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1.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 169: 112592, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942143

RESUMO

Global health and food security constantly face the challenge of emerging human and plant diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other pathogens. Disease outbreaks such as SARS, MERS, Swine Flu, Ebola, and COVID-19 (on-going) have caused suffering, death, and economic losses worldwide. To prevent the spread of disease and protect human populations, rapid point-of-care (POC) molecular diagnosis of human and plant diseases play an increasingly crucial role. Nucleic acid-based molecular diagnosis reveals valuable information at the genomic level about the identity of the disease-causing pathogens and their pathogenesis, which help researchers, healthcare professionals, and patients to detect the presence of pathogens, track the spread of disease, and guide treatment more efficiently. A typical nucleic acid-based diagnostic test consists of three major steps: nucleic acid extraction, amplification, and amplicon detection. Among these steps, nucleic acid extraction is the first step of sample preparation, which remains one of the main challenges when converting laboratory molecular assays into POC tests. Sample preparation from human and plant specimens is a time-consuming and multi-step process, which requires well-equipped laboratories and skilled lab personnel. To perform rapid molecular diagnosis in resource-limited settings, simpler and instrument-free nucleic acid extraction techniques are required to improve the speed of field detection with minimal human intervention. This review summarizes the recent advances in POC nucleic acid extraction technologies. In particular, this review focuses on novel devices or methods that have demonstrated applicability and robustness for the isolation of high-quality nucleic acid from complex raw samples, such as human blood, saliva, sputum, nasal swabs, urine, and plant tissues. The integration of these rapid nucleic acid preparation methods with miniaturized assay and sensor technologies would pave the road for the "sample-in-result-out" diagnosis of human and plant diseases, especially in remote or resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Ácidos Nucleicos/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Plantas , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico/instrumentação , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/instrumentação , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Ácidos Nucleicos/sangue , Ácidos Nucleicos/urina , Pandemias , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237194, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760135

RESUMO

We aimed to profile the metabolism of soybean roots that were infected with soybean cyst nematodes and treated with Bacillus simplex to identify metabolic differences that may explain nematode resistance. Compared with control soybean roots, B. simplex-treated soybean roots contained lower levels of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and trehalose, which reduced the nematodes' food source. Furthermore, treatment with B. simplex led to higher levels of melibiose, gluconic acid, lactic acid, phytosphingosine, and noradrenaline in soybean roots, which promoted nematocidal activity. The levels of oxoproline, maltose, and galactose were lowered after B. simplex treatment, which improved disease resistance. Collectively, this study provides insight into the metabolic alterations induced by B. simplex treatment, which affects the interactions with soybean cyst nematodes.


Assuntos
Bacillus/patogenicidade , Resistência à Doença , Metaboloma , Nematoides/patogenicidade , Soja/parasitologia , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Soja/metabolismo , Soja/microbiologia
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17409-17417, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616567

RESUMO

Proteolytic cascades regulate immunity and development in animals, but these cascades in plants have not yet been reported. Here we report that the extracellular immune protease Rcr3 of tomato is activated by P69B and other subtilases (SBTs), revealing a proteolytic cascade regulating extracellular immunity in solanaceous plants. Rcr3 is a secreted papain-like Cys protease (PLCP) of tomato that acts both in basal resistance against late blight disease (Phytophthora infestans) and in gene-for-gene resistance against the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum (syn. Passalora fulva) Despite the prevalent model that Rcr3-like proteases can activate themselves at low pH, we found that catalytically inactive proRcr3 mutant precursors are still processed into mature mRcr3 isoforms. ProRcr3 is processed by secreted P69B and other Asp-selective SBTs in solanaceous plants, providing robust immunity through SBT redundancy. The apoplastic effector EPI1 of P. infestans can block Rcr3 activation by inhibiting SBTs, suggesting that this effector promotes virulence indirectly by preventing the activation of Rcr3(-like) immune proteases. Rcr3 activation in Nicotiana benthamiana requires a SBT from a different subfamily, indicating that extracellular proteolytic cascades have evolved convergently in solanaceous plants or are very ancient in the plant kingdom. The frequent incidence of Asp residues in the cleavage region of Rcr3-like proteases in solanaceous plants indicates that activation of immune proteases by SBTs is a general mechanism, illuminating a proteolytic cascade that provides robust apoplastic immunity.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteólise , Cladosporium , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Phytophthora infestans , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas , Virulência
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235344, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628728

RESUMO

A Glycine max (soybean) hemicellulose modifying gene, xyloglucan endotransglycoslase/hydrolase (XTH43), has been identified as being expressed within a nurse cell known as a syncytium developing within the soybean root undergoing the process of defense to infection by the parasitic nematode, Heterodera glycines. The highly effective nature of XTH43 overexpression in suppressing H. glycines parasitism in soybean has led to experiments examining whether the heterologous expression of XTH43 in Gossypium hirsutum (upland cotton) could impair the parasitism of Meloidogyne incognita, that form a different type of nurse cell called a giant cell that is enclosed within a swollen root structure called a gall. The heterologous transgenic expression of XTH43 in cotton resulted in an 18% decrease in the number of galls, 70% decrease in egg masses, 64% decrease in egg production and a 97% decrease in second stage juvenile (J2) production as compared to transgenic controls. The heterologous XTH43 expression does not significantly affect root mass. The results demonstrate XTH43 expression functions effectively in impairing the development of M. incognita at numerous life cycle stages occurring within the cotton root. The experiments reveal that there are highly conserved aspects of the defense response of G. max that can function effectively in G. hirsutum to impair M. incognita having a different method of parasitism.


Assuntos
Glicosiltransferases/genética , Gossypium/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Soja/genética , Soja/enzimologia , Tylenchoidea , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Gossypium/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Proteínas de Soja/metabolismo , Soja/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236340, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692775

RESUMO

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), being a cash and fiber crop is of high significance in Pakistan. Numerous insect pests and viral diseases in Pakistan and around the world attack cotton crop. Genetically modified cotton (transgenic, resistant to lepidopteran insects), hereafter written as 'Bt-cotton' has been introduced in many regions of the world to combat bollworms. However, cultivars differ in their pest susceptibility, yield response and fiber quality traits. Nonetheless, recent studies have indicated that lepidopteran pests are evolving resistance against 'Bt-cotton'. Several 'Bt-cotton' cultivars have been developed in Pakistan in the past decade; however, limited is known about their pest susceptibility, seed-cotton yield and fiber quality traits. This two-year field study evaluated pest susceptibility, yield and fiber quality traits of thirteen newly developed 'Bt-cotton' cultivars in Pakistan. The cultivars differed in their susceptibility to sucking insects during both years of study. The cultivars 'FH-647', 'SLH-8', 'FH-Lalazar' and 'IUB-013' were more susceptible to jassid, whereas 'BS-52' exhibited higher susceptibility to whitefly during both years of study. Similarly, cultivars 'AGC-999' and 'MNH-992' proved highly susceptible to thrips during each study year. Although 'Bt-cotton' is resistant to bollworms, cultivars 'SLAH-8', 'VH-305' and 'BH-184' were susceptible to spotted bollworm, while 'SLAH-8', 'RH-647' and 'VH-305' were infested by American bollworm. The most susceptible cultivars to cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) attack were 'RH-647', 'IR-NIBGE-7' and 'VH-305'. The highest seed-cotton yield was recorded for 'FH-Lalazar' during both years of study. Similarly, the highest ginning out turn was recorded for cultivars 'BS-52', 'VH-305', 'RH-647', 'IUB' and 'AA-919'. The cultivar 'FH-Lalazar' exhibited low pest susceptibility and CLCuV infestation compared to the rest of cultivars. The highest and the lowest gross and net incomes and benefit:cost ratio were noted for 'FH-Lalazar' and 'RH-647, respectively. Keeping in view the low pest susceptibility and high seed-cotton yield, 'FH-Lalazar' could be recommended for higher yield and economic returns in Multan, Pakistan. Nonetheless, regional trials should be conducted for site-specific or region-specific recommendations.


Assuntos
Fibra de Algodão , Gossypium/parasitologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Análise de Variância , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Begomovirus/fisiologia , Fibra de Algodão/economia , Comportamento Alimentar , Gossypium/virologia , Insetos , Paquistão , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo , Tempo (Meteorologia)
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235918, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645090

RESUMO

Leaves of lettuce, pepper, tomato and grapevine plants grown in greenhouse conditions were exposed to UV-C light for either 60 s or 1 s, using a specific LEDs-based device, and wavelengths and energy were the same among different light treatments. Doses of UV-C light that both effectively stimulated plant defences and were innocuous were determined beforehand. Tomato plants and lettuce plants were inoculated with Botrytis cinerea, pepper plants with Phytophthora capsici, and grapevine with Plasmopara viticola. In some experiments we investigated the effect of a repetition of treatments over periods of several days. All plants were inoculated 48 h after exposure to the last UV-C treatment. Lesions on surfaces were measured up to 12 days after inoculation, depending on the experiment and the pathogen. The results confirmed that UV-C light stimulates plant resistance; they show that irradiation for one second is more effective than irradiation for 60 s, and that repetition of treatments is more effective than single light treatments. Moreover a systemic effect was observed in unexposed leaves that were close to exposed leaves. The mechanisms of perception and of the signalling and metabolic pathways triggered by flashes of UV-C light vs. 60 s irradiation exposures are briefly discussed, as well as the prospects for field use of UV-C flashes in viticulture and horticulture.


Assuntos
Alface/efeitos da radiação , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos da radiação , Piper/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Botrytis/patogenicidade , Clorofila/química , Alface/microbiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Phytophthora/patogenicidade , Piper/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236317, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702002

RESUMO

Heterodera avenae, as an obligate endoparasite, causes severe yield loss in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Investigation on the mechanisms how H. avenae perceives wheat roots is limited. Here, the attractiveness of root exudates from eight plant genotypes to H. avenae were evaluated on agar plates. Results showed that the attraction of H. avenae to the root exudates from the non-host Brachypodium distachyon variety Bd21-3 was the highest, approximately 50 infective second-stage juveniles (J2s) per plate, followed by that from three H. avenae-susceptible wheat varieties, Zhengmai9023, Yanmai84 and Xiangmai25, as well as the resistant one of Xinyuan958, whereas the lowest attractive activity was observed in the two H. avenae-resistant wheat varieties, Xianmai20 (approximately 12 J2s/plate) and Liangxing66 (approximately 11 J2s/plate). Then Bd21-3, Zhengmai9023 and Heng4399 were selected for further assays as their different attractiveness and resistance to H. avenae, and attractants for H. avenae in their root exudates were characterized to be heat-labile and low-molecular compounds (LM) by behavioral bioassay. Based on these properties of the attractants, a principle of identifying attractants for H. avenae was set up. Then LM of six root exudates from the three plants with and without heating were separated and analyzed by HPLC-MS. Finally, dihydroxyacetone (DHA), methylprednisolone succinate, embelin and diethylpropionin in the root exudates were identified to be putative attractants for H. avenae according to the principle, and the attraction of DHA to H. avenae was validated by behavioral bioassay on agar. Our study enhances the recognition to the orientation mechanism of H. avenae towards wheat roots.


Assuntos
Di-Hidroxiacetona/química , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Triticum/química , Animais , Brachypodium/genética , Brachypodium/parasitologia , Di-Hidroxiacetona/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Resistência à Doença/fisiologia , Genótipo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/parasitologia , Triticum/fisiologia , Tylenchoidea/genética , Tylenchoidea/patogenicidade
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18385-18392, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690686

RESUMO

Transgenic crops that produce insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can suppress pests and reduce insecticide sprays, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Although farmers plant refuges of non-Bt host plants to delay pest resistance, this tactic has not been sufficient against the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera In the United States, some populations of this devastating pest have rapidly evolved practical resistance to Cry3 toxins and Cry34/35Ab, the only Bt toxins in commercially available corn that kill rootworms. Here, we analyzed data from 2011 to 2016 on Bt corn fields producing Cry3Bb alone that were severely damaged by this pest in 25 crop-reporting districts of Illinois, Iowa, and Minnesota. The annual mean frequency of these problem fields was 29 fields (range 7 to 70) per million acres of Cry3Bb corn in 2011 to 2013, with a cost of $163 to $227 per damaged acre. The frequency of problem fields declined by 92% in 2014 to 2016 relative to 2011 to 2013 and was negatively associated with rotation of corn with soybean. The effectiveness of corn rotation for mitigating Bt resistance problems did not differ significantly between crop-reporting districts with versus without prevalent rotation-resistant rootworm populations. In some analyses, the frequency of problem fields was positively associated with planting of Cry3 corn and negatively associated with planting of Bt corn producing both a Cry3 toxin and Cry34/35Ab. The results highlight the central role of crop rotation for mitigating impacts of D. v. virgifera resistance to Bt corn.


Assuntos
Besouros/fisiologia , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/imunologia , Zea mays/imunologia , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Produção Agrícola/economia , Endotoxinas/genética , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas , Iowa , Controle Biológico de Vetores/economia , Doenças das Plantas/economia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/parasitologia , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/parasitologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233014, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32433657

RESUMO

Citrus trees produce flushes throughout the year, but there are no criteria established for a precise shoot monitoring in orchards under tropical climate. Methods for quantification of flush dynamics would be useful for horticultural and pest management studies because different insect vectors feed and reproduce on flushes. We estimated the minimum number and distribution of trees for sampling and determined the flushing pattern over time in 'Valencia Late' orange trees grafted onto 'Swingle' citrumelo rootstock. Shoots within a square frame (0.25 m2) on two sides of the canopy were counted and classified by their phenological stage. The minimum number of samples was estimated using the mean number of shoots and area under the flush shoot dynamics (AUFSD). The temporal and spatial distribution analysis was performed by Taylor's power law and by multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). Additionally, a shoot maturity index (SMI) based on visual qualitative assessment of flushes is proposed. Considering the mean number of shoots, it was necessary to sample two sides of 16 trees to reach a relative sampling error (Er) of 25%, whereas by the AUFSD, only five trees were necessary to reach an Er of 10%. Flushes were predominantly randomly distributed over time and space. Testing eight transects, sampled trees should be distributed throughout the block, avoiding sampling concentration in a certain area. MCA showed that the west side and the upper sampling positions of trees were more likely to be associated with younger shoots. AUFSD and the evaluation of both sides of the canopy yielded a smaller number of trees to be assessed. The SMI was a reliable metric to estimate the shoot phenology of orange trees, and correlated well (R2 > 70%) with the mean number of shoots within the square frame. Therefore, SMI has the potential to make shoot monitoring in the field more practical.


Assuntos
Citrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Brasil , Citrus/parasitologia , Citrus sinensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citrus sinensis/parasitologia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vetores de Doenças , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tamanho da Amostra , Clima Tropical , Tempo (Meteorologia)
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233011, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438391

RESUMO

The coastal vegetation of islands is expected to be affected by future sea-level rise and other anthropogenic impacts. The biodiverse coastal vegetation on the eastern part of the Dutch Wadden Island of Ameland has experienced land subsidence caused by gas extraction since 1986. This subsidence mimics future sea-level rising through increased flooding and raising groundwater levels. We studied the effects of this relative sea-level rise and other environmental factors (i.e. insect outbreaks, temperature and precipitation) on the population dynamics (i.e. cover and age structure and annual growth) of the shrub sea-buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in young (formed after 1950) and old (formed before 1950) dune areas over a period of 56 years (1959-2015). We found an increase in sea-buckthorn cover in the young dune areas since 1959, while over time the population in the old dunes decreased due to successional replacement by other species. With the increasing age of the young dunes, we found also a decrease in sea-buckthorn after 2009. However the sharp decrease indicated that other environmental factors were also involved. The most important determinant of annual shrub growth appeared to be five outbreaks of the brown-tail moth (Euproctis chrysorrhoea L.), in the last decade. Relative sea-level rise caused more frequent flooding and reduced growth at lower elevations due to inundation or soil water saturation. This study clearly indicates that sea-buckthorn is affected by relative sea-level rise, but that other ecological events better explain its variation in growth. Although shrub distribution and growth can be monitored with robust methods, future predictions of vegetation dynamics are complicated by unpredictable extreme events caused by (a)biotic stressors such as insect outbreaks.


Assuntos
Hippophae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Elevação do Nível do Mar , Animais , Aquecimento Global , Hippophae/parasitologia , Insetos/patogenicidade , Mariposas/patogenicidade , Países Baixos , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano
11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232770, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369513

RESUMO

Cereal cyst nematodes cause serious yield losses of wheat in Hunaghuai winter wheat growing region in China. Beauveria bassiana 08F04 isolated from the surface of cysts is a promising biological control agent for cereal cyst nematodes. As the colonization capacity is a crucial criteria to assess biocontrol effectiveness for a microbial agent candidate, we aimed to label B. bassiana 08F04 for efficient monitoring of colonization in the soil. The binary pCAM-gfp plasmid containing sgfp and hph was integrated into B. bassiana 08F04 using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The transformation caused a significant change in mycelial and conidial yields, and in extracellular chitinase activity in some transformants. The cultural filtrates of some transformants also decreased acetylcholinesterase activity and the survival of Heterodera filipjevi second-stage juveniles relative to the wild-type strain. One transformant (G10) had a growth rate and biocontrol efficacy similar to the wild-type strain, so it was used for a pilot study of B. bassiana colonization conducted over 13 weeks. Real-time PCR results and CFU counts revealed that the population of G10 increased quickly over the first 3 weeks, then decreased slowly over the following 4 weeks before stabilizing. In addition, the application of wild-type B. bassiana 08F04 and transformant G10 significantly reduced the number of H. filipjevi females in roots by 64.4% and 60.2%, respectively. The results of this study have practical applications for ecological, biological and functional studies of B. bassiana 08F04 and for bionematicide registration.


Assuntos
Beauveria/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Triticum/parasitologia , Tylenchida/fisiologia , Agrobacterium tumefaciens/genética , Animais , Beauveria/genética , Feminino , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Transformação Genética
12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233507, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469925

RESUMO

The wheat curl mite, Aceria tosichella Keifer, one of the most destructive arthropod pests of bread wheat worldwide, inflicts significant annual reductions in grain yields. Moreover, A. tosichella is the only vector for several economically important wheat viruses in the Americas, Australia and Europe. To date, mite-resistant wheat genotypes have proven to be one of the most effective methods of controlling the A. tosichella-virus complex. Thus, it is important to elucidate A. tosichella population genetic structure, in order to better predict improved mite and virus management. Two genetically distinct A. tosichella lineages occur as pests of wheat in Australia, Europe, North America, South America and the Middle East. These lineages are known as type 1 and type 2 in Australia and North America and in Europe and South America as MT-8 and MT-1, respectively. Type 1 and type 2 mites in Australia and North America are delineated by internal transcribed spacer 1 region (ITS1) and cytochrome oxidase I region (COI) sequence differences. In North America, two A. tosichella genotypes known as biotypes are recognized by their response to the Cmc3 mite resistance gene in wheat. Aceria tosichella biotype 1 is susceptible to Cmc3 and biotype 2 is virulent to Cmc3. In this study, ITS1 and COI sequence differences in 25 different populations of A. tosichella of known biotype 1 or biotype 2 composition were characterized for ITS1 and COI sequence differences and used to model spatio-temporal dynamics based on biotype prevalence. Results showed that the proportion of biotype 1 and 2 varies both spatially and temporally. Greater ranges of cropland and grassland within 5000m of the sample site, as well as higher mean monthly precipitation during the month prior to sampling appear to reduce the probability of occurrence of biotype 1 and increase the probability of occurrence of biotype 2. The results suggest that spatio-temporal modeling can effectively improve A. tosichella management. Continual integration of additional current and future precipitation and ground cover data into the existing model will further improve the accuracy of predicting the occurrence of A. tosichella in annual wheat crops, allowing producers to make informed decisions about the selection of varieties with different A. tosichella resistance genes.


Assuntos
Ácaros/classificação , Ácaros/genética , Triticum/parasitologia , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos/patogenicidade , Vetores Aracnídeos/virologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , Grão Comestível/parasitologia , Grão Comestível/virologia , Genes de Plantas , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Ácaros/virologia , Modelos Biológicos , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Texas , Triticum/genética , Triticum/virologia , Virulência/genética
13.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1194: 293-301, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468545

RESUMO

Traditionally, the main process for olive fruit fly population monitoring is trap measurements. Although the above procedure is time-consuming, it gives important information about when there is an outbreak of the population and how the insect is spatially distributed in the olive grove. Most studies in the literature are based on the combination of trap and environmental data measurements. Strictly speaking, the dynamics of olive fruit fly population is a complex system affected by a variety of factors. However, the collection of environmental data is costly, and sensor data often require additional processing and cleaning. In order to study the volatility of correlation in trap counts and how it is connected with population outbreaks, a stochastic algorithm, based on a stochastic differential model, is experimentally applied. The results allow us to predict early population outbreaks allowing for more efficient and targeted spraying.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Algoritmos , Modelos Biológicos , Olea , Doenças das Plantas , Tephritidae , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Frutas/parasitologia , Olea/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/estatística & dados numéricos , Processos Estocásticos , Tephritidae/fisiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233389, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428046

RESUMO

The oriental red spider mite, Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein) is a major pest of citrus in many countries including Saudi Arabia (SA). The morphological variations among the different populations of E. orientalis were reported. In the present study, phenotypic variations based on 40 different morphological characteristics were evaluated in 10 E. orientalis populations collected from different hosts and regions of SA. Further, ITS2-rDNA sequences were used to confirm the identity of these phenotypically varying populations. Phenotypic variations in all populations were found in the shape and length of dorsal setae, striation pattern between setae d1 and e1, and leg chaetotaxy. The rDNA sequence analysis of these morphologically varying populations resulted in 10 different ITS2 Saudi haplotypes. The phenotypic and genetic variations were more related to the host plants rather than their geographic distribution. The E. orientalis population collected from Phoenix dactylifera was phenotypically distinct and genetically divergent. The populations collected from citrus species were also more phenotypically and genetically related to each other than to populations collected from non-citrus host plants. The haplotypes recovered from Ziziphus sp., Morus sp., and Azadirecta indica from different regions were grouped in the same sub-clade. Further, the ITS2 haplotypes of Saudi E. orientalis recovered from Citrus reticulata from Riyadh and Al Ula were 100% identical to the ITS2 haplotypes recovered from Citrus sp. from Israel. It is concluded that phenotypic variations exist among different populations of E. orientalis inhabiting different host plants. This species should be identified carefully by considering phenotypic intraspecific variations.


Assuntos
Variação Biológica da População , Variação Genética , Tetranychidae/genética , Animais , Citrus/parasitologia , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Haplótipos , Israel , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Arábia Saudita , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tetranychidae/anatomia & histologia
15.
J Plant Res ; 133(3): 419-428, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246281

RESUMO

Phytoparasitic nematodes parasitize many species of rooting plants to take up nutrients, thus causing severe growth defects in the host plants. During infection, root-knot nematodes induce the formation of a characteristic hyperplastic structure called a root-knot or gall on the roots of host plants. Although many previous studies addressed this abnormal morphogenesis, the underlying mechanisms remain uncharacterized. To analyze the plant-microorganism interaction at the molecular level, we established an in vitro infection assay system using the nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Time-course mRNA-seq analyses indicated the increased levels of procambium-associated genes in the galls, suggesting that vascular stem cells play important roles in the gall formation. Conversely, genes involved in the formation of secondary cell walls were decreased in galls. A neutral sugar analysis indicated that the level of xylan, which is one of the major secondary cell wall components, was dramatically reduced in the galls. These observations were consistent with the hypothesis of a decrease in the number of highly differentiated cells and an increase in the density of undifferentiated cells lead to gall formation. Our findings suggest that phytoparasitic nematodes modulate the developmental mechanisms of the host to modify various aspects of plant physiological processes and establish a feeding site.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/parasitologia , Parede Celular/parasitologia , Nematoides/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Raízes de Plantas/parasitologia , Animais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231973, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343710

RESUMO

Potato psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli Sulc)-transmitted "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Lso) has been negatively impacting the potato industry in the United States as well as other potato-producing countries. Lso has been linked to a condition known as zebra chip (ZC) that affects yield and quality of potato tubers. Efforts to find sources of resistance to ZC have primarily focused on greenhouse evaluations based on a single inoculation time prior to harvest. Plant response to infection, however, could be influenced by the developmental stage of the host plant, and ZC may continue to develop after harvest. The objectives of this study were to quantify Lso inoculation success, Lso titer, ZC severity and Lso development during storage in eight potato genotypes. These evaluations were conducted on plants infested with Lso-positive psyllids at 77, 12, and 4 days before vine removal (DBVR). The evaluated genotypes were categorized according to their relative resistance to Lso and tolerance to ZC symptoms. Lso inoculation success in the genotype family A07781, derived from Solanum chacoense, was lower than that of the susceptible control ('Russet Burbank'). A07781-4LB and A07781-3LB genotypes were characterized relatively resistant to the pathogen and highly tolerant to ZC symptoms, while A07781-10LB was categorized as susceptible to Lso but relatively tolerant to symptom expression. In stored potatoes, increase in Lso concentrations was observed for all infestation times. However, significantly higher Lso titer was detected in tubers infested 12 DBVR and the effect was similar across genotypes. Overall, the A07781 family can be considered as a promising source of resistance or tolerance to ZC.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/etiologia , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Animais , DNA de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Genótipo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Tubérculos/genética , Tubérculos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231008, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240258

RESUMO

Cassava green mite [CGM, Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar)] is the most destructive dry-season pest in most cassava production areas. The pest is responsible for cassava fresh root yield losses of over 80%. Deployment of CGM resistant cultivars is the most cost-effective and sustainable approach of alleviating such production losses. The purposes of this study were to validate the stability of CGM resistance genes found in previously published results, to identify new genes for CGM resistance in bi-parental mapping population and estimate the heritability of the trait. A total of 109 F1 progeny derived from a cross between CGM resistant parent, TMEB778 and a very susceptible parent, TMEB419 were evaluated under CGM hotspot areas in Nigeria for two cropping seasons. A total of 42,204 SNP markers with MAF ≥ 0.05 were used for single-marker analysis. The most significant QTL (S12_7962234) was identified on the left arm on chromosome 12 which explained high phenotypic variance and harboured significant single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers conferring resistance to CGM and leaf pubescence (LP). Colocalization of the most significant SNP associated with resistance to CGM and LP on chromosome 12 is possibly an indication of a beneficial pleiotropic effect or are physically linked. These significant SNPs markers were intersected with the gene annotations and 33 unique genes were identified within SNPs at 4 - 8MB on chromosome 12. Among these genes, nine novel candidate genes namely; Manes.12077600, Manes.12G086200, Manes.12G061200, Manes.12G083100, Manes.12G082000, Manes.12G094100, Manes.12G075600, Manes.12G091400 and Manes.12G069300 highly expressed direct link to cassava green mite resistance. Pyramiding the new QTL/genes identified on chromosome 12 in this study with previously discovered loci, such on chromosome 8, will facilitate breeding varieties that are highly resistant CGM.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Manihot/genética , Ácaros/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Ligação Genética/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Masculino , Manihot/parasitologia , Nigéria , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 197: 110591, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32283411

RESUMO

Benzoylphenylureas as an important type of insect growth regulators, acting on the moulting stage in immature insects, are highly effective and low toxic. The new benzoylphenylurea TXH09 [N-((2,6-dimethyl-4-(heptafluoropropyl-2-yl)phenyl)carbamoyl)-2,6-difluorobenzamide] has high efficacy against chewing insect pests harming vegetables and rice. In this paper, the efficacy of TXH09 against two intractable borers Ostrinia furnacalis and Grapholitha molesta were evaluated in field, and safety assessment by exploring the characteristics of photodegradation, cytotoxicity, micronucleus generation and chromosome aberration was performed. The results showed that TXH09 had good capability in preventing infested corn and reducing the population of O. furnacalis larvae, and maintained high efficacy on shoot protection and peach conservation against G. molesta larvae. There were no significant differences between the control effects of TXH09 and that of hexaflumuron or diflubenzuron at the same active dose. TXH09 photolysis in solvents N,N-dimethylformamide, toluene and methanol yielded two major products, and the photodegradation of TXH09 was more prone to occur in N,N-dimethylformamide. TXH09 and the mixture of its photoproducts showed higher cytotoxicity on insect Sf-9 cells than on human Hek293 cells. Moreover, TXH09 didn't show significant effects in inducing micronucleated cells in both male and female mice and chromosomal aberrations in mouse spermatocytes by its own. In conclusion, TXH09, as an effective insecticide, has good environmental safety performance against O. furnacalis and G. molesta in field.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Inseticidas/química , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Compostos de Fenilureia/química , Fotólise , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Células Sf9
19.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 80(4): 509-520, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249392

RESUMO

The red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst (Tenuipalpidae), has mainly been registered on palm species (Arecaceae), and its expansion in Brazil has the potential to cause significant negative impact on cultivated as well as native palms. Here, we evaluate the potential of native palms from Northeast Brazil to act as hosts of R. indica. Specifically, we used in situ free-choice and confinement tests, in which sections of palm leaves/leaflets of various species were experimentally infested with R. indica. We tested the following species: Acrocomia aculeata, Acrocomia intumescens, Allagoptera caudescens, Attalea funifera, Attalea oleifera, Bactris acanthocarpa var. acanthocarpa, Bactris ferruginea, Bactris glassmanii, Bactris hirta var. spruceana, Bactris pickelii, Copernicia prunifera, Desmoncus orthacanthos, Desmoncus polyacanthos, Syagrus coronata and Syagrus schizophylla. All of these were compared with the mite's preferred host, the coconut palm, Cocos nucifera. In the free-choice test, both male and female R. indica preferred C. nucifera in comparison to each of the native palms. In the confinement test, we observed significant differences in the survivorship between mites on native palms and those on coconut palms after the second day of infestation. By the fifth day, survivorship of mites on the native palms was almost always significantly lower than on C. nucifera (excepting for C. prunifera). We conclude that, among all the native palms evaluated, only the carnauba palm (C. prunifera) is at risk from R. indica. This result is relevant as this palm is an economically important species in the region.


Assuntos
Cocos/parasitologia , Ácaros/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Cocos/classificação , Feminino , Masculino
20.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(4): 1063-1078, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32333171

RESUMO

Root-knot nematodes (RKNs, genus Meloidogyne) affect a large number of crops causing severe yield losses worldwide, more specifically in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Several plant species display high resistance levels to Meloidogyne, but a general view of the plant immune molecular responses underlying resistance to RKNs is still lacking. Combining comparative genomics with differential gene expression analysis may allow the identification of widely conserved plant genes involved in RKN resistance. To identify genes that are evolutionary conserved across plant species, we used OrthoFinder to compared the predicted proteome of 22 plant species, including important crops, spanning 214 Myr of plant evolution. Overall, we identified 35,238 protein orthogroups, of which 6,132 were evolutionarily conserved and universal to all the 22 plant species (PLAnts Common Orthogroups-PLACO). To identify host genes responsive to RKN infection, we analyzed the RNA-seq transcriptome data from RKN-resistant genotypes of a peanut wild relative (Arachis stenosperma), coffee (Coffea arabica L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), and African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) challenged by Meloidogyne spp. using EdgeR and DESeq tools, and we found 2,597 (O. glaberrima), 743 (C. arabica), 665 (A. stenosperma), and 653 (G. max) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) during the resistance response to the nematode. DEGs' classification into the previously characterized 35,238 protein orthogroups allowed identifying 17 orthogroups containing at least one DEG of each resistant Arachis, coffee, soybean, and rice genotype analyzed. Orthogroups contain 364 DEGs related to signaling, secondary metabolite production, cell wall-related functions, peptide transport, transcription regulation, and plant defense, thus revealing evolutionarily conserved RKN-responsive genes. Interestingly, the 17 DEGs-containing orthogroups (belonging to the PLACO) were also universal to the 22 plant species studied, suggesting that these core genes may be involved in ancestrally conserved immune responses triggered by RKN infection. The comparative genomic approach that we used here represents a promising predictive tool for the identification of other core plant defense-related genes of broad interest that are involved in different plant-pathogen interactions.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tylenchoidea/patogenicidade , Animais , Arachis/genética , Arachis/parasitologia , Café/genética , Café/parasitologia , Produtos Agrícolas/parasitologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genômica , Genótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Oryza/genética , Oryza/parasitologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Soja/genética , Soja/parasitologia , Tylenchoidea/genética
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