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Ilex paraguariensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Ilex paraguariensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ferro/metabolismo , Manganês/análise , Manganês/toxicidade , Óxidos/análise , Óxidos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
11.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008886, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931525

RESUMO

Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most devastating diseases in citrus. Meiwa kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia) has shown a durable resistance against Xcc. Here, we aimed to characterize the mechanisms responsible for such a durable resistance by characterizing the transcriptional and physiological responses of Meiwa kumquat to Xcc. Inoculation of Meiwa kumquat with Xcc promoted immune responses such as upregulation of PR genes, accumulation of salicylic acid, hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death and early leaf abscission. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia symptoms, which are known to be caused by Xcc-induction of the canker susceptibility gene LOB1 through the transcription activator-like effector (TALE) PthA4, always appear prior to the development of cell death. Mutation of pthA4 in Xcc abolished the induction of LOB1, canker symptoms, cell death, and leaf abscission and reduced the expression of PR genes in inoculated kumquat leaves without reducing Xcc titers in planta. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that PthA4 promotes plant biotic and abiotic stress responses and the biosynthesis of abscisic acid. Transcriptional induction of LOB1 homologs in Meiwa kumquat by Xcc pthA4 mutant strains carrying a repertoire of designer TALEs promoted the elicitation of HR-like phenotype and leaf abscission, suggesting that kumquat response to Xcc is associated with upregulation of LOB1. Our study suggests a novel mechanism of plant resistance to Xanthomonas via elicitation of immune responses by upregulation of a host susceptibility gene.


Assuntos
Citrus , Genes de Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas , Transativadores , Xanthomonas/imunologia , Citrus/genética , Citrus/imunologia , Citrus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/imunologia
12.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 169: 112592, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942143

RESUMO

Global health and food security constantly face the challenge of emerging human and plant diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other pathogens. Disease outbreaks such as SARS, MERS, Swine Flu, Ebola, and COVID-19 (on-going) have caused suffering, death, and economic losses worldwide. To prevent the spread of disease and protect human populations, rapid point-of-care (POC) molecular diagnosis of human and plant diseases play an increasingly crucial role. Nucleic acid-based molecular diagnosis reveals valuable information at the genomic level about the identity of the disease-causing pathogens and their pathogenesis, which help researchers, healthcare professionals, and patients to detect the presence of pathogens, track the spread of disease, and guide treatment more efficiently. A typical nucleic acid-based diagnostic test consists of three major steps: nucleic acid extraction, amplification, and amplicon detection. Among these steps, nucleic acid extraction is the first step of sample preparation, which remains one of the main challenges when converting laboratory molecular assays into POC tests. Sample preparation from human and plant specimens is a time-consuming and multi-step process, which requires well-equipped laboratories and skilled lab personnel. To perform rapid molecular diagnosis in resource-limited settings, simpler and instrument-free nucleic acid extraction techniques are required to improve the speed of field detection with minimal human intervention. This review summarizes the recent advances in POC nucleic acid extraction technologies. In particular, this review focuses on novel devices or methods that have demonstrated applicability and robustness for the isolation of high-quality nucleic acid from complex raw samples, such as human blood, saliva, sputum, nasal swabs, urine, and plant tissues. The integration of these rapid nucleic acid preparation methods with miniaturized assay and sensor technologies would pave the road for the "sample-in-result-out" diagnosis of human and plant diseases, especially in remote or resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Ácidos Nucleicos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Plantas , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico/instrumentação , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/instrumentação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Ácidos Nucleicos/sangue , Ácidos Nucleicos/urina , Pandemias , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 140225, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806380

RESUMO

Coffee is one of the most important commercial traded commodities in the international market, as well as the most popular beverage around the world. In Mexico, organic coffee cultivation (specifically, Arabica coffee crops) is a highly demanded that generates up to 500,000 employments in 14 federal entities. Among various coffee producers, Chiapas, Veracruz, and Oaxaca are responsible of 80% of the total coffee production in the country. Currently, Mexico is the leading producer of organic coffee in the world. However, there have been a slow recovery due to the large production losses since 2012, caused by earlier and highly aggressive outbreaks of coffee leaf rust (CLR), in the country, where the infectious agent is known as Hemileia vastatrix (HV). This phenomenon is becoming frequent, and climate change effects could be the main contributors. This spontaneous proliferation was generated in Mexico, due to the precipitation and temperature variability, during the last decade. As result, in Mexico, the biological interaction between coffee crops and their environment has been harmed and crucial characteristics, as crop yield and quality, are particularly being affected, directly by the negative effects of the greenhouse phenomenon, and indirectly, through diseases as CLR. Therefore, this review discusses the contribution of climate change effects in the early development of CLR in Mexico. The focus is also given on possible schemes and actions taken around the world as control measures to adapt the vulnerable coffee varieties to tackle this challenging issue.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Café , Mudança Climática , México , Doenças das Plantas
14.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 169: 104589, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828361

RESUMO

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is an important plant virus that led to significant losses in the crops worldwide. In this study, the antiviral activities of Ursolic Acid (UA) and 4-methoxycoumarin against TMV and their underlying mechanisms were initially investigated for the first time. The results demonstrated that the antiviral effects of UA and 4-methoxycoumarin were as effective as those of the commercial agent lentinan, in either the protective effect, inactivation effect or curative effect. In addition, both plant-derived compounds could induce the resistance responses of tobacco plants against TMV, showing increased antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD and POD) and H2O2 accumulation in tobacco leaves after treatment with UA or 4-methoxycoumarin, along with highly expressed regulatory and defence genes in the salicylic acid signaling pathway. Meanwhile, electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde experiments indicated that these effects did not result in phytotoxicity or damage to the leaf plasma membrane of tobacco plants. Collectively, the results demonstrate that UA and 4-methoxycoumarin have potential as eco-friendly and safe strategies to control TMV in the future.


Assuntos
Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Doenças das Plantas , Tabaco/virologia
15.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 169: 104645, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828364

RESUMO

Bacterial blight (BB), which is caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is a common bacterial disease that seriously harms rice production in major rice-growing areas worldwide. Fubianezuofeng (FBEZF), a sulfone bactericide that contains an oxadiazole moiety, exerts good control effect on BB. In this study, FBEZF-resistant strains of Xoo were screened for the first time in the laboratory to evaluate the risk of Xoo developing resistance to FBEZF. Three strains with moderate resistance to FBEZF, were obtained and named as F1, F2, and F3, which have resistance factors (RF) of 14.69, 15.72, and 11.12, respectively. FBEZF lacked positive cross-resistance to bismerthiazol, thiodiazole copper, zhongshengmycin and phenazino-1-carboxylic acid. The growth rates of the resistant strains F1 and F2 were similar to those of the wild-type strain in nutrient broth medium, but differed in nutrient agar medium. The extracellular polysaccharide production and pathogenicity of F1, F2, and F3 were reduced relative to those of the wild-type strain. A fosmid library containing 2304 transformants was constructed based on the genome of F2, and transformants 2193 and 2202 exhibited FBEZF resistance. The results are helpful for further study on the molecular mechanism of resistance to FBEZF in Xoo.


Assuntos
Oryza , Xanthomonas , Oxidiazóis , Doenças das Plantas , Sulfonas
16.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 169: 104646, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828365

RESUMO

New succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor fungicides (SDHIs), isopyrazam, pyraziflumid and isofetamid were introduced in the Japanese market in 2017-2018 to control powdery mildew on cucumber. SDHI resistance of the disease fungus (Podosphaera xanthii) was first reported during 2008-2009 against boscalid. Then, penthiopyrad which belongs to SDHIs was introduced in 2010, but subsequent monitoring study was not performed. We investigated the sensitivity of P. xanthii field isolates from Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, to SDHIs and SdhB, SdhC and SdhD gene mutations, using a leaf disc assay and SDH gene analysis. A total of 19 out of the 22 selected isolates showed resistance to SDHIs. The 19 isolates were phenotypically categorized into three types: Resistant I as moderately and Resistant II as highly resistant to penthiopyrad, isopyrazam and pyraziflumid but sensitive to isofetamid and Resistant III as highly resistant to isofetamid but sensitive to the other three SDHIs. SDH gene analysis revealed that Resistant I and III isolates carried a substitution in PxD-S121P and PxC-A86V, respectively. Resistant II carried three different substitutions: PxC-G151R, PxC-G172D, and PxD-H137R. Among 127 isolates sampled from 16 cucumber greenhouses, 54 exhibited Resistant I phenotype and carried only PxD-S121P. Fifty-six isolates exhibited Resistant II and carried PxC-G151R (four isolates), PxC-G172D (24), and PxD-H137R (28). Only two isolates expressed the Resistant III phenotype carrying PxC-A86V. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating cross-resistance patterns and the molecular characterization of SDHIs in P. xanthii.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Succinato Desidrogenase , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Japão , Doenças das Plantas
17.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 169: 104654, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828372

RESUMO

Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (TSWV) causes devastating losses to agronomic and ornamental crops worldwide. Currently, there is no effective strategy to control this disease. Use of biotic inducers to enhance plant resistance to viruses maybe an effective approach. Our previous study indicated that Tagitinin A (Tag A) has a high curative and protective effect against TSWV. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of Tag A-mediated antiviral activity remains unknown. In this study, Tag A reduced the expression of the NSs, NSm genes was very low in untreated leaves following TSWV infection. In addition, the expression of all TSWV genes in the inoculated and systemic leaves was inhibited in the protective assay, and with an inhibition rate of more than 85% in systemic leaves. Tag A increased phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity in the curative and protective assays. The concentrations of jasmonic acid (JA) and jasmonic acid -isoleucine (JA-Ile) and the expression of its key gene NtCOI1 in Tag A-treated and systemic leaves of treated plants were significantly higher than those of the control plant. Furthermore, Tag A-induced resistance to TSWV could be eliminated by VIGS-mediated silencing of the NtCOI1 gene. These indicated that Tag A acts against TSWV by activating the JA defense signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Tospovirus , Doenças das Plantas , Sesquiterpenos , Tithonia
18.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 169: 104669, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828375

RESUMO

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is an important pathogen in rice. C15surfactin A, produced by Bacillus velezensis HN-2, displayed antibacterial activity against Xoo and effectively inhibited its infection of rice. The median inhibitory concentration of C15surfactin A was 9.27 µg/mL. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy examination showed that C15surfactin A caused significant damage to the cell wall structure of Xoo cells. On the other hand, dramatic increases in the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (Pal) and H2O2 content were observed in rice leaves inoculated with Xoo from 0 h to 72 h. Quantitative PCR assays indicated that C15surfactin A exposure upregulated the expression of the genes Pr1a, CatA, and Pal. The results showed that C15surfactin A could inhibit the growth of Xoo and effectively induce rice resistance to Xoo by triggering a hypersensitive reaction (HR) via mediation of the activities of antioxidant-related enzymes. Taken together, C15surfactin A has strong antibiotic activity against Xoo and effectively induces rice resistance to Xoo. These results highlight the potential of C15surfactin A as a biocontrol agent against Xoo in rice.


Assuntos
Oryza , Xanthomonas , Antibacterianos , Bacillus , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Doenças das Plantas
19.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 169: 104673, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828378

RESUMO

Oxathiapiprolin, the first successful oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) inhibitor for oomycete control, is regarded as an important milestone in the history of fungicide discovery. However, its interaction with OSBP remain unclear. Moreover, some plant pathogenic oomycetes have developed medium to high resistance to oxathiapiprolin. In this paper, the three-dimensional (3D) structure of OSBP from Phytophthora capsici (pcOSBP) was built, and its interaction with oxathiapiprolin was systematically investigated by integrating molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) calculations. The computational results showed that oxathiapiprolin bound to pcOSBP forms H-bonds with Leu73, Lys74, Ser69, and water molecules. Then, based on its interaction with pcOSBP, oxathiapiprolin was structurally modified to discover new analogs with high fungicidal activity and a low risk of resistance. Fortunately, compound 1e was successfully designed and synthesized as the most potent candidate, and it showed a much lower resistance risk (RF < 1) against LP3-M and LP3-H in P. capsici. The present work indicated that the piperidinyl-thiazole-isoxazoline moiety is useful for further optimization. Furthermore, compound 1e could be used as a lead compound for the discovery of new OSBP inhibitors.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Doenças das Plantas , Ligação Proteica , Pirazóis , Receptores de Esteroides
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21326, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756117

RESUMO

Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB), a corn disease infected by Exserohilum turcicum, can cause loss of harvest and economy. Identification or evaluation of NCLB-resistant quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genes could improve maize breeds. This study aimed to identify novel QTLs for NCLB-resistance.Two maize strains (BB and BC) were utilized to generate B73 × B97 and B73 × CML322 and constructed the genetic linkage using high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) linkage map analysis of 170 (BB) and 163(BC) recombinant inbred line (RIL) genomic DNA samples. NCLB-resistant QTL was associated with phenotypic data from the field trial of 170 BB and 163 BC strains over two years using these 1100 SNPs to identify high-density NCLB-resistant QTLs.In BB, QTL of the NCLB resistance was on chromosome 1 and 3 (LOD scores between 2.74 and 5.44); in BC, QTL of NCLB resistance was on chromosome 1, 2, 4, 8, and 9 (LOD scores between 2.52 and 8.53). A number of genes or genetic information related to NCLB resistance in both BB and BC were identified with the maximum number of genes/NCLB resistance-related QTL on chromosome 3 for BB and on chromosome 1 for BC.This study successfully mapped and identified NCLB-resistant QTL and genes for these 2 different maize strains, which provides insightful information for future study of NCLB-resistance and selection of NCLB-resistant maize variants.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Imunidade Inata , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas
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