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1.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 86-105, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028148

RESUMO

Potato is the most important non-grain food crop in the world. Viruses, particularly potato virus Y (PVY) and potato virus A (PVA), are among the major agricultural pathogens causing severe reduction in potato yield and quality worldwide. Virus infection induces host factors to interfere with its infection cycle. Evaluation of these factors facilitates the development of intrinsic resistance to plant viruses. In this study, a small G-protein as one of the critical signaling factors was evaluated in plant response to PVY and PVA to enhance resistance. For this purpose, the gene expression dataset of G-proteins in potato plant under five biotic (viruses, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and insects) and four abiotic (cold, heat, salinity, and drought) stress conditions were collected from gene expression databases. We reduced the number of the selected G-proteins to a single protein, StSAR1A, which is possibly involved in virus inhibition. StSAR1A overexpressed transgenic plants were created via the Agrobacterium-mediated method. Real-time PCR and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests of transgenic plants mechanically inoculated with PVY and PVA indicated that the overexpression of StSAR1A gene enhanced resistance to both viruses. The virus-infected transgenic plants exhibited a greater stem length, a larger leaf size, a higher fresh/dry weight, and a greater node number than those of the wild-type plants. The maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, stomatal conductivity, and net photosynthetic rate in the virus-infected transgenic plants were also obviously higher than those of the control. The present study may help to understand aspects of resistance against viruses.


Assuntos
Potyvirus , Solanum tuberosum , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/virologia , Potyvirus/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/virologia
2.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 125-144, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079628

RESUMO

Plants are susceptible to phytopathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses, which cause colossal financial shortfalls (pre- and post-harvest) and threaten global food safety. To combat with these phytopathogens, plant possesses two-layer of defense in the form of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI), or Effectors-triggered immunity (ETI). The understanding of plant-molecular interactions and revolution of high-throughput molecular techniques have opened the door for innovations in developing pathogen-resistant plants. In this context, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) has transformed genome editing (GE) technology and being harnessed for altering the traits. Here we have summarized the complexities of plant immune system and the use of CRISPR-Cas9 to edit the various components of plant immune system to acquire long-lasting resistance in plants against phytopathogens. This review also sheds the light on the limitations of CRISPR-Cas9 system, regulation of CRISPR-Cas9 edited crops and future prospective of this technology.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Edição de Genes , Doenças das Plantas/genética
3.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20007, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016637

RESUMO

Crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata f. sp. avenae Erikss., is the most important disease impacting cultivated oat (Avena sativa L.). Genetic resistance is the most desirable management strategy. The genetic architecture of crown rust resistance is not fully understood, and previous mapping investigations have mostly ignored temporal variation. A collection of elite oat lines sourced from oat breeding programs in the American Upper Midwest and Canada was genotyped using a high-density genotyping-by-sequencing system and evaluated for crown rust disease severity at multiple time points throughout the growing season in three disease nursery environments. Genome-wide association mapping was conducted for disease severity on each observation date of each trial, area under the disease progress curve for each trial, heading date for each trial, and area under the disease progress curve in a multi-environment model. Crown rust resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected on linkage groups Mrg05, Mrg12, Mrg15, Mrg18, Mrg20, and Mrg33. None of these QTL were coincident with a days-to-heading QTL detected on Mrg02. Only the QTL detected on Mrg15 was detected in multiple mapping models. The QTL on Mrg05, Mrg12, Mrg18, Mrg20, and Mrg33 were detected on only a single observation date and were not detected on observations just days before and after. This result uncovers the importance of temporal variation in mapping experiments which is usually ignored. It is possible that high density temporal data could be used to more precisely characterize the nature of plant resistance in other systems.


Assuntos
Avena , Basidiomycota , Avena/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas
4.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000783, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925907

RESUMO

Plant nucleotide-binding (NB) leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor (NLR) proteins function as intracellular immune receptors that perceive the presence of pathogen-derived virulence proteins (effectors) to induce immune responses. The 2 major types of plant NLRs that "sense" pathogen effectors differ in their N-terminal domains: these are Toll/interleukin-1 receptor resistance (TIR) domain-containing NLRs (TNLs) and coiled-coil (CC) domain-containing NLRs (CNLs). In many angiosperms, the RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW 8 (RPW8)-CC domain containing NLR (RNL) subclass of CNLs is encoded by 2 gene families, ACTIVATED DISEASE RESISTANCE 1 (ADR1) and N REQUIREMENT GENE 1 (NRG1), that act as "helper" NLRs during multiple sensor NLR-mediated immune responses. Despite their important role in sensor NLR-mediated immunity, knowledge of the specific, redundant, and synergistic functions of helper RNLs is limited. We demonstrate that the ADR1 and NRG1 families act in an unequally redundant manner in basal resistance, effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and regulation of defense gene expression. We define RNL redundancy in ETI conferred by some TNLs and in basal resistance against virulent pathogens. We demonstrate that, in Arabidopsis thaliana, the 2 RNL families contribute specific functions in ETI initiated by specific CNLs and TNLs. Time-resolved whole genome expression profiling revealed that RNLs and "classical" CNLs trigger similar transcriptome changes, suggesting that RNLs act like other CNLs to mediate ETI downstream of sensor NLR activation. Together, our genetic data confirm that RNLs contribute to basal resistance, are fully required for TNL signaling, and can also support defense activation during CNL-mediated ETI.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/imunologia , Proteínas NLR/fisiologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/fisiologia , Família Multigênica/genética , Família Multigênica/fisiologia , Proteínas NLR/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Transcriptoma
5.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008801, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866183

RESUMO

Rice stripe virus (RSV) is one of the most destructive viral diseases affecting rice production. However, so far, only one RSV resistance gene has been cloned, the molecular mechanisms underlying host-RSV interaction are still poorly understood. Here, we show that increasing levels or signaling of brassinosteroids (BR) and jasmonic acid (JA) can significantly enhance the resistance against RSV. On the contrary, plants impaired in BR or JA signaling are more susceptible to RSV. Moreover, the enhancement of RSV resistance conferred by BR is impaired in OsMYC2 (a key positive regulator of JA response) knockout plants, suggesting that BR-mediated RSV resistance requires active JA pathway. In addition, we found that RSV infection suppresses the endogenous BR levels to increase the accumulation of OsGSK2, a key negative regulator of BR signaling. OsGSK2 physically interacts with OsMYC2, resulting in the degradation of OsMYC2 by phosphorylation and reduces JA-mediated defense to facilitate virus infection. These findings not only reveal a novel molecular mechanism mediating the crosstalk between BR and JA in response to virus infection and deepen our understanding about the interaction of virus and plants, but also suggest new effective means of breeding RSV resistant crops using genetic engineering.


Assuntos
Brassinosteroides/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oryza , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Transdução de Sinais , Tenuivirus , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/virologia , Tenuivirus/genética , Tenuivirus/metabolismo
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21326, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756117

RESUMO

Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB), a corn disease infected by Exserohilum turcicum, can cause loss of harvest and economy. Identification or evaluation of NCLB-resistant quantitative trait loci (QTL) and genes could improve maize breeds. This study aimed to identify novel QTLs for NCLB-resistance.Two maize strains (BB and BC) were utilized to generate B73 × B97 and B73 × CML322 and constructed the genetic linkage using high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) linkage map analysis of 170 (BB) and 163(BC) recombinant inbred line (RIL) genomic DNA samples. NCLB-resistant QTL was associated with phenotypic data from the field trial of 170 BB and 163 BC strains over two years using these 1100 SNPs to identify high-density NCLB-resistant QTLs.In BB, QTL of the NCLB resistance was on chromosome 1 and 3 (LOD scores between 2.74 and 5.44); in BC, QTL of NCLB resistance was on chromosome 1, 2, 4, 8, and 9 (LOD scores between 2.52 and 8.53). A number of genes or genetic information related to NCLB resistance in both BB and BC were identified with the maximum number of genes/NCLB resistance-related QTL on chromosome 3 for BB and on chromosome 1 for BC.This study successfully mapped and identified NCLB-resistant QTL and genes for these 2 different maize strains, which provides insightful information for future study of NCLB-resistance and selection of NCLB-resistant maize variants.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Imunidade Inata , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237545, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764829

RESUMO

Pierce's disease is of major concern for grapevine (Vitis vinifera) production wherever the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa and its vectors are present. Long-term management includes the deployment of resistant grapevines such as those containing the PdR1 locus from the wild grapevine species Vitis arizonica, which do not develop Pierce's disease symptoms upon infection. However, little is understood about how the PdR1 locus functions to prevent disease symptom development. Therefore, we assessed the concentrations of plant defense-associated compounds called phenolics in healthy and X. fastidiosa-infected PdR1-resistant and susceptible grapevine siblings over time. Soluble foliar phenolic levels, especially flavonoids, in X. fastidiosa-infected PdR1-resistant grapevines were discovered to be significantly lower than those in infected susceptible grapevines. Therefore, it was hypothesized that PdR1-resistant grapevines, by possessing lowered flavonoid levels, affects biofilm formation and causes reduced X. fastidiosa intra-plant colonization, thus limiting the ability to increase pathogen populations and cause Pierce's disease. These results therefore reveal that differences in plant metabolite levels might be a component of the mechanisms that PdR1 utilizes to prevent Pierce's disease.


Assuntos
Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Fenóis/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Xylella/efeitos dos fármacos , Xylella/patogenicidade , Progressão da Doença , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Infecções/metabolismo , Infecções/microbiologia , Mutação , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Xylella/metabolismo
8.
Plant Dis ; 104(10): 2658-2664, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749944

RESUMO

There has not been a major wheat stem rust epidemic worldwide since the 1970s, but the emergence of race TTKSK of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in 1998 presented a great threat to the world wheat production. Single disease-resistance genes are usually effective for only several years before the pathogen changes genetically to overcome the resistance. Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is one of the most common and persistent wheat diseases worldwide. The development of varieties with multiple resistance is the most economical and effective strategy for preventing stripe rust and stem rust, the two main rust diseases constraining wheat production. Plateau 448 has been widely used in the spring wheat growing region in northwest China, but it has become susceptible to stripe rust and is susceptible to TTKSK. To produce more durable resistance to race TTKSK as well as to stripe rust, four stem rust resistance genes (Sr33, Sr36, Sr-Cad, and Sr43) and three stripe rust resistance genes (Yr5, Yr18, and Yr26) were simultaneously introgressed into Plateau 448 to improve its stem rust (Ug99) and stripe rust resistance using a marker-assisted backcrossing strategy combined with phenotypic selection. We obtained 131 BC1F5 lines that pyramided two to four Ug99 resistance genes and one to two Pst resistance genes simultaneously. Thirteen of these lines were selected for their TTKSK resistance, and all of them exhibited near immunity or high resistance to TTKSK. Among the 131 pyramided lines, 95 showed high resistance to mixed Pst races. Nine lines exhibited not only high resistance to TTKSK and Pst but also better agronomic traits and high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit compositions than Plateau 448.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Cruzamento , China , Resistência à Doença/genética , Humanos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236674, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756600

RESUMO

In Sub-Saharan Africa cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important food crops where more than 40% of the population relies on it as their staple carbohydrate source. Biotic constraints such as viral diseases, mainly Cassava Mosaic Disease (CMD) and Cassava Brown Streak Disease (CBSD), and arthropod pests, particularly Cassava Green Mite (CGM), are major constraints to the realization of cassava's full production potential in Africa. To address these problems, we aimed to map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with resistance to CBSD foliar and root necrosis symptoms, foliar CMD and CGM symptoms in a full-sib mapping population derived from the genotypes AR40-6 and Albert. A high-density linkage map was constructed with 2,125 SNP markers using a genotyping-by-sequencing approach. For phenotyping, clonal evaluation trials were conducted with 120 F1 individuals for two consecutive field seasons using an alpha-lattice design at Chambezi and Naliendele, Tanzania. Previously identified QTL for resistance to CBSD foliar symptoms were corroborated, and a new putative QTL for CBSD root necrosis identified (qCBSDRNc14AR) from AR40-6. Two QTL were identified within the region of the previously recognized CMD2 locus from this population in which both parents are thought to possess the CMD2 locus. Interestingly, a minor but consistent QTL, qCGM18AR, for CGM resistance at 3 months after planting stage was also detected and co-localized with a previously identified SSR marker, NS346, linked with CGM resistance. Markers underlying these QTL may be used to increase efficiencies in cassava breeding programs.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Manihot/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Cruzamento , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Manihot/fisiologia , Manihot/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Potyviridae/genética , Potyviridae/patogenicidade , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Tanzânia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236823, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745143

RESUMO

Stem rot, a devastating fungal disease of peanut, is caused by Sclerotium rolfsii. RNA-sequencing approaches have been used to unravel the mechanisms of resistance to stem rot in peanut over the course of fungal infection in resistant (NRCG-CS85) and susceptible (TG37A) genotypes under control conditions and during the course of infection. Out of about 290 million reads, nearly 251 million (92.22%) high-quality reads were obtained and aligned to the Arachis duranensis and Arachis ipaensis genomes with the average mapping of 78.91% and 78.61%, respectively. In total, about 48.6% of genes were commonly regulated, while approximately 21.8% and 29.6% of uniquely regulated genes from A. duranensis and A. ipaensis genomes, respectively, were identified. Several annotated transcripts, such as receptor-like kinases, jasmonic acid pathway enzymes, and transcription factors (TFs), including WRKY, Zinc finger protein, and C2-H2 zinc finger, showed higher expression in resistant genotypes upon infection. These transcripts have a known role in channelizing the downstream of pathogen perception. The higher expression of WRKY transcripts might have induced the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) by the activation of the jasmonic acid defense signaling pathway. Furthermore, a set of 30 transcripts involved in the defense mechanisms were validated with quantitative real-time PCR. This study suggested PAMP-triggered immunity as a probable mechanism of resistance, while the jasmonic acid signaling pathway was identified as a possible defense mechanism in peanut. The information generated is of immense importance in developing more effective ways to combat the stem rot disease in peanut.


Assuntos
Agaricales/patogenicidade , Arachis/genética , Doenças das Plantas , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Arachis/microbiologia , Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Genes de Plantas , Genótipo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Fosfato)/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , RNA-Seq , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
11.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008326, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804988

RESUMO

CRISPR/Cas has become the state-of-the-art technology for genetic manipulation in diverse organisms, enabling targeted genetic changes to be performed with unprecedented efficiency. Here we report on the first establishment of robust CRISPR/Cas editing in the important necrotrophic plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea based on the introduction of optimized Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) into protoplasts. Editing yields were further improved by development of a novel strategy that combines RNP delivery with cotransformation of transiently stable vectors containing telomeres, which allowed temporary selection and convenient screening for marker-free editing events. We demonstrate that this approach provides superior editing rates compared to existing CRISPR/Cas-based methods in filamentous fungi, including the model plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Genome sequencing of edited strains revealed very few additional mutations and no evidence for RNP-mediated off-targeting. The high performance of telomere vector-mediated editing was demonstrated by random mutagenesis of codon 272 of the sdhB gene, a major determinant of resistance to succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicides by in bulk replacement of the codon 272 with codons encoding all 20 amino acids. All exchanges were found at similar frequencies in the absence of selection but SDHI selection allowed the identification of novel amino acid substitutions which conferred differential resistance levels towards different SDHI fungicides. The increased efficiency and easy handling of RNP-based cotransformation is expected to accelerate molecular research in B. cinerea and other fungi.


Assuntos
Botrytis/fisiologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Edição de Genes , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ribonucleoproteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Telômero/genética , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Oryza/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética
12.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008713, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658889

RESUMO

Thaumatin-like proteins (TLPs), which are defined as pathogenesis-related protein family 5 (PR5) members, are common plant proteins involved in defense responses and confer antifungal activity against many plant pathogens. Our earlier studies have reported that the TaTLP1 gene was isolated from wheat and proved to be involved in wheat defense in response to leaf rust attack. The present study aims to identify the interacting proteins of TaTLP1 and characterize the role of the interaction between wheat and Puccinia triticina (Pt). Pull-down experiments designed to isolate the molecular target of TaTLP1 in tobacco resulted in the identification of TaPR1, a pathogenesis-related protein of family 1, and the interaction between TaTLP1 and TaPR1 was confirmed by yeast two-hybrid experiments (Y2H), bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP). In vitro, TaTLP1 and TaPR1 together increased antifungal activity against Pt. In vivo, the disease resistance phenotype, histological observations of fungal growth and host responses, and accumulation of H2O2 in TaTLP1-TaPR1 in co-silenced plants indicated that co-silencing significantly enhanced wheat susceptibility compared to single knockdown TaTLP1 or TaPR1 plants. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was significantly reduced in co-silenced plants compared to controls during Pt infection, which suggested that the TaTLP1-TaPR1 interaction positively modulates wheat resistance to Pt in an ROS-dependent manner. Our findings provide new insights for understanding the roles of two different PRs, TaTLP1 and TaPR1, in wheat resistance to leaf rust.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Basidiomycota/genética , Basidiomycota/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/microbiologia
13.
Plant Mol Biol ; 104(1-2): 113-136, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627097

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Present study revealed a complex relationship among histone H3 methylation (examined using H3K4/K27me3 marks), cytosine DNA methylation and differential gene expression during Lr28 mediated leaf rust resistance in wheat. During the present study, genome-wide histone modifications were examined in a pair of near isogenic lines (NILs) (with and without Lr28 in the background of cv. HD2329). The two histone marks used included H3K4me3 (an activation mark) and H3K27me3 (a repression mark). The results were compared with levels of expression (using RNA-seq) and DNA methylation (MeDIP) data obtained using the same pair of NILs. Some of the salient features of the present study include the following: (i) large scale differential binding sites (DBS) were available for only H3K4me3 in the susceptible cultivar, but for both H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 in its resistant NIL; (ii) DBSs for H3K27me3 mark were more abundant (> 80%) in intergenic regions, whereas DBSs for H3K4me3 were distributed in all genomic regions including exons, introns, intergenic, TTS (transcription termination sites) and promoters; (iii) fourteen (14) genes associated with DBSs showed co-localization for both the marks; (iv) only a small fraction (7% for H3K4me3 and 12% for H3K27me3) of genes associated with DBSs matched with the levels of gene expression inferred from RNA-seq data; (v) validation studies using qRT-PCR were conducted on 26 selected representative genes; results for only 11 genes could be validated. The proteins encoded by important genes involved in promoting infection included domains generally carried by R gene proteins such as Mlo like protein, protein kinases and purple acid phosphatase. Similarly, proteins encoded by genes involved in resistance included those carrying domains for lectin kinase, R gene, aspartyl protease, etc. Overall, the results suggest a very complex network of downstream genes that are expressed during compatible and incompatible interactions; some of the genes identified during the present study may be used in future validation studies involving RNAi/overexpression approaches.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Histonas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Metilação de DNA , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ligação Genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcrição Genética , Triticum/microbiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236317, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702002

RESUMO

Heterodera avenae, as an obligate endoparasite, causes severe yield loss in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Investigation on the mechanisms how H. avenae perceives wheat roots is limited. Here, the attractiveness of root exudates from eight plant genotypes to H. avenae were evaluated on agar plates. Results showed that the attraction of H. avenae to the root exudates from the non-host Brachypodium distachyon variety Bd21-3 was the highest, approximately 50 infective second-stage juveniles (J2s) per plate, followed by that from three H. avenae-susceptible wheat varieties, Zhengmai9023, Yanmai84 and Xiangmai25, as well as the resistant one of Xinyuan958, whereas the lowest attractive activity was observed in the two H. avenae-resistant wheat varieties, Xianmai20 (approximately 12 J2s/plate) and Liangxing66 (approximately 11 J2s/plate). Then Bd21-3, Zhengmai9023 and Heng4399 were selected for further assays as their different attractiveness and resistance to H. avenae, and attractants for H. avenae in their root exudates were characterized to be heat-labile and low-molecular compounds (LM) by behavioral bioassay. Based on these properties of the attractants, a principle of identifying attractants for H. avenae was set up. Then LM of six root exudates from the three plants with and without heating were separated and analyzed by HPLC-MS. Finally, dihydroxyacetone (DHA), methylprednisolone succinate, embelin and diethylpropionin in the root exudates were identified to be putative attractants for H. avenae according to the principle, and the attraction of DHA to H. avenae was validated by behavioral bioassay on agar. Our study enhances the recognition to the orientation mechanism of H. avenae towards wheat roots.


Assuntos
Di-Hidroxiacetona/química , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Triticum/química , Animais , Brachypodium/genética , Brachypodium/parasitologia , Di-Hidroxiacetona/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Genótipo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/parasitologia , Triticum/fisiologia , Tylenchoidea/genética , Tylenchoidea/patogenicidade
15.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 160(6): 329-334, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683370

RESUMO

Rubus yellow net virus (RYNV) infects Rubus spp., causing a severe decline when present in mixed infections with other viruses. RYNV belongs to the family Caulimoviridae, also known as plant pararetroviruses, which can exist as episomal or integrated elements (endogenous). Most of integrated pararetroviruses are noninfectious; however, a few cases have been reported where they excised from the plant genome and formed infectious particles. Graft transmission onto indicator plants R. occidentalis "Munger" has been the standard test method for RYNV detection in certification programs. Previously, it was noticed that some RYNV PCR-positive plants did not induce symptoms on "Munger", suggesting an integration event. In this study, bio-indexing and different molecular techniques were employed to differentiate between integrated and episomal RYNV sequences. Reverse transcription-PCR using RYNV-specific oligonucleotides after DNase treatment generated positive results for the virus in graft transmissible isolates (episomal) only. To confirm these results, rolling circle amplification on DNA preparations from the same samples resulted in amplicons identified as RYNV only from plants with graft transmissible RYNV. High-throughput sequencing was used to identify the RYNV-like sequences present in the host DNA. These results indicate the integration of RYNV into the red raspberry genome and highlight the necessity to recognize this phenomenon (integration) in future Rubus quarantine and certification programs.


Assuntos
Caulimoviridae/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Vírus de Plantas/genética , Rubus/genética , Rubus/virologia , Integração Viral/genética , Caulimoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Vírus de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Plasmídeos/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235089, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673346

RESUMO

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, is one of the most devastating pathogens affecting soybean production in the U.S. and worldwide. The use of SCN-resistant soybean cultivars is one of the most affordable strategies to cope with SCN infestation. Because of the limited sources of SCN resistance and changes in SCN virulence phenotypes, host resistance in current cultivars has increasingly been overcome by the pathogen. Host tolerance has been recognized as an additional tool to manage the SCN. The objectives of this study were to conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS), to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, and to perform a genomic selection (GS) study for SCN tolerance in soybean based on reduction in biomass. A total of 234 soybean genotypes (lines) were evaluated for their tolerance to SCN in greenhouse using four replicates. The tolerance index (TI = 100 × Biomass of a line in SCN infested / Biomass of the line without SCN) was used as phenotypic data of SCN tolerance. GWAS was conducted using a total of 3,782 high quality SNPs. GS was performed based upon the whole set of SNPs and the GWAS-derived SNPs, respectively. Results showed that (1) a large variation in soybean TI to SCN infection among the soybean genotypes was identified; (2) a total of 35, 21, and 6 SNPs were found to be associated with SCN tolerance using the models SMR, GLM (PCA), and MLM (PCA+K) with 6 SNPs overlapping between models; (3) GS accuracy was SNP set-, model-, and training population size-dependent; and (4) genes around Glyma.06G134900, Glyma.15G097500.1, Glyma.15G100900.3, Glyma.15G105400, Glyma.15G107200, and Glyma.19G121200.1 (Table 4). Glyma.06G134900, Glyma.15G097500.1, Glyma.15G100900.3, Glyma.15G105400, and Glyma.19G121200.1 are best candidates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report highlighting SNP markers associated with tolerance index based on biomass reduction under SCN infestation in soybean. This research opens a new approach to use SCN tolerance in soybean breeding and the SNP markers will provide a tool for breeders to select for SCN tolerance.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Soja/genética , Tylenchoidea/patogenicidade , Animais , Biomassa , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Genoma de Planta , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Infecções por Secernentea/prevenção & controle , Soja/parasitologia
17.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(6): 1415-1429, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656702

RESUMO

Penicillium expansum is a destructive phytopathogen causing postharvest decay on many stored fruits. To develop effective and safe management strategies, it is important to investigate its pathogenicity-related mechanisms. In this study, a bioinformatic pipeline was constructed and 50 core effector genes were identified in P. expansum using multiple RNA-seq data sets and their putative functions were implicated by comparatively homologous analyses using pathogen-host interaction database. To functionally characterize P. expansum LysM domain proteins during infection, null mutants for the 15 uncharacterized putative LysM effectors were constructed and the fungal growth rate on either PDA or Cazpek medium or lesion expansion rate on the infected apple fruits was evaluated. The results showed the growth rate of knockout mutants from PeLysM5, PeLysM12 and PeLysM15 was retarded on PDA medium. No significant difference in growth rate was observed between wild type and all mutants on solid Cazpek medium. Nevertheless, the hypha of wild type displayed deeper yellow on the back of Cazpek medium than those of knockout mutants. On the infecting apples fruits, the knockout mutants from PeLysM5, PeLysM7, PeLysM8, PeLysM9, PeLysM10, PeLysM11, PeLysM14, PeLysM15, PeLysM16, PeLysM18 and PeLysM19 showed enhanced fungal virulence, with faster decaying on infected fruits than those from wild type. By contrast, the knockout mutation at PeLysM12 locus led to reduced lesion expansion rate on the infected apple fruits. In addition, P. expansum-apple interaction RNA-seq experiment was performed using apple fruit tissues infected by the wild type and knockout mutant ΔPeLysM15, respectively. Transcriptome analyses indicated that deletion of PeLysM15 could activate expression of several core effector genes, such as PEX2_055830, PEX2_036960 and PEX2_108150, and a chitin-binding protein, PEX2_064520. These results suggest PeLysM15 may play pivotal roles in fungal growth and development and involve pathogen-host interaction by modulating other effector genes' expression. Our results could provide solid data reference and good candidates for further pathogen-related studies in P. expansum.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Malus/microbiologia , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penicillium/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transcriptoma , Frutas/genética , Frutas/microbiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Malus/genética , Penicillium/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Virulência
18.
Plant Dis ; 104(10): 2669-2680, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729796

RESUMO

Leaf rust is an important wheat disease that is a significant hindrance for wheat production in most areas of the world. Breeding resistant cultivars can effectively and economically control the disease. In the present study, a wheat collection consisting of 100 cultivars from China and 18 improved germplasms from global landrace donors together with 36 known single Lr gene lines were tested with 20 strains of Puccinia triticina Eriks. in the seedling stage to postulate the Lr gene in the cultivars and germplasms. In addition, 12 diagnostic molecular markers specific to 10 Lr genes were used to detect the presence of the Lr genes in the wheat collection. Resistance to leaf rust of these cultivars at the adult plant stage was tested in fields under natural infection during the 2016 to 2018 cropping seasons in Baoding, Hebei Province. The gene postulation combined with molecular marker detection showed that six Lr genes (Lr1, Lr26, Lr33, Lr34, Lr45, and Lr46) were identified in 44 wheat accessions, including 37 cultivars and seven improved germplasms. Among the 44 wheat accessions postulated with Lr genes, Lr1 was present in four accessions, Lr26 in 12 accessions, Lr33 in two accessions, Lr34 in 14 accessions, Lr45 in three accessions, and Lr46 in 16 accessions. In the collection of 118 cultivars/germplasms, 34 wheat lines displayed adult-plant resistance carrying Lr34, Lr46, and/or underdetermined genes. Therefore, a high level of leaf rust resistance can be achieved through the combination of all-stage resistance and adult-plant resistance genes together in wheat cultivars.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Triticum/genética , China , Genes de Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235565, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614894

RESUMO

Powdery mildew is an important foliar disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) caused by the biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). The understanding of the resistance mechanism is essential for future resistance breeding. In particular, the identification of race-nonspecific resistance genes is important because of their regarded durability and broad-spectrum activity. We assessed the severity of powdery mildew infection on detached seedling leaves of 267 barley accessions using two poly-virulent isolates and performed a genome-wide association study exploiting 201 of these accessions. Two-hundred and fourteen markers, located on six barley chromosomes are associated with potential race-nonspecific Bgh resistance or susceptibility. Initial steps for the functional validation of four promising candidates were performed based on phenotype and transcription data. Specific candidate alleles were analyzed via transient gene silencing as well as transient overexpression. Microarray data of the four selected candidates indicate differential regulation of the transcription in response to Bgh infection. Based on our results, all four candidate genes seem to be involved in the responses to powdery mildew attack. In particular, the transient overexpression of specific alleles of two candidate genes, a potential arabinogalactan protein and the barley homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana's Light-Response Bric-a-Brac/-Tramtrack/-Broad Complex/-POxvirus and Zinc finger (AtLRB1) or AtLRB2, were top candidates of novel powdery mildew susceptibility genes.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/genética , Hordeum/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Alelos , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Análise por Conglomerados , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mucoproteínas/genética , Mucoproteínas/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/genética , Virulência/genética
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