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1.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(2): 273-294, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858992

RESUMO

Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are important diagnostic tools that have wide clinical applications in human and veterinary medicine. Widespread use of PFTs in measuring lung volumes in veterinary medicine was historically limited by the need for specialized equipment to accurately perform and interpret these tests, and by lack of patient cooperation. However, recent advances and modifications have allowed PFTs to be safely performed in conscious veterinary patients with minimal stress. This article focuses on the most commonly used tests of pulmonary function including tests of pulmonary mechanics and of gas exchange in the lungs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória/veterinária , Doenças Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Doenças Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Doenças Respiratórias/fisiopatologia
2.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(2): 419-430, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864678

RESUMO

Tracheal and airway collapse (bronchomalacia) are common causes of chronic cough in middle-aged to older dogs in which weakening of cartilage within the respiratory system leads to narrowing of airways, irritation, inflammation, partial to complete airway obstruction, and other secondary effects. Tracheomalacia occurs in small-breed dogs, whereas bronchomalacia can occur in any size dog. Successful treatment involves correct identification of the problem, recognition of concurrent disease processes, and appropriate medical therapy. Surgical intervention and intraluminal stenting are readily available so it is important to understand indications for such procedures.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Traqueobroncomalácia/veterinária , Animais , Tosse/complicações , Tosse/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Traqueobroncomalácia/diagnóstico , Traqueobroncomalácia/etiologia , Traqueobroncomalácia/terapia
3.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(2): 431-446, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866093

RESUMO

Canine idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (CIPF) is a chronic, progressive, interstitial lung disease (ILD) affecting older West Highland white terriers (WHWTs). According to one classification, CIPF is a familial fibrotic ILD in the group of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. Etiology is unknown but likely arises from interplay between genetic and environmental factors. CIPF shares features with human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and human nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. This article describes clinical signs, findings in physical examination, arterial oxygenation, diagnostic imaging, bronchoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage, histopathology, disease course, and outcome of WHWTs with CIPF; compares canine and human diseases; summarizes biomarker research; and gives an overview of potential treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/diagnóstico , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/fisiopatologia , Prognóstico
4.
Vet J ; 253: 105392, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685131

RESUMO

Brachycephalic dog breeds are prone to breathing difficulties because of their upper airway anatomy. Several surgical techniques exist to correct anatomical pathologies and common surgical approaches aim to correct functional abnormalities in the nares and/or the soft palate. However, further research is needed to improve clinical outcomes. This study evaluated air pressure and airflow resistance in the upper airways and trachea in nine sedated, sternally recumbent dogs of different skull types (dolichocephalic, n=3; mesocephalic, n=3; brachycephalic, n=3). CT images were acquired from the nostrils to the caudal border of the lungs and geometrical reconstruction of the upper airway and trachea was performed. Analysis of computational fluid dynamics was performed using inspiratory flow adapted to bodyweight for each dog. Flow (L/min) and pressure (cmH2O) were computed for the entire upper airway and trachea. Resistance (cmH2O/L/min) was calculated using pressure differences between the nose, larynx, and trachea. In this pilot study, statistical comparisons were not performed. Pressure maps, airflow, and resistance were similar in dolichocephalic and mesocephalic breeds. Median pressure difference (3.76cmH2O) and resistance (0.154cmH2O/L/min) between the nose and larynx were numerically higher in brachycephalic dogs than in other breeds (0.45cmH2O and 0.016cmH2O/L/min, respectively). Median pressure difference (0.205cmH2O) and resistance (0.009cmH2O/L/min) between the larynx and trachea was numerically similar in all dogs, except for the English bulldog. The methodology used in this preliminary study to quantify airflow characteristics such as pressure and resistance could improve the understanding of brachycephalic obstruction airway syndrome.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/veterinária , Resistência das Vias Respiratórias , Craniossinostoses/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Palato Mole/anormalidades , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Animais , Craniossinostoses/fisiopatologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Palato Mole/fisiopatologia , Linhagem
5.
J Vet Sci ; 20(5): e46, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565889

RESUMO

Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) is a stress biomarker in human diseases, but there are no reports of sAA measurements in diseased dogs. This study measured the sAA and serum alpha-amylase (AA) levels in 16 healthy dogs and 31 diseased dogs using a kinetic enzyme assay to assess the stress status. The sAA and serum AA levels were significantly higher in the diseased dogs than in healthy dogs (p < 0.05), but there was no correlation between the 2 groups (r = 0.251, p = 0.089). This suggests that sAA can be useful as a stress biomarker in diseased dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Saliva/química , alfa-Amilases/sangue , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , alfa-Amilases Salivares/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico
6.
PLoS Genet ; 15(10): e1008416, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647804

RESUMO

Laryngeal paralysis (LP) is the inability to abduct the arytenoid cartilages during inspiration, resulting in a partial to complete airway obstruction and consequent respiratory distress. Different forms of LP with varying age of onset exist in dogs. Hereditary early onset forms were reported in several dog breeds. In most breeds, hereditary LP is associated with other neurologic pathologies. Using a genome-wide association study and haplotype analyses, we mapped a major genetic risk factor for an early onset LP in Miniature Bull Terriers to a ~1.3 Mb interval on chromosome 11. Whole genome sequencing of an affected Miniature Bull Terrier and comparison to 598 control genomes revealed a 36 bp insertion into exon 15 of the RAPGEF6 gene (c.1793_1794ins36). The imperfect genotype-phenotype correlation suggested a complex mode of inheritance with a major genetic risk factor involving a recessive risk allele. Homozygosity for the insertion was associated with a 10- to 17-fold increased risk for LP. The insertion allele was only found in Miniature Bull Terriers and Bull Terriers. It was absent from >1000 control dogs of other dog breeds. The insertion sequence contains a splice acceptor motif leading to aberrant splicing in transcripts originating from the mutant allele (r.1732_1780del). This leads to a frameshift and a premature stop codon, p.(Ile587ProfsTer5), removing 64% of the open reading frame. Our results suggest an important role of RAPGEF6 in laryngeal nerve function and provide new clues to its physiological significance.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/genética , Animais , Cartilagem Aritenoide/patologia , Cruzamento , Códon sem Sentido/genética , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Éxons , Mutação da Fase de Leitura/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Humanos , Nervos Laríngeos/patologia , Processamento de RNA/genética , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/fisiopatologia , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/veterinária , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
7.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 60(6): 745-752, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515890

RESUMO

Peripheral vein phlebitis (inflammation) is a relatively frequent complication in dogs, however, published information on the ultrasonographic characteristics is currently lacking. This prospective, observational study describes the ultrasound (US) characteristics of normal canine cephalic veins, and veins with clinical phlebitis. Correlations among US findings and between US findings versus time that the intravenous catheter was in place were investigated. Safety of the US procedure was evaluated. Fifty patients were prospectively recruited for the study and 18 met the final inclusion criteria. Each patient underwent daily US examinations and was assessed for multiple criteria (vascular wall appearance, compressibility, spontaneity of flow, color fill, and presence/absence of filling defects, flow contour, direction, non-pulsatility). Characteristics of normal canine cephalic veins were as follows: smooth and thin wall, complete compressibility, no flow disturbances, no filling defects, smooth flow contours, and unidirectional, non-pulsatile flow with no turbulence. Characteristics of cephalic veins with clinical phlebitis were as follows: wall thickening (83%), decreased compressibility (55%), filling defects consistent with intraluminal thrombus (55%), vessel wall hyperechogenicity (44%), and abnormal color Doppler flow (39%). Significant correlations were found between Doppler filling defects and compressibility, Doppler filling defects and presumed thrombosis, and compressibility and presumed thrombosis (P = .001, P = .001, P = .000, respectively). No correlation was found between the US findings and time the intravenous catheter was in place. Findings indicated that duplex and compressibility US are feasible and safe methods for characterizing and monitoring cephalic veins in dogs with clinical phlebitis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Flebite/veterinária , Animais , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Flebite/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fluxo Pulsátil , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores/veterinária
8.
Vet J ; 252: 105355, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554587

RESUMO

Accelerometer measurements are frequently reported as total weekly activity counts (AC). Methods of utilizing activity parameters to allow differentiation of activity intensities (i.e., manually derived cut-points) have been described. While this information may provide valuable data for researchers, only few investigators have utilized these methods. This may, in part, be due to the challenge associated with data processing. Some devices, however, generate activity intensity data automatically. This study was conducted to evaluate a novel accelerometer that allows for remote download of data via Wi-Fi (Heyrex), to compare automatically generated parameters quantifying activity levels to previously established cut-points (Actical) and to describe the variability of accelerometer data in dogs with osteoarthritis. Twelve client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis were fitted with a collar with two accelerometers (Heyrex and Actical). Accelerometer data were recorded for 28 days. Pearson bivariate correlations and coefficient of variation (CV%) were calculated for accelerometer data. There was a strong correlation between the AC reported by Heyrex and Actical devices. Several automatically generated parameters showed strong correlations to previously validated cut-points and displayed lower CV% than weekly AC. The activity intensity derived from the Heyrex was associated with the lowest CV% of all parameters from both accelerometers. Automatically generated activity intensity parameters should be considered as potential outcome measures in clinical trials for dogs with osteoarthritis. This novel technology may allow for convenient acquisition of activity intensity data in companion animals. However, technical difficulties (e.g., lack of Wi-Fi connectivity) may pose challenges when using this novel device.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Atividade Motora , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Osteoartrite/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
Vet J ; 252: 105342, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554593

RESUMO

Hyperadrenocorticism is a relatively common endocrine disorder in dogs. It occurs as a result of a functional pituitary or adrenal tumour, although other causes have been rarely reported. Canine hyperadrenocorticism has been extensively described but diagnosing this disease remains challenging. Few studies have investigated the clinical and clinicopathological features helpful in differentiating dogs with hyperadrenocorticism from dogs in which the disease is suspected but eventually excluded. Ultimately the diagnosis is based on a combination of multiple pieces of information emanating from the signalment, history, clinical findings, and a variety of diagnostic tests. The first part of this review aims to critically appraise the available data on epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features of naturally occurring canine hyperadrenocorticism.


Assuntos
Hiperfunção Adrenocortical/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Hiperfunção Adrenocortical/diagnóstico , Animais , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães
10.
Vet Res Commun ; 43(4): 231-238, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473888

RESUMO

This study was performed to evaluate the hepatocyte-derived microRNA (miR)-122 as novel diagnostic biomarker in canine lymphoma. Fifteen dogs were enrolled in this study. Dogs presented at Small Animal Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University. Dogs were divided into 8 clinically healthy dogs act as control and 7 clinically ill dogs. All dogs were subjected to clinical, ultrasonographic, hemato-biochemical and ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy for cytological and histopathological investigations. On the basis of these results, 7 dogs were found to be suffering from multicentric lymphoma involving liver. Serum hepatocyte-derived miRA-122 was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in all dogs. Multicentric lymphoma involving liver manifested by inappetance for several days, depression and peripheral lymphadenopathy. Hematological examination showed significant lymphocytosis. Serum biochemical analysis revealed significant increase in ALT, AST, ALP compared to control dogs. Ultrasonography revealed hypoechoic lymphoid aggregation at area of "porta hepatis" and circumscribed hypoechoic nodule interrupt liver parenchyma. Cytology revealed infiltration of liver tissue by lymphoblast cells and histopathology revealed diffuse infiltration of hepatic sinusoids and portal area by uniform population of small lymphocytes. Serum miRNA-122 analysis showed a significant increase represented as 9.00 fold in canine multicentric lymphoma involving liver. Serum hepatocyte-derived miRNA-122 is of diagnostic value, non invasive, stable and easily measurable blood biomarker for the detection of hepatocellular injury in dogs with multicentric lymphoma involving liver.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Fígado/patologia , Linfoma/veterinária , MicroRNAs/sangue , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Hepatócitos/patologia , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/complicações , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Linfoma/sangue , Linfoma/complicações , Linfoma/diagnóstico , MicroRNAs/genética
11.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(10): 1485-1491, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484835

RESUMO

Basic information related to the association between right heart echocardiographic parameters and invasive pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in dogs with pulmonary hypetension (PH) is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association between conventional right heart echocardiographic parameters and invasive PAP by right heart catheterization (RHC) before and after PH. Five female beagle dogs regarded as clinically healthy were used. Echocardiography and RHC were conducted before and after creating chronic embolic pulmonary hypertension (CEPH) models. The acceleration time to ejection time ratio in pulmonary artery flow profile (AT/ET), the ratio of the pulmonary artery and aortic diameter in diastole (PA/Ao), the right pulmonary artery distensibility index by M-mode method (RPAD M-mode), the normalized right ventricular internal diameter in diastole (RVIDdn), and the normalized tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSEn) were correlated with the invasive systolic PAP (sPAP), mean PAP (mPAP) and diastolic PAP (dPAP). Multiple linear regression analysis identified AT/ET and RVIDdn as independent predictors of sPAP, PA/Ao and RVIDdn as independent predictors of mPAP, and PA/Ao and RPAD M-mode as independent predictors of dPAP. AT/ET and PA/Ao had high sensitivity and specificity for predicting CEPH. In conclusion, AT/ET, PA/Ao, RPAD M-mode, RVIDdn and TAPSEn were significantly correlated with invasive PAP and alterations in PA/Ao or AT/ET might enable clinicians to predict PH, even if tricuspid regurgitation is not observed.


Assuntos
Cateterismo de Swan-Ganz/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia Doppler/veterinária , Hipertensão Pulmonar/veterinária , Animais , Doença Crônica , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Feminino , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia
12.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 44-52, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395204

RESUMO

In the present study, a quantitative proteomic approach to study changes in saliva proteins associated with canine leishmaniosis (CanL) was performed. For this, canine salivary proteins were analysed and compared between dogs before (T0) and after (T1) experimental infection with Leishmania infantum by high-throughput label-based quantitative LC-MS/MS proteomic approach and bioinformatic analysis of the in silico inferred interactome protein network was created from the initial list of differential proteins. More than 2000 proteins were identified, and of the 90 differentially expressed proteins between T0 and T1, 12 were down-regulated with log2 fold change lower than -0.5849, and 19 were up-regulated with log2 fold change greater than 0.5849. This study provides evidence of changes in salivary proteome that can occur in canine leishmaniosis and revealed biological pathways in saliva modulated in canine leishmaniosis with potential for further targeted research.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Saliva , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/genética , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Simulação por Computador , Cães , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Leishmaniose/fisiopatologia , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Saliva/química , Saliva/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2029-2036, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bleeding tendencies can occur with uremia. OBJECTIVES: To characterize primary hemostatic function in dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI). ANIMALS: Ten dogs with International Renal Interest Society AKI grade III or above and 10 healthy controls. METHODS: Prospective study comparing PCV, platelet count, platelet aggregometry (Multiplate), and von Willebrand factor antigen to collagen binding activity ratio (vWF:Ag:vWF:CBA) in 2 groups of dogs (AKI group versus controls). Buccal mucosal bleeding time was measured in the AKI group only. Data are presented as median [25th, 75th percentile] unless otherwise stated. Significance was set at P < .05. RESULTS: Mean PCV was significantly lower in the AKI (34.7%; ±SD, 8.8) than in the control (46.1%; ±SD, 3.6; P < .001) group. Platelet count was significantly higher in the AKI (350.5 × 103 /µL [301, 516]) than in the control (241 × 103 /µL [227, 251]; P = .01) group. Collagen-activated platelet aggregometry measured as area under the curve was significantly lower in the AKI (36.9 ± 17.7) than in the control (54.9 ± 11.2; P = .05) group. vWF:Ag:vWF:CBA was significantly higher in the AKI (2.2 [1.9, 2.6]) than in the control (1.1 [1.1, 1.2]; P = .01) group. There was a strong correlation between vWF:Ag:vWF:CBA and creatinine (r = 0.859; P < .001), but no other variables. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Dogs with AKI had decreased collagen-activated platelet aggregation and appear to have a type II von Willebrand disease-like phenotype as indicated by the high vWF:Ag:vWF:CBA.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/veterinária , Colágeno/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Fator de von Willebrand/análise , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Animais , Tempo de Sangramento/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal , Contagem de Plaquetas/veterinária , Testes de Função Plaquetária/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Vet J ; 250: 79-85, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383424

RESUMO

Kinetic analyses are becoming increasingly important for biomechanical research in veterinary medicine and as a diagnostic tool for orthopaedic examinations in dogs. Such analysis enables accurate evaluation of the vertical force distribution (VFD) in canine paw pads. The aim of this study was to assess peak vertical force (PFz) as a percent of total force (%TF), vertical impulse (IFz, %TF) and time of occurrence of PFz (TPFz) as a percent of the stance phase (%SP) in the pads of all four limbs in 23 dogs with osteoarthritis in the elbow joint and 22 healthy dogs. Dogs walked over a pressure plate, and the pads were divided into four quadrants for VFD analysis. For statistical analysis, a general linear model was used to examine the difference in VFD between both groups, between fore- and hindlimbs, between body sides, and between medial/lateral and cranial/caudal quadrants. Lame dogs had lower PFz in the lame forelimb than in other limbs and transferred their weight to the caudal quadrants of the contralateral forelimb and the caudomedial quadrant of both hindlimbs. IFz was also lower in the affected forelimb and was compensated through higher loading of the caudal quadrants of the contralateral forelimb, the caudomedial quadrants of both hindlimbs and the caudolateral quadrant of the contralateral hindlimb. TPFz (%SP) occurred later in both forelimbs of the lame dogs than in those of healthy dogs. The analysis of force distribution over the paw quadrants can be used for further biomechanical studies of dogs with orthopaedic and neurological diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Membro Anterior/fisiologia , Membro Posterior/fisiologia , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Caminhada/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Cinética , Masculino , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia
15.
J Vet Cardiol ; 24: 1-6, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405550

RESUMO

Preexcitation alternans and orthodromic atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia were diagnosed in a 3-month-old Boxer. The images described here show how conventional electrocardiographic techniques (12-lead surface electrocardiography, 24-hour Holter monitoring, and ladder diagram) can be interpreted to gain detailed information on presence of canine atrioventricular accessory pathways and their conduction properties.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Pré-Excitação/veterinária , Animais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Eletrocardiografia/veterinária , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/veterinária , Feminino , Linhagem , Síndromes de Pré-Excitação/diagnóstico
16.
J Vet Cardiol ; 24: 48-57, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405554

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the frequency of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and cardiac death (CD) in Irish wolfhounds (IW) with subclinical atrial fibrillation (AF) and to compare cardiac and all-cause mortality to those of a contemporaneous control group of apparently healthy IW with sinus rhythm. ANIMALS: Fifty-two IW with AF, but without echocardiographic evidence of DCM or other cardiac disease, and an age- and gender-matched control cohort of 52 apparently healthy IW. METHODS: Data from 1552 IW were retrospectively evaluated. Fifty-two dogs with subclinical AF were compared with 52 IW controls. Time from initial diagnosis to development of DCM was recorded, and survival data were analyzed using cumulative incidence functions. RESULTS: 26/52 AF dogs developed DCM. At study end, in the AF and control group each, 49/52 AF dogs had died, three remained alive. Death in the AF cohort was attributed to CD in 22/49 dogs (12 congestive heart failure [CHF], 10 sudden cardiac deaths [SCD]), while 27 dogs died from non-CD. In the control group, significantly fewer dogs developed DCM (11/52 dogs, p=0.004), even fewer died from CD (5/49; three CHF, two SCD; p=0.001). The odd ratios (95% confidence interval) for dogs with AF vs. controls to develop DCM was 3.7 (1.6-8.8) and to die from CD was 7.2 (2.4-21.2). Median all-cause survival for AF IWs (CD, 36.3 months; non-CD, 33.2 months) did not differ significantly from the control group (CD, 28.6 months, p=0.377; non-CD, 45.3 months, p=0.631). CONCLUSION: IW with subclinical AF commonly develop DCM and die from cardiac death.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/mortalidade , Animais , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Progressão da Doença , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Feminino , Alemanha , Masculino , Linhagem , Registros/veterinária
17.
J Vet Cardiol ; 24: 7-19, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405557

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Canine pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Tadalafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor used commonly in humans with PH, has not been evaluated in a clinical trial in dogs with naturally occurring PH. Our objectives were to compare the efficacy of tadalafil and sildenafil on PH assessed by peak tricuspid regurgitant flow velocity, estimated systolic pulmonary arterial pressure gradient, voluntary activity, quality of life, and safety profiles in dogs with moderate to severe PH. ANIMALS: Twenty-three dogs with echocardiographic evidence of moderate to severe PH were enrolled. METHODS: A prospective short-term, randomized, double-blinded pilot study was carried out. Dogs with PH were randomly allocated to receive sildenafil or tadalafil for 2 weeks and assessed via echocardiography, activity monitors, and owner-reported outcomes. RESULTS: Collectively, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition significantly decreased (improved) quality of life scores (p = 0.003) and visual analog score (p = 0.024) without significant between-treatment difference of these variables. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition did not significantly affect peak tricuspid regurgitant flow velocity (p = 0.056) or voluntary activity (p = 0.27). A total of 33% (7/21) of dogs experienced at least one adverse event during the study (tadalafil, n = 5; sildenafil, n = 2) with no significant difference between treatment type and incidence of adverse events (p = 0.36). DISCUSSION: In this pilot study, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition led to apparent improvement in quality of life scores without documenting superiority of tadalafil over sildenafil. CONCLUSION: Tadalafil at a dose of 2 mg/kg once daily appears to be a viable alternative to sildenafil in dogs with moderate to severe PH.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/veterinária , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Método Duplo-Cego , Eletrocardiografia/veterinária , Feminino , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/administração & dosagem , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição Aleatória , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Citrato de Sildenafila/administração & dosagem , Citrato de Sildenafila/uso terapêutico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tadalafila/administração & dosagem , Tadalafila/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Vet Sci ; 20(4): e34, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364319

RESUMO

The right pulmonary artery distensibility (RPAD) index has been used in dogs with pulmonary hypertension (PH) caused by heartworm infection, myxomatous mitral valve disease, or patent ductus arteriosus. We hypothesized that this index correlates with the tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient (TRPG) assessed by echocardiography and could predict survival in dogs with PH secondary to various causes. To assess this hypothesis, the medical records of 200 client-owned dogs at a referral institution were retrospectively reviewed. The RPAD index and the ratios of acceleration time to peak pulmonary artery flow (AT) and to the ejection time of pulmonary artery flow (ET) were recorded for each dog. The owners were contacted for follow-up assessments. The findings indicated that the RPAD index was correlated with the TRPG (R² = 0. 362, p < 0.001). The survival time was significantly shorter in dogs with an RPAD index ≤ 21% that were followed up for 3 months and in dogs with an RPAD index ≤ 24% that were followed up for 1 year. Thus, the RPAD index was correlated with the TRPG and could predict the clinical outcome in dogs with PH caused by various diseases. This index could be used to evaluate the severity of PH in dogs without tricuspid regurgitation.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Hipertensão Pulmonar/veterinária , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/fisiopatologia
19.
J Vet Sci ; 20(4): e39, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364324

RESUMO

Cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra complex (CEH/P) is a challenge in canine reproduction. Present study aimed to assess fertility after medical treatment. One-hundred-seventy-four bitches affected by CEH/P received aglepristone on days 1, 2, 8, then every 7 days until blood progesterone < 1.2 ng/mL; cloprostenol was administered on days 3 to 5. Records were grouped according to bodyweight (BW): small (< 10 kg, n = 33), medium (10 ≥ BW < 25 kg, n = 44), large (25 ≥ BW < 40 kg, n = 52), and giant bitches (BW ≥ 40 kg, n = 45). Age; success rate; aglepristone treatments number; relapse, pregnancy rates; diagnosis-relapse, -first, -last litter intervals; litters number after treatment, and LS were analyzed by ANOVA. Overall age was 5.14 ± 1.75 years, without difference among groups. Treatment was 100% successful, without difference in treatments number (4.75 ± 1.18), relapse (15/174, 8.62%) and pregnancy (129/140 litters, 92.14%) rates, intervals diagnosis-relapse (409.63 ± 254.9 days) or -last litter (418.62 ± 129.03 days). The interval diagnosis-first litter was significantly shorter (163.52 ± 51.47 days) and longer (225.17 ± 90.97 days) in small and giant bitches, respectively. Overall, 1.47 ± 0.65 litters were born after treatment. Expected LS was achieved in each group, as shown by ΔLS (actual-expected LS by breed, overall -0.40 ± 1.62) without differences among groups. Concluding, CEH/P affects younger dogs than previously described. Relapses were rarer than previously reported. Medical treatment with aglepristone+cloprostenol is effective and safe, preserving subsequent fertility, as demonstrated by negligible changes in LS.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Hiperplasia Endometrial/veterinária , Fertilidade , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Luteolíticos/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Gravidez , Piometra/veterinária , Animais , Cloprostenol/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Hiperplasia Endometrial/fisiopatologia , Hiperplasia Endometrial/prevenção & controle , Estrenos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Gravidez , Piometra/fisiopatologia , Piometra/prevenção & controle , Recidiva
20.
J Vet Sci ; 20(4): e43, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364327

RESUMO

Chronic mitral valve disease (CMVD) is the most common cardiovascular disease in dogs, causing decreased cardiac output that results in poor tissue perfusion and tissue damage to kidneys, pancreas, and other organs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between heart disease severity and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and lipase in dogs with CMVD, as well as to evaluate longitudinal changes in these values. A total of 84 dogs participated in this 2015 to 2017 study. Serum values of NT-proBNP and lipase were analyzed; radiography was used to measure the vertebral heart score and assess various echocardiographic values. NT-proBNP showed a strong positive correlation with increasing stage of heart disease; lipase showed a mild positive correlation with heart disease stage. When the three values (NT-proBNP, lipase and month) were continuously measured at 6-month intervals, all showed a correlation with the increasing length of the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Lipase/sangue , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/veterinária , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Animais , Doença Crônica , Doenças do Cão/enzimologia , Doenças do Cão/metabolismo , Cães , Ecocardiografia , Estudos Longitudinais , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/enzimologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/metabolismo , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , República da Coreia
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