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1.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 30(1): 97-101, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gallbladder mucocele is a potentially life-threatening extrahepatic biliary disease in dogs. The primary aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of cholecystitis in dogs with gross and histopathologically confirmed gallbladder mucocele and to investigate if there is an association between cholecystitis, including its subtypes (eg, acute, acute on chronic, with necrosis, chronic), and survival. Our secondary objective was to evaluate if there is an association between cholecystitis and intraoperative bacteriological culture positivity. KEY FINDINGS: Two hundred nineteen dogs with gallbladder mucocele were included in this multi-institutional retrospective study, of which 63 (28.8%) dogs had histopathological evidence of cholecystitis. The most common forms of cholecystitis were acute on chronic (n = 22/63, 34.9%) and with necrosis (n = 20, 31.7%). Thirty-one (14.1%) dogs had growth of at least 1 bacterial isolate; however, 88.7% had antimicrobials administered within the 48 hours before surgery or intraoperatively. There was not an association between cholecystitis or its subtypes and survival. Furthermore, there was not an association between cholecystitis and intraoperative bacteriological culture positivity. A total of 38 (17.4%) dogs either died or were euthanized during hospitalization. SIGNIFICANCE: Cholecystitis is a common comorbidity in dogs with gallbladder mucocele but was not associated with decreased survival.


Assuntos
Colecistite/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Mucocele/veterinária , Animais , Arizona/epidemiologia , Colecistite/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Mucocele/complicações , Mucocele/diagnóstico por imagem , Prevalência , Registros/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
2.
Vet J ; 253: 105388, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685132

RESUMO

In humans, high-resolution computed tomography (CT) is a key diagnostic modality for pulmonary disorders. Its success likely lies in excellent correlation of lung diseases with associated subgross anatomic changes, as assessed by histopathology, and because of a multidisciplinary approach between clinicians, radiologists and pathologists. Although thoracic CT studies have been performed in dogs and cats for nearly three decades, there is a lack of uniformity in both protocols for acquisition and in terminology used to describe lesions. Importantly, terms such as a bronchial, interstitial, and alveolar patterns are inappropriate descriptors for canine and feline thoracic CT imaging changes; instead, lung patterns should be classified as increased or decreased attenuation, nodular patterns, and linear patterns, with specific vocabulary to describe subtypes of lesions. In this manuscript, the authors provide an overview of basic CT principles, strategies to optimize and acquire high-quality diagnostic studies (inclusive of paired inspiratory and expiratory series, contrast and triphasic angiography) and provide a roadmap for systematic interpretation of thoracic CT images.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Radiografia Torácica/veterinária , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
3.
J Vet Cardiol ; 25: 61-73, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675525

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This case series describes early experience and technical aspects of cutting balloon dilation followed by high-pressure balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty in dogs with dysplastic pulmonary valve stenosis. ANIMALS: Seven client-owned dogs were enrolled in this study. METHODS: Dogs were prospectively enrolled based on echocardiographic diagnosis of severe pulmonary valve dysplasia, defined as marked valve thickening with variable degrees of annular hypoplasia or subvalvar fibrous obstruction and a peak echocardiography-derived transpulmonary pressure gradient higher than 100 mmHg. Preinterventional and postinterventional hemodynamic data and transthoracic pressure gradients were obtained for all dogs. Recheck echocardiography varied in timing by client convenience, with maximum follow-up 35 months after intervention. RESULTS: No intraprocedural or periprocedural mortality was observed. The only major complication was partial avulsion of a cutting blade related to exceeding recommended burst pressure of the device, which was not associated with obvious clinical consequence. Invasive hemodynamic measurements demonstrated an average reduction of 46% in peak systolic right ventricular-to-pulmonary artery pressure gradient (range, 31-77%). The echocardiographic results 24 h after procedure demonstrated an average reduction in pressure gradient of 43% (range, 20-66%), with late follow-up demonstrating an average reduction of 35% (range, 10-57%) compared with preprocedural echocardiography. CONCLUSIONS: This procedure is a feasible therapeutic transcatheter intervention for dogs with dysplastic pulmonary valves and appears safe in this small cohort. The ideal selection criteria and rate of restenosis for this procedure is under investigation, and long-term follow-up and a large, randomized, controlled study are necessary to demonstrate efficacy.


Assuntos
Valvuloplastia com Balão/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/veterinária , Animais , Valvuloplastia com Balão/métodos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(11): 1012-1019, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) for the assessment of prostatic tumors in dogs and to compare results for TRUS with results for other imaging modalities. ANIMALS: 10 client-owned male dogs. PROCEDURES: Client-owned dogs identified with prostatic carcinoma were enrolled. Fluoroscopy, transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS), TRUS, and MRI were performed on all dogs. Tumor measurements, urethral penetration (identification of abnormal tissue within the urethral lumen), and tumor extension into the urinary tract were recorded for all imaging modalities. Agreement between results for MRI (considered the criterion-referenced standard) and results for other modalities were compared. RESULTS: Median body weight of the 10 dogs was 26.3 kg (range, 9.4 to 49.5 kg). No complications were encountered during or after TRUS. Significant moderate to good agreements (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.60 to 0.86) among TAUS, TRUS, fluoroscopy, and MRI were identified for tumor length and height. Assessments of urethral penetration and tumor extension into the bladder with TRUS did not differ significantly from those made with MRI and were superior in terms of absolute agreement with MRI when compared with those for TAUS. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: TRUS was successfully and safely used to evaluate prostatic carcinoma in dogs. There was moderate to good agreement with MRI results for tumor height and length measurements, and TRUS was found to be superior to TAUS for some assessments. Transrectal ultrasonography can be considered an adjunctive imaging modality for the performance of prostatic interventional procedures or assessment of response to treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(6): 868-874, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609183

RESUMO

A 5-y-old female Golden Retriever was presented with a 2-wk history of hyporexia, vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, weight loss, polyuria, and polydipsia. Clinical examination and ultrasonography revealed multiple organ enlargement with gallbladder and kidney nodules suggestive of disseminated neoplasia. Hematologic and biochemical analyses revealed pancytopenia, hypercalcemia, and monoclonal IgA gammopathy suspicious for a plasma cell neoplasm. Bone marrow and blood smear examination revealed neoplastic atypical cells highly suggestive of lymphoid origin. Autopsy confirmed the presence of homogeneous white masses and multifocal pale infiltrates in the spleen, kidney, small intestine, gallbladder, and urinary tract. Histologic features were consistent with a multicentric atypical plasma cell tumor. Tumor cells were negative for CD204, IBA-1, E-cadherin, CD3, CD5, CD79a, CD20, and PAX5, and positive for MUM1, consistent with plasma cell origin. The presence of > 20% of circulating blastic plasma cells was consistent with primary plasma cell leukemia with plasmablastic morphology, a disease rarely described in veterinary medicine.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Leucemia Plasmocitária/veterinária , Plasmocitoma/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Leucemia Plasmocitária/diagnóstico , Leucemia Plasmocitária/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucemia Plasmocitária/patologia , Plasmocitoma/diagnóstico , Plasmocitoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Plasmocitoma/patologia
6.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 60(6): 745-752, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515890

RESUMO

Peripheral vein phlebitis (inflammation) is a relatively frequent complication in dogs, however, published information on the ultrasonographic characteristics is currently lacking. This prospective, observational study describes the ultrasound (US) characteristics of normal canine cephalic veins, and veins with clinical phlebitis. Correlations among US findings and between US findings versus time that the intravenous catheter was in place were investigated. Safety of the US procedure was evaluated. Fifty patients were prospectively recruited for the study and 18 met the final inclusion criteria. Each patient underwent daily US examinations and was assessed for multiple criteria (vascular wall appearance, compressibility, spontaneity of flow, color fill, and presence/absence of filling defects, flow contour, direction, non-pulsatility). Characteristics of normal canine cephalic veins were as follows: smooth and thin wall, complete compressibility, no flow disturbances, no filling defects, smooth flow contours, and unidirectional, non-pulsatile flow with no turbulence. Characteristics of cephalic veins with clinical phlebitis were as follows: wall thickening (83%), decreased compressibility (55%), filling defects consistent with intraluminal thrombus (55%), vessel wall hyperechogenicity (44%), and abnormal color Doppler flow (39%). Significant correlations were found between Doppler filling defects and compressibility, Doppler filling defects and presumed thrombosis, and compressibility and presumed thrombosis (P = .001, P = .001, P = .000, respectively). No correlation was found between the US findings and time the intravenous catheter was in place. Findings indicated that duplex and compressibility US are feasible and safe methods for characterizing and monitoring cephalic veins in dogs with clinical phlebitis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Flebite/veterinária , Animais , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Flebite/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fluxo Pulsátil , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores/veterinária
7.
Vet Surg ; 48(8): 1406-1415, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine a flexed position for radiographic diagnosis of atlantoaxial instability (AAI) and to identify radiographic measurement cutoffs to differentiate affected dogs from neurologically healthy toy breeds. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series and prospective case controls. ANIMALS: Thirty-nine client-owned toy breed dogs in which AAI had been diagnosed and 20 neurologically healthy client-owned toy breed dogs. METHODS: Medical records from three institutions were retrospectively reviewed to identify dogs affected with AAI. Flexed lateral images were reviewed, and measurements were obtained by using anatomic landmarks. Radiography was performed with control dogs to obtain the same measurements. RESULTS: Flexed lateral radiographs of thirty dogs affected with AAI were found to be positioned at a mean of 51° flexion. When flexed lateral radiographs were evaluated with a cutoff value for atlas to axis angle (AAA) >10°, evaluation of all breeds represented revealed a 90% sensitivity and 90% specificity. When this cutoff was evaluated in Yorkshire terriers, Chihuahuas, and mixes of these breeds, the sensitivity was 92%, and the specificity was 92%. When the control sample was positioned at 51° ± 10°, only two of the dogs were within the AAA cutoff value of >10°. There was no difference between the measurements obtained by using the flexed lateral view (mean = 50.9°) and the exaggerated flexed lateral view (mean = 38.9°) in the control sample. CONCLUSION: This study established objective measurements for the positioning and diagnosis of AAI on flexed lateral radiographs in toy breed dogs. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Atlantoaxial instability can be objectively diagnosed in sedated or anesthetized toy breed dogs when applying 51° flexion to cervical radiographs.


Assuntos
Articulação Atlantoaxial/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Instabilidade Articular/veterinária , Radiografia/veterinária , Animais , Articulação Atlantoaxial/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cães , Feminino , Instabilidade Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia/métodos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/veterinária
8.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 60(6): 680-688, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509893

RESUMO

Computed tomography is increasingly used as a treatment planning method in canine patients with diseases of the retroperitoneum, however, published information on normal variations in the caudal vena cava (CVC) are currently lacking. The objectives of this retrospective descriptive study were to characterize CVC variants using CT angiography in a sample of small breed dogs and localize the CVC bifurcations for each variant. Inclusion criteria were small breed dogs (weight ≤ 15) that underwent contrast-enhanced CT scans of the CVC, abdominal aorta, and CVC tributaries. A total of 121 small breed dogs were sampled. Four right-sided and one left-sided CVC variations were identified: normal (88/121, 72.7%), caudal-partial split (17/121, 14.0%), partial duplication (8/121, 6.6%), complete duplication (7/121, 5.8%), and left-sidedness (1/121, 0.8%). The mean lumbar vertebral levels of the CVC bifurcation were L6.39 ± 0.41, L5.70 ± 0.35, L4.39 ± 0.42, L2.74 ± 0.38, and L6.4 in the normal, caudal-partial split, partial duplication, complete duplication, and left-sidedness types, respectively. The location of the CVC bifurcation, the relationship between the aortic trifurcation and the CVC bifurcation, and the location of the bilateral deep circumflex iliac veins with respect to the CVC bifurcation were significantly different among the right-sided types (P ≤ .001). Bilateral deep circumflex iliac veins joined to the ipsilateral common iliac veins and the CVC in the caudal-partial split and duplication types, respectively. The results of this study indicated that canine CVC variants may be frequent and should be considered during surgery or diagnostic imaging of the retroperitoneum.


Assuntos
Aorta Abdominal/anormalidades , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Vasculares/veterinária , Veia Cava Inferior/anormalidades , Animais , Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Linhagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Veia Cava Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 60(6): 689-695, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495029

RESUMO

Gallbladder mucoceles are potentially fatal in dogs. Multiphase CT angiography was performed to evaluate the canine gallbladder in three conditions: no sludge, sludge occupying ≥25% of the lumen, and mucoceles. Twenty dogs with normal hepatobiliary bloodwork and no-to-minimal gallbladder sludge, 13 dogs with normal bloodwork and ≥25% sludge in the gallbladder lumen, and 18 dogs with histologically confirmed gallbladder mucoceles were enrolled in a prospective, observational diagnostic accuracy study. Three regions of interest (ROI) were stratified in the dorsal-ventral orientation and a single ROI was measured within the hepatic parenchyma. Mean attenuation and presence of mineral were recorded. Average Hounsfield units (HU) were recorded for precontrast, arterial, portovenous, and late venous phases. The overall median HU value for mucoceles was significantly higher than gallbladders without sludge and with sludge; precontrast median overall attenuation was 49.3, 35.8, and 39.7 HU, respectively (P < .000004). Mineral was seen in four (20%) dogs with no sludge, seven (56%) dogs with sludge, and nine (50%) dogs with mucoceles. Mineral in the dogs with mucoceles was located within the central aspect of the gallbladder lumen in 67% of mucoceles; this mineral distribution was not seen in any dog without a mucocele. Computed tomography can differentiate a subset of gallbladder mucoceles from dogs with and without gallbladder sludge, especially in the precontrast series. An HU value of 48.6 is 52% sensitive and 96% specific for a gallbladder mucocele. A hyperattenuating gallbladder on precontrast CT images and centrally distributed mineral can be a gallbladder mucocele.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/veterinária , Mucinas/química , Mucocele/veterinária , Animais , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/veterinária , Cães , Feminino , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Mucocele/química , Mucocele/diagnóstico por imagem , Triagem Multifásica/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
10.
Vet J ; 251: 105344, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492390

RESUMO

Aerodigestive diseases, hybrid disorders representing a pathologic link between respiratory and alimentary tracts, may manifest with respiratory signs without gastrointestinal signs. These are underdiagnosed in dogs due to poor clinical recognition and diagnostic limitations. We hypothesize that a subset of dogs presenting for cough without gastrointestinal signs would have occult aerodigestive disorders identified using videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS). Data were retrospectively obtained from 31 client-owned dogs presenting for cough, with thoracic radiographs, and a VFSS between April 2015 and December 2017. Exclusion criteria were cough of cardiac origin or gastrointestinal signs within 6 months. Swallow study parameters included pharyngeal/esophageal motility, laryngeal obstruction/defects, penetration-aspiration, reflux, excessive aerophagia, megaesophagus (ME), lower-esophageal sphincter achalasia-like syndrome (LES-AS), and sliding hiatal hernia (HH). The median (interquartile range) duration of cough was 4 (2-8) months. Thoracic radiographs were unremarkable in 11 dogs, with aspiration pneumonia suspected in seven. In 25/31 dogs (81%), VFSS abnormalities were detected and some dogs had more than one defect: pharyngeal (n=10) or esophageal hypomotility (n=10), reflux (n=9), penetration-aspiration (n=8), excessive aerophagia (n=6), laryngeal obstruction (n=3), ME (n=3), HH (n=2), and LES-AS (n=1). A respiratory disorder causing cough was identified in 17 dogs with VFSS abnormalities (laryngeal obstruction/defect and airway disease including chronic or eosinophilic bronchitis, tracheal/mainstem bronchial collapse, bronchiectasis, and bronchomalacia). An alimentary disorder identified on VFSS in absence of a discrete respiratory disorder causing cough was diagnosed in eight dogs. In conclusion, canine aerodigestive disorders can manifest as cough without alimentary signs. VFSS is a useful diagnostic to determine the contribution of esophageal/gastrointestinal pathology in dogs with cough.


Assuntos
Tosse/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluoroscopia/veterinária , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Tosse/diagnóstico por imagem , Deglutição , Cães , Fluoroscopia/métodos , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia/métodos , Radiografia/veterinária , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Gravação em Vídeo
11.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(10): 1527-1532, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484834

RESUMO

An 11-year-old male Miniature Dachshund was referred for acute neurological deficits in the pelvic limbs. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the spinal cord at the L1-2 intervertebral disc space was heterogeneously hyperintense in the sagittal plane and was mildly compressed from the ventral side by a small hypointense mass in the transverse plane. However, the lesion showed mass enhancement and severe spinal cord compression on post-contrast T1-weighted imaging. On three-dimensional myelography, a "golf tee sign" was observed around the mass. Therefore, we diagnosed an intradural extramedullary lesion. The mass was surgically removed and histologically diagnosed as a hemangiosarcoma. The "golf tee sign" observed on magnetic resonance myelography may be useful for distinguishing intradural extramedullary masses from intramedullary masses.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Hemangiossarcoma/veterinária , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Mielografia/veterinária , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Cães , Hemangiossarcoma/diagnóstico , Hemangiossarcoma/patologia , Hemangiossarcoma/cirurgia , Histocitoquímica , Masculino , Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Medula Espinal/patologia , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/patologia , Neoplasias da Medula Espinal/cirurgia
12.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(10): 1485-1491, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484835

RESUMO

Basic information related to the association between right heart echocardiographic parameters and invasive pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in dogs with pulmonary hypetension (PH) is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association between conventional right heart echocardiographic parameters and invasive PAP by right heart catheterization (RHC) before and after PH. Five female beagle dogs regarded as clinically healthy were used. Echocardiography and RHC were conducted before and after creating chronic embolic pulmonary hypertension (CEPH) models. The acceleration time to ejection time ratio in pulmonary artery flow profile (AT/ET), the ratio of the pulmonary artery and aortic diameter in diastole (PA/Ao), the right pulmonary artery distensibility index by M-mode method (RPAD M-mode), the normalized right ventricular internal diameter in diastole (RVIDdn), and the normalized tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSEn) were correlated with the invasive systolic PAP (sPAP), mean PAP (mPAP) and diastolic PAP (dPAP). Multiple linear regression analysis identified AT/ET and RVIDdn as independent predictors of sPAP, PA/Ao and RVIDdn as independent predictors of mPAP, and PA/Ao and RPAD M-mode as independent predictors of dPAP. AT/ET and PA/Ao had high sensitivity and specificity for predicting CEPH. In conclusion, AT/ET, PA/Ao, RPAD M-mode, RVIDdn and TAPSEn were significantly correlated with invasive PAP and alterations in PA/Ao or AT/ET might enable clinicians to predict PH, even if tricuspid regurgitation is not observed.


Assuntos
Cateterismo de Swan-Ganz/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia Doppler/veterinária , Hipertensão Pulmonar/veterinária , Animais , Doença Crônica , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Feminino , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia
13.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 1865-1879, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several options have been proposed for the treatment of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (cEHPSS) in dogs, but formal comparisons among different treatment options are currently unavailable. A previous evidence-based review (2012) found low quality of evidence for papers assessing the treatment of cEHPSS in dogs. OBJECTIVES: To assess the quality of evidence available in the treatment of cEHPSS, summarize the current state of knowledge with respect to outcome after cEHPSS management, and compare different treatment techniques. ANIMALS: Not used. METHODS: A bibliographic search was performed without date or language restrictions. Studies were assessed for quality of evidence (study design, study group sizes, subject enrollment quality, and overall risk of bias) and outcome measures reported (perioperative outcome, clinical outcome, and surgical or interventional outcome), all reported with 95% confidence intervals. A network meta-analysis was performed. RESULTS: Forty-eight studies were included. Six retrospective studies (grade 4b) compared 2 techniques and 7 were abstracts (grade 5). The quality of evidence was low and risk of bias high. Regarding surgical outcome, statistically significant superiority of ameroid constrictor over thin film band was observed (P = .003). No other comparisons were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The evidence base of choice of treatment of cEHPSS in dogs remains weak despite recent publications on the subject. Ameroid is superior to thin film band in causing EHPSS closure. Blinded randomized studies comparing different treatment modalities, which routinely include postoperative imaging to assess cEHPSS closure and acquired portosystemic shunt development are essential.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Sistema Porta/anormalidades , Animais , Caseínas , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Hidrogéis , Ligadura/veterinária , Sistema Porta/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistema Porta/cirurgia , Veia Porta/anormalidades , Veia Porta/diagnóstico por imagem , Veia Porta/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 60(6): 659-667, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397033

RESUMO

Canine thymomas have been evaluated based on clinical features, treatment options, surgical excision, and outcomes with limited information on specific CT features. The objective of this retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study was to describe the CT characteristics of confirmed thymomas and to compare these imaging features to outcome. A total of 22 dogs met the inclusion criteria of histologically confirmed thymomas with concurrent CT imaging. Tumor size varied widely ranging from small and well-circumscribed to large and invasive. Delayed-phase, contrast-enhanced CT studies were best for determining the degree of contrast enhancement in tumors. Of these, 19 of 22 masses had heterogeneous enhancement and three of 22 masses had homogeneous enhancement. Vascular invasion was present in seven of 22 cases. Larger tumors were associated with vascular invasion (height: P = .04; width and volume: P = .02). On precontrast CT, larger tumors (16/21) were heterogeneous and cystic, with smaller tumors (5/21) being more homogeneous (all values P < .05). A larger size was associated with recurrence in fully resected masses (height: P = .03), but not a shorter outcome (P > .3 for all size dimensions). Postoperative complications and incomplete tumor resection were associated with shorter outcome (both values P < .01). Metastasis was confirmed in four cases. There were six cases with lymphadenopathy noted on CT; five of the six cases did not have evidence of metastasis. Larger tumors were more likely to be cystic and associated with vascular invasion.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/veterinária , Timoma/veterinária , Neoplasias do Timo/veterinária , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Timoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias do Timo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
15.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2227-2234, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380593

RESUMO

A 2-year-old American Pit Bull dog was presented for surgical evaluation of imperforate cor triatriatum dexter (CTD) and patent foramen ovale (PFO). Echocardiography identified an imperforate CTD associated with a right-to-left shunting PFO and valvular pulmonary stenosis. A 2-step interventional and surgical approach was used. Initially, a pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty was performed, and subsequently the dog underwent a surgical correction of the atrial anomaly under cardiopulmonary bypass.


Assuntos
Coração Triatriado/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Forame Oval Patente/veterinária , Estenose da Valva Pulmonar/veterinária , Animais , Valvuloplastia com Balão/veterinária , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/veterinária , Coração Triatriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração Triatriado/cirurgia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Forame Oval Patente/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Estenose da Valva Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Pulmonar/cirurgia
16.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 1964-1969, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a noninvasive imaging modality that can identify mucosal lesions not detected with traditional endoscopy or abdominal sonography. In people, VCE is used in diagnostic and management protocols of various gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, particularly in GI bleeding of obscure origin or unexplained iron deficiency anemia (IDA). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of VCE in the identification of mucosal lesions in dogs with evidence of GI hemorrhage. ANIMALS: Sixteen client-owned dogs that underwent VCE. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study. Medical records were reviewed to include dogs with microcytosis, low normal mean corpuscular volume, or clinical GI bleeding that received VCE. RESULTS: Median age of dogs was 8.7 years (range, 8 months to 15 years) with a median weight of 21.7 kg (range, 6.9-62.5 kg). Abdominal ultrasound (16), abdominal radiography (4), and abdominal CT (1) did not identify a cause for GI blood loss. Gastric mucosal lesions were identified by VCE in 15 of 16 dogs and small intestinal lesions in 12 of 14 dogs, with 2 capsules remaining in the stomach. Endoscopy was performed in 2 dogs before VCE; 1 dog had additional small intestinal lesions identified through the use of VCE. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Video capsule endoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic tool that can identify GI lesions in dogs presenting with microcytosis with or without GI hemorrhage when ultrasonography is inconclusive; however, the majority of lesions identified would have been apparent with conventional endoscopy.


Assuntos
Endoscopia por Cápsula/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Índices de Eritrócitos/veterinária , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/veterinária , Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Animais , Endoscopia por Cápsula/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cães , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Trato Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Intestino Delgado/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 1954-1963, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Megaesophagus (ME) carries a poor long-term prognosis in dogs. In people, lower esophageal sphincter (LES) disorders causing functional obstruction are rare causes of ME that may respond to targeted treatment. Functional LES disorders are reported rarely in dogs because of challenges in diagnostic methodologies. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To identify dogs with videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) features of LES achalasia-like syndrome (LES-AS). We hypothesized that dogs with LES-AS could be distinguished from normal dogs using standardized VFSS criteria. ANIMALS: Dogs with LES-AS by VFSS (n = 19), healthy normal dogs (n = 20). METHODS: Retrospective study. One-hundred thirty dogs presented to the University of Missouri Veterinary Health Center (MU-VHC) between April 2015 and December 2017 for a free-feeding VFSS; 20 healthy dogs were included as controls. Swallow studies were evaluated for failure of the LES to relax during pharyngeal swallow (LES-AS). Affected dogs subsequently were evaluated using standardized criteria to identify metrics important for identifying and characterizing dogs with LES-AS. RESULTS: Nineteen dogs with LES-AS were identified out of 130 VFSS. Megaesophagus was present in 14 of 19 (73.7%) dogs with LES-AS. A baseline esophageal fluid-line and "bird beak" were present in 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.5%-89.3%) and 63.2% (95% CI, 41.5%-84.8%) of affected dogs, respectively. The esophagus was graded as acontractile (8/19), hypomotile (8/19), or hypermotile (3/19). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Dogs with LES-AS may successfully be identified by VFSS using a free-feeding protocol. These data are of critical clinical importance because a subpopulation of dogs with functional LES obstruction may be candidates for targeted intervention.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Acalasia Esofágica/veterinária , Fluoroscopia/veterinária , Animais , Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Acalasia Esofágica/diagnóstico por imagem , Esfíncter Esofágico Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Fluoroscopia/métodos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gravação em Vídeo
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 293, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging using gadoxetic acid, a hepatocyte-specific contrast agent, is one of the most useful MRI techniques used to diagnose liver tumours in humans. During the hepato-biliary phase, there is uptake of gadoxetic acid by normal hepatocytes, leading to hepatic parenchymal enhancement. This feature is used in human medicine to diagnose hepatic parenchymal metastatic disease, to differentiate primary liver tumours, to diagnose liver cirrhosis and focal nodular hyperplasia. This study presents the preliminary results of magnetic resonance imaging of focal lesions localised in the liver parenchyma in dogs following the administration of gadoxetic acid. RESULTS: The lesion enhancement ratio (ERlesion) in the tumour metastasis was 0.05; the liver enhancement ratio (ERliver) - 0.49 and the post-contrast lesion-to-liver contrast ratio (CR) was 0.17. In dogs with hepatocellular hyperplasia, these values were 0.54; 0.51; and 1.18, respectively. In two dogs with a hepatic adenoma, the ERlesion was 0.26 and 0.17, respectively; the ERliver was 0.47 and 0.47, respectively and the CR was 0.33 and 0.31, respectively. In the dog with a neuroendocrine tumour, the ERlesion was 0.03; the ERliver amounted to 0.58 and the CR was 0.35. In the case of a hepatocellular carcinoma, these coefficients were 0.2, 0.6 and 0.3, respectively. CONCLUSION: Based on the results, it may be assumed that the MR images of the proliferative hepatic parenchymal lesions in dogs using gadoxetic acid are similar to those obtained in humans. This suggests that the contrast enhancement patterns used in human medicine may be useful in differentiating hepatic parenchymal lesions in dogs.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/farmacologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Gadolínio DTPA/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/veterinária , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
19.
Res Vet Sci ; 126: 83-88, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442716

RESUMO

Medial coronoid disease and elbow incongruence are common orthopedic problems causing forelimb lameness in large breed dogs. Therefore, the objective of this retrospective clinical study is to radiographically quantify the incongruity of humeroradial, humeroulnar, and radioulnar joints in dogs with confirmed medial coronoid disease compared to controls. Sixty-six (93 elbows) control and 73 (113 elbows) diseased Labrador and Golden Retrievers were enrolled. Our objective was achieved by measuring the central humeroradial, humeroulnar, and radioulnar distances and calculating the corresponding subluxation index of each joint on the extended mediolateral elbow radiograph. The traditional radioulnar step was also measured on the same mediolateral projection. Variables were compared between control and diseased groups, and the significance level was P < .05. The central humeroradial, humeroulnar, and radioulnar distances and corresponding subluxation indices increased significantly (P ≤ .007) in elbows with confirmed medial coronoid disease compared to controls. Radioulnar step increased significantly (P < .0001) in diseased elbows. Elbow incongruence, manifested by increased humeroradial, humeroulnar, and radioulnar subluxation indices, appeared to be consistent with medial coronoid disease in Labrador and Golden Retrievers. An elbow with a humeroradial, humeroulnar, or radioulnar subluxation index >0.15, 0.10, or 0.14, respectively, or radioulnar step >1.4 mm, is more likely to be incongruent and may have a concomitant coronoid disease. However, future validation of the reported measurements is still warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Membro Anterior/diagnóstico por imagem , Artropatias/veterinária , Luxações Articulares/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Artropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Luxações Articulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Radiografia/métodos , Radiografia/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
J Vet Cardiol ; 24: 85-94, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405559

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-invasive diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) relies on estimation of pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) via Doppler echocardiographic measurement of tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient (TRPG). The pulmonary vein-to-right pulmonary artery ratio (PV/PA) recently has been described for the detection of pulmonary venous congestion. Whether this variable could be used to detect the presence of precapillary PH is unknown. The objective of the present study was to investigate the diagnostic value of PV/PA for prediction of TRPG, as a surrogate of PAP, in dogs with PH of precapillary origin. ANIMALS: Sixty-seven client-owned dogs were included in the study. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. Dogs with a measurable TRPG were included and classified into group 1 (TRPG < 30 mmHg), group 2 (TRPG 30-49 mmHg), group 3 (TRPG 50-80 mmHg), or group 4 (TRPG > 80 mmHg). The PV/PA, acceleration time-to-ejection time ratio of pulmonary artery flow, main pulmonary artery diameter-to-aortic diameter ratio, and right pulmonary artery distensibility index were measured retrospectively from cineloops in each dog. RESULTS: The PV/PA measured by both two-dimensional (2D) and time-motion mode(MM) echocardiography decreased proportionally with PH severity. Using regression analysis, PV/PA (2D) was identified as the strongest predictor for TRPG (R2 = 0.70, p < 0.0001) among other variables studied, with a good diagnostic accuracy (area under the curve = 0.94) for moderate PH (TRPG > 50 mmHg) using a cutoff value of < 0.70 (sensitivity = 96%, specificity = 82%). CONCLUSIONS: Results of the present study suggest that PV/PA can be useful as an additional, non-invasive, and indirect variable to identify precapillary PH in dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Ecocardiografia Doppler/veterinária , Feminino , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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