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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238521, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966286

RESUMO

In dogs, optimal growth is critical for future health and wellbeing. Recently, a series of evidence-based growth standards, based on bodyweight, were developed for male and female dogs across 5 different size categories. The aim of the current study was to compare growth curves depicted by the standards with patterns of growth in dogs that were either healthy, had abnormal body condition, or had various diseases with the potential to affect growth. The data came from 2 research colonies in Europe (France and UK), and a large corporate network of primary care veterinary hospitals across the USA. Age and bodyweight data were used to model growth in healthy dogs, in dogs that became overweight or underweight by 3 years of age, and in dogs with diseases associated with altered growth. Centile line crossing during the growth phase was uncommon in healthy dogs, with <5% of dogs crossing >2 centile lines. In contrast, centile line crossing was more frequent in dogs with abnormal growth patterns or abnormal body condition. Dogs that developed obesity by 3 years grew faster than the growth standards predicted, and 68% crossed ≥2 centile lines in an upwards direction. Dogs with conditions associated with accelerated growth also grew faster than expected, and 54% crossed ≥2 centile lines. In contrast dogs that became underweight by 3 years gained weight slower than expected, and 49% crossed ≥2 centile lines in a downwards direction. These results suggest that the growth standards are useful for monitoring healthy growth in dogs. Prospective studies are now required to confirm these findings and to determine whether early intervention can prevent the development of diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sobrepeso/veterinária , Magreza/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães/fisiologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/epidemiologia , Magreza/fisiopatologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0230651, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886662

RESUMO

The births of domestic dogs with pigment deletion and associated congenital hearing and/or vision impairments are increasing, as a result of mutations of certain genes expressing popular coat colour patterns (Merle, piebald, Irish spotting). The future of these dogs is often pessimistic (early euthanasia or placement in rescues/fosters, lack of interactions and activities for adults). These pessimistic scenarios result from popular assumptions predicting that dogs with congenital hearing/vision impairments exhibit severe Merle-related health troubles (cardiac, skeletal, neurological), impairment-related behavioural troubles (aggressiveness, anxiety), and poor capacities to communicate, to be trained, and to be engaged in leisure or work activities. However, there is no direct scientific testing, and hence no evidence or refutation, of these assumptions. We therefore addressed an online questionnaire to owners of 223 congenitally sensory impaired (23 vision impaired, 63 hearing impaired, 137 hearing and vision impaired) and 217 sensory normal dogs from various countries. The sensory normal cohort was matched in age, lifetime with owner, breed and sex with the sensory impaired cohort, and was used as a baseline. The questionnaire assessed demographics, morphology, sensory impairments, health and behavioural troubles, activities, and dog-owner communication. Most hearing and/or vision impaired dogs exhibited abnormal pigment deletion in their coat and irises. Vision impaired dogs additionally exhibited ophthalmic abnormalities typically related to Merle. The results are opposed to all above-listed assumptions, except for neurological troubles, which were more frequently reported in sensory impaired dogs. However, we suggest that this finding could be partially accounted for by a lack of diagnosis of breed-related drug sensitivity and impairment-related compulsive behaviours. Results about communication and activities are particularly optimistic. The need for future studies of numerous dogs from various breeds tested for Merle, piebald and medical-drug-resistance genes, and the beneficial effects that present and future research may have on the future of sensory impaired dogs, are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Cegueira/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/anormalidades , Animais , Cegueira/congênito , Cegueira/fisiopatologia , Cegueira/psicologia , Cruzamento , Comunicação , Doenças do Cão/congênito , Doenças do Cão/psicologia , Cães , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/congênito , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Perda Auditiva/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Animais de Estimação/fisiologia , Animais de Estimação/psicologia , Pigmentação/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237706, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817656

RESUMO

Endurance-trained sled dogs provide a unique translational model to characterize changes in hematologic and serum biochemical analytes due to the aging process. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of age and sex on specific hematologic and serum biochemical parameters in the endurance trained sled dog. Longitudinal and cross-sectional data were analyzed from 9,746 blood and serum samples from 4,804 dogs collected over 7 years as part of the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race pre-race examination program. Mixed models analysis was used for statistical analysis and P < 0.01 was considered significant. Dogs ranged from 1-12 years of age and 39% were female. Serum total calcium and phosphorus concentrations and white blood cell count decreased nonlinearly to asymptotic values by 6.6, 3.1, and 6.9 years of age, respectively, equivalent to estimated physiologic ages in human years of 44, 27, and 46 years. Serum glucose concentrations reached their lowest value at 7.8 years of age, equivalent to an estimated human physiologic age of 50 years, after which time the concentration increased. Serum globulin concentrations increased with age, but nonlinearly for females and linearly for males. Most sex-related differences were <5%; however, females had lower serum urea nitrogen (14.7%) and creatinine (7.3%) concentrations, lower serum alanine aminotransferase activity (16.6%), and higher serum total bilirubin concentration (12.8%) and platelet count (6.0%). The endurance-trained sled dog provides an excellent model to separate the physiologic effects of age from those of a sedentary lifestyle on hematologic and serum biochemical analytes.


Assuntos
Treino Aeróbico , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Soroglobulinas/metabolismo
4.
J Vet Sci ; 21(4): e58, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantitative evaluation of renal cortical echogenicity (RCE) has been tried and developed in human and veterinary medicine. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to propose a method for evaluating RCE quantitatively and intuitively, and to determine associations between ultrasonographic renal structural distinction and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in canine chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Data were collected on 63 dogs, including 27 with normal kidney function and 36 CKD patients. Symmetric dimethylarginine and creatinine concentrations were measured for calculating eGFR. RCE was evaluated as 3 grades on ultrasonography images according to the distinction between the renal cortex and outer medulla. The RCE grade of each kidney was measured. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in eGFR between the group normal and CKD (p < 0.001). As mean of RCE grades (the mean values of each right and left kidney's RCE grade) increases, the proportion of group CKD among the patients in each grade increases (p < 0.001). Also, severity of RCE (classified as "high" if any right or left kidney evaluated as RCE grade 3, "low" otherwise) and eGFR is good indicator for predicting group CKD (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The degree of distinction between the renal cortex and the outer medulla is closely related to renal function including eGFR and the RCE grade defined in this study can be used as a method of objectively evaluating RCE.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Córtex Renal/diagnóstico por imagem , Medula Renal/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234714, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584842

RESUMO

As a consequence of a hormonal imbalance, Prostatic Hyperplasia (PH) is characterized by increased prostate volume, along with higher local angiogenesis and vascularization. Orchiectomy is the common treatment for dogs, however it is not an option for breeding animals. Thus, finasteride arises as the drug of choice for stud dogs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orchiectomy or finasteride therapies on hormonal and vascular dynamics of PH dogs. Fifteen dogs, aged 6-13 years were assigned to: Untreated Group (dogs diagnosed with PH-n = 5), Finasteride treated group (PH dogs treated with finasteride-n = 5) and Orchiectomy treated group (PH dogs submitted to orchiectomy-n = 5). Evaluations were performed in a monthly interval (first day of treatment; after 30 and 60 days). Doppler ultrasonography was performed to measure prostatic volume, vascularization and hemodynamic profile of prostatic artery. Dihydrotestosterone, estrogen and testosterone concentrations were measured. At day 60, prostatic biopsy was performed for histological, immunohistochemical and qPCR analysis for VEGF-A expression. At day 60, vascularization score was higher in untreated compared to treated groups (finasteride and orchiectomy). Furthermore, VEGF-A expression was lower in the Orchiectomy Treated Group, but VEGF-A was immunohistochemically lower in both treated groups (finasteride and orchiectomy) compared to the Untreated Group. The efficiency of finasteride treatment in reducing clinical signs, prostate volume and vascularization appears to be similar to orchiectomy. In conclusion, both PH medical and surgical therapy lead to reduction in prostate dimension and VEGF-A expression and, consequently, lower local vascularization. However, orchiectomy promotes marked hormonal changes, which ultimately lead to prostate atrophy.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Finasterida/farmacologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios/sangue , Neovascularização Patológica , Orquiectomia , Hiperplasia Prostática/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Cães , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/fisiopatologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/terapia , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
6.
Vet J ; 259-260: 105475, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553239

RESUMO

The importance of atrial premature complexes (APCs) as a possible marker of occult dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in Doberman Pinschers (DP) is unknown. The aim of this study was to identify APC in healthy DP and to investigate their role as early markers of occult DCM. Holter-ECG results from 561 examinations of 153 DP at different time points were retrospectively evaluated, with special emphasis on APCs. Holter results from 110 healthy control DPs were compared to the last normal Holter and echocardiographic examinations in 43 DP that subsequently developed DCM within 15 months (DCM group), and to the first examination in the DCM group that contained ventricular premature complexes (VPC). There were no significant differences in the number of APCs or the coupling interval between the control group and the last normal examination in the DCM group (P > 0.05). The number of APCs increased slightly at the first abnormal examination in the DCM group. Healthy male DP had more APCs than females (P = 0.009) and older dogs had APCs more frequently than younger dogs (P < 0.001). About 85% of healthy DP with at least one APC/24 h had <20 APCs/24 h. Extracardiac diseases, especially gastrointestinal diseases influenced the occurrence of APCs (P = 0.037 and P = 0.006, respectively). APCs were present without obvious cardiac disease and were not a marker for the development of DCM, as they were not identified until after VPCs were present.


Assuntos
Complexos Atriais Prematuros/veterinária , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Animais , Complexos Atriais Prematuros/fisiopatologia , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/veterinária , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Masculino , Linhagem , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008392, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542036

RESUMO

The canine hookworms Ancylostoma braziliense, Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala are not only capable of producing morbidity and mortality in dogs but are also neglected tropical zoonoses. Each hookworm species differs considerably in its geographical distribution, life cycle, biology, pathogenic impacts on both canine and human hosts, zoonotic potential, and response to treatment with anthelminthics. Here we describe the development and validation of two Taq-Man based multiplex PCR assays capable of detecting and differentiating all four canine hookworm species in faeces of naturally infected dogs. The analytical sensitivity of both assays was assessed using 10-fold serial dilutions of synthetic gene block fragments containing individual sequence targets of each hookworm species. The sensitivity of the assays and ability to detect mixed species infections were compared to a conventional PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism based-approach when applied to laboratory and field samples from endemic areas. The qPCRs detected at least one species of hookworms in 82.4% of PCR-RFLP-negative but microscopy-positive samples. The qPCRs detected an additional 68% mixed infections with different species of canine hookworms, and additional single species infection with A. caninum (47%), U. stenocephala (33%) and A. ceylanicum (0.02%) that were missed by PCR-RFLP. These multiplex qPCR assays will assist field based epidemiological surveillance studies towards an accurate and sensitive monitoring of canine hookworm infections in dogs, to inform their species-specific zoonotic risks to populations living in endemic areas, globally.


Assuntos
Ancylostomatoidea/genética , Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Infecções por Uncinaria/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária , Ancylostoma/genética , Ancylostoma/isolamento & purificação , Ancylostomatoidea/classificação , Ancilostomíase/diagnóstico , Ancilostomíase/epidemiologia , Ancilostomíase/fisiopatologia , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/análise , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Infecções por Uncinaria/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/fisiopatologia
8.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 39: 100407, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482283

RESUMO

Owners' ability to recognize signs of chronic pain in dogs undergoing pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic pain interventions during a period of physical rehabilitation is not known. This study aimed to compare dogs with and without chronic pain, and to assess the relationship between explanatory factors, including the probability of owners' response bias induced by pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic pain intervention, and chronic pain in dogs with osteoarthritis (OA). Seventy-one dogs with OA were included in this observational study. Owner-perceived pain interference was measured by Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) and owner-perceived pain behavior was assessed using Helsinki Chronic Pain Index. A dichotomous variable of Helsinki Chronic Pain Index was used in regression analysis to investigate the association between chronic pain and explanatory factors (body condition, anti-inflammatory medication, animal physiotherapy consultation once or more and owners' perception of pain interfering). Seventy-five percent of the dogs had ongoing anti-inflammatory medication, 51% of were overweight and 45% had a physiotherapy consultation. Higher levels of overt pain behaviors were reported in items addressing activities. Body condition, physiotherapy consultation and medication were not associated with chronic pain. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals of OR for the CBPI were 1.74 (1.23-2.47) and significantly associated with chronic pain. The adjusted OR of the CBPI did not differ from the crude OR. Owner-perceived pain behavior was not confounded by the dogs' medication. Results indicated that CBPI was not mediated by the medication. The CBPI pain interference score was not associated with response bias and may be used as clinical outcome measure of chronic pain and pain-related disability in dogs with OA along a period of physical rehabilitation comprising pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic pain interventions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Propriedade , Dor , Animais , Viés , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , Probabilidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2962, 2020 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139728

RESUMO

Behaviour problems and anxieties in dogs decrease their quality of life and may lead to relinquishment or euthanasia. Considering the large number of pet dogs and the commonness of these problematic behaviours, a better understanding of the epidemiology and related molecular and environmental factors is needed. We have here studied the prevalence, comorbidity, and breed specificity of seven canine anxiety-like traits: noise sensitivity, fearfulness, fear of surfaces and heights, inattention/impulsivity, compulsion, separation related behaviour and aggression with an online behaviour questionnaire answered by dog owners. Our results show that noise sensitivity is the most common anxiety-related trait with a prevalence of 32% in 13,700 Finnish pet dogs. Due to the high prevalence of noise sensitivity and fear, they were the most common comorbidities. However, when comparing the relative risk, the largest risk ratios were seen between hyperactivity/inattention, separation related behaviour and compulsion, and between fear and aggression. Furthermore, dog breeds showed large differences in prevalence of all anxiety-related traits, suggesting a strong genetic contribution. As a result, selective breeding focusing on behaviour may reduce the prevalence of canine anxieties. Anxious animals may suffer from chronic stress and thus, modified breeding policies could improve the welfare of our companion dogs.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Comportamento Animal , Comportamento Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Animais , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Comorbidade , Comportamento Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Cão/psicologia , Cães , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Animais de Estimação/psicologia , Prevalência , Qualidade de Vida , Especificidade da Espécie , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 94, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Syringomyelia (SM) is a debilitating condition in the cavalier King Charles spaniel (CKCS) that results in neuropathic pain and diminished quality of life. Von Frey aesthesiometry (VFA) is a method of mechanical quantitative sensory testing that provides an objective sensory threshold (ST) value and can be used to quantify neuropathic pain (NP) and monitor response to therapy. The utility of VFA has been previously established in client-owned dogs with acute spinal cord injury but the technique has not been evaluated in dogs with SM. The goal of this study was to evaluate ST, as determined by VFA, in dogs with and without SM, to assess the utility of VFA in quantifying NP in SM-affected dogs. We hypothesized the SM-affected CKCS would have lower ST values, consistent with hyperesthesia, when compared to control CKCS. Additionally, we hypothesized that ST values in SM-affected dogs would be inversely correlated with syrinx size on MRI and with owner-derived clinical sign scores. RESULTS: ST values for the thoracic and pelvic limbs differed significantly between the SM-affected and control CKCS (p = 0.027; p = 0.0396 respectively). Median ST value (range) for the thoracic limbs was 184.1 g (120.9-552) for control dogs, and 139.9 g (52.6-250.9) for SM-affected dogs. The median ST value (range) for the pelvic limbs was 164.9 g (100.8-260.3) in control dogs and 129.8 g (57.95-168.4) in SM-affected dogs. The ST values in SM-affected dogs did not correlate with syrinx height on MRI (r = 0.314; p = 0.137). Owner-reported clinical sign scores showed an inverse correlation with pelvic limb ST values, where dogs with lower ST values (hyperesthesia) were reported by their owners to display more frequent and severe clinical signs (r = - 0.657; p = 0.022). CONCLUSION: ST values were lower in SM-affected CKCS compared to control dogs, suggesting the presence of neuropathic pain. Dogs with lower ST pelvic limb values were perceived by their owners to have more severe clinical signs classically associated with SM. Our results suggest that VFA might offer quantitative assessment of neuropathic pain in SM-affected dogs and could be useful for monitoring response to therapy in future clinical studies.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Neuralgia/diagnóstico , Neuralgia/veterinária , Siringomielia/veterinária
11.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229736, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of intravenous maropitant on arterial blood pressure in healthy dogs while awake and under general anesthesia. DESIGN: Experimental crossover study. ANIMALS: Eight healthy adult Beagle dogs. PROCEDURE: All dogs received maropitant (1 mg kg-1) intravenously under the following conditions: 1) awake with non-invasive blood pressure monitoring (AwNIBP), 2) awake with invasive blood pressure monitoring (AwIBP), 3) premedication with acepromazine (0.005 mg kg-1) and butorphanol (0.2 mg kg-1) intramuscularly followed by propofol induction and isoflurane anesthesia (GaAB), and 4) premedication with dexmedetomidine (0.005 mg kg-1) and butorphanol (0.2 mg kg-1) intramuscularly followed by propofol induction and isoflurane anesthesia (GaDB). Heart rate (HR), systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP), and mean blood pressures (MAP) were recorded before injection of maropitant (baseline), during the first 60 seconds of injection, during the second 60 seconds of injection, at the completion of injection and every 2 minutes post injection for 18 minutes. The data were compared over time using a Generalized Linear Model with mixed effects and then with simple effect comparison with Bonferroni adjustments (p <0.05). RESULTS: There were significant decreases from baseline in SAP in the GaAB group (p < 0.01) and in MAP and DAP in the AwIBP and GaAB (p < 0.001) groups during injection. A significant decrease in SAP (p < 0.05), DAP (p < 0.05), and MAP (p < 0.05) occurred at 16 minutes post injection in GaDB group. There was also a significant increase in HR in the AwIBP group (p < 0.01) during injection. Clinically significant hypotension occurred in the GaAB group with a mean MAP at 54 ± 6 mmHg during injection. CONCLUSION: Intravenous maropitant administration significantly decreases arterial blood pressure during inhalant anesthesia. Patients premedicated with acepromazine prior to isoflurane anesthesia may develop clinically significant hypotension.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Antieméticos/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinuclidinas/administração & dosagem , Quinuclidinas/efeitos adversos , Acepromazina/efeitos adversos , Anestesia por Inalação/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão/veterinária , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Animais , Pré-Medicação/efeitos adversos , Pré-Medicação/veterinária , Vigília
12.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227807, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935277

RESUMO

The effect of seasonal variation on hospital admissions and outcomes in humans with cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure (CHF) has been described. This study evaluates the effect of temperature variation on admissions and outcomes in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and first onset CHF. Ninety-three client-owned dogs with MMVD and a first occurrence of pulmonary edema were included in this retrospective clinical cohort study. Recorded clinical and echocardiographic variables were accumulated and analyzed with dogs allocated into groups in a temperature-wise manner that considered the mean of the average (Tave) and maximum ambient temperature (Tmax) of the 14 days preceding hospital admission. A survival analysis was also performed. No difference was found in the percentage of dogs decompensating in three different temperature periods (i.e., cold, intermediate, and hot temperature) according to both Tave and Tmax. Dogs developing CHF during the intermediate temperatures according to Tmax died earlier from cardiac-related causes (median survival time 280 days, 95% CI = 147-486 days) compared to those decompensating during hot temperatures (median survival time 518 days, 95% CI = 344-819 days, P = 0.039). However, an effect of the ambient temperature on survival was not confirmed by Cox proportional hazard analysis. In conclusion, this study failed to show that ambient temperature has an effect on the first occurrence of CHF and outcomes in dogs with MMVD.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/veterinária , Edema Pulmonar/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Cães , Hospitais Veterinários , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/complicações , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Edema Pulmonar/etiologia , Edema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
13.
Can J Vet Res ; 84(1): 44-51, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920217

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to explore the mathematical relationships between independent variables (patient morphometrics and treadmill speed) and dependent variables (accelerometer or pedometer output) when evaluating data from accelerometers and pedometers in dogs. Twenty dogs took part in 3 randomized activities, consisting of exercise on a treadmill at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 m/s for a total distance of 1 km at each speed. Dogs simultaneously wore both an accelerometer and a pedometer. Statistical analysis used multiple regression models to discover the relationships between independent and dependent variables. A formula was developed to predict the distance traveled by a dog based on its morphometrics and activity monitor output. Shoulder height had stronger correlations to accelerometer and pedometer outputs than other morphometric variables. As shoulder height increased, all accelerometer and pedometer outputs decreased. As treadmill speed increased, both accelerometer and pedometer step counts decreased, while accelerometer activity counts increased. According to a formula derived to predict the total distance traveled using patient shoulder height and accelerometer or pedometer output, pedometer steps were the most accurate predictor of distance traveled. Accelerometer steps were less accurate when using the same model. Accelerometer activity counts did not reveal a meaningful predictive formula. The results of this study indicate that patient morphometrics and treadmill speed (as a measure of intensity) influenced accelerometer and pedometer data. The pedometer data more precisely and accurately estimated the distance traveled based on step counts and patient shoulder height. In normal dogs, accelerometer and pedometer steps may reasonably estimate distance traveled.


Assuntos
Cães/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Acelerometria , Animais , Peso Corporal , Intervalos de Confiança , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Cães/classificação , Teste de Esforço/veterinária , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Análise de Regressão
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1062, 2020 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974465

RESUMO

Rabies is a fatal viral disease typically transmitted through the bite of rabid animal. Domestic dogs cause over 99% of human rabies deaths. Over half of the world's population lives in a country where the canine rabies virus variant is endemic and dog bites are common. An estimated 29 million people worldwide receive post-bite vaccination after being exposed to animals suspected of rabies. Accurate and timely risk assessment of rabies in biting dogs is critical to ensure that rabies PEP is administered to all persons with a suspected rabies exposure, while avoiding PEP administration in situations where rabies can be definitively ruled out. In this study, a logistic regression model was developed to quantify the risk of rabies in biting dogs, using data from Haiti's animal rabies surveillance program. Significant risk factors identified in the model were used to quantify the probability of rabies in biting dogs. The risk of rabies in a biting dog as assessed through Haiti's rabies surveillance program was highly elevated when the dog displayed hypersalivation (OR = 34.6, 95% CI 11.3-106.5) or paralysis (OR = 19.0, 95% CI 4.8-74.8) and when the dog was dead at the time of the assessment (OR = 20.7, 95% CI 6.7-63.7). Lack of prior rabies vaccination, biting 2 or more people, and if the dog was a puppy also increased the probability that a biting dog would have rabies. The model showed high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97%) when examined using validation data. This model enables us to project the risk of rabies in biting dogs in Haiti shortly after the bite event and make provisional PEP recommendations prior to laboratory testing or dog quarantine results. Application of this model may improve adherence to PEP for bite victims who can be educated on the quantitative risk of the exposure event. This model can also be used to reduce unnecessary PEP costs when the risk of rabies is determined as sufficiently low and the animal is available for observation.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/virologia , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Haiti/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Raiva/transmissão , Raiva/virologia , Vírus da Raiva/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(2): 273-294, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858992

RESUMO

Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are important diagnostic tools that have wide clinical applications in human and veterinary medicine. Widespread use of PFTs in measuring lung volumes in veterinary medicine was historically limited by the need for specialized equipment to accurately perform and interpret these tests, and by lack of patient cooperation. However, recent advances and modifications have allowed PFTs to be safely performed in conscious veterinary patients with minimal stress. This article focuses on the most commonly used tests of pulmonary function including tests of pulmonary mechanics and of gas exchange in the lungs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória/veterinária , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/fisiopatologia
16.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(2): 419-430, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864678

RESUMO

Tracheal and airway collapse (bronchomalacia) are common causes of chronic cough in middle-aged to older dogs in which weakening of cartilage within the respiratory system leads to narrowing of airways, irritation, inflammation, partial to complete airway obstruction, and other secondary effects. Tracheomalacia occurs in small-breed dogs, whereas bronchomalacia can occur in any size dog. Successful treatment involves correct identification of the problem, recognition of concurrent disease processes, and appropriate medical therapy. Surgical intervention and intraluminal stenting are readily available so it is important to understand indications for such procedures.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Traqueobroncomalácia/veterinária , Animais , Tosse/complicações , Tosse/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Traqueobroncomalácia/diagnóstico , Traqueobroncomalácia/etiologia , Traqueobroncomalácia/terapia
17.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(2): 393-404, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812219

RESUMO

Chronic bronchitis is a syndrome defined by cough on most days for at least 2 months for which no specific cause can be identified. Older small breed dogs are most commonly affected, but bronchitis can also be documented in midsized and larger breed dogs. Diagnostic testing includes physical examination, laboratory testing, radiography, and airway evaluation via bronchoscopy, cytology, and culture. Treatment is directed at reducing exposure to irritants, reducing airway inflammation, and controlling cough.


Assuntos
Bronquite Crônica/veterinária , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Bronquite Crônica/diagnóstico , Bronquite Crônica/fisiopatologia , Bronquite Crônica/terapia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Prognóstico
18.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(1): 318-327, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512804

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to identify changes in serum proteome in dogs that may occur after an experimental infection at subclinical and clinical stages of canine leishmaniosis (CanL). For this purpose, canine pre- and post-infection with Leishmania infantum serum proteomes in the same dogs were analysed by a high-throughput label-based quantitative LC-MS/MS proteomic approach. A total of 169 proteins were identified, and 74 of them including complement C8 alpha chain, adiponectin, transferrin, sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase acid-like 3A and immunoglobulins showed different modulation between the different stages of CanL. These proteins could be considered as potential serum biomarkers of early diagnostic or disease progression in CanL. Additionally, biological pathways modulated during CanL such as blood coagulation or gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor were revealed, which could help to understand the pathological mechanisms of the disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Leishmania infantum/metabolismo , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Proteoma , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/fisiopatologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/virologia , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/veterinária
19.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(2): 431-446, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866093

RESUMO

Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a chronic, progressive, interstitial lung disease (ILD) affecting older West Highland white terriers (WHWTs). According to one classification, CIPF is a familial fibrotic ILD in the group of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Etiology is unknown but likely arises from interplay between genetic and environmental factors. CIPF shares features with human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and human nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. This article describes clinical signs, findings in physical examination, arterial oxygenation, diagnostic imaging, bronchoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage, histopathology, disease course, and outcome of WHWTs with CIPF; compares canine and human diseases; summarizes biomarker research; and gives an overview of potential treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 433, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive myelomalacia (PMM) is a usually fatal complication of acute intervertebral disc extrusion (IVDE) in dogs but its risk factors are poorly understood. The objective of this retrospective case-control study was to identify risk factors for PMM by comparing dogs with complete sensorimotor loss following IVDE that did and did not develop the disease after surgery. We also investigated whether any risk factors for PMM influenced return of ambulation. Medical records of client-owned dogs with paraplegia and loss of pain perception that underwent surgery for IVDE from 1998 to 2016, were reviewed. Dogs were categorized as PMM yes or no based on clinical progression or histopathology. Walking outcome at 6 months was established. Signalment, onset and duration of signs (categorized), steroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (yes or no), site of IVDE (lumbar intumescence or thoracolumbar) and longitudinal extent of IVDE were retrieved and their associations with PMM and walking outcome were examined using logistic regression. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety seven dogs were included, 45 with and 152 without PMM. A 6-month-outcome was available in 178 dogs (all 45 PMM dogs and 133 control dogs); 86 recovered walking (all in the control group). Disc extrusions at the lumbar intumescence were associated with PMM (p = 0.01, OR: 3.02, CI: 1.3-7.2). Surgery performed more than 12 h after loss of ambulation was associated with PMM (OR = 3.4; CI = 1.1-10.5, p = 0.03 for 12-24 h and OR = 4.6; CI = 1.3-16.6, p = 0.02 for the > 24 h categories when compared with the ≤12 h category). Treatment with corticosteroids was negatively associated with PMM (OR: 3.1; CI: 1.3-7.6, p = 0.01). The only variable to affect walking outcome was longitudinal extent of IVDE (OR = 2.6; CI = 1.3-5.3, p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Dogs with lumbar intumescence IVDE are at increased risk of PMM. Timing of surgery and corticosteroid use warrant further investigations. PMM and recovery of walking are influenced by different factors.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/veterinária , Paraplegia/veterinária , Doenças da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/complicações , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Paraplegia/etiologia , Paraplegia/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Doenças da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/patologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia
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