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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e023020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605388

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is considered to be one of the main causes of abortion among cattle. The present survey was conducted in the municipality of Rolim de Moura, Rondônia State, Brazil. A questionnaire that investigates the epidemiological aspects of neosporosis was used in the analysis of risk factors associated with the animal-level and herd-level prevalence in dairy cattle. A total of 416 bovine blood samples were collected from 30 farms, and N. caninum antibody levels were measured by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT). Analysis of dairy cattle serum samples revealed the presence of anti-N. caninum antibodies to be 47.36% (n = 197). Risk factors associated with N. caninum infection were the management system and access locations of dogs. The results of the present survey indicated that infection of dairy cattle with N. caninum is widespread in the studied region of Western Amazon, which has implications for prevention and control of neosporosis in this region. Therefore, integrated control strategies and measures are recommended to prevent and control N. caninum infection in dairy cattle. In addition, direct contact between dairy cattle, dogs and wild animals, which can influence the epidemiology of neosporosis, should be investigated further.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Neospora , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiose/transmissão , Coccidiose/veterinária , Indústria de Laticínios , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Neospora/imunologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e018620, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533796

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis is a widely distributed zoonosis and canine infection is an important indicator of risk for the occurrence of the disease in humans. The goal of this analysis was to study the spatial clustering of canine leishmaniasis (CL) in the municipality of Santa Luzia, state of Paraíba. For this, 749 samples of canine plasma were tested using three serological tests. The dog was considered positive if it reacted in two serological tests. The location of the residences was performed with a Global Positioning System receiver (GPS Garmin® eTrex 30), and used to perform georeferencing and spatial analysis. The prevalence of CL was 15.49% and it was observed that most cases of the urban area were concentrated in the Frei Damião neighborhood, on the outskirts of the city, where a high-risk cluster for the occurrence of the disease was formed (p = 0.02; RR = 2.48). No statistically significant cluster was observed in rural areas. CL is widely distributed in the municipality of Santa Luzia in a heterogeneous manner and with a tendency to urbanization. The areas identified with high prevalence and highest risk should be prioritized to maximize the efficiency of the Visceral Leishmaniasis Surveillance and Control Program and minimize the chance of new canine and human cases.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Leishmaniose Visceral , Análise Espacial , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Clima Desértico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária
3.
Arch Virol ; 166(2): 427-438, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389172

RESUMO

The leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) was listed as an endangered species under the Wildlife Conservation Act in Taiwan in 2009. However, no study has evaluated the possible direct or indirect effects of pathogens on the Taiwanese leopard cat population. Here, we targeted viral pathogens, including carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (genus Protoparvovirus), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), coronaviruses (CoVs), and canine distemper virus (CDV), through molecular screening. The spatial and temporal dynamics of the target pathogens were evaluated. Through sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, we clarified the phylogenetic relationship of viral pathogens isolated from leopard cats and domestic carnivores. Samples from 23 live-trapped leopard cats and 29 that were found dead were collected from 2015 to 2019 in Miaoli County in northwestern Taiwan. Protoparvoviruses and CoVs were detected in leopard cats, and their prevalence (95% confidence interval) was 63.5% (50.4%-76.6%) and 8.8% (0%-18.4%), respectively. Most of the protoparvovirus sequences amplified from Taiwanese leopard cats and domestic carnivores were identical. All of the CoV sequences amplified from leopard cats were identified as feline CoV. No spatial or temporal aggregation of protoparvovirus infection in leopard cats was found in the sampling area, indicating a wide distribution of protoparvoviruses in the leopard cat habitat. We consider sympatric domestic carnivores to be the probable primary reservoir for the identified pathogens. We strongly recommend management of protoparvoviruses and feline CoV in the leopard cat habitat, particularly vaccination programs and population control measures for free-roaming dogs and cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Panthera/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Coronavirus Felino/genética , Coronavirus Felino/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/genética , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/genética , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Parvovirinae/genética , Parvovirinae/isolamento & purificação , Taiwan/epidemiologia
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 36, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis by Leishmania infantum is a first-order pathology in canine veterinary clinics in endemic areas. Moreover, canine infections are considered the main reservoir for human disease; despite their importance in the control of the disease within a One Health approach, no scientometric study has been published. Aims of the study included analyzing the impact of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) on the scientific literature, drugs or combinations used, trends in the period from 2000 to 2020 and efficacy criteria employed. METHODS: A Web of Science (WOS)-based analysis of publications on CanL and chemotherapy of the disease in the period 2000-2020 was carried out using a stepwise methodology. Data were analyzed by year, geographical origin, chemical groups, drugs and combinations, and efficacy criteria. RESULTS: Reports on CanL (n = 3324) represented < 16% of all publications on leishmaniasis (n = 20,968), and of these around 18% (n = 596) were related to chemotherapy. Publication records on CanL followed the distribution of the infection by L. infantum in endemic areas although Mediterranean countries were overrepresented in the reports on chemotherapy of CanL. Publications on the main antileishmanial drugs used in clinical practice showed a sustained tendency in the period analyzed. Pentavalent antimonials (SbV), alone or in combination with allopurinol, represented > 50% of all publications on chemotherapy of CanL despite the availability of more recently marketed drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy of CanL still relies on SbV and combinations and to a lesser extent on miltefosine (MIL). Reports on chemotherapy are scarce and mostly publicly funded, and the variability of experimental conditions hampers the direct comparison of the efficacy of drugs, combinations and schedules. The vast majority of reports on efficacy do not include any information on supportive therapy; this reduces the actual value of the studies if intended for the practical management of the disease. Complete reports on the chemotherapy (etiological + symptomatic) would add value to the trials performed.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/terapia , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Publicações
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 517-528, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496240

RESUMO

The lack of population health surveillance for companion animal populations leaves them vulnerable to the effects of novel diseases without means of early detection. We present evidence on the effectiveness of a system that enabled early detection and rapid response a canine gastroenteritis outbreak in the United Kingdom. In January 2020, prolific vomiting among dogs was sporadically reported in the United Kingdom. Electronic health records from a nationwide sentinel network of veterinary practices confirmed a significant increase in dogs with signs of gastroenteric disease. Male dogs and dogs living with other vomiting dogs were more likely to be affected. Diet and vaccination status were not associated with the disease; however, a canine enteric coronavirus was significantly associated with illness. The system we describe potentially fills a gap in surveillance in neglected populations and could provide a blueprint for other countries.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Canino , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Vômito/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães/virologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
6.
Vet Res Commun ; 45(1): 31-40, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392909

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal disorders caused by enteric viruses are frequently reported in dogs worldwide, with significant mortality rates in unvaccinated individuals. This study reports the identification and molecular characterization of Canine parvovirus (CPV-2), Canine coronavirus (CcoV), Canine astrovirus (AstV), and Canine calicivirus (CcaV) in a panel of dogs showing severe enteric clinical signs sampled in a typical Mediterranean environment (Sardinia, Italy). At least one of these viral species was detected in 92.3% samples. CPV-2 was the most frequently detected virus (87.2%), followed by AsTv (20.5%), CCoV-IIa (18%), and CCoV-I (10.3%). CCoV-IIb and CaCV were not detected in any sample. Single infection was detected in 24 samples (66.7%), mainly related to CPV-2 (91.7%). Coinfections were present in 33.3% samples with constant detection of CPV-2. Canine coronavirus was present only in coinfected animals. The VP2 sequence analysis of CPV-2 positive samples confirmed the presence of all variants, with CPV-2b most frequently detected. Phylogeny based on the CcoV-IIa spike protein (S) gene allowed to identify 2 different clades among Sardinian isolates but failed to distinguish enteric from pantropic viruses. Study on presence and prevalence of enteroviruses in dogs increase our knowledge about the circulation of these pathogens in the Mediterranean area and highlight the need for dedicated routine vaccine prophylaxis. Molecular analyses of enteric viruses are fundamental to avoid failure of vaccines caused by frequent mutations observed in these enteroviruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Astroviridae/genética , Astroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Caliciviridae/genética , Caliciviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus/genética , Parvovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia
7.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321892

RESUMO

Previous work has indicated that canine parvovirus (CPV) prevalence in the Central Texas region may follow yearly, periodic patterns. The peak in CPV infection rates occurs during the summer months of May and June, marking a distinct "CPV season". We hypothesized that human activity contributes to these seasonal changes in CPV infections. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in drastic changes in human behavior which happened to synchronize with the CPV season in Central Texas, providing a unique opportunity with which to assess whether these society-level behavioral changes result in appreciable changes in CPV patient populations in the largest CPV treatment facility in Texas. In this work, we examine the population of CPV-infected patients at a large, dedicated CPV treatment clinic in Texas (having treated more than 5000 CPV-positive dogs in the last decade) and demonstrate that societal-behavioral changes due to COVID-19 were associated with a drastic reduction in CPV infections. This reduction occurred precisely when CPV season would typically begin, during the period immediately following state-wide "reopening" of business and facilities, resulting in a change in the typical CPV season when compared with previous years. These results provide evidence that changes in human activity may, in some way, contribute to changes in rates of CPV infection in the Central Texas region.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Hospitais Veterinários , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/terapia , Parvovirus Canino/patogenicidade , Prevalência , Política Pública , Texas/epidemiologia
8.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374843

RESUMO

Measuring antibodies to evaluate dogs' immunity against canine parvovirus (CPV) is useful to avoid unnecessary re-vaccinations. The study aimed to evaluate the quality and practicability of four point-of-care (POC) tests for detection of anti-CPV antibodies. The sera of 198 client-owned and 43 specific pathogen-free (SPF) dogs were included; virus neutralization was the reference method. Specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV), and overall accuracy (OA) were calculated. Specificity was considered to be the most important indicator for POC test performance. Differences between specificity and sensitivity of POC tests in the sera of all dogs were determined by McNemar, agreement by Cohen's kappa. Prevalence of anti-CPV antibodies in all dogs was 80% (192/241); in the subgroup of client-owned dogs, it was 97% (192/198); and in the subgroup of SPF dogs, it was 0% (0/43). FASTest® and CanTiCheck® were easiest to perform. Specificity was highest in the CanTiCheck® (overall dogs, 98%; client-owned dogs, 83%; SPF dogs, 100%) and the TiterCHEK® (overall dogs, 96%; client-owned dogs, 67%; SPF dogs, 100%); no significant differences in specificity were observed between the ImmunoComb®, the TiterCHEK®, and the CanTiCheck®. Sensitivity was highest in the FASTest® (overall dogs, 95%; client-owned dogs, 95%) and the CanTiCheck® (overall dogs, 80%; client-owned dogs, 80%); sensitivity of the FASTest® was significantly higher compared to the one of the other three tests (McNemars p-value in each comparison: <0.001). CanTiCheck® would be the POC test of choice when considering specificity and practicability. However, differences in the number of false positive results between CanTiCheck®, TiterCHEK®, and ImmunoComb® were minimal.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/imunologia , Testes Imediatos , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/normas
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008957, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370268

RESUMO

Rabies remains a public health challenge of unknown magnitude in Liberia in spite of the goal of ensuring that no human in the country dies of rabies by 2030. The annual prevalence of Dog Bite Victims (DBVs) and true load of Annual Human Deaths (AHDs) due to rabies were not known. We investigated three selected cities of Liberia for annual prevalence of DBVs and true load of AHD due to suspected rabies, using 10-year retrospective record, 2008-2017 obtained from Buchanan, Gbarnga, and Voinjama, three socio-economically important cities in post-conflict Liberia. Data were sourced at County Reference Hospitals and at the Liberia National Institute of Health for these cities and their local environs. In addition, household questionnaire survey was used to identify and audit data quality for unreported DBVs, and treatment received from traditional caregivers. The proportion was used to audit the 10-year data on unreported DBVs in the cities. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize annual DBVs over the 10-year period in the three cities, respectively. A standardized clinical decision tree model was used to estimate AHDs due to suspected rabies. Based on questionnaire survey, 140/365, 148/375 and 146/350 DBVs did not visit any orthodox health facility in Buchanan, Gbarnga and Voinjama cities, respectively in 2014. An estimated total of 559 DBVs died of suspected rabies in the three cities and their environs during the 10-year period. Mean yearly prevalence of DBVs was 179±106.82, 393±257.85 and 76.9±38.11 per 100,000 population, while mean AHDs due to suspected rabies was 14.3±8.47, 35.5±23.25, and 6.1±3.21 per 100,000 population in Buchanan, Gbarnga, and Voinjama cities, respectively. The present findings provide annual prevalence of suspected rabies cases, corrected for under-reporting in three selected cities of Liberia. The findings would be useful in planning for stepwise actions towards rabies elimination, ensuring that no human dies of rabies in Liberia by 2030.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Libéria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Raiva/mortalidade , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008948, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370285

RESUMO

Domestic dogs are responsible for 99% of all cases of human rabies and thus, mass dog vaccination has been demonstrated to be the most effective approach towards the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies. Namibia demonstrated the feasibility of this approach by applying government-led strategic rabies vaccination campaigns to reduce both human and dog rabies incidences in the Northern Communal Areas of Namibia since 2016. The lessons learnt using paper-based form for data capturing and management of mass dog vaccination campaign during the pilot and roll out phase of the project (2016-2018) led to the implementation of a simple and accurate data collection tool in the second phase (2019-2022) of the rabies elimination program. In this paper, we describe the implementation of such custom-developed vaccination tracking device, i.e. the Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC) Data Logger (GDL), and the integration of the collected data into a website-based rabies surveillance system (Rabies Epidemiological Bulletin-REB) during 2019 and 2020 campaigns. A total of 10,037 dogs and 520 cats were vaccinated during the 2019 campaign and 13,219 dogs and 1,044 cats during the 2020 campaign. The vaccination data were recorded with the GDL and visualized via REB. Subsequent GIS-analysis using gridded population data revealed a suboptimal vaccination coverage in the great majority of grid cells (82%) with a vaccination coverage below 50%. Spatial regression analysis identified the number of schools, estimated human density, and adult dog population were associated with the vaccination performance. However, there was an inverse correlation to human densities. Nonetheless, the use of the GDL improved data capturing and monitoring capacity of the campaign, enabling the Namibian government to improve strategies for the vaccination of at-risk areas towards achieving adequate vaccination coverage which would effectively break the transmission of rabies.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Vacinação em Massa/veterinária , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(5): 487-492, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202500

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite; Toxoplasma gondii, which is one of the most important zoonotic parasite worldwide. In dogs, the sexual reproductive cycle of T. gondii is lacking, and the animals are not widely consumed as food, but they are vital in the mechanical transmission of the parasite. However, there is no present data on the exposure of stray dogs to T. gondii in Malaysia. The objective of this serological survey was to determine the prevalence of T. gondii antibodies (IgG) and associated factors in stray dogs in East and West Malaysia. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples from 222 stray dogs from 6 different states in East and West Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia) using an Indirect ELISA. The seroprevalence for T. gondii was 23.4% (Confidence interval: CI 17.8-29.2%). Stray dogs from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur had the highest seroprevalence (32.4%; CI 13.2-45.5%) and lowest in those from Penang and Kedah (12.5%; CI 1.3-23.5%). Gender and breed were not associated with T. gondii seropositivity. However, adult dogs were more likely to be seropositive for T. gondii (OR=2.89; CI 1.1-7.7) compared with younger dogs. These results revealed that T. gondii is prevalent in stray dogs in the studied areas in Malaysia, and indicative of the level of environmental contamination of this parasite especially in urban areas.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/análise , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Cães , Feminino , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia
12.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(3): 385-390, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128864

RESUMO

Ehrlichia canis is the common blood pathogen infected dogs in Thailand that significantly affect dog health and caused canine monocytic ehrlichiosis which leads to anaemia, high morbidity also mortality rates. This study was performed to analyse associated risk factors and evaluate the significance of haematological responses of dogs infected with E. canis in Phitsanulok province, the northern part of Thailand. Blood samples were collected from 94 dogs, 27 (28.7%) dogs have been confirmed E. canis infection by nested PCR method. Mostly of infected dogs had hypohemoglobinemia (<12.1 g/dl), leucocytosis (>15.5×103/µl), neutrophilia (>10.6×103/µl) and thrombocytopenia (<170×103/µl). However, only thrombocytopenia was statistically different between E. canis infected and non-infected groups. Additionally, no significant statistical relationship between E. canis infection rate and sex, age or breed apparent. These data supported that infection with E. canis is endemic in dogs and thrombocytopenia may highlight during infection which reliability to use in the clinical diagnosis of E. canis infection.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Ehrlichia canis , Ehrlichiose , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Ehrlichia canis/genética , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Tailândia/epidemiologia
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(43): 1563-1568, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119555

RESUMO

Dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) is caused by the parasite Dracunculus medinensis and is acquired by drinking water containing copepods (water fleas) infected with D. medinensis larvae. The worm typically emerges through the skin on a lower limb approximately 1 year after infection, resulting in pain and disability (1). There is no vaccine or medicine to treat the disease; eradication efforts rely on case containment* to prevent water contamination. Other interventions to prevent infection include health education, water filtration, chemical treatment of unsafe water with temephos (an organophosphate larvicide to kill copepods), and provision of safe drinking water (1,2). The worldwide eradication campaign began in 1980 at CDC (1). In 1986, with an estimated 3.5 million cases† occurring each year in 20 African and Asian countries§ (3), the World Health Assembly (WHA) called for dracunculiasis elimination (4). The global Guinea Worm Eradication Program (GWEP), led by the Carter Center and supported by the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund, CDC, and other partners, began assisting ministries of health in countries with dracunculiasis. This report, based on updated health ministry data (4), describes progress made during January 2019-June 2020 and updates previous reports (2,4,5). With only 54 human cases reported in 2019, 19 human cases reported during January 2019-June 2020, and only six countries currently affected by dracunculiasis (Angola, Chad, Ethiopia, Mali, South Sudan, and importations into Cameroon), the achievement of eradication is within reach, but it is challenged by civil unrest, insecurity, and lingering epidemiologic and zoologic concerns, including 2,000 reported animal cases in 2019 and 1,063 animal cases in 2020, mostly in dogs. All national GWEPs remain fully operational, with precautions taken to ensure safety of program staff members and community members in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Dracunculíase/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Dracunculíase/epidemiologia , Dracunculíase/veterinária , Humanos
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 778, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International organizations advocate for the elimination of dog-mediated rabies, but there is only limited guidance on interpreting surveillance data for managing elimination programmes. With the regional programme in Latin America approaching elimination of dog-mediated rabies, we aimed to develop a tool to evaluate the programme's performance and generate locally-tailored rabies control programme management guidance to overcome remaining obstacles. METHODS: We developed and validated a robust algorithm to classify progress towards rabies elimination within sub-national administrative units, which we applied to surveillance data from Brazil and Mexico. The method combines criteria that are easy to understand, including logistic regression analysis of case detection time series, assessment of rabies virus variants, and of incursion risk. Subjecting the algorithm to robustness testing, we further employed simulated data sub-sampled at differing levels of case detection to assess the algorithm's performance and sensitivity to surveillance quality. RESULTS: Our tool demonstrated clear epidemiological transitions in Mexico and Brazil: most states progressed rapidly towards elimination, but a few regressed due to incursions and control lapses. In 2015, dog-mediated rabies continued to circulate in the poorest states, with foci remaining in only 1 of 32 states in Mexico, and 2 of 27 in Brazil, posing incursion risks to the wider region. The classification tool was robust in determining epidemiological status irrespective of most levels of surveillance quality. In endemic settings, surveillance would need to detect less than 2.5% of all circulating cases to result in misclassification, whereas in settings where incursions become the main source of cases the threshold detection level for correct classification should not be less than 5%. CONCLUSION: Our tool provides guidance on how to progress effectively towards elimination targets and tailor strategies to local epidemiological situations, while revealing insights into rabies dynamics. Post-campaign assessments of dog vaccination coverage in endemic states, and enhanced surveillance to verify and maintain freedom in states threatened by incursions were identified as priorities to catalyze progress towards elimination. Our finding suggests genomic surveillance should become increasingly valuable during the endgame for discriminating circulating variants and pinpointing sources of incursions.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Algoritmos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cães , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Vacinação em Massa , México/epidemiologia , Raiva/transmissão , Raiva/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cobertura Vacinal
15.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e004920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027423

RESUMO

Soil samples collected near municipal schools (public/EMEI and private/EPEI schools), clubs (CLB), public squares (PS) and residential condominiums (CND) and samples of animal faeces from the Zoonosis Control Centre (CCZ) of the municipality of Votuporanga/SP were analysed using the Baermann method for the detection of zoonotic helminth larvae. The prevalence rates of the nematode genera identified were determined, and the results were compared using Fisher's exact and chi-square frequency tests. Information about cases of larvae migrans in the population were collected from the Family Health Units and the private health plans. All sites were positive for Ancylostoma spp. and, with the exception of EPEIs and dog faeces, for Strongyloides spp. The prevalence of Ancylostoma spp. was 87.5% for CND samples, 74.29% for EMIEs, 63.64% for CLB, 61.76% for PS and 64.29% for dog's and 42.86% for cats at CCZ. The prevalence of Strongyloides spp. ranged from 14.29% (cats/CCZ) to 41.18% (PS). Cases of cutaneous larva migrans were reported during interviews. Thus, from the public health perspective, the risk of individuals that frequent recreational areas in the municipality, especially children, to be infected by helminth larvae is noteworthy, indicating the need to develop policies aimed at controlling this important zoonosis.


Assuntos
Ancylostoma , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Larva Migrans , Solo , Ancylostoma/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Larva Migrans/diagnóstico , Larva Migrans/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia
16.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e006220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027424

RESUMO

Native foxes face serious threats related to anthropic activities and the uncontrolled pets. However, the transmission of several pathogens such as parasites by domestic dogs is an important conservation issue with limited attention in Chile. The lack of a proper identification of the helminths of wild canids in the country, based mostly in coprological studies, limited our knowledge in potential interspecific transmission. Thus, the aim of the present survey was to identify the parasitic fauna of two native canids, the Andean fox (Lycalopex culpaeus) (n=49) and Chilla (Lycalopex griseus) (n=17), from several localities in Chile through a complete parasitological survey. Sixteen different species were identified, 9 of which are new host records for Andean fox and two for Chilla fox in South America, and three are recorded for first time in Chile. Also, five of them are of zoonotic concern and six are known to use domestic dogs as their principal hosts. These findings have implications for public health and the conservation of canids whose interspecific transmission of parasites with domestic dogs is confirmed through these findings. The need for an exhaustive surveillance of wild carnivores is emphasized considering these hosts as important sources of micro- and macroparasites.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Raposas , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Chile/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Raposas/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia
17.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e008820, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027425

RESUMO

Dogs are hosts of the protozoans Toxoplasma gondii, which causes an important public health disease, and Neospora caninum. Studies that have evaluated toxoplasmosis and neosporosis for prolonged periods in dog populations are rare. We analyzed infection by both parasites in a domestic dog population over three consecutive years in São Paulo state, Brazil. In the 1st, 2nd and 3rd years of collection, 181, 193 and 172 domiciles were visited, and blood samples of 331, 371 and 348 dogs were collected for antibody serology, respectively. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in each year was 27.2%, 22.5% and 43.9%, respectively, and that of N. caninum was 7.8%, 4.8% and 6.8%, respectively. The incidence rates for T. gondii in the 2nd and 3rd collections were 13.2% and 30.0%, and those for N. caninum were 3.3% and 4.4%, respectively. Positive and negative serological conversions for both agents occurred at high frequencies during the study period. This study reveals the canine population's serological profile and demonstrates the constant exposure of dogs to the investigated pathogens, indicating the need for prevention and control measures in the region.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Doenças do Cão , Neospora , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/sangue , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Incidência , População Rural , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia
18.
J Vet Sci ; 21(5): e70, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral neoplasia has been reported to account for 6-7% of all canine cancer and 3% of all feline cancers. To the authors' knowledge the last epidemiologic analysis of general oral cancer in dogs and cats was published in 1976. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to report contemporary demographic information regarding oral tumors in dogs and cats. METHODS: Information was collected from cats or dogs diagnosed with oral neoplasia from the Veterinary Medical Data Base. Medical records representing cases that presented to one of 26 veterinary teaching hospitals from January 1, 1996 through December 31, 2017 were included. RESULTS: A total of 1,810 dogs and 443 cats were identified. A total of 962 cases (53.6%) of canine oral tumors were classified as malignant and 455 cases as benign (25.4%). The majority of feline oral tumors were classified as malignant (257 cases, 58.1%) and only a few benign (11 cases, 2.5%). The incidence of oral tumors was calculated to be 4.9 per 1,000 dogs (0.5%) and 4.9 per 1,000 cats (0.5%). CONCLUSIONS: This incidence of oral tumors is considerably higher than previously reported in both dogs and cats. These results provide valuable information for generation of hypotheses for future investigations of breed-based and pathology-based oral neoplastic studies.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238188, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870947

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum is a zoonosis. The domestic dog is the primary reservoir in urban areas. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency, active infection and load of L. infantum in the genital tract of male and female dogs seropositive for this parasite, as well as to identify histological genital alterations associated with this protozoan. We studied 45 male and 25 female L. infantum-seropositive noncastrated dogs from the same endemic area in Brazil. Tissue samples from the testis, epididymis, prostate, vulva, vagina, and uterus were examined by singleplex qPCR and parasitological tests (histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and parasitological culture). The latter were performed for the detection of active infection (parasites able to multiply and to induce lesions). Forty-four (98%) males and 25 (100%) females were positive for L. infantum in the genital tract (epididymis: 98%; vulva: 92%; vagina: 92%; testis: 91%; uterus: 84%; prostate: 66%). Active infection in the genital tract was confirmed in 69% of males and 64% of females (32% in the uterus). Parasite loads were similar in the testis, vulva, epididymis and vagina and lower in the prostate. Only the parasite load in the vagina was significantly associated with the number of clinical signs. Granulomatous inflammation predominated in all organs, except for the prostate. Only in the testis and epididymis was the inflammatory infiltrate significantly more intense among dogs with a higher parasite load in these organs. The high frequency, detection of active infection and similarity of L. infantum loads in the genital tract of infected males and females suggest the potential of venereal transmission of this parasite by both sexes and of vertical transmission by females in the area studied. Additionally, vertical transmission may be frequent since active L. infantum infection was a common observation in the uterus.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Genitália/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Feminino , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1942-1950, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901603

RESUMO

The campaign to eradicate dracunculiasis (Guinea worm [GW] disease) and its causative pathogen Dracunculus medinensis (GW) in Chad is challenged by infections in domestic dogs, which far outnumber the dwindling number of human infections. We present an agent-based simulation that models transmission of GW between a shared water source and a large population of dogs. The simulation incorporates various potential factors driving the infections including external factors and two currently used interventions, namely, tethering and larvicide water treatments. By defining and estimating infectivity parameters and seasonality factors, we test the simulation model on scenarios where seasonal patterns of dog infections could be driven by the parasite's life cycle alone or with environmental factors (e.g., temperature and rainfall) that could also affect human or dog behaviors (e.g., fishing versus farming seasons). We show that the best-fitting model includes external factors in addition to the pathogen's life cycle. From the simulation, we estimate that the basic reproductive number, R 0, is approximately 2.0; our results also show that an infected dog can transmit the infection to 3.6 other dogs, on average, during the month of peak infectivity (April). The simulation results shed light on the transmission dynamics of GWs to dogs and lay the groundwork for reducing the number of infections and eventually interrupting transmission of GW.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Dracunculíase/veterinária , Dracunculus/fisiologia , Animais , Chade/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Dracunculíase/epidemiologia , Dracunculíase/parasitologia , Dracunculíase/transmissão , Dracunculus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Modelos Teóricos , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Água
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