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1.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(10): 827-831, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare initial leak pressure (ILP) between cadaveric canine and synthetic small intestinal segments that did and did not undergo enterotomy. SAMPLE: Eight 8-cm grossly normal jejunal segments from 1 canine cadaver and eight 8-cm synthetic small intestinal segments. PROCEDURES: Intestinal segments were randomly assigned to undergo enterotomy (6 cadaveric and 6 synthetic segments) or serve as untreated controls (2 cadaveric and 2 synthetic segments). For segments designated for enterotomy, a 2-cm full-thickness incision was created along the antimesenteric border. The incision was closed in a single layer with 4-0 suture in a simple continuous pattern. Leak testing was performed with intestinal segments occluded at both ends and infused with dilute dye solution (999 mL/h) until the solution was observed leaking from the suture line or serosal tearing occurred. Intraluminal pressure was continuously monitored. The ILP at construct failure was compared between cadaveric and synthetic control segments and between cadaveric and synthetic enterotomy segments. RESULTS: Mean ± SD ILP did not differ significantly between cadaveric (345.11 ± 2.15 mm Hg) and synthetic (329.04 ± 24.69 mm Hg) control segments but was significantly greater for cadaveric enterotomy segments (60.77 ± 15.81 mm Hg), compared with synthetic enterotomy segments (15.03 ± 6.41 mm Hg). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Leak testing should not be used to assess the accuracy or security of enterotomy suture lines in synthetic intestinal tissue. Synthetic intestinal tissue is best used for students to gain confidence and proficiency in performing enterotomies before performing the procedure on live animals.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/veterinária , Doenças do Cão , Anastomose Cirúrgica/veterinária , Animais , Cadáver , Cães , Pressão , Técnicas de Sutura/veterinária , Suturas
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(38): 1374-1377, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970659

RESUMO

Although canine rabies virus variant (CRVV) was successfully eliminated from the United States after approximately 6 decades of vaccination campaigns, licensing requirements, and stray animal control, dogs remain the principal source of human rabies infections worldwide. A rabies vaccination certificate is required for dogs entering the United States from approximately 100 countries with endemic CRVV, including Egypt (1). On February 25, 2019, rabies was diagnosed in a dog imported from Egypt, representing the third canine rabies case imported from Egypt in 4 years (2,3). This dog and 25 others were imported by a pet rescue organization in the Kansas City metropolitan area on January 29. Upon entry into the United States, all 26 dogs had certificates of veterinary inspection, rabies vaccination certificates, and documentation of serologic conversion from a government-affiliated rabies laboratory in Egypt. CDC confirmed that the dog was infected with a CRVV that circulates in Egypt, underscoring the continued risk for CRVV reintroduction and concern regarding the legitimacy of vaccine documentation of dogs imported from countries considered at high risk for CRVV. Vaccination documentation of dogs imported from these countries should be critically evaluated before entry into the United States is permitted, and public health should be consulted upon suspicion of questionable documents.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/diagnóstico , Cães , Egito , Kansas , Raiva/diagnóstico
3.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(10): 810-820, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the biochemical, functional, and histopathologic changes associated with lomustine-induced liver injury in dogs. ANIMALS: I0 healthy purpose-bred sexually intact female hounds. PROCEDURES: Dogs were randomly assigned to receive lomustine (approx 75 mg/m2, PO, q 21 d for 5 doses) alone (n = 5) or with prednisone (approx 1.5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 12 weeks; 5). For each dog, a CBC, serum biochemical analysis, liver function testing, urinalysis, and ultrasonographic examination of the liver with acquisition of liver biopsy specimens were performed before and at predetermined times during and after lomustine administration. Results were compared between dogs that did and did not receive prednisone. RESULTS: 7 of the I0 dogs developed clinical signs of liver failure. For all dogs, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, bile acid concentrations, and liver histologic score increased and hepatic reduced glutathione content decreased over time. Peak serum ALT (r = 0.79) and ALP (r = 0.90) activities and bile acid concentration (r = 0.68) were positively correlated with the final histologic score. Prednisone did not appear to have a protective effect on histologic score. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In dogs, liver enzyme activities, particularly ALT and ALP activities, should be closely monitored during lomustine treatment and acute increases in those activities may warrant discontinuation of lomustine to mitigate liver injury. Nonspecific ultrasonographic findings and abnormal increases in liver function tests were not detected until the onset of clinical liver failure. Glutathione depletion may have a role in lomustine-induced hepatopathy and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Lomustina , Alanina Transaminase , Fosfatase Alcalina , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Fígado , Lomustina/efeitos adversos
4.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 110, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883344

RESUMO

Canine parvovirus (CPV) can cause acute and highly contagious bloody enteritis in dog. To obtain antibodies against CPV, hens were immunized with virus-like particles (VLP) of CPV-VP2. The IgY single chain fragment variables (scFv) were generated by T7 phage display system and expressed in E. coli system. The titer of the primary scFv library reached to 1.5 × 106 pfu/mL, and 95% of the phages contained the target fragments. The CPV-VLP and CPV-VP2 protein showed similar reaction values to the purified scFv in the ELISA test, and the results of ELISA analysis using IgY-scFv toward CPV clinical samples were consistent with commercial immunochromatographic assay (ICA) and PCR detection, the scFv did not show cross reactivity with canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine coronavirus (CCV). IgY-scFv was successfully expressed in CRFK cells, and in the virus suppression assay, 55% of CPV infections were eliminated within 24 h. Docking results demonstrated that the number of amino acids of the binding sides between scFv and VP2 were AA37 and AA40, respectively. This study revealed the feasibility of a novel functional antibody fragment development strategy by generating diversified avian IgY-scFv libraries towards the pathogenic target of interest for both detection and therapeutic purposes in veterinary medicine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/imunologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/imunologia , Animais , Galinhas/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Infecções por Parvoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Parvoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/genética
5.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933150

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses capable of causing respiratory, enteric, or systemic diseases in a variety of mammalian hosts that vary in clinical severity from subclinical to fatal. The host range and tissue tropism are largely determined by the coronaviral spike protein, which initiates cellular infection by promoting fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. Companion animal coronaviruses responsible for causing enteric infection include feline enteric coronavirus, ferret enteric coronavirus, canine enteric coronavirus, equine coronavirus, and alpaca enteric coronavirus, while canine respiratory coronavirus and alpaca respiratory coronavirus result in respiratory infection. Ferret systemic coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis virus, a mutated feline enteric coronavirus, can lead to lethal immuno-inflammatory systemic disease. Recent human viral pandemics, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and most recently, COVID-19, all thought to originate from bat coronaviruses, demonstrate the zoonotic potential of coronaviruses and their potential to have devastating impacts. A better understanding of the coronaviruses of companion animals, their capacity for cross-species transmission, and the sharing of genetic information may facilitate improved prevention and control strategies for future emerging zoonotic coronaviruses. This article reviews the clinical, epidemiologic, virologic, and pathologic characteristics of nine important coronaviruses of companion animals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Animais , Camelídeos Americanos/virologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães/virologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/epidemiologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/virologia , Furões/virologia , Variação Genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Zoonoses
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e005320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785527

RESUMO

Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens (TBRP) are important causes of infections in both dogs and humans. Dogs play an important role as a biological host for several tick species and can serve as sentinels for rickettsial infections. Our aim was to determine the presence of TBRP in dogs and in dog-associated ticks and their potential risk to human diseases in Medellin, Colombia. DNA for E. canis (16S rRNA and dsb) and A. platys (groEl) was detected in 17.6% (53/300) and 2.6% (8/300) of dogs, respectively. Antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. 82 (27.3%) and Anaplasma spp. 8 (2.6%) were detected in dogs. Antibody reactivity against both agents were found in 16 dogs (5.3%). Eight dogs showed antibody for Rickettsia spp. with titers that suggest 3 of them had a probable exposure to R. parkeri. Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (178/193) was the main tick in dogs, followed by R. microplus (15/193). The minimum infection rates (MIR) in R. sanguineus were 11.8% for E. canis and 3.4% for A. platys. E. canis and A. platys are the main TBRP infecting dogs and ticks and R. sanguineus s.l. is likely involved in the transmission of both agents. Interestingly, we found serological evidence of exposure in dogs for spotted fever group rickettsiae.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose , Doenças do Cão , Ehrlichiose , Rhipicephalus sanguineus , Infecções por Rickettsia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ehrlichia/genética , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/microbiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/microbiologia , Rickettsia/genética , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária
8.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e005820, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756774

RESUMO

Ehrlichia canis is the main etiological agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), a globally canine infectious disease. In Brazil, CME is considered to be endemic, and its prevalence can reach 65% in some states. The diagnosis of ehrlichiosis is important for treatment and epidemiological purposes. The E. canis TRP36 (Tandem Repeat Protein) protein elicits the earliest acute-phase antibody response observed during the course of the disease. This study aimed to generate the recombinant TRP36 protein from E. canis São Paulo strain and to evaluate its potential as a tool for the serologic diagnosis of CME. The E. canis São Paulo isolate was cultivated in DH82 lineage cells, and its genomic DNA was obtained. The bacterial DNA fragment encoding the entire ORF of TRP36 was cloned into the pBAD/Thio-TOPO vector and transformed into Escherichia coli DH10B competent cells with the trp36-bearing plasmid for protein expression. To evaluate the protein antigenicity, 16 canine serum samples were previously tested (by PCR and the commercial SNAP®4Dx® serological test). The results were in accordance with the SNAP®4Dx® test. Experiments using this recombinant protein as an antigen, targeting the development of a serologic test based on ELISA methodology, are the next step to produce a reliable, affordable and useful diagnostic tool for CME in Brazil.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Doenças do Cão , Ehrlichia canis , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Proteínas Recombinantes , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Brasil , Linhagem Celular , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Ehrlichia canis/genética , Ehrlichiose/diagnóstico , Escherichia coli/genética , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia
9.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e012420, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756775

RESUMO

Piroplasm species were analyzed by molecular tools in total 31 blood samples from positive dogs, previously checked by stained slides, stored until DNA extraction between 2016 to 2018 in the laboratory Clinical Analyzes in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. The piroplasms were identified by PCR, targeting the 18S rRNA gene and sequencing. From the total number of samples only 24 (77.4%) were positive and show adequate nucleotide sequences for interpretation with identity between 93%-100% with Babesia vogeli in compared to the sequences isolated of infected dogs from other states in Brazil deposited on GenBank. Most of dogs infected with B. vogeli had anemia (62.5%) and thrombocytopenia (95.8%). The findings of this study are compatible with previous reports in the literature and highlight B. vogeli as the most incriminated species in canine piroplasmosis in Brazil, and thrombocytopenia the hematological alteration most frequently identified in this infection. It is important to note that this is the first study involving the molecular characterization of piroplasms in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, based on PCR followed by sequencing.


Assuntos
Babesia , Babesiose , Sangue , Doenças do Cão , Manejo de Espécimes , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/sangue , Sangue/parasitologia , Análise Química do Sangue , Brasil , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária
10.
Vet Microbiol ; 247: 108777, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768223

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) cause disease in a range of agricultural and companion animal species, and can be important causes of zoonotic infections. In humans, several coronaviruses circulate seasonally. Recently, a novel zoonotic CoV named SARS-CoV-2 emerged from a bat reservoir, resulting in the COVID-19 pandemic. With a focus on felines, we review here the evidence for SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats, ferrets and dogs, describe the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and the natural coronaviruses known to infect these species, and provide a rationale for the relative susceptibility of these species to SARS-CoV-2 through comparative analysis of the ACE-2 receptor.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Gatos/virologia , Cães/virologia , Furões/virologia , Humanos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/genética , Zoonoses/virologia
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008497, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845886

RESUMO

Current recommendations for the elimination of canine-mediated human rabies focus on mass dog vaccination as the most feasible and cost-effective strategy. However, attempts to control rabies are often combined with canine surgical sterilisation programmes. The added value of sterilisation is widely debated. A systematic review was undertaken to compare the outcomes and impact of vaccination and sterilisation programmes with vaccination only programmes. A systematic search of three electronic databases (CAB Abstracts, Medline and Global Health) and grey literature was performed. From 8696 abstracts found, 5554 unique studies were identified, and 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. Eight described vaccination only programmes and eight described vaccination and sterilisation programmes. Indicators of impact measured were dog bites and/or doses of post-exposure prophylaxis administered; numbers of dog and/or human rabies cases; dog population demographic changes; changes in health and welfare of dogs, and indicators related to human behaviour change. The studies were contextually very diverse, programmes being implemented were complex, and there was variation in measurement and reporting of key indicators. Therefore, it was difficult to compare the two types of intervention, and impossible to make an evaluation of the role of sterilisation, using this evidence. Given the large number of vaccination and sterilisation programmes conducted globally, the lack of studies available for review highlights a gap in data collection or reporting, essential for impact assessment. There are several knowledge gaps concerning the impact of the sterilisation component alone, as well as subsequent effects on rabies transmission and control. Prospective studies comparing the outcomes and impact of the two interventions would be required in order to establish any additional contribution of sterilisation, as well as the underlying mechanisms driving any changes. In the absence of such evidence, the priority for rabies control objectives should be implementation of mass vaccination, as currently recommended by the World Health Organisation.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Esterilização Reprodutiva/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Zoonoses
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235689, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760092

RESUMO

Intertrigo is a skin fold dermatitis often requiring recurrent treatment with topical antiseptics or antibiotics, which can select antimicrobial resistance. To minimize this risk, we tested the effectiveness of medical-grade Manuka honey at treating intertrigo as compared to a placebo hydrogel. We additionally characterized the culturable microbial flora of intertrigo and recorded any adverse effect with either treatment. During this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, adaptive group-sequential trial, the owners washed the affected sites on their dog with water, dried and applied a thin film of either the honey or the placebo product once daily for 21 days. Cytological and lesional composite scores, owner-assessed pruritus, and microbial cultures were assessed prior to treatment and on Day-22. The fixed effects of time, treatment, and animal-related variables on the pruritus and on each composite score, accounting for random dog effect, were estimated separately with generalized linear mixed models for repeated count outcomes (α = 0.05). The null hypothesis of equal treatment effects was rejected at the first interim analysis. The placebo (n = 16 dogs) outperformed the medical honey (n = 13 dogs) at improving both the cytological score (Treatment×Time = -0.35±0.17; P = 0.04) and clinical score (Treatment×Time = -0.28±0.13; P = 0.04). A microbial burden score higher than 4 increased the severity of the cytological score (dichotomous score: 0.29±0.11; P = 0.01), which in turn increased the severity of the clinical score and pruritus score. For every unit increase in cytological score, the linear predictor of clinical score increased by 0.042±0.019 (P = 0.03), and the one of pruritus score increased by 0.12±0.05 (P = 0.01). However, medical honey outperformed the placebo at alleviating the dog's owner-assessed pruritus after statistically controlling for masking effects (Time = -0.94±0.24; P = 0.002; and Treatment×Time = 0.80±0.36; P = 0.04). Unilateral tests of the least-square mean estimates revealed that honey only significantly improved the pruritus (Hommel-adjusted P = 0.003), while the placebo only improved the cytological and clinical scores (Hommel-adjusted P = 0.01 and 0.002, respectively). Taken together, these results question the value of Manuka honey at treating nasal intertrigo in dogs.


Assuntos
Apiterapia/métodos , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Mel , Intertrigo/veterinária , Prurido/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Cães , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hidrogéis/administração & dosagem , Intertrigo/complicações , Intertrigo/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Nariz , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Prurido/diagnóstico , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Prurido/etiologia
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1293, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the extent of knowledge and understanding of rabies disease in rural and urban communities of Pakistan. It also identified malpractices after suspected dog bite that might pose a risk for humans contracting rabies. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted (n = 1466) on people having different age groups and educational levels in four different geographic regions of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces in Pakistan. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of people were assessed using a structured questionnaire. We used a bivariate and multivariate analysis to study the association between rabies related mortalities in near or extended family members and different risk behaviors. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that the majority of the juvenile population (less than 18 years of age) were not aware of the clinical signs of rabies in animals. 75% of the total respondents were not vaccinated against rabies, 60% did not seek a doctor's advice after a suspected animal bite, and 55% had inadequate health care facilities for rabies patients in local hospitals. Respondents that had pets at home had not vaccinated (38%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.58) themselves against rabies due to lack of knowledge and awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies (51%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.25). They also tend to not visit doctor after suspected bite (52%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.97), which may had resulted in more deaths (65%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.73) of someone in their near or extended family due to rabies. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of knowledge about the nature of rabies disease and prophylaxis has contributed to increase of rabies related deaths. Inadequate health care facilities and poor attitude of not seeking medical attention after suspected dog bite are the major reasons of rabies related deaths. These findings could help in devising a targeted management strategy and awareness program to control and reduce the incidence of human rabies related deaths in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/mortalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Aust Vet J ; 98(9): 442-448, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32743816

RESUMO

SnakeMap is a national cloud-based, veterinary snakebite registry. It was designed to prospectively collect data of the clinical circumstances and temporospatial information on cases of snake envenomation in dogs and cats. We herein introduce the project and summarise the data from the first 4 years of SnakeMap. The registry is a veterinary community-based online database allowing case entry from veterinary hospitals across Australia. Registry data comprise hospital characteristics, patient characteristics, envenoming snake type, treatment and outcome variables, including time and geolocation of the snake bite. We present summative information on select key variables from the SnakeMap registry (1 July 2015 to 30 June 2019). Twenty-eight hospitals from 6 states/territories entered 624 cases into the registry, including 419 dogs (67%) and 205 cats (33%). Bite time was available in 216 animals of which 90 (42%) were reported to be bitten in the 3 hours between 03:00 pm and 05:59 pm; median bite to presentation interval was 60 (interquartile range [IQR] 30, 211) minutes in dogs and 95 (IQR 41, 238) minutes in cats. Bites occurred in the owner's yard in 356 dogs (85%) and 53 cats (26%). A snake venom detection kit was used in 172 cases (28%) and antivenom was administered in 523 cases (85%). Most animals (n = 534, 88%) survived to discharge (median hospitalisation of 25 [IQR 16, 62] hours). SnakeMap effectively collects relevant clinical data from dogs and cats with presumed snake bite and provides locally specific information on the epidemiology of snake envenomation in small animals.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Mordeduras de Serpentes/veterinária , Animais , Antivenenos , Austrália , Gatos , Cães , Elapidae , Sistema de Registros
15.
Aust Vet J ; 98(9): 462-466, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstructive shock can be caused by any lesion leading to extraluminal compression or intraluminal occlusion of the cardiac chambers or major vessels. CASE REPORT: A 12-year-old, male castrated, Border Collie cross dog presented to a veterinary teaching hospital for collapse. A physical examination revealed severe vasoconstrictive shock and abdominal distension. Abnormalities on blood tests were consistent with systemic hypoperfusion. Cardiac underfilling, hepatomegaly with distended vasculature and ascites were identified by focused ultrasonography, raising suspicion of obstructive shock. This was supported by the radiographic findings of microcardia and a distended caudal vena cava (CVC). There was transient response to fluid therapy for blood volume expansion. Repeat focused ultrasonography during rapid intravenous fluid administration identified a right intra-atrial mass, assessed as likely to be causing obstruction of venous return. The dog was humanely euthanased given the guarded prognosis. At postmortem evaluation, a malignant pheochromocytoma in the left adrenal gland with tumour thrombus extending to the tricuspid valve through the CVC was found. The extensive thrombus caused the obstructive shock in this case. Metastasis in a peripheral lymph node and neoplastic emboli in the heart and lungs were also visible at the histopathological evaluation. CONCLUSION: To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first report of severe obstructive shock secondary to extension of caval tumour thrombus into the right atrium in a dog with malignant pheochromocytoma. Tumour thrombus from a malignant pheochromocytoma should be included as a differential diagnosis of obstructive shock, with or without a visible right intra-atrial mass, in dogs. Serial focused ultrasonography during intravenous fluid administration can aid diagnosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/veterinária , Fibrilação Atrial/veterinária , Doenças do Cão , Feocromocitoma/veterinária , Trombose/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Átrios do Coração , Masculino , Veia Cava Inferior
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008545, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841252

RESUMO

The analysis of zoonotic disease risk requires the consideration of both human and animal geo-referenced disease incidence data. Here we show an application of joint Bayesian analyses to the study of echinococcosis granulosus (EG) in the province of Rio Negro, Argentina. We focus on merging passive and active surveillance data sources of animal and human EG cases using joint Bayesian spatial and spatio-temporal models. While similar spatial clustering and temporal trending was apparent, there appears to be limited lagged dependence between animal and human outcomes. Beyond the data quality issues relating to missingness at different times, we were able to identify relations between dog and human data and the highest 'at risk' areas for echinococcosis within the province.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Cães , Echinococcus granulosus , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos
17.
Aust Vet J ; 98(10): 504-510, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754949

RESUMO

Canine parvovirus (CPV) has been reported throughout the world since the late 1970s. Published information was reviewed to draw insights into the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of CPV disease in Australia and the role of scientific research on CPV occurrence, with key research discoveries and knowledge gaps identified. Australian researchers contributed substantially to early findings, including the first reported cases of parvoviral myocarditis, investigations into disease aetiopathogenesis, host and environmental risk factors and links between CPV and feline panleukopenia. Two of the world's first CPV serological surveys were conducted in Australia and a 1980 national veterinary survey of Australian and New Zealand dogs revealed 6824 suspected CPV cases and 1058 deaths. In 2010, an Australian national disease surveillance system was launched; 4940 CPV cases were reported between 2009 and 2014, although underreporting was likely. A 2017 study estimated national incidence to be 4.12 cases per 1000 dogs, and an annual case load of 20,110 based on 4219 CPV case reports in a survey of all Australian veterinary clinics, with a 23.5% response rate. CPV disease risk factors identified included socioeconomic disadvantage, geographical location (rural/remote), season (summer) and rainfall (recent rain and longer dry periods both increasing risk). Age <16 weeks was identified as a risk factor for vaccination failure. Important knowledge gaps exist regarding national canine and feline demographic and CPV case data, vaccination coverage and population immunity, CPV transmission between owned dogs and other carnivore populations in Australia and the most effective methods to control epizootics.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Parvovirus Canino , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Gatos , Cães , Nova Zelândia
18.
Virus Res ; 288: 198113, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771430

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is recognized as one of the life-threatening viruses causing the most destructive pandemic in this century. The genesis of this virus is still unknown. To elucidate its molecular evolution and regulation of gene expression, the knowledge of codon usage is a pre-requisite. In this study, an attempt was made to document the genome-wide codon usage profile and the various factors influencing the codon usage patterns of SARS-CoV-2 in human and dog. The SARS-CoV-2 genome showed relative abundance of A and U nucleotides and relative synonymous codon usage analysis revealed that the preferred synonymous codons mostly end with A/U. The analysis of ENc-GC3s, Neutrality and Parity rule 2 plots indicated that natural selection and other undefined factors dominate the overall codon usage bias in SARS-CoV-2 whereas the impact of mutation pressure is comparatively minor. The codon adaptation index and relative codon deoptimization index of SARS-CoV-2 deciphered that human is more favoured host for adaptation compared to dog. These results enhance our understanding of the factors involved in evolution of the novel human SARS-CoV-2 and its adaptability in dog.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Betacoronavirus/genética , Uso do Códon , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Genoma Viral , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Gatos , Bovinos , Quirópteros , Cães , Evolução Molecular , Cavalos , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Mutação , Pandemias , Seleção Genética , Suínos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238183, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857815

RESUMO

Lymphoma (lymphosarcoma) is the second most frequent cancer in dogs and is clinically comparable to human non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Factors affecting canine lymphoma progression are unknown and complex, but there is evidence that genetic mutations play an important role. We employed Next Gen DNA sequencing of six dogs with multicentric B-cell lymphoma undergoing CHOP chemotherapy to identify genetic variations potentially impacting response. Paired samples from non-neoplastic tissue (blood mononuclear cells) and lymphoma were collected at the time of diagnosis. Cases with progression free survival above the median of 231 days were grouped as 'good' responders and cases below the median were categorized as 'poor' responders. The average number of variants found was 17,138 per case. The variants were filtered to examine those with predicted moderate or high impacts. Many of the genes with variants had human orthologs with links to cancer, but the majority of variants were not previously reported in canine or human lymphoma. Seven genes had variants found in the cancers of at least two 'poor' responders but in no 'good' responders: ATRNL1, BAIAP2L2, ZNF384, ST6GALNAC5, ENSCAFG00000030179 (human ortholog: riboflavin kinase RFK), ENSCAFG00000029320, and ENSCAFG00000007370 (human ortholog: immunoglobin IGKV4-1). Two genes had variants found in the cancers of at least two 'good' responders but in no 'poor' responders: COX18 and ENSCAFG00000030512. ENSCAFG00000030512 has no reported orthologue in any other species. The role of these mutations in the progression of canine lymphoma requires further functional analyses and larger scale study.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/genética , Linfoma de Células B/veterinária , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Variação Genética , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Células B/genética , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237706, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817656

RESUMO

Endurance-trained sled dogs provide a unique translational model to characterize changes in hematologic and serum biochemical analytes due to the aging process. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of age and sex on specific hematologic and serum biochemical parameters in the endurance trained sled dog. Longitudinal and cross-sectional data were analyzed from 9,746 blood and serum samples from 4,804 dogs collected over 7 years as part of the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race pre-race examination program. Mixed models analysis was used for statistical analysis and P < 0.01 was considered significant. Dogs ranged from 1-12 years of age and 39% were female. Serum total calcium and phosphorus concentrations and white blood cell count decreased nonlinearly to asymptotic values by 6.6, 3.1, and 6.9 years of age, respectively, equivalent to estimated physiologic ages in human years of 44, 27, and 46 years. Serum glucose concentrations reached their lowest value at 7.8 years of age, equivalent to an estimated human physiologic age of 50 years, after which time the concentration increased. Serum globulin concentrations increased with age, but nonlinearly for females and linearly for males. Most sex-related differences were <5%; however, females had lower serum urea nitrogen (14.7%) and creatinine (7.3%) concentrations, lower serum alanine aminotransferase activity (16.6%), and higher serum total bilirubin concentration (12.8%) and platelet count (6.0%). The endurance-trained sled dog provides an excellent model to separate the physiologic effects of age from those of a sedentary lifestyle on hematologic and serum biochemical analytes.


Assuntos
Treino Aeróbico , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Soroglobulinas/metabolismo
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