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1.
Phytopathology ; 109(11): 1949-1956, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573422

RESUMO

The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus is a destructive species affecting pine trees worldwide; however, the underlying mechanism leading to pathogenesis remains unclear. In this study, a B. xylophilus gene encoding thaumatin-like protein-1 (Bx-tlp-1) was silenced by RNA interference to clarify the relationship between the Bx-tlp-1 gene and pathogenicity. The in vitro knockdown of Bx-tlp-1 with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) decreased B. xylophilus reproduction and pathogenicity. Treatments with dsRNA targeting Bx-tlp-1 decreased expression by 90%, with the silencing effect maintained even in the F3 offspring. Pine trees inoculated with B. xylophilus treated with Bx-tlp-1 dsRNA decreased the symptom of wilting, and the disease severity index was 56.7 at 30 days after inoculation. Additionally, analyses of the cavitation of intact pine stem samples by X-ray microtomography revealed that the xylem cavitation area of pine trees inoculated with B. xylophilus treated with Bx-tlp-1 dsRNA was 0.46 mm2 at 30 days after inoculation. Results from this study indicated that the silencing of Bx-tlp-1 has effects on B. xylophilus fitness. The data presented here provide the foundation for future analyses of Bx-tlp-1 functions related to B. xylophilus pathogenicity.


Assuntos
Pinus , Tylenchida , Virulência , Animais , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Pinus/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , RNA de Cadeia Dupla , Tylenchida/genética , Tylenchida/patogenicidade , Virulência/genética
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(34): 9441-9449, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381358

RESUMO

Native to sub-Saharan Africa, Delottococcus aberiae De Lotto (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) is an invasive mealybug that has been recently reported in Europe, seriously damaging citrus production in eastern Spain. In this study, we isolated and determined the structure of the sex pheromone of D. aberiae, to provide a highly specific and effective lure for detecting, monitoring, and potentially controlling this pest. The volatile profile of D. aberiae virgin and mated females was studied by aeration and collection of effluvia in Porapak-Q. The resulting extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), revealing a candidate compound specific of virgin females. GC-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy data evidenced a new compound, (4,5,5-trimethyl-3-methylenecyclopent-1-en-1-yl)methyl acetate, with an unusual ß-necrodol skeleton. This compound was synthesized and shown to be attractive to male D. aberiae in both laboratory and field experiments. A GC analysis using an enantioselective stationary phase and polarimetry analyses of the synthetic enantiomers showed the natural compound emitted by virgin females to be the - enantiomer.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Atrativos Sexuais/química , Animais , Citrus/parasitologia , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hemípteros/química , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Atrativos Sexuais/metabolismo , Espanha , Estereoisomerismo
3.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 32(10): 1267-1269, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425006

RESUMO

Phytophthora capsici is an oomycete plant pathogen with a wide host range. Worldwide, P. capsici is known for causing the principal disease of chili pepper crops. Our goal was to expand the available genome resources for this diverse pathogen by generating whole-genome sequences for six isolates of P. capsici from Mexico.


Assuntos
Genoma de Protozoário , Phytophthora , Capsicum/parasitologia , Genoma de Protozoário/genética , México , Phytophthora/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia
4.
Plant Dis ; 103(10): 2498-2504, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453746

RESUMO

Downy mildew is a yield-limiting disease of sunflower, caused by the pathogen Plasmopara halstedii. Zoospore infection of root tissue shortly after planting results in systemic infection, causing postemergence damping off or severe stunting and head sterility. Although fungicide-applied seed treatments can be an effective management tool, the pathogen is resistant to phenylamide fungicides in many growing regions, and other available fungicides have limited efficacy. Oxathiapiprolin, the first member of the piperidinyl thiazole isoxazoline fungicides, was evaluated for efficacy on downy mildew in field trials conducted from 2011 to 2015 in North Dakota. Throughout the course of the study, the rate range was narrowed from active ingredient (a.i.) at 0.45 to 116.0 µg a.i. seed-1 to an optimal effective rate of 9.37 to 18.75 µg a.i. seed-1. Within that optimal range, the downy mildew incidence of sunflower planted with oxathiapiprolin-treated seed was significantly lower than the incidence in the nontreated sunflower in all 11 trials with disease pressure. Additionally, downy mildew incidence of sunflower planted with oxathiapiprolin-treated seed was significantly lower than sunflower planted with competitive commercially available fungicide-treated seed in 10 of those 11 trials. The use of oxathiapiprolin by sunflower growers is likely to reduce disease incidence and subsequent yield loss to downy mildew.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados , Oomicetos , Doenças das Plantas , Pirazóis , Antiparasitários/farmacologia , Helianthus/parasitologia , Hidrocarbonetos Fluorados/farmacologia , North Dakota , Oomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Sementes/química
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9210-9219, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390203

RESUMO

The insecticidal and antifeedant activities of five 7-chloro-4-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)quinoline derivatives were evaluated against the maize armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith). These hybrids were prepared through a copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC, known as a click reaction) and displayed larvicidal properties with LD50 values below 3 mg/g insect, and triazolyl-quinoline hybrid 6 showed an LD50 of 0.65 mg/g insect, making it 2-fold less potent than methomyl, which was used as a reference insecticide (LD50 = 0.34 mg/g insect). Compound 4 was the most active antifeedant derivative (CE50 = 162.1 µg/mL) with a good antifeedant index (56-79%) at concentrations of 250-1000 µg/mL. Additionally, triazolyl-quinoline hybrids 4-8 exhibited weak inhibitory activity against commercial acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus (electric-eel AChE) (IC50 = 27.7 µg/mL) as well as low anti-ChE activity on S. frugiperda larvae homogenate (IC50 = 68.4 µg/mL). Finally, molecular docking simulations suggested that hybrid 7 binds to the catalytic active site (CAS) of this enzyme and around the rim of the enzyme cavity, acting as a mixed (competitive and noncompetitive) inhibitor like methomyl. Triazolyl-quinolines 4-6 and 8 inhibit AChE by binding over the perimeter of the enzyme cavity, functioning as noncompetitive inhibitors. The results described in this work can help to identify lead triazole structures from click chemistry for the development of insecticide and deterrent products against S. frugiperda and related insect pests.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/síntese química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolinas/química , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Química Click , Simulação por Computador , Proteínas de Insetos/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/química , Larva/enzimologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Spodoptera/enzimologia , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/parasitologia
6.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 32(11): 1472-1474, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306082

RESUMO

The NA1 clonal lineage of Phytophthora ramorum is responsible for sudden oak death, an epidemic that has devastated California coastal forest ecosystems. An NA1 isolate, Pr102, derived from coast live oak in California, was previously sequenced and reported with a 65-Mb assembly containing 12 Mb of gaps in 2,576 scaffolds. Here, we report an improved 70-Mb genome in 1,512 scaffolds with 6,752 bp of gaps after incorporating PacBio P5-C3 long reads. This assembly contains 19,494 gene models (average gene length of 2,515 bp) compared with 16,134 genes (average gene length of 1,673 bp) in the previous version. We predicted 29 new RXLR genes and 76 new paralogs of a total 392 RXLR genes from this assembly. We predicted 35 CRN genes compared with 19 in an earlier version with six paralogs. Our long non-coding RNA prediction identified 255 candidates. This new resource will be invaluable for future evolution studies on the invasive plant pathogen.


Assuntos
Genoma de Protozoário , Phytophthora , California , Genoma de Protozoário/genética , Phytophthora/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Quercus/parasitologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(1-2): 163-182, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273589

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Deeper insights into the resistance response of Cajanus platycarpus were obtained based on comparative transcriptomics under Helicoverpa armigera infestation. Devastation by pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera is one of the major factors for stagnated productivity in Pigeonpea. Despite possessing a multitude of desirable traits including pod borer resistance, wild relatives of Cajanus spp. have remained under-utilized due to linkage drag and cross-incompatibility. Discovery and deployment of genes from them can provide means to tackle key pests like H. armigera. Transcriptomic differences between Cajanus platycarpus and Cajanus cajan during different time points (0, 18, 38, 96 h) of pod borer infestation were elucidated in this study. For the first ever time, we demonstrated captivating variations in their response; C. platycarpus apparently being reasonably agile with effectual transcriptomic reprogramming to deter the insect. Deeper insights into the differential response were obtained by identification of significant GO-terms related to herbivory followed by combined KEGG and ontology analyses. C. platycarpus portrayed a multilevel response with cardinal involvement of SAR, redox homeostasis and reconfiguration of primary metabolites leading to a comprehensive defense response. The credibility of RNA-seq analyses was ascertained by transient expression of selected putative insect resistance genes from C. platycarpus viz., chitinase (CHI4), Alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (IAAS) and Flavonoid 3_5 hydroxylase (C75A1) in Nicotiana benthamiana followed by efficacy analysis against H. armigera. qPCR validated results of the study provided innovative insights and useful leads for development of durable pod borer resistance.


Assuntos
Cajanus/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Mariposas/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Cajanus/imunologia , Cajanus/parasitologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genômica , Herbivoria , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA
8.
Microbiol Res ; 226: 41-47, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284943

RESUMO

Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a generalist cosmopolitan insect that infests more than 400 plant species of 40 different families and is one of the major pests infesting potato crops. It causes direct damage and also spread plant viruses. The intensive use of synthetic insecticide to control aphids has led to resistant populations. Therefore, there is a need to develop biopesticides for effective control that minimizes environmental hazards. The bacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens is recognized as a producer of a variety of bioactive compounds. The aim here was to evaluate the aphicidal effect of B. amyloliquefaciens strains, CBMDDrag3, PGPBacCA2, and CBMDLO3, and their metabolites on the mortality and fecundity of M. persicae. Cells suspensions, heat-killed cell suspensions, cell-free supernatants, or isolated lipopeptide fractions from B. amyloliquefaciens strains were offered to aphids through artificial diets. The isolated lipopeptide fractions composed mainly of kurstakins, surfactins, iturins, and fengycins, when were administrated through diets, had no aphicidal effect against M. persicae. However, aphids fed on diets with whole cell suspensions and its cell-free supernatant of all three bacteria strains resulted in 100% mortality of adult aphids and nymphs. Specially, B. amyloliquefaciens CBMDLO3, has an effective aphicidal effect on M. persicae, used both bacterial cells and their metabolites. Moreover, heat-killed cells of B. amyloliquefaciens CBMDLO3 also had aphicidal action, although the aphid mortality was lower than on diet with living bacteria. Therefore, these results propose that B. amyloliquefaciens, could function as a novel eco-friendly biopesticide for the control of M. persicae.


Assuntos
Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Afídeos/microbiologia , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/metabolismo , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Animais , Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/isolamento & purificação , Agentes de Controle Biológico/isolamento & purificação , Agentes de Controle Biológico/metabolismo , Agentes de Controle Biológico/farmacologia , Feminino , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Lipopeptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Lipopeptídeos/metabolismo , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
9.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 32(11): 1487-1495, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241412

RESUMO

Phytoplasmas are the causative agent of numerous diseases of plant species all over the world, including important food crops. The mode by which phytoplasmas multiply and behave in their host is poorly understood and often based on genomic data. We used yeast two-hybrid screening to find new protein-protein interactions between the causal agent of apple proliferation 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' and its host plant. Here, we report that the 'Ca. P. mali' strain PM19 genome encodes a protein PM19_00185 that interacts with at least six different ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (UBC; E2) of Arabidopsis thaliana. An in vitro ubiquitination assay showed that PM19_00185 is enzymatically active as E3 ligase with A. thaliana E2 UBC09 and Malus domestica E2 UBC10. We show that a nonhost bacteria (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci) can grow in transgenic A. thaliana plant lines expressing PM19_00185. A connection of phytoplasma effector proteins with the proteasome proteolytic pathway has been reported before. However, this is, to our knowledge, the first time that a phytoplasma effector protein with E3 ligase activity has been reported.


Assuntos
Phytoplasma , Doenças das Plantas , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/parasitologia , Malus/parasitologia , Phytoplasma/enzimologia , Phytoplasma/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/imunologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
10.
Phytopathology ; 109(11): 1941-1948, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215839

RESUMO

Meloidogyne graminicola causes significant damage to rice fields worldwide. Sources of resistance to M. graminicola reported in Oryza sativa are limited. Resistance to this species has been found in other Oryza species such as O. glaberrima and O. longistaminata. This study aimed to evaluate the reaction of four wild species of Oryza from the Embrapa Rice and Bean Germplasm Bank (Goiás, Brazil) to a pool of M. graminicola populations and determine the resistance mechanism in O. glumaepatula. Two genotypes of O. glaberrima, one of O. alta, three of O. glumaepatula, one of O. grandiglumis, one of O. longistaminata, and one of O. sativa (control) were included in the study. The results showed that O. glumaepatula was highly resistant (reproduction factor [RF] < 1). O. glaberrima, O. alta, and O. grandiglumis were considered moderately resistant. O. longistaminata was susceptible, although values of RF remained lower than the control O. sativa 'BR-IRGA 410', considered highly susceptible. Histological observations on the interaction of O. glumaepatula and M. graminicola showed reduced penetration of second-stage juveniles (J2s) when this resistant wild accession was compared with O. sativa. An intense hypersensitivity response-like reaction occurred at 2 days after inoculation in the root cortex of the resistant accession. Few J2s established in the central cylinder, and rare collapsed giant cells were observed surrounded by degenerate females. Fluorescence microscopy in O. glumaepatula revealed giant cells and the female body presumably exhibiting accumulation of phenolic compounds. Our study suggests that wild rice accessions, especially from the AA genotype (e.g., O. glumaepatula), are of great interest for use in future breeding programs with Oryza spp.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Oryza , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Brasil , Resistência à Doença/genética , Genótipo , Oryza/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/fisiologia
11.
Phytopathology ; 109(11): 1975-1983, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215840

RESUMO

Downy mildew of grape caused by Plasmopara viticola is a global pathogen of economic importance to commercial viticulture. In contrast to populations in the northern hemisphere, few studies have investigated the population biology, genetic diversity, and origin of the pathogen in Australian production systems. DNA was extracted from 381 P. viticola samples from Vitis vinifera and alternate hosts collected via fresh and herbarium leaves from populations within Australia and Whatman FTA cards from North America, Brazil, and Uruguay. A total of 32 DNA samples were provided from a French population. The populations were genotyped using 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Representative samples from within Australia, Brazil, and Uruguay were also genotyped to determine which of the cryptic species (clades) within the P. viticola species complex were present. Our findings suggest the Australian and South American populations of P. viticola are more closely related to the European population than the North American population, the reported source of origin of the pathogen. The Western Australian population had similarities to the South Australian population, and the tight clustering of samples suggests a single introduction into Western Australia. P. viticola clade aestivalis was the only clade detected in Australian and South American populations. Analysis of the Western Australian population suggests that it is reproducing clonally, but additional research is required to determine the mechanism as to how this is occurring.


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Oomicetos , Vitis , Austrália , Brasil , América do Norte , Oomicetos/classificação , Oomicetos/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Uruguai , Vitis/parasitologia
12.
Phytopathology ; 109(11): 1957-1965, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237188

RESUMO

Spongospora subterranea f. sp. subterranea, causal agent of powdery scab and root galls of potatoes, occurs worldwide and is responsible for quality and yield losses in potato production in South Africa. Despite being one of the most important potato pathogens in South Africa, little information is available on the genetic structure and diversity of S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea, which could provide insight into the factors shaping its evolution and the role of inoculum sources in disease development. A total of 172 samples were collected from four potato growing regions in South Africa. An additional 27 samples obtained from Colombia were included for comparative purposes. The samples were screened against six informative microsatellite (simple-sequence repeat) markers. Of the 172 samples obtained from potato growing regions in South Africa, there were 75 multilocus genotypes (MLGs), only 16 of which were shared between potato growing regions, indicating substantial gene flow and countrywide dispersal of the pathogen. The presence of common MLGs among the root- and tuber-derived samples indicated a lack of specialization of S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea to either tuber or root infection. Nei's unbiased estimates of gene diversity for the clone-corrected data were low and ranged from 0.24 to 0.38. Analysis of molecular variance and discriminant analysis of principal components showed no population differentiation between different potato growing regions in South Africa and between root- and tuber-derived genotypes. The presence of MLGs, high considerable genotypic diversity, and failure to reject the null hypothesis of random mating in most populations are indicative of some kind of recombination, either sexual or asexual, in these S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea populations. Information from this study provides new insights into the genetic structure and diversity of S. subterranea f. sp. subterranea in South Africa. Continuous monitoring of the pathogen population dynamics will be helpful in implementing effective region-specific management strategies for the pathogen, especially in the development of resistant potato cultivars.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Tumores de Planta , Plasmodioforídeos , Solanum tuberosum , Colômbia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Tumores de Planta/parasitologia , Plasmodioforídeos/genética , Solanum tuberosum/parasitologia , África do Sul
13.
Phytopathology ; 109(10): 1689-1697, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188071

RESUMO

Clubroot caused by Plasmodiophora brassicaeis one of the most important diseases in cruciferous crops. The recognition of P. brassicae by host plants is thought to occur at the primary infection stage, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Secretory proteins as effector candidates play critical roles in the recognition of pathogens and the interactions between pathogens and hosts. In this study, 33 P. brassicae secretory proteins expressed during primary infection were identified through transcriptome, secretory protein prediction, and yeast signal sequence trap analyses. Furthermore, the proteins that could suppress or induce cell death were screened through an Agrobacterium-mediated plant virus transient expression system and a protoplast transient expression system. Two secretory proteins, PBCN_002550 and PBCN_005499, were found to be capable of inducing cell death associated with H2O2 accumulation and electrolyte leakage in Nicotiana benthamiana. Moreover, PBCN_002550 could also induce cell death in Chinese cabbage. In addition, 24 of the remaining 31 tested secretory proteins could suppress mouse Bcl-2-associated X protein-induced cell death, and 28 proteins could suppress PBCN_002550-induced cell death.


Assuntos
Brassica , Plasmodioforídeos , Tabaco , Animais , Brassica/parasitologia , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Camundongos , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo , Tabaco/parasitologia
14.
Phytopathology ; 109(10): 1801-1810, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199202

RESUMO

Pseudoperonospora humuli is the causal agent of downy mildew of hop, one of the most important diseases of this plant and a limiting factor for production of susceptible cultivars in certain environments. The degree of genetic diversity and population differentiation within and among P. humuli populations at multiple spatial scales was quantified using genotyping-by-sequencing to test the hypothesis that populations of P. humuli have limited genetic diversity but are differentiated at the scale of individual hop yards. Hierarchical sampling was conducted to collect isolates from three hop yards in Oregon, plants within these yards, and infected shoots within heavily diseased plants. Additional isolates also were collected broadly from other geographic regions and from the two previously described clades of the sister species, P. cubensis. Genotyping of these 240 isolates produced a final quality-filtered data set of 216 isolates possessing 25,227 variants. Plots of G'ST values indicated that the majority of variants had G'ST values near 0 and were scattered randomly across contig positions. However, there was a subset of variants that were highly differentiated (G'ST > 0.3) and reproducible when genotyped independently. Within P. humuli, there was evidence of genetic differentiation at the level of hop yards and plants within yards; 19.8% of the genetic variance was associated with differences among yards and 20.3% of the variance was associated with plants within the yard. Isolates of P. humuli were well differentiated from two isolates of P. cubensis representative of the two clades of this organism. There was strong evidence of linkage disequilibrium in variant loci, consistent with nonrandom assortment of alleles expected from inbreeding and/or asexual recombination. Mantel tests found evidence that the genetic distance between isolates collected from heavily diseased plants within a hop yard was associated with the physical distance of the plants from which the isolates were collected. The sum of the data presented here indicates that populations of P. humuli are consistent with a clonal or highly inbred genetic structure with a small, yet significant differentiation of populations among yards and plants within yards. Fine-scale genetic differentiation at the yard and plant scales may point to persistence of founder genotypes associated with planting material, and chronic, systemic infection of hop plants by P. humuli. More broadly, genotyping-by-sequencing appears to have sufficient resolution to identify rare variants that differentiate subpopulations within organisms with limited genetic variability.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humulus , Peronospora , Doenças das Plantas , Genética Populacional , Humulus/microbiologia , Oregon , Peronospora/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia
15.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 32(10): 1259-1266, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210556

RESUMO

When plants are infected by Plasmodiophora brassicae, their developmental programs are subjected to extensive changes and the resultant clubroot disease is associated with formation of large galls on underground tissue. The pathogen's need to build an efficient feeding site as the disease progresses drives these changes, ensuring successful production of resting spores. This developmental reprogramming is an outcome of interactions between the pathogen and the infected host. During disease progression, we can observe alteration of growth regulator dynamics, patterns of cell proliferation and differentiation, increased cell expansion, and eventual cell wall degradation as well as the redirection of nutrients toward the pathogen. Recently, detailed studies of anatomical changes occurring during infection and studies profiling transcriptional responses have come together to provide a clearer understanding of the sequence of events and processes underlying clubroot disease. Additionally, genome sequencing projects have revealed P. brassicae's potential for the production of signaling molecules and effectors as well as its requirements and capacities with respect to taking up host nutrients. Integration of these new findings together with physiological studies can significantly advance our understanding of how P. brassicae brings about reprogramming of host development. This article summarizes the current state of knowledge on cellular changes induced by P. brassicae infection and aims to explain their impact and importance for both the host and the pathogen.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Plasmodioforídeos , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Plasmodioforídeos/fisiologia
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(26): 7530-7537, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184878

RESUMO

We developed and applied a fully automated portable gas chromatography (GC) device for rapid and in situ analysis of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to examine plant health status. A total of 42 emission samples were collected over a period of 5 days from 10 milkweed ( Asclepias syriaca) plants, half of which were infested by aphids. Thirty-five VOC peaks were separated and detected in 8 min. An algorithm based on machine learning, principal component analysis, and linear discriminant analysis was developed to evaluate the GC results. We found that our device and algorithm are able to distinguish between the undamaged control and the aphid-infested milkweeds with an overall accuracy of 90-100% within 48-72 h of the attack. Such rapid in situ detection of insect attack attests to the great potential of VOC monitoring in plant health management.


Assuntos
Asclepias/química , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Animais , Afídeos/fisiologia , Asclepias/parasitologia
17.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(7): 1117-1123, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216609

RESUMO

Control of pine wilt disease, which is caused by pine wilt nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is heavily dependent on the use of chemicals such as abamectin. Although such chemicals are highly effective, demands for alternatives that are derived preferentially from natural sources, are increasing out of environmental concerns. One of the challenges to discovery of alternative control agents is lack of fast and efficient screening method that can be used in high-throughput manner. Here we described the development of colorimetric assay for the rapid and accurate screening of candidate nematicidal compounds/biologics targeting B. xylophilus. Contrary to the conventional method, which relies on laborious visual inspection and counting of nematode population under microscope, our method utilizes a redox dye that changes its color in response to metabolic activity of nematode population in a given sample. In this work, we optimized parameters of our colorimetric assay including number of nematodes and amount of redox dye, and tested applicability of our assay for screening of chemicals and biologics. We demonstrated that our colorimetric assay can applied to rapid and accurate quantification of nematode viability/mortality in a nematode population treated with candidate chemicals/biologics. Application of our method would facilitate high-throughput endeavors aiming at finding environment-friendly control agents for deadly disease of pine trees.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Nematoides/fisiologia , Pinus , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Animais , Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colorimetria , Indicadores e Reagentes/metabolismo , Nematoides/metabolismo , Oxazinas/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Tylenchida/metabolismo , Tylenchida/fisiologia , Xantenos/metabolismo
18.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 141: 332-342, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207494

RESUMO

Plant-parasitic nematodes cause major agricultural losses worldwide. Examining the molecular mechanisms underlying plant-nematode interactions and how plants respond to different invading pathogens is attracting major attention to reduce the expanding gap between agricultural production and the needs of the growing world population. This review summarizes the most recent developments in plant-nematode interactions and the diverse approaches used to improve plant resistance against root knot nematode (RKN). We will emphasize the recent rapid advances in genome sequencing technologies, small interfering RNA techniques (RNAi) and targeted genome editing which are contributing to the significant progress in understanding the plant-nematode interaction mechanisms. Also, molecular approaches to improve plant resistance against nematodes are considered.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Nematoides/patogenicidade , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Plantas/parasitologia , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Feminino , Genoma de Planta , Masculino , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/parasitologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Virulência/genética
19.
Planta ; 250(2): 413-425, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243548

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: This article provides an overview of the interactions between Phytophthora effectors and plant immune system components, which form a cross-linked complex network that regulates plant pathogen resistance. Pathogens secrete numerous effector proteins into plants to promote infections. Several Phytophthora species (e.g., P. infestans, P. ramorum, P. sojae, P. capsici, P. cinnamomi, and P. parasitica) are notorious pathogens that are extremely damaging to susceptible plants. Analyses of genomic data revealed that Phytophthora species produce a large group of effector proteins, which are critical for pathogenesis. And, the targets and functions of many identified Phytophthora effectors have been investigated. Phytophthora effectors can affect various aspects of plant immune systems, including plant cell proteases, phytohormones, RNAs, the MAPK pathway, catalase, the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, the endoplasmic reticulum, NB-LRR proteins, and the cell membrane. Clarifying the effector-plant interactions is important for unravelling the functions of Phytophthora effectors during pathogenesis. In this article, we review the effectors identified in recent decades and provide an overview of the effector-directed regulatory network in plants following infections by Phytophthora species.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Phytophthora/imunologia , Células Vegetais/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Phytophthora/patogenicidade , Phytophthora/fisiologia , Células Vegetais/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Virulência
20.
Plant Dis ; 103(8): 1876-1883, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161932

RESUMO

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a major pathogen of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the United States. The spatial distribution of SCN in 10 naturally infested research sites in North Dakota was examined between 2006 and 2009. Egg densities were measured in plots and expressed as arithmetic means or grouped into classes using two categorical scales based on the effect of SCN on yield. Data were used to determine spatial distribution, egg cluster sizes, minimum plot sizes, and replications in field experiments. SCN populations varied among plots from undetected to 25,800 eggs/100 cm3 of soil, and differences between adjacent plots were as high as sixfold. Mean to median ratios and Lloyd's index of patchiness suggested an aggregated distribution in nine of the 10 sites. SCN cluster sizes varied in five of the 10 sites and optimum plot size over all sites varied depending on calculation methods. The minimum number of replications needed to detect specific differences among plots varied between field sites. Grouping data into either of the two categories generally increased the ability to detect differences between plots. The spatial distribution of SCN can be a critical factor affecting design and outcomes of field experiments.


Assuntos
Doenças das Plantas , Soja , Tylenchoidea , Animais , North Dakota , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/estatística & dados numéricos , Soja/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/fisiologia
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