Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.845
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4382, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873802

RESUMO

Fusarium graminearum is a causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and a deoxynivalenol (DON) producer. In this study, OSP24 is identified as an important virulence factor in systematic characterization of the 50 orphan secreted protein (OSP) genes of F. graminearum. Although dispensable for growth and initial penetration, OSP24 is important for infectious growth in wheat rachis tissues. OSP24 is specifically expressed during pathogenesis and its transient expression suppresses BAX- or INF1-induced cell death. Osp24 is translocated into plant cells and two of its 8 cysteine-residues are required for its function. Wheat SNF1-related kinase TaSnRK1α is identified as an Osp24-interacting protein and shows to be important for FHB resistance in TaSnRK1α-overexpressing or silencing transgenic plants. Osp24 accelerates the degradation of TaSnRK1α by facilitating its association with the ubiquitin-26S proteasome. Interestingly, TaSnRK1α also interacts with TaFROG, an orphan wheat protein induced by DON. TaFROG competes against Osp24 for binding with the same region of TaSnRKα and protects it from degradation. Overexpression of TaFROG stabilizes TaSnRK1α and increases FHB resistance. Taken together, Osp24 functions as a cytoplasmic effector by competing against TaFROG for binding with TaSnRK1α, demonstrating the counteracting roles of orphan proteins of both host and fungal pathogens during their interactions.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença , Fusarium/imunologia , Fusarium/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/imunologia , Proteólise , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Triticum/imunologia
2.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008886, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931525

RESUMO

Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most devastating diseases in citrus. Meiwa kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia) has shown a durable resistance against Xcc. Here, we aimed to characterize the mechanisms responsible for such a durable resistance by characterizing the transcriptional and physiological responses of Meiwa kumquat to Xcc. Inoculation of Meiwa kumquat with Xcc promoted immune responses such as upregulation of PR genes, accumulation of salicylic acid, hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death and early leaf abscission. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia symptoms, which are known to be caused by Xcc-induction of the canker susceptibility gene LOB1 through the transcription activator-like effector (TALE) PthA4, always appear prior to the development of cell death. Mutation of pthA4 in Xcc abolished the induction of LOB1, canker symptoms, cell death, and leaf abscission and reduced the expression of PR genes in inoculated kumquat leaves without reducing Xcc titers in planta. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that PthA4 promotes plant biotic and abiotic stress responses and the biosynthesis of abscisic acid. Transcriptional induction of LOB1 homologs in Meiwa kumquat by Xcc pthA4 mutant strains carrying a repertoire of designer TALEs promoted the elicitation of HR-like phenotype and leaf abscission, suggesting that kumquat response to Xcc is associated with upregulation of LOB1. Our study suggests a novel mechanism of plant resistance to Xanthomonas via elicitation of immune responses by upregulation of a host susceptibility gene.


Assuntos
Citrus , Genes de Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas , Transativadores , Xanthomonas/imunologia , Citrus/genética , Citrus/imunologia , Citrus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Transativadores/genética , Transativadores/imunologia
3.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000783, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925907

RESUMO

Plant nucleotide-binding (NB) leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor (NLR) proteins function as intracellular immune receptors that perceive the presence of pathogen-derived virulence proteins (effectors) to induce immune responses. The 2 major types of plant NLRs that "sense" pathogen effectors differ in their N-terminal domains: these are Toll/interleukin-1 receptor resistance (TIR) domain-containing NLRs (TNLs) and coiled-coil (CC) domain-containing NLRs (CNLs). In many angiosperms, the RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW 8 (RPW8)-CC domain containing NLR (RNL) subclass of CNLs is encoded by 2 gene families, ACTIVATED DISEASE RESISTANCE 1 (ADR1) and N REQUIREMENT GENE 1 (NRG1), that act as "helper" NLRs during multiple sensor NLR-mediated immune responses. Despite their important role in sensor NLR-mediated immunity, knowledge of the specific, redundant, and synergistic functions of helper RNLs is limited. We demonstrate that the ADR1 and NRG1 families act in an unequally redundant manner in basal resistance, effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and regulation of defense gene expression. We define RNL redundancy in ETI conferred by some TNLs and in basal resistance against virulent pathogens. We demonstrate that, in Arabidopsis thaliana, the 2 RNL families contribute specific functions in ETI initiated by specific CNLs and TNLs. Time-resolved whole genome expression profiling revealed that RNLs and "classical" CNLs trigger similar transcriptome changes, suggesting that RNLs act like other CNLs to mediate ETI downstream of sensor NLR activation. Together, our genetic data confirm that RNLs contribute to basal resistance, are fully required for TNL signaling, and can also support defense activation during CNL-mediated ETI.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/imunologia , Proteínas NLR/fisiologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/fisiologia , Família Multigênica/genética , Família Multigênica/fisiologia , Proteínas NLR/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Transcriptoma
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008835, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785253

RESUMO

Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) is an oomycete pathogen causing Arabidopsis downy mildew. Effector proteins secreted from the pathogen into the plant play key roles in promoting infection by suppressing plant immunity and manipulating the host to the pathogen's advantage. One class of oomycete effectors share a conserved 'RxLR' motif critical for their translocation into the host cell. Here we characterize the interaction between an RxLR effector, HaRxL21 (RxL21), and the Arabidopsis transcriptional co-repressor Topless (TPL). We establish that RxL21 and TPL interact via an EAR motif at the C-terminus of the effector, mimicking the host plant mechanism for recruiting TPL to sites of transcriptional repression. We show that this motif, and hence interaction with TPL, is necessary for the virulence function of the effector. Furthermore, we provide evidence that RxL21 uses the interaction with TPL, and its close relative TPL-related 1, to repress plant immunity and enhance host susceptibility to both biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Oomicetos/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal/imunologia , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236633, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785249

RESUMO

The induction of general plant defense responses following the perception of external elicitors is now regarded as the first level of the plant immune response. Depending on the involvement or not of these molecules in pathogenicity, this induction of defense is called either Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP) Triggered Immunity or Pattern Triggered Immunity-both abbreviated to PTI. Because PTI is assumed to be a widespread and stable form of resistance to infection, understanding the mechanisms driving it becomes a major goal for the sustainable management of plant-pathogen interactions. However, the induction of PTI is complex. Our hypotheses are that (i) the recognition by the plant of PAMPs vs non-PAMP elicitors leads to specific defense profiles and (ii) the responses specifically induced by PAMPs target critical life history traits of the pathogen that produced them. We thus analyzed, using a metabolomic approach coupled with transcriptomic and hormonal analyses, the defense profiles induced in potato foliage treated with either a Concentrated Culture Filtrate (CCF) from Phytophthora infestans or two non-PAMP preparations, ß-aminobutyric acid (BABA) and an Ulva spp. Extract, used separately. Each elicitor induced specific defense profiles. CCF up-regulated sesquiterpenes but down-regulated sterols and phenols, notably α-chaconine, caffeoyl quinic acid and rutin, which decreased spore production of P. infestans in vitro. CCF thus induces both defense and counter-defense responses. By contrast, the Ulva extract triggered the synthesis of a large-spectrum of antimicrobial compounds through the phenylpropanoid/flavonoid pathways, while BABA targeted the primary metabolism. Hence, PTI can be regarded as a heterogeneous set of general and pathogen-specific responses triggered by the molecular signatures of each elicitor, rather than as a uniform, non-specific and broad-spectrum set of general defense reactions.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal/imunologia , Solanum tuberosum/imunologia , Aminobutiratos/farmacologia , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Fenóis/metabolismo , Phytophthora infestans/imunologia , Phytophthora infestans/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Imunidade Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Esteróis/metabolismo , Ulva/química
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18385-18392, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690686

RESUMO

Transgenic crops that produce insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can suppress pests and reduce insecticide sprays, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Although farmers plant refuges of non-Bt host plants to delay pest resistance, this tactic has not been sufficient against the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera In the United States, some populations of this devastating pest have rapidly evolved practical resistance to Cry3 toxins and Cry34/35Ab, the only Bt toxins in commercially available corn that kill rootworms. Here, we analyzed data from 2011 to 2016 on Bt corn fields producing Cry3Bb alone that were severely damaged by this pest in 25 crop-reporting districts of Illinois, Iowa, and Minnesota. The annual mean frequency of these problem fields was 29 fields (range 7 to 70) per million acres of Cry3Bb corn in 2011 to 2013, with a cost of $163 to $227 per damaged acre. The frequency of problem fields declined by 92% in 2014 to 2016 relative to 2011 to 2013 and was negatively associated with rotation of corn with soybean. The effectiveness of corn rotation for mitigating Bt resistance problems did not differ significantly between crop-reporting districts with versus without prevalent rotation-resistant rootworm populations. In some analyses, the frequency of problem fields was positively associated with planting of Cry3 corn and negatively associated with planting of Bt corn producing both a Cry3 toxin and Cry34/35Ab. The results highlight the central role of crop rotation for mitigating impacts of D. v. virgifera resistance to Bt corn.


Assuntos
Besouros/fisiologia , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/imunologia , Zea mays/imunologia , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Produção Agrícola/economia , Endotoxinas/genética , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas , Iowa , Controle Biológico de Vetores/economia , Doenças das Plantas/economia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/parasitologia , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/parasitologia
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3763, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724132

RESUMO

In both animals and plants, the perception of bacterial flagella by immune receptors elicits the activation of defence responses. Most plants are able to perceive the highly conserved epitope flg22 from flagellin, the main flagellar protein, from most bacterial species. However, flagellin from Ralstonia solanacearum, the causal agent of the bacterial wilt disease, presents a polymorphic flg22 sequence (flg22Rso) that avoids perception by all plants studied to date. In this work, we show that soybean has developed polymorphic versions of the flg22 receptors that are able to perceive flg22Rso. Furthermore, we identify key residues responsible for both the evasion of perception by flg22Rso in Arabidopsis and the gain of perception by the soybean receptors. Heterologous expression of the soybean flg22 receptors in susceptible plant species, such as tomato, enhances resistance to bacterial wilt disease, demonstrating the potential of these receptors to enhance disease resistance in crop plants.


Assuntos
Flagelina/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Soja/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Epitopos/imunologia , Flagelina/genética , Flagelina/metabolismo , Evasão da Resposta Imune/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Polimorfismo Genético/imunologia , Ralstonia solanacearum/imunologia , Ralstonia solanacearum/patogenicidade , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Soja/genética , Soja/metabolismo , Soja/microbiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235482, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603342

RESUMO

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most devastating fungal diseases affecting grain crops and Fusarium graminearum is the most aggressive causal species. Several evidences shown that stomatal closure is involved in the first line of defence against plant pathogens. However, there is very little evidence to show that photosynthetic parameters change in inoculated plants. The aim of the present study was to study the role of stomatal regulation in wheat after F. graminearum inoculation and explore its possible involvement in FHB resistance. RT-qPCR revealed that genes involved in stomatal regulation are induced in the resistant Sumai3 cultivar but not in the susceptible Rebelde cultivar. Seven genes involved in the positive regulation of stomatal closure were up-regulated in Sumai3, but it is most likely, that two genes, TaBG and TaCYP450, involved in the negative regulation of stomatal closure, were strongly induced, suggesting that FHB response is linked to cross-talk between the genes promoting and inhibiting stomatal closure. Increasing temperature of spikes in the wheat genotypes and a decrease in photosynthetic efficiency in Rebelde but not in Sumai3, were observed, confirming the hypothesis that photosynthetic parameters are related to FHB resistance.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Fusariose/imunologia , Fotossíntese , Estômatos de Plantas , Triticum/imunologia , Fusarium/imunologia , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Fotossíntese/genética , Fotossíntese/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/imunologia , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17409-17417, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616567

RESUMO

Proteolytic cascades regulate immunity and development in animals, but these cascades in plants have not yet been reported. Here we report that the extracellular immune protease Rcr3 of tomato is activated by P69B and other subtilases (SBTs), revealing a proteolytic cascade regulating extracellular immunity in solanaceous plants. Rcr3 is a secreted papain-like Cys protease (PLCP) of tomato that acts both in basal resistance against late blight disease (Phytophthora infestans) and in gene-for-gene resistance against the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum (syn. Passalora fulva) Despite the prevalent model that Rcr3-like proteases can activate themselves at low pH, we found that catalytically inactive proRcr3 mutant precursors are still processed into mature mRcr3 isoforms. ProRcr3 is processed by secreted P69B and other Asp-selective SBTs in solanaceous plants, providing robust immunity through SBT redundancy. The apoplastic effector EPI1 of P. infestans can block Rcr3 activation by inhibiting SBTs, suggesting that this effector promotes virulence indirectly by preventing the activation of Rcr3(-like) immune proteases. Rcr3 activation in Nicotiana benthamiana requires a SBT from a different subfamily, indicating that extracellular proteolytic cascades have evolved convergently in solanaceous plants or are very ancient in the plant kingdom. The frequent incidence of Asp residues in the cleavage region of Rcr3-like proteases in solanaceous plants indicates that activation of immune proteases by SBTs is a general mechanism, illuminating a proteolytic cascade that provides robust apoplastic immunity.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteólise , Cladosporium , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Phytophthora infestans , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas , Virulência
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235018, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673321

RESUMO

Common scab disease in potato has become a widespread issue in major potato production areas, leading to increasing economic losses. Varietal resistance is seen as a viable and long-term scab management strategy. However, the genes and mechanisms of varietal resistance are unknown. In the current study, a comparative RNA transcriptome sequencing and differential gene signaling and priming sensitization studies were conducted in two potato cultivars that differ by their response to common scab (Streptomyces scabies), for unraveling the genes and pathways potentially involved in resistance within this pathosystem. We report on a consistent and contrasted gene expression pattern from 1,064 annotated genes differentiating a resistant (Hindenburg) and a susceptible (Green Mountain) cultivars, and identified a set of 273 co-regulated differentially expressed genes in 34 pathways that more likely reflect the genetic differences of the cultivars and metabolic mechanisms involved in the scab pathogenesis and resistance. The data suggest that comparative transcriptomic phenotyping can be used to predict scab lesion phenotype in breeding lines using mature potato tuber. The study also showed that the resistant cultivar, Hindenburg, has developed and maintained a capacity to sense and prime itself for persistent response to scab disease over time, and suggests an immune priming reaction as a mechanism for induced-resistance in scab resistant potato cultivars. The set of genes identified, described, and discussed in the study paves the foundation for detailed characterizations towards tailoring and designing procedures for targeted gene knockout through gene editing and phenotypic evaluation.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Solanum tuberosum/imunologia , Streptomyces/imunologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Escabiose/microbiologia , Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Streptomyces/patogenicidade
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(20): 10848-10855, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371486

RESUMO

Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is a picorna-like plant virus transmitted by nematodes that affects vineyards worldwide. Nanobody (Nb)-mediated resistance against GFLV has been created recently, and shown to be highly effective in plants, including grapevine, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we present the high-resolution cryo electron microscopy structure of the GFLV-Nb23 complex, which provides the basis for molecular recognition by the Nb. The structure reveals a composite binding site bridging over three domains of one capsid protein (CP) monomer. The structure provides a precise mapping of the Nb23 epitope on the GFLV capsid in which the antigen loop is accommodated through an induced-fit mechanism. Moreover, we uncover and characterize several resistance-breaking GFLV isolates with amino acids mapping within this epitope, including C-terminal extensions of the CP, which would sterically interfere with Nb binding. Escape variants with such extended CP fail to be transmitted by nematodes linking Nb-mediated resistance to vector transmission. Together, these data provide insights into the molecular mechanism of Nb23-mediated recognition of GFLV and of virus resistance loss.


Assuntos
Nepovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/química , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/farmacologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/química , Proteínas do Capsídeo/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Epitopos/química , Modelos Moleculares , Nematoides/virologia , Nepovirus/ultraestrutura , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Folhas de Planta/virologia , Vírus de Plantas/imunologia , Vírus de Plantas/fisiologia , Conformação Proteica , Vitis
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(20): 11147-11157, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376629

RESUMO

The rhizosphere interaction between plant roots or pathogenic microbes is initiated by mutual exchange of signals. However, how soil pathogens sense host signals is largely unknown. Here, we studied early molecular events associated with host recognition in Fusarium graminearum, an economically important fungal pathogen that can infect both roots and heads of cereal crops. We found that host sensing prior to physical contact with plant roots radically alters the transcriptome and triggers nitric oxide (NO) production in F. graminearum We identified an ankyrin-repeat domain containing protein (FgANK1) required for host-mediated NO production and virulence in F. graminearum In the absence of host plant, FgANK1 resides in the cytoplasm. In response to host signals, FgANK1 translocates to the nucleus and interacts with a zinc finger transcription factor (FgZC1), also required for specific binding to the nitrate reductase (NR) promoter, NO production, and virulence in F. graminearum Our results reveal mechanistic insights into host-recognition strategies employed by soil pathogens.


Assuntos
Fusarium/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Anquirinas/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
13.
Nature ; 580(7805): 653-657, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350464

RESUMO

The aboveground parts of terrestrial plants, collectively called the phyllosphere, have a key role in the global balance of atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen. The phyllosphere represents one of the most abundant habitats for microbiota colonization. Whether and how plants control phyllosphere microbiota to ensure plant health is not well understood. Here we show that the Arabidopsis quadruple mutant (min7 fls2 efr cerk1; hereafter, mfec)1, simultaneously defective in pattern-triggered immunity and the MIN7 vesicle-trafficking pathway, or a constitutively activated cell death1 (cad1) mutant, carrying a S205F mutation in a membrane-attack-complex/perforin (MACPF)-domain protein, harbour altered endophytic phyllosphere microbiota and display leaf-tissue damage associated with dysbiosis. The Shannon diversity index and the relative abundance of Firmicutes were markedly reduced, whereas Proteobacteria were enriched in the mfec and cad1S205F mutants, bearing cross-kingdom resemblance to some aspects of the dysbiosis that occurs in human inflammatory bowel disease. Bacterial community transplantation experiments demonstrated a causal role of a properly assembled leaf bacterial community in phyllosphere health. Pattern-triggered immune signalling, MIN7 and CAD1 are found in major land plant lineages and are probably key components of a genetic network through which terrestrial plants control the level and nurture the diversity of endophytic phyllosphere microbiota for survival and health in a microorganism-rich environment.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/genética , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Meio Ambiente , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Homeostase , Microbiota/genética , Microbiota/fisiologia , Mutação , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Proteobactérias/genética , Proteobactérias/isolamento & purificação
14.
Arch Virol ; 165(7): 1585-1597, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399789

RESUMO

Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV), a member of the genus Tospovirus, has an extensive host range and is associated with necrosis disease of chilli (Capsicum annuum L.), which is a major threat to commercial production. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have been investigated for their antiviral activity in several crops and for their potential use in viral disease management. However, the microbial mechanisms associated with PGPR in triggered immunity against plant viruses have rarely been studied. To understand the innate immune responses activated by Bacillus spp. against GBNV, we studied microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) triggered immunity (MTI) in chilli using transient expression of the flagellin gene of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CRN9 from Agrobacterium clones, which also induced the expression of EAS1 gene transcripts coding for epi-aristolochene synthase, which is responsible for the accumulation of capsidiol phytoalexin. In addition, the transcript levels of WRKY33 transcription factor and salicylic acid (SA)-responsive defense genes such as NPR1, PAL, PO and SAR8.2 were increased. Jasmonate (JA)-responsive genes, viz., PDF, and LOX genes, were also upregulated in chilli plants challenged with GBNV. Further analysis revealed significant induction of these genes in chilli plants treated with B. amyloliquefaciens CRN9 and benzothiadiazole (BTH). The transcript levels of defense response genes and pathogenesis-related proteins were significantly higher in plants treated with Bacillus and BTH and remained significantly higher at 72 h post-inoculation and compared to the inoculated control. The plants treated with flagellin using the agrodrench method and exogenous treatment with B. amyloliquefaciens and BTH showed resistance to GBNV upon mechanical inoculation and a reduced virus titre which was confirmed by qPCR assays. Thus, transient expression of flagellin, a MAMP molecule from B. amyloliquefaciens CRN9, is able to trigger innate immunity and restrain virus growth in chilli via induced systemic resistance (ISR) activated by both the SA and JA/ET signalling pathways.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/imunologia , Capsicum/imunologia , Flagelina/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Tospovirus/fisiologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/fisiologia , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/microbiologia , Capsicum/virologia , Resistência à Doença , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia
15.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 77(20): 3963-3976, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277261

RESUMO

The immune system of plants is highly complex. It involves pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), which is signaled and manifested through branched multi-step pathways. To counteract this, pathogen effectors target and inhibit individual PTI steps. This in turn can cause specific plant cytosolic nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptors to activate effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Plants and pathogens have many genes encoding NLRs and effectors, respectively. Yet, only a few segregate genetically as resistance (R) genes and avirulence (Avr) effector genes in wild-type populations. In an attempt to explain this contradiction, a model is proposed where far most of the NLRs, the effectors and the effector targets keep one another in a silent state. In this so-called "iceberg model", a few NLR-effector combinations are genetically visible above the surface, while the vast majority is hidden below. Besides, addressing the existence of many NLRs and effectors, the model also helps to explain why individual downregulation of many effectors causes reduced virulence and why many lesion-mimic mutants are found. Finally, the iceberg model accommodates genuine plant susceptibility factors as potential effector targets.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Proteínas NLR/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia
16.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(4): e1008475, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339200

RESUMO

The nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR) class of immune receptors of plants and animals recognize pathogen-encoded proteins and trigger host defenses. Although animal NLRs form oligomers upon pathogen recognition to activate downstream signaling, the mechanisms of plant NLR activation remain largely elusive. Tm-22 is a plasma membrane (PM)-localized coiled coil (CC)-type NLR and confers resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) by recognizing its viral movement protein (MP). In this study, we found that Tm-22 self-associates upon recognition of MP. The CC domain of Tm-22 is the signaling domain and its function requires PM localization and self-association. The nucleotide-binding (NB-ARC) domain is important for Tm-22 self-interaction and regulates activation of the CC domain through its nucleotide-binding and self-association. (d)ATP binding may alter the NB-ARC conformation to release its suppression of Tm-22 CC domain-mediated cell death. Our findings provide the first example of signaling domain for PM-localized NLR and insight into PM-localized NLR activation.


Assuntos
Proteínas NLR/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/virologia , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença , Proteínas NLR/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Tabaco/imunologia , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco/metabolismo , Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco/patogenicidade
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(16): 9112-9121, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253321

RESUMO

Plant auxin response factor (ARF) transcription factors are an important class of key transcriptional modulators in auxin signaling. Despite the well-studied roles of ARF transcription factors in plant growth and development, it is largely unknown whether, and how, ARF transcription factors may be involved in plant resistance to pathogens. We show here that two fijiviruses (double-stranded RNA viruses) utilize their proteins to disturb the dimerization of OsARF17 and repress its transcriptional activation ability, while a tenuivirus (negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus) directly interferes with the DNA binding activity of OsARF17. These interactions impair OsARF17-mediated antiviral defense. OsARF17 also confers resistance to a cytorhabdovirus and was directly targeted by one of the viral proteins. Thus, OsARF17 is the common target of several very different viruses. This suggests that OsARF17 plays a crucial role in plant defense against different types of plant viruses, and that these viruses use independently evolved viral proteins to target this key component of auxin signaling and facilitate infection.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/imunologia , Oryza/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vírus de Plantas/imunologia , Vírus de RNA/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Mutação , Oryza/genética , Oryza/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vírus de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Multimerização Proteica/imunologia , Vírus de RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo , Tabaco/virologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231150, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275687

RESUMO

The microbial community in the plant rhizosphere is vital to plant productivity and disease resistance. Alterations in the composition and diversity of species within this community could be detrimental if microbes suppressing the activity of pathogens are removed. Species of the insect-pathogenic fungus, Metarhizium, commonly employed as biological control agents against crop pests, have recently been identified as plant root colonizers and provide a variety of benefits (e.g. growth promotion, drought resistance, nitrogen acquisition). However, the impact of Metarhizium amendment on the rhizosphere microbiome has yet to be elucidated. Using Illumina sequencing, we examined the community profiles (bacteria and fungi) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) rhizosphere (loose soil and plant root) after amendment with M. robertsii conidia, in the presence and absence of an insect host. Although alpha diversity was not significantly affected overall, there were numerous examples of plant growth-promoting organisms that significantly increased with Metarhizium amendment (Bradyrhizobium, Flavobacterium, Chaetomium, Trichoderma). Specifically, the abundance of Bradyrhizobium, a group of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, was confirmed to be increased using a qPCR assay with genus-specific primers. In addition, the ability of the microbiome to suppress the activity of a known bean root pathogen was assessed. The development of disease symptoms after application with Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli was visible in the hypocotyl and upper root of plants grown in sterilized soil but was suppressed during growth in microbiome soil and soil treated with M. robertsii. Successful amendment of agricultural soils with biocontrol agents such as Metarhizium necessitates a comprehensive understanding of the effects on the diversity of the rhizosphere microbiome. Such research is fundamentally important towards sustainable agricultural practices to improve overall plant health and productivity.


Assuntos
Metarhizium/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Phaseolus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Rizosfera , Bradyrhizobium/isolamento & purificação , Bradyrhizobium/fisiologia , Proteção de Cultivos/métodos , Resistência à Doença , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Phaseolus/microbiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
19.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294096

RESUMO

We used three approaches to map the yellow rust resistance gene Yr7 and identify associated SNPs in wheat. First, we used a traditional QTL mapping approach using a double haploid (DH) population and mapped Yr7 to a low-recombination region of chromosome 2B. To fine map the QTL, we then used an association mapping panel. Both populations were SNP array genotyped allowing alignment of QTL and genome-wide association scans based on common segregating SNPs. Analysis of the association panel spanning the QTL interval, narrowed the interval down to a single haplotype block. Finally, we used mapping-by-sequencing of resistant and susceptible DH bulks to identify a candidate gene in the interval showing high homology to a previously suggested Yr7 candidate and to populate the Yr7 interval with a higher density of polymorphisms. We highlight the power of combining mapping-by-sequencing, delivering a complete list of gene-based segregating polymorphisms in the interval with the high recombination, low LD precision of the association mapping panel. Our mapping-by-sequencing methodology is applicable to any trait and our results validate the approach in wheat, where with a near complete reference genome sequence, we are able to define a small interval containing the causative gene.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Triticum/genética , Basidiomycota/patogenicidade , Resistência à Doença/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Haplótipos/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Triticum/microbiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230855, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267842

RESUMO

Growing resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L) varieties is an important strategy for the control of leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks. This study sought to identify the chromosomal location and effects of leaf rust resistance loci in five Canadian spring wheat cultivars. The parents and doubled haploid lines of crosses Carberry/AC Cadillac, Carberry/Vesper, Vesper/Lillian, Vesper/Stettler and Stettler/Red Fife were assessed for leaf rust severity and infection response in field nurseries in Canada near Swift Current, SK from 2013 to 2015, Morden, MB from 2015 to 2017 and Brandon, MB in 2016, and in New Zealand near Lincoln in 2014. The populations were genotyped with the 90K Infinium iSelect assay and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed. A high density consensus map generated based on 14 doubled haploid populations and integrating SNP and SSR markers was used to compare QTL identified in different populations. AC Cadillac contributed QTL on chromosomes 2A, 3B and 7B (2 loci), Carberry on 1A, 2B (2 loci), 2D, 4B (2 loci), 5A, 6A, 7A and 7D, Lillian on 4A and 7D, Stettler on 2D and 6B, Vesper on 1B, 1D, 2A, 6B and 7B (2 loci), and Red Fife on 7A and 7B. Lillian contributed to a novel locus QLr.spa-4A, and similarly Carberry at QLr.spa-5A. The discovery of novel leaf rust resistance QTL QLr.spa-4A and QLr.spa-5A, and several others in contemporary Canada Western Red Spring wheat varieties is a tremendous addition to our present knowledge of resistance gene deployment in breeding. Carberry demonstrated substantial stacking of genes which could be supplemented with the genes identified in other cultivars with the expectation of increasing efficacy of resistance to leaf rust and longevity with little risk of linkage drag.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Triticum/fisiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA