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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(38): 1374-1377, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970659

RESUMO

Although canine rabies virus variant (CRVV) was successfully eliminated from the United States after approximately 6 decades of vaccination campaigns, licensing requirements, and stray animal control, dogs remain the principal source of human rabies infections worldwide. A rabies vaccination certificate is required for dogs entering the United States from approximately 100 countries with endemic CRVV, including Egypt (1). On February 25, 2019, rabies was diagnosed in a dog imported from Egypt, representing the third canine rabies case imported from Egypt in 4 years (2,3). This dog and 25 others were imported by a pet rescue organization in the Kansas City metropolitan area on January 29. Upon entry into the United States, all 26 dogs had certificates of veterinary inspection, rabies vaccination certificates, and documentation of serologic conversion from a government-affiliated rabies laboratory in Egypt. CDC confirmed that the dog was infected with a CRVV that circulates in Egypt, underscoring the continued risk for CRVV reintroduction and concern regarding the legitimacy of vaccine documentation of dogs imported from countries considered at high risk for CRVV. Vaccination documentation of dogs imported from these countries should be critically evaluated before entry into the United States is permitted, and public health should be consulted upon suspicion of questionable documents.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/diagnóstico , Cães , Egito , Kansas , Raiva/diagnóstico
2.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 110, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883344

RESUMO

Canine parvovirus (CPV) can cause acute and highly contagious bloody enteritis in dog. To obtain antibodies against CPV, hens were immunized with virus-like particles (VLP) of CPV-VP2. The IgY single chain fragment variables (scFv) were generated by T7 phage display system and expressed in E. coli system. The titer of the primary scFv library reached to 1.5 × 106 pfu/mL, and 95% of the phages contained the target fragments. The CPV-VLP and CPV-VP2 protein showed similar reaction values to the purified scFv in the ELISA test, and the results of ELISA analysis using IgY-scFv toward CPV clinical samples were consistent with commercial immunochromatographic assay (ICA) and PCR detection, the scFv did not show cross reactivity with canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine coronavirus (CCV). IgY-scFv was successfully expressed in CRFK cells, and in the virus suppression assay, 55% of CPV infections were eliminated within 24 h. Docking results demonstrated that the number of amino acids of the binding sides between scFv and VP2 were AA37 and AA40, respectively. This study revealed the feasibility of a novel functional antibody fragment development strategy by generating diversified avian IgY-scFv libraries towards the pathogenic target of interest for both detection and therapeutic purposes in veterinary medicine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/imunologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/imunologia , Animais , Galinhas/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Infecções por Parvoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Parvoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/genética
3.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 50, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894191

RESUMO

C-reactive protein (CRP), which is released during tissue damage and inflammation, is a useful nonspecific inflammatory marker in both human and veterinary clinical practice. Veterinarians have often used human CRP assays to analyze samples from canine patients, but cross-reactivities between the species affect assay sensitivity and reliability, leading to inaccurate inflammation assessment. To improve the efficiency of inflammation assessment, we developed a canine CRP detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantitative analysis and an immunochromatography assay (ICA) for semiquantitative point-of-care (POC) analysis. The ELISA demonstrated an assay detection limit of 0.5 ng/mL, quantitative linear assay range of 1.6-100 ng/mL, and intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variations of 0.7 to 10.0% and 6.0 to 9.0%, respectively; the recovery rates of samples spiked with purified canine CRP were 105 to 109%, and the parallelism assessments were 82.7 to 104.4%. The correlation between the CRP level results obtained with the ELISA and those of a currently available quantitative POC assay was 0.907 with the regression formula of y = 0.55x + 0.05. In addition, the ICA requires only 5 µL samples and a 10-min assay time, and clearly distinguished positive, weak positive, and negative samples (P < 0.001) at an approximately 5-10 µg/mL cut-off value. The developed canine CRP ELISA and ICA showed reliable assay results and a high correlation with a commercially available POC assay in clinical use. The ICA can be a useful canine CRP screening test for diagnostic purposes in veterinary clinics.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Inflamação/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Limite de Detecção , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 51, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a zoonotic neurological disease caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a flavivirus endemic in parts of Europe and Asia. Seroconversion without signs of clinical disease is common in dogs and most of the cases previously described have been tentatively diagnosed by combining neurologic signs with serum antibody titres. Here, the first Scandinavian RT-qPCR-confirmed clinical case of TBE in a dog is reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 4-year old castrated male Pointer Labrador cross was presented with acute-onset ataxia. During hospitalisation, the dog developed seizures. Despite aggressive treatment with steroids, antimicrobials and sedation/anaesthesia, there was continued deterioration during the following 24 h after admission and the dog was euthanised and submitted for necropsy. Histopathological changes in the brain were consistent with lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic meningoencephalomyelitis. RT-qPCR examination of the brain was positive for TBEV, confirming infection. CONCLUSIONS: Meningoencephalomyelitis caused by TBEV should be a diagnostic consideration in dogs presenting with clinical signs of central nervous system disease such as acute-onset ataxia and seizures in areas where TBEV-positive ticks are endemic. Clinical TBE may be underdiagnosed in dogs due to lack of specific testing.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/veterinária , Animais , Encéfalo/virologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/isolamento & purificação , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/virologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Suécia
5.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e005820, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756774

RESUMO

Ehrlichia canis is the main etiological agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), a globally canine infectious disease. In Brazil, CME is considered to be endemic, and its prevalence can reach 65% in some states. The diagnosis of ehrlichiosis is important for treatment and epidemiological purposes. The E. canis TRP36 (Tandem Repeat Protein) protein elicits the earliest acute-phase antibody response observed during the course of the disease. This study aimed to generate the recombinant TRP36 protein from E. canis São Paulo strain and to evaluate its potential as a tool for the serologic diagnosis of CME. The E. canis São Paulo isolate was cultivated in DH82 lineage cells, and its genomic DNA was obtained. The bacterial DNA fragment encoding the entire ORF of TRP36 was cloned into the pBAD/Thio-TOPO vector and transformed into Escherichia coli DH10B competent cells with the trp36-bearing plasmid for protein expression. To evaluate the protein antigenicity, 16 canine serum samples were previously tested (by PCR and the commercial SNAP®4Dx® serological test). The results were in accordance with the SNAP®4Dx® test. Experiments using this recombinant protein as an antigen, targeting the development of a serologic test based on ELISA methodology, are the next step to produce a reliable, affordable and useful diagnostic tool for CME in Brazil.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Doenças do Cão , Ehrlichia canis , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Proteínas Recombinantes , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Brasil , Linhagem Celular , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Ehrlichia canis/genética , Ehrlichiose/diagnóstico , Escherichia coli/genética , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia
6.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 44, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Sydney system for assessing inflammatory lesions in the gastric mucosa is based on endoscopic and histological examinations. This study aimed to apply the Sydney system to diagnose gastritis in dogs. The study also compared the results of endoscopic and histological examinations conducted on gastric mucosal biopsy specimens. A total of 56 dogs with chronic vomiting were analyzed in the study. The physical appearance of the gastric mucosa was assessed through endoscopic examination, while the severity of the gastric inflammation, inflammation activity, glandular atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia were assessed by histopathological examination. RESULTS: The endoscopic examination confirmed the presence of inflammatory lesions affecting the gastric corpus and pylorus in all the dogs, although the severity of these lesions differed between the individuals. Reflux gastritis was the most commonly observed gastric inflammation. In the histopathological examination of the gastric mucosal samples, inflammatory lesions were found in the gastric corpus of 53 dogs, while 55 dogs had lesions in the pylorus. This corresponds to a 96.4% agreement between the methods. CONCLUSIONS: The Sydney system is a useful tool for macroscopic and microscopic assessment of changes in the gastric mucosa as it enables the determination of inflammation type and severity, which helps the canine gastroenterologists to reliably compare the results of the tests performed in different facilities. Besides, the use of the Sydney system in diagnosing lesions facilitates the selection and effective monitoring of treatment. However, despite a high rate of agreement between the results of endoscopic and histopathological examinations, it is recommended to use both these methods for the assessment of the gastric mucosa in dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Gastrite/veterinária , Animais , Doença Crônica/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Endoscopia/veterinária , Feminino , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Gastrite/patologia , Masculino , Polônia , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Aust Vet J ; 98(11): 563-569, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839975

RESUMO

AIM: To describe faecal PCR (fPCR) results and clinical findings of dogs seen at a university teaching hospital for diarrhoea. DESIGN: Retrospective case series (April 2015 to July 2018). PROCEDURE: Data were collected from the hospital electronic medical records. Data extracted included signalment, history, clinical signs, treatment, fPCR panel results, other faecal diagnostic test results and antimicrobial use. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-eight dogs with diarrhoea had a fPCR panel submitted. Most dogs (115, 68.5%) had diarrhoea of 3 days or less duration. Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin gene was most frequently detected (156, 92.9%) by fPCR, followed by Campylobacter spp. (55, 32.7%), canine parvovirus (CPV) (29, 17.3%), Salmonella spp. (14, 8.3%) and Giardia spp. (9, 5.4%). For the 45 dogs that had a negative point-of-care CPV test, 13 were CPV fPCR positive; some of which were adult dogs with current vaccination status. A total of 94/168 (56%) dogs received antimicrobials at some time during the treatment of diarrhoea. CONCLUSION: Faecal PCR panels can identify dogs with enteric organisms in their faeces that traditional faecal diagnostics may miss, thus contributing additional information to the diagnostic process. Nonetheless, fPCR results should be interpreted in light of the clinical findings, and particular consideration given to avoiding inappropriate use of antimicrobials. This study highlights that testing for C. perfringens alpha toxin gene is not likely to be diagnostically helpful, and that adult dogs with diarrhoea might be identified as CPV positive with PCR testing, despite a negative point-of-care CPV test result and a current vaccination status.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Parvovirus Canino , Animais , Austrália , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Fezes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235689, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760092

RESUMO

Intertrigo is a skin fold dermatitis often requiring recurrent treatment with topical antiseptics or antibiotics, which can select antimicrobial resistance. To minimize this risk, we tested the effectiveness of medical-grade Manuka honey at treating intertrigo as compared to a placebo hydrogel. We additionally characterized the culturable microbial flora of intertrigo and recorded any adverse effect with either treatment. During this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, adaptive group-sequential trial, the owners washed the affected sites on their dog with water, dried and applied a thin film of either the honey or the placebo product once daily for 21 days. Cytological and lesional composite scores, owner-assessed pruritus, and microbial cultures were assessed prior to treatment and on Day-22. The fixed effects of time, treatment, and animal-related variables on the pruritus and on each composite score, accounting for random dog effect, were estimated separately with generalized linear mixed models for repeated count outcomes (α = 0.05). The null hypothesis of equal treatment effects was rejected at the first interim analysis. The placebo (n = 16 dogs) outperformed the medical honey (n = 13 dogs) at improving both the cytological score (Treatment×Time = -0.35±0.17; P = 0.04) and clinical score (Treatment×Time = -0.28±0.13; P = 0.04). A microbial burden score higher than 4 increased the severity of the cytological score (dichotomous score: 0.29±0.11; P = 0.01), which in turn increased the severity of the clinical score and pruritus score. For every unit increase in cytological score, the linear predictor of clinical score increased by 0.042±0.019 (P = 0.03), and the one of pruritus score increased by 0.12±0.05 (P = 0.01). However, medical honey outperformed the placebo at alleviating the dog's owner-assessed pruritus after statistically controlling for masking effects (Time = -0.94±0.24; P = 0.002; and Treatment×Time = 0.80±0.36; P = 0.04). Unilateral tests of the least-square mean estimates revealed that honey only significantly improved the pruritus (Hommel-adjusted P = 0.003), while the placebo only improved the cytological and clinical scores (Hommel-adjusted P = 0.01 and 0.002, respectively). Taken together, these results question the value of Manuka honey at treating nasal intertrigo in dogs.


Assuntos
Apiterapia/métodos , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Mel , Intertrigo/veterinária , Prurido/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Cães , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hidrogéis/administração & dosagem , Intertrigo/complicações , Intertrigo/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Nariz , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Prurido/diagnóstico , Prurido/tratamento farmacológico , Prurido/etiologia
9.
Vet J ; 262: 105504, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792093

RESUMO

Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-transmitted disease caused by Borreliella burgdorferi (Bb). Temporal studies of maternal antibody (Ab) profiles in Bb infected pregnant dogs and their pups have not been conducted. In this study, Ab profiles of a client-owned Bb C6 Ab positive Rottweiler and her nine pups were assessed. The dam presented with lameness 12 days prior to parturition and was C6 Ab positive with a Quant C6 Ab concentration of 237U/mL. Treatment with amoxicillin was initiated and 11 days later nine pups were delivered. Screening of the sera from the dam and pups against Bb cell lysates and a panel of antigens revealed similar immunoreactivity profiles. While antigen-specific IgG and IgM reactivity persisted in the dam for at least 7 months, a rapid decline in IgG specific for BBA36, BBK53, BB0238, BBA73 and outer surface protein (Osp) E in the pups occurred between days 29 and 52 post-parturition. In contrast, Ab specific for DbpA and the diagnostic antigens VlsE (C6) and OspF, remained elevated in the pups. Sera from the dam displayed potent complement-dependent bactericidal activity against Bb. Sera from the pups was also bactericidal but primarily through a complement-independent mechanism. Lastly, single dose vaccination of the dam at day 51 post-parturition with a LD subunit vaccine consisting of OspA and an OspC chimeritope triggered a broad anti-OspC Ab response indicative of an anamnestic response. Although this study focused on a single case, these findings add to our knowledge of maternal Ab profiles and will aid the interpretation of serological assays in pups delivered by a Bb C6 Ab positive dog.


Assuntos
Borrelia burgdorferi/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Vacinas contra Doença de Lyme/imunologia , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Cães , Feminino , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Doença de Lyme/imunologia , Ontário , Vacinação/veterinária
10.
J Vet Sci ; 21(4): e47, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homocysteine (HCY) was evaluated in healthy and chronic enteropathic dogs, however no studies on dogs with immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy are available. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate serum HCY concentrations and its prognostic role in dogs with immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy compared to healthy dogs. METHODS: Serum HCY concentration was statistically compared between 24 healthy dogs and 29 dogs with immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy. Correlation analyses between serum total protein, albumin (ALB), C-reactive protein (CRP), folate and cobalamin, and serum HCY concentration were performed in immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathic dogs. RESULTS: The associations between serum HCY concentration and clinical, histological, endoscopic scores and follow-up were evaluated. Mean serum HCY concentration was higher in immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathic dogs compared to control dogs (30.22 ± 8.67 µmol/L vs. 5.26 ± 2.78 µmol/L; p < 0.0001). No association between serum HCY concentration and total protein, ALB, CRP, folate concentration as well as, clinical score, histological and endoscopic scores was found. A negative correlation between serum HCY concentration and cobalamin was noted (p = 0.0025, r = -0.54). No significant difference in HCY was found between responsive and non-responsive dogs or between survivors and non-survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Although, serum HCY concentration was higher in immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy, its prognostic value remains unclear. However, further prospective, large-scale studies are warranted to better investigate the possible prognostic role of HCY in immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathic dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Homocisteína/sangue , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Enterite/diagnóstico , Feminino , Masculino , Prognóstico
11.
J Vet Sci ; 21(4): e52, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intradural-intramedullary intervertebral disc extrusion (IIVDE) is a rare condition of intervertebral disc disease. However, the diagnosis of IIVDE is challenging because the prognosis and imaging characteristics are poorly characterized. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to describe the clinical and imaging characteristics of tentatively diagnosed IIVDE in dogs to assess the prognostic utility of neurological grade and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. METHODS: Twenty dogs were included in this retrospective cohort study. RESULTS: Nonchondrodystrophic breeds (n = 16) were more predisposed than chondrodystrophic breeds. Most dogs showed acute onset of clinical signs. Neurological examination at admission showed predominant non-ambulatory paraparesis (n = 9); paresis (n = 16) was confirmed more frequently than paralysis (n = 4). Follow-up neurological examination results were only available for 11 dogs, ten of whom showed neurological improvement and 8 showed successful outcomes at 1 month. The characteristic MRI findings include thoracic vertebra (T)2 hyperintense, T1 hypointense, intramedullary linear tracts with reduced disc volume, and cleft of the annulus fibrosus. None of the MRI measurements were significantly correlated with neurological grade at admission. Neurological grade did not differ according to the presence of parenchymal hemorrhage, parenchymal contrast enhancement, and meningeal contrast enhancement. Neurological grades at admission showed a statistical correlation with those observed at the 1-month follow-up (r = 0.814, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: IIVDE is a rare form of disc extrusion commonly experienced after physical activity or trauma and most frequently affects the cranial-cervical and thoracolumbar regions of nonchondrodystrophic dog breeds. Neurological score at admission emerged as a more useful prognostic indicator than MRI findings in dogs with suspected IIVDE.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/veterinária , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/veterinária , Vértebras Torácicas/patologia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Feminino , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107941, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622940

RESUMO

Distinct antigens have been evaluated with diagnostic purpose for canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), and variable sensitivity and specificity values have been obtained in the assays. In the present study, a Leishmania infantum hypothetical protein called LiHyG, which was identified in an immunoproteomics study in Leishmania infantum amastigote extracts by antibodies in VL dogs sera; was cloned, expressed, purified and evaluated as a recombinant protein (rLiHyG) for the diagnosis of canine and human disease. The recombinant amastigote-specific A2 protein (rA2) and a soluble L. infantum protein extract (SLA) were used as controls. For canine VL, the sensitivity values were of 100%, 57.29% and 48.57%, when rLiHyG, rA2 and SLA were used, respectively, while the specificity values were of 100%, 81.43% and 88.57%, respectively. In addition, AUC values were of 1.00, 0.72 and 0.65, when rLiHyG, rA2 and SLA were used, respectively, while accuracy was of 100%, 72.38% and 75.24%, respectively. For human VL, the sensitivity values were of 100%, 84.00% and 88.00%, when rLiHyG, rA2 and SLA were used, respectively, while the specificity values were of 100%, 58.75% and 73.75%, respectively. In addition, AUC values were of 1.00, 0.76 and 0.83, when rLiHyG, rA2 and SLA were used, respectively, while accuracy was of 100%, 64.8% and 66.6%, respectively. The prognostic role of rLiHyG in the human VL was also evaluated, by means of post-therapeutic serological follow-up with sera samples collected before and six months after treatment. Results showed that treated patients presented significant reductions in the anti-rLiHyG IgG, IgG1, and IgG2 antibody levels, with results being similar to those found in healthy subjects. Testing the rA2 protein and SLA as antigens, lower IgG, IgG1, and IgG2 levels were also found, although they were higher after treatment than those obtained for rLiHyG. In conclusion, results suggested that rLiHyG could be considered for future studies as a diagnostic and/or prognostic marker for canine and human VL.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Medula Óssea/parasitologia , Biologia Computacional , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Epitopos de Linfócito B/química , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Alinhamento de Sequência , Testes Sorológicos , Baço/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008488, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major neglected disease, potentially fatal, whose control is still impaired by inefficient and/or expensive treatment and diagnostic methods. The most promising approach for VL diagnosis uses serological assays with recombinant proteins, since they are more efficient and easier to perform. Tests developed for the human form of the disease, however, have not been shown to be efficient for its diagnosis in the canine host, the major reservoir for the American VL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe a systematic approach aimed at the production of a new chimeric protein potentially able to be used for both human and canine VL diagnosis and based both on in silico gene design and experimental data. Starting from the previous identification of Leishmania infantum recombinant antigens efficient for the diagnosis of either human or canine VL, three of the best performing antigens were selected (Lci2, Lci3 and Lci12). After a preliminary evaluation validating the chimeric approach, DNA fragments encoding predicted antigenic regions from each protein, enriched with repeats, were joined in various combinations to generate a total of seventeen chimeric genes optimized for prokaryotic expression. These were assessed for optimal expression and purification yield, with four chimeric proteins being efficiently produced. Their diagnostic potential was then evaluated through ELISA assays with sera from VL afflicted humans and dogs. After two rounds of gene design, the results showed high levels of sensitivity for the best chimeric protein, named Q5, in humans (82%) and dogs (100%) with 100% specificity in comparison with healthy controls. A single non-specific reaction was seen with serum from individuals with tegumentary leishmaniasis. CONCLUSION: The newly described chimeric protein is potentially useful for the detection of both humans and dogs afflicted with VL, with its use in rapid tests necessary for validation as a new diagnostic tool.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/química , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Transcriptoma
14.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0230160, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716943

RESUMO

The epidemiology of Congenital Heart Diseases (CHDs) has changed over the past twenty years. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of CHDs in the population of dogs recruited in a single referral center (RC); compare the epidemiological features of CHDs in screened breeds (Boxers) versus non-screened (French and English Bulldogs, German Shepherds); investigate the association of breeds with the prevalence of CHDs; determine the popularity and volatility of breeds over a 20-year period; analysed the trends of the most popular breeds in the overall population of new-born dogs registered in the Italian Kennel Club (IKC) from 1st January 1997 to 31st December 2017. The RC's cardiological database was analysed, and 1,779 clinical records were included in a retrospective observation study. Descriptive statistics and frequencies regarding the most representative breeds and CHDs were generated. A logistic regression model was used to analyse the trends of the most common CHDs found in single and in cluster of breeds. The relationship between breed popularity and presence of CHDs was studied. The most common CHDs were Pulmonic Stenosis, Patent Ductus Arteriosus, Subaortic Stenosis, Ventricular Septal Defect, Aortic Stenosis, Tricuspid Dysplasia, Atrial Septal Defect, Double Chamber Right Ventricle, Mitral Dysplasia, and others less frequent. The most represented pure breeds were Boxer, German Shepherd, French Bulldog, English Bulldog, Maltese, Newfoundland, Rottweiler, Golden Retriever, Chihuahua, and others in lower percentage. Chihuahuas, American Staffordshire Terriers, Border Collies, French Bulldogs, and Cavalier King Charles Spaniel were the most appreciated all of which showed a high value of volatility. This study found evidence for the value of the screening program implemented in Boxers; fashions and trends influence dog owners' choices more than the worries of health problems in a breed. Effective breeding programs are needed in order to control the diffusion of CHDs without impoverishing the genetic pool.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/epidemiologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico , Comunicação Interatrial/diagnóstico , Comunicação Interatrial/epidemiologia , Comunicação Interventricular/diagnóstico , Comunicação Interventricular/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Estenose da Valva Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Aust Vet J ; 98(10): 499-503, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671818

RESUMO

This retrospective case study aims to evaluate the accuracy of menace response, response to nasal stimulation and proprioceptive placing in diagnosing forebrain lesion in dogs. A total of 145 client-owned dogs investigated by magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain between December 2017 and June 2019 were evaluated. Seventy-one dogs with no magnetic resonance imaging-detectable intracranial and significant cerebrospinal fluid abnormality or recent history of seizure (<48 h) served as controls. Binary regression analysis was performed to determine the sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios of each selected test. Older age at presentation was a significant risk factor for the presence of a forebrain lesion. Menace (62.5%) and proprioceptive deficits (40.5%) were common findings in all dogs. They were also significantly associated with the presence of forebrain abnormality. Moreover, they were more sensitive (77.3% and 82.2%, respectively) and specific (50.0% and 62.5%, respectively) when applied to dogs aged 6 years or older. Nonetheless, all of these tests' likelihood ratios, and thus reliability are poor. These neurological tests are commonly employed for diagnosing forebrain disease in dogs, yet are not highly accurate in diagnosing forebrain abnormality. Clinicians should interpret these clinical test results along with the patient history when designing a diagnostic plan.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Animais , Cães , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Prosencéfalo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 255-257, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592549

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to recognise the etiological factor of a disease with symptoms of lameness and cardiac failure, which occurred in one dog 4 weeks after invasion by ticks. A serological examination as well as molecular examination (PCR) was done. In the sample of the serum, the presence of antibodies specific to Borrelia burgdorferi were detected. Antibiotic therapy with doxycycline did not cause significant improvement, so the owners of the dog decided about its euthanasia. During the necroscopy, a dilated heart was recognised. In the heart samples, the genetic material of Borrelia was detected. The results of serological and molecular examinations showed that in the discussed case, an etiological factor of the disease was spirochetes. In light of the research, veterinary practitioners should keep in mind the presence of Lyme disease in dogs in Poland and include it in differential diagnoses for lameness and cardiological problems.


Assuntos
Infecções por Borrelia , Doenças do Cão , Miocardite , Infestações por Carrapato , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Infecções por Borrelia/complicações , Infecções por Borrelia/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Eutanásia Animal , Coração/parasitologia , Miocardite/diagnóstico , Miocardite/etiologia , Polônia , Infestações por Carrapato/complicações , Infestações por Carrapato/microbiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008392, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542036

RESUMO

The canine hookworms Ancylostoma braziliense, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala are not only capable of producing morbidity and mortality in dogs but are also neglected tropical zoonoses. Each hookworm species differs considerably in its geographical distribution, life cycle, biology, pathogenic impacts on both canine and human hosts, zoonotic potential, and response to treatment with anthelminthics. Here we describe the development and validation of two Taq-Man based multiplex PCR assays capable of detecting and differentiating all four canine hookworm species in faeces of naturally infected dogs. The analytical sensitivity of both assays was assessed using 10-fold serial dilutions of synthetic gene block fragments containing individual sequence targets of each hookworm species. The sensitivity of the assays and ability to detect mixed species infections were compared to a conventional PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism based-approach when applied to laboratory and field samples from endemic areas. The qPCRs detected at least one species of hookworms in 82.4% of PCR-RFLP-negative but microscopy-positive samples. The qPCRs detected an additional 68% mixed infections with different species of canine hookworms, and additional single species infection with A. caninum (47%), U. stenocephala (33%) and A. ceylanicum (0.02%) that were missed by PCR-RFLP. These multiplex qPCR assays will assist field based epidemiological surveillance studies towards an accurate and sensitive monitoring of canine hookworm infections in dogs, to inform their species-specific zoonotic risks to populations living in endemic areas, globally.


Assuntos
Ancylostomatoidea/genética , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Infecções por Uncinaria/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária , Ancylostoma/genética , Ancylostoma/isolamento & purificação , Ancylostomatoidea/classificação , Ancilostomíase/diagnóstico , Ancilostomíase/epidemiologia , Ancilostomíase/fisiopatologia , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/análise , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/fisiopatologia
18.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 32, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lissencephaly is a brain malformation characterized by smooth and thickened cerebral surface, which may result in structural epilepsy. Lissencephaly is not common in veterinary medicine. Here, we characterize the first cases of lissencephaly in four Shih Tzu dogs, including clinical presentations and findings of magnetic resonance imaging of lissencephaly and several concomitant brain malformations. CASE PRESENTATION: Early-onset acute signs of forebrain abnormalities were observed in all dogs, which were mainly cluster seizures and behavioral alterations. Based on neurological examination, the findings were consistent with symmetrical and bilateral forebrain lesions. Metabolic disorders and inflammatory diseases were excluded. Magnetic resonance imaging for three dogs showed diffuse neocortical agyria and thickened gray matter while one dog had mixed agyria and pachygyria. Other features, such as internal hydrocephalus, supracollicular fluid accumulation, and corpus callosum hypoplasia, were detected concomitantly. Antiepileptic drugs effectively controlled cluster seizures, however, sporadic isolated seizures and signs of forebrain abnormalities, such as behavioral alterations, central blindness, and strabismus persisted. CONCLUSIONS: Lissencephaly should be considered an important differential diagnosis in Shih Tzu dogs presenting with early-onset signs of forebrain abnormalities, including cluster seizures and behavioral alterations. Magnetic resonance imaging was appropriate for ante-mortem diagnosis of lissencephaly and associated cerebral anomalies.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Epilepsia/veterinária , Lisencefalia/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/congênito , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/etiologia , Feminino , Lisencefalia/complicações , Lisencefalia/diagnóstico , Lisencefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino
19.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 39: 100427, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482289

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to gain a greater understanding of the detection, treatment, and monitoring of hypovolemic shock (HVS) in dogs by general practitioners in the United Kingdom (UK). An online survey was devised and distributed by email to first opinion practices in the UK. All veterinarians working in first opinion practice treating small animals were eligible to complete the survey. Most respondents (n = 164, 93%) were confident with HVS diagnosis. Isotonic crystalloid fluids were the most common fluid type for first-line treatment and administered as a 10-30 mL/kg bolus over 10-30 minutes by 57% respondents. Initial intravenous isotonic crystalloid fluid rates for HVS management ranged from maintenance fluid requirements to 90 mL/kg/hr for an undefined time period. A synthetic colloid was the most popular second-line fluid choice, typically considered after a total administered volume of 60-90 mL/kg of isotonic crystalloid fluids. Only 72 respondents (40.7%) were able to measure blood lactate in-house, which was used routinely by 36 respondents (20.3%) for initial treatment decision making. Respondents treating HVS most frequently were more likely to use lactate for initial decision making (P = .008). This study highlighted variabilities in the initial approach, fluid management strategies and monitoring instituted by UK general practitioners when faced with canine patients in HVS. This suggests that there is a discrepancy in what is determined to be the most optimal diagnostic and treatment plan for canine HVS patients.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Choque/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Hidratação/veterinária , Humanos , Ressuscitação/veterinária , Choque/diagnóstico , Choque/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Médicos Veterinários
20.
Vet J ; 259-260: 105475, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553239

RESUMO

The importance of atrial premature complexes (APCs) as a possible marker of occult dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in Doberman Pinschers (DP) is unknown. The aim of this study was to identify APC in healthy DP and to investigate their role as early markers of occult DCM. Holter-ECG results from 561 examinations of 153 DP at different time points were retrospectively evaluated, with special emphasis on APCs. Holter results from 110 healthy control DPs were compared to the last normal Holter and echocardiographic examinations in 43 DP that subsequently developed DCM within 15 months (DCM group), and to the first examination in the DCM group that contained ventricular premature complexes (VPC). There were no significant differences in the number of APCs or the coupling interval between the control group and the last normal examination in the DCM group (P > 0.05). The number of APCs increased slightly at the first abnormal examination in the DCM group. Healthy male DP had more APCs than females (P = 0.009) and older dogs had APCs more frequently than younger dogs (P < 0.001). About 85% of healthy DP with at least one APC/24 h had <20 APCs/24 h. Extracardiac diseases, especially gastrointestinal diseases influenced the occurrence of APCs (P = 0.037 and P = 0.006, respectively). APCs were present without obvious cardiac disease and were not a marker for the development of DCM, as they were not identified until after VPCs were present.


Assuntos
Complexos Atriais Prematuros/veterinária , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Animais , Complexos Atriais Prematuros/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/veterinária , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Masculino , Linhagem , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
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