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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10646-10652, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479255

RESUMO

A new monosesquiterpene diacetylgliocladic acid (1), a new dimeric sesquiterpene divirensol H (9), and two exceptionally novel trimeric sesquiterpene trivirensols A and B (11 and 12), together with another eight known congeners, were purified from an endophytic fungus Trichoderma virens FY06, derived from Litchi chinensis Sonn. whose fruit is a delicious and popular food. All of them were identified by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, combined with biosynthetic considerations. Trivirensols A and B are unprecedented trimers of which three subunits are connected by two ester bonds of the sesquiterpene class. Relative to the positive control triadimefon, all the tested metabolites showed strong inhibitory activities against at least one phytopathogenic fungus among Penicillium italicum, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium graminearum, Colletotrichum musae, and Colletotrictum gloeosporioides. Notably, as metabolites of the endophytic fungus from L. chinensis, they all presented strong antifungal activities against C. gloeosporioides which causes anthracnose in L. chinensis.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Litchi/microbiologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Trichoderma/química , Colletotrichum/efeitos dos fármacos , Colletotrichum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endófitos/química , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Endófitos/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Sesquiterpenos/química , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Trichoderma/genética , Trichoderma/isolamento & purificação
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 158: 149-155, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378351

RESUMO

Induced resistance is an effective measure for controlling plant diseases by utilizing the natural defense of the host and meets the strategic needs of pesticide application and safety for agricultural products worldwide. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP), which is the main active molecule of G. lucidum, has been widely used in functional food and clinical medicine. However, there are few reports of the use of GLP for the prevention and control of plant diseases. The purpose of this study is to explore the effect of GLP and its mechanism of inducing plant resistance. In this study, we found that GLP spray and irrigation root treatments can promote growth in cotton. After soaking in GLP, theseedling height and cotton fusarium wilt resistance both increased to some extent, effects that were dose dependent. After treatment of cotton with GLP, the activities of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in leaves increased significantly, whereas the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased. In addition, QRT-PCR results showed significantly increased relative expression of genes related to the jasmonic acid pathway in cotton. Therefore, we speculate that GLP can induce plant resistance by stimulating the jasmonate pathway.


Assuntos
Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossypium/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Gossypium/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
3.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(8): 128, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375920

RESUMO

Large patch disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2, is the most devastating disease in Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica). Current large patch disease control strategies rely primarily upon the use of chemical pesticides. Streptomyces sp. S8 is known to possess exceptional antagonistic properties that could potentially suppress the large patch pathogen found at turfgrass plantations. This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of using the strain as a biological control mechanism. Sequencing of the S8 strain genome revealed a valinomycin biosynthesis gene cluster. This cluster is composed of the vlm1 and vlm2 genes, which are known to produce antifungal compounds. In order to verify this finding for the large patch pathogen, a valinomycin biosynthesis knockout mutant was created via the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The mutant lost antifungal activity against the large patch pathogen. Consequently, it is anticipated that eco-friendly microbial preparations derived from the S8 strain can be utilized to biologically control large patch disease.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Rhizoctonia/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptomyces/metabolismo , Valinomicina/metabolismo , Valinomicina/farmacologia , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Genoma Bacteriano , Família Multigênica , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Poaceae/microbiologia , Rhizoctonia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Streptomyces/genética
4.
J Microbiol ; 57(9): 781-794, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452043

RESUMO

The phytopathogenic Burkholderia species B. glumae and B. plantarii are the causal agents of bacterial wilt, grain rot, and seedling blight, which threaten the rice industry globally. Toxoflavin and tropolone are produced by these phytopathogens and are considered the most hostile biohazards with a broad spectrum of target organisms. However, despite their nonspecific toxicity, the effects of toxoflavin and tropolone on bacteria remain unknown. RNA-seq based transcriptome analysis was employed to determine the genome-wide expression patterns under phytotoxin treatment. Expression of 2327 and 830 genes was differentially changed by toxoflavin and tropolone, respectively. Enriched biological pathways reflected the down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and ribosome function, beginning with the inhibition of membrane biosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism under oxidative stress or iron starvation. Conversely, several systems such as bacterial chemotaxis, flagellar assembly, biofilm formation, and sulfur/taurine transporters were highly expressed as countermeasures against the phytotoxins. In addition, our findings revealed that three hub genes commonly induced by both phytotoxins function as the siderophore enterobactin, an iron-chelator. Our study provides new insights into the effects of phytotoxins on bacteria for better understanding of the interactions between phytopathogens and other microorganisms. These data will also be applied as a valuable source in subsequent applications against phytotoxins, the major virulence factor.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Burkholderia/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Pirimidinonas/toxicidade , Triazinas/toxicidade , Tropolona/toxicidade , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Burkholderia/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/microbiologia , Pirimidinonas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Triazinas/metabolismo , Tropolona/metabolismo
5.
Microbiol Res ; 227: 126297, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421711

RESUMO

Many plant growth promoting rhizobacteria such as Bacillus velezensis GJ11 can produce acetoin to trigger induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants. For improving acetoin production, the mutant strains were respectively constructed by knockout of the gene of bdh (2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase) and gdh (glycerol dehydrogenase) in GJ11, but only GJ11Δbdh produced a high level of acetoin triggering strong ISR against Pseudomonas syringae infection in plants. GJ11Δbdh could induce H2O2 accumulation in plants by producing a high level of acetoin. H2O2 was necessary for triggering ISR against the pathogen infection because after scavenging H2O2 with ascorbic acid or catalase, the inhibition role to pathogen infection induced by acetoin almost disappeared in plants. Further investigation found the plants treated with GJ11Δbdh in an obvious "priming" state, in which the mild immune response was observed such as a slight increase of H2O2 production, callose deposition, and enzymes activity related with defence response (e.g. POD, PAL and PPO). The plants in "priming" could rapidly respond to the pathogen infection accompanying with a significant increase of H2O2 production, callose deposition, and enzymes activity. Collectively, this study provides new insight into the role of acetoin as a strong elicitor of defense response, and ascribes a new approach to construct the mutant strains with high production of acetoin for triggering stronger ISR against pathogens infection in plants.


Assuntos
Acetoína/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Oxirredutases do Álcool/genética , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Genes de Plantas/genética , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Imunidade Vegetal/fisiologia , Pseudomonas syringae/patogenicidade , Desidrogenase do Álcool de Açúcar/genética
6.
Microbiol Res ; 227: 126296, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421712

RESUMO

Heat shock proteins (Hsp) are important factors in the response of organisms to oscillations in environmental conditions. Although Hsp have been studied for a long time, little is known about this protein class in Trichoderma species. Here we studied the expression of Hsp genes during T. asperellum growth, and mycoparasitism against two phytopathogens: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Fusarium oxysporum, as well as during thermal stress. The expression levels of these genes were observed by real-time PCR and they showed to be differentially expressed under these conditions. We verified that the TaHsp26c, TaHsp70b and TaHsp70c genes were differentially expressed over time, indicating that these genes can be developmentally regulated in T. asperellum. Except for TaHsp26a, all other genes analyzed were induced in the post-contact condition when T. asperellum was cultured in a confrontation plate assay against itself. Additionally, TaHsp26b, TaHsp26c, TaHsp90, TaHsp104a and TaHsp104b were induced during initial contact between T. asperellum hyphae, suggesting that these proteins must play a role in the organism´s self-recognition mechanism. When we examined gene expression during mycoparasitism, we observed that some genes were induced both by S. sclerotiorum and F. oxysporum, while others were not induced during interaction with either of the phytopathogens. Furthermore, we observed some genes induced only during confrontation against S. sclerotiorum, indicating that the expression of Hsp genes during mycoparasitism seems to be modulated by the phytopathogen. To assess whether such genes are expressed during temperature oscillations, we analyzed their transcription levels during thermal and cold shock. We observed that except for the TaHsp70c gene, all others presented high transcript levels when T. asperellum was submitted to high temperature (38 °C), indicating their importance in the response to heat stress. The TaHsp70c gene was significantly induced only in cold shock at 4 °C. Our results show the importance of Hsp proteins during self-recognition, mycoparasitism and thermal stress in T. asperellum.


Assuntos
Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Trichoderma/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ascomicetos/genética , Fusarium/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Hifas/genética , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações Microbianas , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Alinhamento de Sequência , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Temperatura Ambiente , Transcriptoma , Trichoderma/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Microbiol Res ; 227: 126294, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421718

RESUMO

After exposure to with Populus davidiana × P. alba var. pyramidalis, the expression of genes in Trichoderma asperellum were compared in four transcriptomes. The top 20 high expression genes included six heat shock proteins and three hydrophobins, indicating that Trichoderma can rapidly adapt to environment stresses and elicit a plant defense response. The genes, involved in the interaction between Trichoderma and plant, showed an increasing expression level, for example sugar transporters, EPL1s, endoxylanases, pectin lyases, and nitrilases. Interestingly, sugar transporters also showed high expression when T. asperellum was cultured on medium lacking a carbon substrate, which would contribute to T. asperellum's survival and domination in ecological niche competition. And the genes related to mycoparasitism were expressed abundantly following T. asperellum's interaction with PdPap, indicating the PdPap induction could enhance the mycoparasitic ability of T. asperellum. Twelve chitinases and five glucanases showed higher expression in transcriptome Cs, indicating that T. asperellum secretes both types of enzyme before interacting with pathogens, allowing T. asperellum to implement mycoparasitism and obtain more energy. Many novel transcripts were obtained in each transcriptome, which may play important roles in the biocontrol process of T. asperellum. Interestingly, T. asperellum undergo constitutive alternative splicing in the biocontrol process: Seven biocontrol genes were alternative spliced via intron retention. qRT-PCR analysis proved that intron retention is negatively associated with the expression of chitinase, oligopeptide transporters, and beta-lactamase. However, the percentage of MAPK intron retention was quite low, suggesting that intron retention has little effect on the function of MAPK.


Assuntos
Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Populus/microbiologia , Transcriptoma , Trichoderma/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichoderma/genética , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 343, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: European grapevine cultivars (Vitis vinifera spp.) are highly susceptible to the downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara viticola. Breeding of resistant V. vinifera cultivars is a promising strategy to reduce the impact of disease management. Most cultivars that have been bred for resistance to downy mildew, rely on resistance mediated by the Rpv3 (Resistance to P. viticola) locus. However, despite the extensive use of this locus, little is known about the mechanism of Rpv3-mediated resistance. RESULTS: In this study, Rpv3-mediated defense responses were investigated in Rpv3+ and Rpv3- grapevine cultivars following inoculation with two distinct P. viticola isolates avrRpv3+ and avrRpv3-, with the latter being able to overcome Rpv3 resistance. Based on comparative microscopic, metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses, our results show that the Rpv3-1-mediated resistance is associated with a defense mechanism that triggers synthesis of fungi-toxic stilbenes and programmed cell death (PCD), resulting in reduced but not suppressed pathogen growth and development. Functional annotation of the encoded protein sequence of genes significantly upregulated during the Rpv3-1-mediated defense response revealed putative roles in pathogen recognition, signal transduction and defense responses. CONCLUSION: This study used histochemical, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses of Rpv3+ and susceptible cultivars inoculated with avirulent and virulent P. viticola isolates to investigate mechanism underlying the Rpv3-1-mediated resistance response. We demonstrated a strong correlation between the expressions of stilbene biosynthesis related genes, the accumulation of fungi-toxic stilbenes, pathogen growth inhibition and PCD.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Estilbenos/metabolismo , Vitis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Metaboloma , Oomicetos/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transcrição Genética , Transcriptoma , Vitis/imunologia , Vitis/microbiologia
9.
Plant Dis ; 103(10): 2624-2633, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397632

RESUMO

Brown spot disease caused by Colletotrichum species was found on leaves of mulberry (Morus alba L.) in Dujiangyan, Sichuan Province, China. Fungal isolates from leaf lesions were identified as six Colletotrichum species based on morphological characteristics and DNA analysis of the combined sequences ITS, GAPDH, ACT, CHS-1, TUB2, and GS. These included Colletotrichum fioriniae, C. fructicola, C. cliviae, C. karstii, C. kahawae subsp. ciggaro, and C. brevisporum. Results showed that the most important causal agent of mulberry anthracnose was C. fioriniae, causing typical brown necrotic spots or streaks, followed by C. brevisporum, C. karstii, and C. kahawae subsp. ciggaro, whereas the two other species (C. fructicola and C. cliviae) showed no pathogenicity to mulberry. This study is the first report of these species associated with mulberry in China.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum , Morus , Filogenia , Virulência , China , Colletotrichum/patogenicidade , DNA Fúngico/genética , Morus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Plant Dis ; 103(10): 2548-2558, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432774

RESUMO

Several Pestalotiopsis-like species cause gray blight disease in tea plants, resulting in severe tea production losses. However, systematic and comprehensive research on the diversity, geographical distribution, and pathogenicity of pathogenic species associated with tea plants in China is limited. In this study, 168 Pestalotiopsis-like isolates were obtained from diseased tea plant leaves from 13 primary tea-producing provinces and cities in China. Based on a multilocus (internal transcribed spacer, translation elongation factor 1-α, and ß-tubulin gene region) phylogenetic analysis coupled with an assessment of conidial characteristics, 20 Neopestalotiopsis unclassified isolates, seven Pestalotiopsis species, including two novel (Pestalotiopsis menhaiensis and Pestalotiopsis sichuanensis), four known (Pestalotiopsis camelliae, Pestalotiopsis chamaeropis, Pestalotiopsis kenyana, and Pestalotiopsis rhodomyrtus) and one indistinguishable species, and three Pseudopestalotiopsis species, including two known (Pseudopestalotiopsis camelliae-sinensis and Pseudopestalotiopsis chinensis) and one indistinguishable species, were identified. This study is the first to evaluate Pestalotiopsis chamaeropis on tea plants in China. The geographical distribution and pathogenicity tests showed Pseudopestalotiopsis camelliae-sinensis to be the dominant cause of gray blight of tea plants in China. In vitro antifungal assays demonstrated that theobromine not only derepressed mycelial growth of the 29 representative isolates but also increased their growth. Correlation analysis revealed a linear positive relationship between the mycelial growth rate and pathogenicity (P = 0.0148).


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Biodiversidade , Camellia sinensis , Doenças das Plantas , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Camellia sinensis/microbiologia , China , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Virulência
11.
Plant Dis ; 103(10): 2645-2651, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453747

RESUMO

Chinese wheat landrace Dahongtou was resistant to 35 of 38 tested Chinese isolates of Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici at the seedling stage. Genetic analysis of the F2 populations and their derived F2:3 families of crosses of Dahongtou with the susceptible varieties Mingxian 169 and Huixianhong indicated that the resistance of Dahongtou to B. graminis f. sp. tritici isolate E09 was conferred by a single recessive gene, tentatively designated as pmDHT. The gene was mapped to chromosome arm 7BL and flanked by markers Xwmc526/XBE443877 and Xgwm611/Xwmc511 at genetic distances of 0.8 and 0.3 cM, respectively. The chromosomal position of pmDHT was similar to the multi-allelic Pm5 locus on 7BL. Allelism tests with crosses of Dahongtou with Fuzhuang 30 (Pm5e) and Xiaobaidong (mlxbd) indicated that pmDHT was allelic to both Pm5e and mlxbd. However, pmDHT showed a different pattern of resistance to the 38 B. graminis f. sp. tritici isolates compared with wheat lines with Pm5a, Pm5b, Pm5e, mlxbd, and PmHYM and also differed from PmSGA. Thus, pmDHT was identified most likely as a new allele or at least a closely linked gene of the Pm5 locus. This gene can be transferred into susceptible wheat cultivars/lines and pyramided with other resistance genes through marker-assisted selection to improve powdery mildew resistance.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Resistência à Doença , Genes de Plantas , Triticum , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genes de Plantas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
12.
Plant Dis ; 103(10): 2494-2497, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453748

RESUMO

Phytoplasmas are plant-pathogenic bacteria that are associated with yield losses in many crop plants worldwide. Phytoplasma strain differentiation is accomplished using in silico restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA-encoding gene sequences, which has resulted in the definition of ribosomal groups and subgroups of phytoplasmas. Due to limitations associated with this approach, a complementary classification scheme was recently developed based on RFLP analysis of the single-copy, protein-encoding gene chaperonin-60 (cpn60). We present the CpnClassiPhyR, software that facilitates phytoplasma strain classification using both RFLP and automated phylogenetic analysis of cpn60 sequences. This software is available through a web interface at http://cpnclassiphyr.ca.


Assuntos
Chaperonina 60 , Phytoplasma , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Software , Chaperonina 60/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Filogenia , Phytoplasma/classificação , Phytoplasma/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Software/normas
13.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(3): 315-323, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392474

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Pre-treatment of soybean seedlings with 200 µM salicylic acid before fungal inoculation significantly alleviated disease resistance in soybean seedlings against Fusarium solani infection. Sudden death syndrome of soybean is largely caused by Fusarium solani (F. solani). Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to induce resistance in plants against many pathogens. However, the effect of exogenous SA application on F. solani infection of soybean is less reported. This study investigated the effect of foliar application of SA on soybean seedlings before F. solani infection. Seedlings were sprayed with 200 µM SA and inoculated with F. solani after 24 h of last SA application. After 3 days post-inoculation, seedlings treated with 200 µM SA showed significantly fewer disease symptoms with increased endogenous SA level, SA marker genes expression and antioxidant activities in the SA-treated seedlings more than the untreated control seedlings. Furthermore, the decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels was observed in the SA-treated plants as compared to the untreated plants. Analysis of the effect of SA application on F. solani showed that the mycelia growth of F. solani was not affected by SA treatment. Further investigation in this study revealed a decreased in F. solani biomass content in the SA treated seedlings. Results from the present study show that pre-treatment of 200 µM SA can induce resistance of soybean seedlings against F. solani infection.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Soja/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/microbiologia , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Arch Virol ; 164(11): 2859-2863, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385115

RESUMO

In this study, we report the molecular characterization of a novel mycovirus in a phytopathogenic fungus of the species Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, which we named "Colletotrichum gloeosporioides RNA virus 1" (CgRV1). The virus has a dsRNA genome of 2,975 bp and possesses two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs 1 and 2). The smaller ORF1 encodes a protein of unknown function, and the larger ORF2 encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Phylogenetic analysis based on the RdRp sequence showed that CgRV1 clustered with and is closely related to unclassified mycoviruses that are distinct from members of the family Partitiviridae.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum/virologia , Micovírus/genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus não Classificados/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Micovírus/isolamento & purificação , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , RNA Viral/genética , Vírus não Classificados/isolamento & purificação
15.
Arch Virol ; 164(10): 2631-2635, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367950

RESUMO

In this study, a novel mycovirus designed Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ourmia-like virus 1 (CgOLV1) was isolated from a filamentous phytopathogenic fungus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The virus has a genome of 2,516 nucleotides and contains a large open reading frame (ORF) encoding an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CgOLV1 is located in the ourmia-like mycovirus clade, whose members are related to plant ourmiaviruses. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an ourmia-like mycovirus in C. gloeosporioides.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum/virologia , Micovírus/classificação , Micovírus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Micovírus/genética , Genoma Viral , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , RNA Replicase/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
16.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(7): 105, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267317

RESUMO

Pseudocercospora fijiensis causes black Sigatoka disease, the most important threat to banana. The cell wall is crucial for fungal biological processes, including pathogenesis. Here, we performed cell wall proteomics analyses of two P. fijiensis strains, the highly virulent Oz2b, and the less virulent C1233 strains. Strains were starved from nitrogen to mimic the host environment. Interestingly, in vitro cultures of the C1233 strain grew faster than Oz2b in PDB medium, suggesting that C1233 survives outside the host better than the highly virulent Oz2b strain. Both strains were submitted to nitrogen starvation and the cell wall proteins were isolated and subjected to nano-HPLC-MS/MS. A total of 2686 proteins were obtained from which only 240 had a known function and thus, bioinformatics analyses were performed on this group. We found that 90 cell wall proteins were shared by both strains, 21 were unique for Oz2b and 39 for C1233. Shared proteins comprised 24 pathogenicity factors, including Avr4 and Ecp6, two effectors from P. fijiensis, while the unique proteins comprised 16 virulence factors in C1233 and 11 in Oz2b. The P. fijiensis cell wall proteome comprised canonical proteins, but thirty percent were atypical, a feature which in other phytopathogens has been interpreted as contamination. However, a comparison with the identities of atypical proteins in other reports suggests that the P. fijiensis proteins we detected were not contaminants. This is the first proteomics analysis of the P. fijiensis cell wall and our results expands the understanding of the fundamental biology of fungal phytopathogens and will help to decipher the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis and virulence in P. fijiensis.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Proteoma , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Ascomicetos/patogenicidade , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Genoma Fúngico , Musa/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Virulência
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 305, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Verticillium wilt caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae race 1 is among the top disease concerns for lettuce in the Salinas and Pajaro Valleys of coastal central California. Resistance of lettuce against V. dahliae race 1 was previously mapped to the single dominant Verticillium resistance 1 (Vr1) locus. Lines of tomato resistant to race 1 are known to contain the closely linked Ve1 and Ve2 genes that encode receptor-like proteins with extracellular leucine-rich repeats; the Ve1 and Ve2 proteins act antagonistically to provide resistance against V. dahliae race 1. The Vr1 locus in lettuce contains a cluster of several genes with sequence similarity to the tomato Ve genes. We used genome sequencing and/or PCR screening along with pathogenicity assays of 152 accessions of lettuce to investigate allelic diversity and its relationship to race 1 resistance in lettuce. RESULTS: This approach identified a total of four Ve genes: LsVe1, LsVe2, LsVe3, and LsVe4. The majority of accessions, however, contained a combination of only three of these LsVe genes clustered on chromosomal linkage group 9 (within ~ 25 kb in the resistant cultivar La Brillante and within ~ 127 kb in the susceptible cultivar Salinas). CONCLUSIONS: A single allele, LsVe1L, was present in all resistant accessions and absent in all susceptible accessions. This allele can be used as a molecular marker for V. dahliae race 1 resistance in lettuce. A PCR assay for rapid detection of race 1 resistance in lettuce was designed based on nucleotide polymorphisms. Application of this assay allows identification of resistant genotypes in early stages of plant development or at seed-level without time- and labor-intensive testing in the field.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Alface/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Verticillium/fisiologia , Alelos , California , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genótipo , Alface/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 289, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Banana anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum musae, is one of the most severe postharvest diseases in banana. Melatonin is widely known for its role in enhancing plant stress tolerance. However, little is known about the control of melatonin on anthracnose in postharvest banana fruit. RESULTS: In this study, exogenous melatonin treatment could significantly reduce the incidence of anthracnose in ripe yellow banana fruit and delay fruit senescence. However, melatonin treatment did not affect the growth of Colletotrichum musae in vitro. Transcriptomic analysis of banana peel showed that 339 genes were up-regulated and 241 were down-regulated in the peel after melatonin treatment, compared with the control. Based on GO terms and KEGG pathway, these up-regulated genes were mainly categorized into signal transduction, cell wall formation, secondary metabolism, volatile compounds synthesis and response to stress, which might be related to the anti-anthracnose of banana fruit induced by melatonin treatment. This view was also supported by the increase of volatile compounds, cell wall components and IAA content in the melatonin-treated fruit peel via the metabolomic analysis. After melatonin treatment, auxin, ethylene and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways were enhanced, which might be involved in the enhanced fruit resistance by regulating physiological characteristics, disease-resistant proteins and metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide a better understanding of the molecular processes in melatonin treatment delaying banana fruit senescence and anthracnose incidence.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum/fisiologia , Genes de Plantas , Melatonina/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Musa/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Transcriptoma , Colletotrichum/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/microbiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Melatonina/administração & dosagem , Metabolômica , Musa/genética
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 288, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae (Phytomyxea, Rhizaria) is one of the economically most important diseases of Brassica crops. The formation of hypertrophied roots accompanied by altered metabolism and hormone homeostasis is typical for infected plants. Not all roots of infected plants show the same phenotypic changes. While some roots remain uninfected, others develop galls of diverse size. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the intra-plant heterogeneity of P. brassicae root galls and symptomless roots of the same host plants (Brassica oleracea var. gongylodes) collected from a commercial field in Austria using transcriptome analyses. RESULTS: Transcriptomes were markedly different between symptomless roots and gall tissue. Symptomless roots showed transcriptomic traits previously described for resistant plants. Genes involved in host cell wall synthesis and reinforcement were up-regulated in symptomless roots indicating elevated tolerance against P. brassicae. By contrast, genes involved in cell wall degradation and modification processes like expansion were up-regulated in root galls. Hormone metabolism differed between symptomless roots and galls. Brassinosteroid-synthesis was down-regulated in root galls, whereas jasmonic acid synthesis was down-regulated in symptomless roots. Cytokinin metabolism and signalling were up-regulated in symptomless roots with the exception of one CKX6 homolog, which was strongly down-regulated. Salicylic acid (SA) mediated defence response was up-regulated in symptomless roots, compared with root gall tissue. This is probably caused by a secreted benzoic acid/salicylic acid methyl transferase from the pathogen (PbBSMT), which was one of the highest expressed pathogen genes in gall tissue. The PbBSMT derived Methyl-SA potentially leads to increased pathogen tolerance in uninfected roots. CONCLUSIONS: Infected and uninfected roots of clubroot infected plants showed transcriptomic differences similar to those previously described between clubroot resistant and susceptible hosts. The here described intra-plant heterogeneity suggests, that for a better understanding of clubroot disease targeted, spatial analyses of clubroot infected plants will be vital in understanding this economically important disease.


Assuntos
Brassica/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Plasmodioforídeos/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Brassica/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(31): 8536-8547, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310520

RESUMO

Watermelon Fusarium wilt is a common soil-borne disease that has significantly affected its yield. In this study, fusaric acid-deficient mutant designated as ΔFUBT (mutated from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, FON) was obtained. The ΔFUBT mutant showed significant decrease in fusaric acid production but maintained wild-type characteristics, such as in vitro colony morphology, size, and conidiation. A field pot experiment demonstrated that ΔFUBT could successfully colonize the rhizosphere and the roots of watermelon, leading to significant reduction in FON colonization in the watermelon plant. In addition, ΔFUBT inoculation significantly improved the rhizosphere microenvironment and effectively increased the resistance in watermelon. This study demonstrated that a nonpathogenic Fusarium mutant (ΔFUBT) could be developed as an effective microbial control agent to alleviate Fusarium wilt disease in watermelon and increase its yield.


Assuntos
Citrullus/microbiologia , Fusarium/genética , Micotoxinas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Ácido Fusárico/metabolismo , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fusarium/fisiologia , Mutação , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Rizosfera
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