Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.750
Filtrar
1.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 258(5): 510-514, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620240

RESUMO

CASE DESCRIPTION: A 2-year-old 5.1-kg (11.2-lb) sexually intact male Maltese was admitted because of vomiting and seizures after a known ingestion of up to 206 mg/kg (93.6 mg/lb) of lamotrigine (a commonly prescribed human antiepileptic medication) approximately 3 hours earlier. CLINICAL FINDINGS: On presentation, the dog was having a seizure; however, the seizure stopped before interventional treatment, and the dog was obtunded, tachycardic, and hypertensive. Fluid therapy was initiated, and a bolus of injectable lipid emulsion (ILE) was administered. The dog's cardiovascular and mentation signs improved, and the dog was hospitalized for supportive care and monitoring. Hours later, the dog developed ventricular tachycardia that progressed to ventricular fibrillation, then cardiac arrest. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, including defibrillation, was initiated. With no response after several minutes of resuscitation efforts, another bolus of ILE was administered, and the dog's heartbeat returned shortly thereafter, albeit with severe ventricular arrhythmias that were treated medically, including with sodium bicarbonate. The dog was discharged 48 hours later with no neurologic or cardiovascular abnormalities. Six months later, the owner reported that the dog was doing well and had no abnormalities. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: To our knowledge, there are no previous case reports in veterinary medicine regarding the successful use of ILE to treat cardiac arrest secondary to lipophilic drug toxicoses nor the use of and physiologic response to sodium bicarbonate during treatment of lamotrigine toxicoses in dogs; therefore, findings in the dog of the present report may help other veterinarians treating similarly affected dogs in the future.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Emulsões , Lamotrigina , Lipídeos , Masculino , Bicarbonato de Sódio/uso terapêutico
2.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 258(5): 502-509, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic abnormalities, treatments, and outcomes of dogs with confirmed α-amanitin toxicosis resulting from ingestion of α-amanitin-containing mushrooms, and to report whether any differences were significant between survivors and nonsurvivors. ANIMALS: 59 dogs. PROCEDURES: Medical records of all dogs with confirmed α-amanitin toxicosis presented to a northern California emergency and specialty veterinary hospital between January 2006 and July 2019 were reviewed for signalment; body weight; history; physical examination findings including rectal temperature at presentation; results of serum biochemical analyses, coagulation tests, and a test for the detection of α-amanitin in urine; treatments; and outcomes. Differences for each were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors. RESULTS: Among the 59 dogs, 36 were < 1 year of age; 56 had variable clinical signs that included vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and weakness or lethargy; and 22 had rectal temperatures > 39.2°C (102.5°F) at presentation. Cases were seen throughout the calendar year. At presentation, alanine aminotransferase activity was mildly to markedly increased in 97% of dogs, hypoglycemia was noted in 78%, and coagulation times were prolonged in 91%. Most dogs that rapidly decompensated died; however, 13 dogs survived to hospital discharge and completely recovered. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Ability to recognize dogs with α-amanitin toxicosis on the basis of clinical signs, physical examination findings, and clinicopathologic test results is essential because mushroom ingestion is rarely observed and immediate treatment is necessary. Dogs that have marked hypoglycemia or coagulopathy may have a poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Doenças do Cão , Alfa-Amanitina , Animais , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Exame Físico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vômito/veterinária
3.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(10): 810-820, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the biochemical, functional, and histopathologic changes associated with lomustine-induced liver injury in dogs. ANIMALS: I0 healthy purpose-bred sexually intact female hounds. PROCEDURES: Dogs were randomly assigned to receive lomustine (approx 75 mg/m2, PO, q 21 d for 5 doses) alone (n = 5) or with prednisone (approx 1.5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 12 weeks; 5). For each dog, a CBC, serum biochemical analysis, liver function testing, urinalysis, and ultrasonographic examination of the liver with acquisition of liver biopsy specimens were performed before and at predetermined times during and after lomustine administration. Results were compared between dogs that did and did not receive prednisone. RESULTS: 7 of the I0 dogs developed clinical signs of liver failure. For all dogs, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, bile acid concentrations, and liver histologic score increased and hepatic reduced glutathione content decreased over time. Peak serum ALT (r = 0.79) and ALP (r = 0.90) activities and bile acid concentration (r = 0.68) were positively correlated with the final histologic score. Prednisone did not appear to have a protective effect on histologic score. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In dogs, liver enzyme activities, particularly ALT and ALP activities, should be closely monitored during lomustine treatment and acute increases in those activities may warrant discontinuation of lomustine to mitigate liver injury. Nonspecific ultrasonographic findings and abnormal increases in liver function tests were not detected until the onset of clinical liver failure. Glutathione depletion may have a role in lomustine-induced hepatopathy and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Lomustina , Alanina Transaminase , Fosfatase Alcalina , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Fígado , Lomustina/efeitos adversos
4.
Aust Vet J ; 98(11): 555-562, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839978

RESUMO

The purpose of this retrospective study is to characterize the clinical signs, laboratory values, treatment modalities and mortality outcomes related to cycad palm toxicosis in dogs and to identify medical interventions that potentially correlate with mortality. Dogs with confirmed cycad palm ingestion were identified by reviewing medical records from two private veterinary referral centres for key terms and phrases indicative of cycad palm toxicosis. Of 130 dogs included, 107 (82.3%) presented with clinical signs. A total of 2 (1.5%) died and 14 (10.8%) were euthanized. Diarrhea, lethargy and mortality were all associated with an elevated initial alanine transaminase (ALT) concentration. Overall mortality was 12.3%, with a significantly higher proportion of dogs with an ALT concentration <125 U/L surviving compared to dogs with an elevated ALT concentration. Treatment with activated charcoal reduced the odds of death among all dogs by 82% and was even more protective among dogs with an elevated initial ALT concentration. Among dogs that had an initial platelet count performed, the presence of thrombocytopenia (<200,000/µL) was a negative prognostic indicator and was associated with a significant increase in mortality. Given the high mortality rates reported for cycad palm toxicosis, it is imperative to identify early clinical indicators of mortality as well as treatments that reduce mortality.


Assuntos
Cycas , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Cães , Eutanásia Animal , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229736, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of intravenous maropitant on arterial blood pressure in healthy dogs while awake and under general anesthesia. DESIGN: Experimental crossover study. ANIMALS: Eight healthy adult Beagle dogs. PROCEDURE: All dogs received maropitant (1 mg kg-1) intravenously under the following conditions: 1) awake with non-invasive blood pressure monitoring (AwNIBP), 2) awake with invasive blood pressure monitoring (AwIBP), 3) premedication with acepromazine (0.005 mg kg-1) and butorphanol (0.2 mg kg-1) intramuscularly followed by propofol induction and isoflurane anesthesia (GaAB), and 4) premedication with dexmedetomidine (0.005 mg kg-1) and butorphanol (0.2 mg kg-1) intramuscularly followed by propofol induction and isoflurane anesthesia (GaDB). Heart rate (HR), systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP), and mean blood pressures (MAP) were recorded before injection of maropitant (baseline), during the first 60 seconds of injection, during the second 60 seconds of injection, at the completion of injection and every 2 minutes post injection for 18 minutes. The data were compared over time using a Generalized Linear Model with mixed effects and then with simple effect comparison with Bonferroni adjustments (p <0.05). RESULTS: There were significant decreases from baseline in SAP in the GaAB group (p < 0.01) and in MAP and DAP in the AwIBP and GaAB (p < 0.001) groups during injection. A significant decrease in SAP (p < 0.05), DAP (p < 0.05), and MAP (p < 0.05) occurred at 16 minutes post injection in GaDB group. There was also a significant increase in HR in the AwIBP group (p < 0.01) during injection. Clinically significant hypotension occurred in the GaAB group with a mean MAP at 54 ± 6 mmHg during injection. CONCLUSION: Intravenous maropitant administration significantly decreases arterial blood pressure during inhalant anesthesia. Patients premedicated with acepromazine prior to isoflurane anesthesia may develop clinically significant hypotension.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Antieméticos/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinuclidinas/administração & dosagem , Quinuclidinas/efeitos adversos , Acepromazina/efeitos adversos , Anestesia por Inalação/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão/veterinária , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Animais , Pré-Medicação/efeitos adversos , Pré-Medicação/veterinária , Vigília
7.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227701, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995582

RESUMO

In the last decade, there has been a marked increase in opioid-related human deaths in the U.S. However, the effects of the growth in opioid use on vulnerable populations, such as pet dogs, are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate potential risk factors at the dog, county, and state-levels that contributed to accidental dog opioid poisonings. Dog demographic information was collected during calls to the Animal Poison Control Center (APCC), operated by the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, about pet dog exposures to poisons from 2006-2014. Data concerning state-level opioid-related human death rates and county-level human opioid prescription rates were collected from databases accessed from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A multilevel logistic regression model with random intercepts for county and state was fitted to explore associations between the odds of a call to the APCC being related to dog opioid poisonings with the following independent variables: sex, weight, age, reproductive status, breed class, year, source of calls, county-level human opioid prescription rate, and state-level opioid human death rate. There was a significant non-linear positive association between accidental opioid dog poisoning calls and county-level human opioid prescription rates. Similarly, the odds of a call being related to an opioid poisoning significantly declined over the study period. Depending on the breed class, the odds of a call being related to an opioid poisoning event were generally lower for older and heavier dogs. The odds of a call being related to an opioid poisoning were significantly higher for intact compared to neutered dogs, and if the call was made by a veterinarian compared to a member of the public. Veterinarians responding to poisonings may benefit from knowledge of trends in the use and abuse of both legal and illegal drugs in human populations.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Overdose de Drogas/veterinária , Animais de Estimação , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Vet J ; 255: 105423, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982082

RESUMO

Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is used as an early biomarker of renal injury in people. In dogs, increases in urinary NGAL (uNGAL) precede increases in serum creatinine (sCr) in experimental and clinical evaluations of acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease. This study compared uNGAL in two subsets of dogs with AKI and their respective controls. One set included dogs with snake-envenomation at risk for or presenting with International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) grade I AKI; the other group included dogs with AKI, where renal injury was the result of various causes, and IRIS grade was ≥II. Additionally, this study evaluated haemoglobin (Hb) interference during NGAL analysis in Hb spiked urine and plasma from healthy dogs. In both AKI groups, uNGAL was significantly higher than in matched healthy control dogs (P<0.01). Moreover, uNGAL was significantly higher in dogs with IRIS grade ≥II AKI than in dogs at risk of IRIS grade I AKI (P=0.04). In dogs at risk of IRIS grade I AKI, there were no significant differences in uNGAL and uNGAL/uCr between dogs bitten by cytotoxic or neurotoxic snakes (P=0.44). Additionally, Hb did not interfere with the canine NGAL immunoassay. In conclusion, this study confirms the value of uNGAL as a biomarker for early renal damage: uNGAL was significantly increased in dogs with snake-envenomation at risk for or presenting with IRIS grade I AKI, which could be left undiagnosed if evaluated with the traditional renal biomarker sCr. In addition, Hb did not interfere with NGAL measurement in dogs.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/veterinária , Biomarcadores/urina , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Lipocalina-2/urina , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Injúria Renal Aguda/urina , Animais , Doenças do Cão/urina , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Hemoglobinas/química , Imunoensaio/veterinária , Lipocalina-2/sangue , Mordeduras de Serpentes/veterinária
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 440, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostatic hyperplasia (PH) is one of the most important disorders in intact dogs. In this study, we aimed to induce PH experimentally using the combination of testosterone and estrogen and evaluate important factors associated with this disease. RESULTS: The results showed that in the induction group, prostate volume and prostate specific antigen (PSA) concentration increased significantly on day 21 onwards compared to those of the control group. Canine prostatic specific esterase (CPSE) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations increased significantly on day 42 onwards while the testosterone levels increased on day 63. In addition, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) concentration did not change significantly in the control and induction groups. Biochemistry profiles and hematologic factors were measured for monitoring the function of liver and kidney, and there were no adverse effects following the induction of PH. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that testosterone and estrogen administration led to prostatic hyperplasia during 2 months. Investigating the size of the prostate, accompanied by prostate markers including CPSE, PSA, DHT, and testosterone, is helpful for the PH diagnosis. However, further studies should be carried out on PAP.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Estrogênios/toxicidade , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/veterinária , Testosterona/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Di-Hidrotestosterona/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Esterases/sangue , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/induzido quimicamente
11.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(6): 680-685, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of mannitol overdose associated with acute kidney injury (AKI), hypertonic hyponatremia, and neurologic abnormalities in a dog. CASE SUMMARY: A 10-year-old intact male Shiba Inu dog was referred to the emergency service of a veterinary teaching hospital for inappetence and acute onset of seizures. The dog had received 2 IV boluses of 3 g/kg of mannitol in less than 24 hours for a glaucoma crisis. Twelve hours after the second injection, the dog became inappetant and developed 2 generalized seizures. Seizure activity was treated with diazepam (0.5 mg/kg IV). Serum biochemistry profile showed severe hyponatremia and hypochloremia, mild hypokalemia, marked increased creatinine (381 µmol/L [44-133 µmol/L]) and moderately increased BUN (13.8 mmol/L [1.6-10.9 mmol/L]). Urinalysis revealed a urine specific gravity of 1.018, glucosuria, proteinuria, pigmenturia and the presence of vacuolized tubular epithelial cells. A presumptive diagnosis of mannitol intoxication was made based on the high dose of mannitol, severe hyponatremia, neurological abnormalities suggestive of intracranial disease, AKI, and urine cytology. Initial calculated plasma osmolality was 263.4 mOsm/kg and measured plasma osmolality was 332 mOsm/kg with an osmolal gap of 68.6 mOsm/kg, confirming the presence of an unmeasured solute attributed to mannitol. Treatment consisted of fluid therapy and supportive care. On day 3, osmolal gap had resolved and serum creatinine concentration returned to normal within 12 days. NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: Mannitol intoxication has been reported in human medicine. This case report is, to our knowledge, the first to describe AKI, hypertonic hyponatremia, and neurological abnormalities secondary to mannitol overdose in a dog.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Hiponatremia/veterinária , Manitol/toxicidade , Convulsões/veterinária , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Creatinina , Diazepam/uso terapêutico , Cães , Overdose de Drogas , Hipopotassemia/complicações , Hiponatremia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Manitol/administração & dosagem , Concentração Osmolar , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Urinálise
12.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(6): 686-689, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of acute chlorfenapyr toxicity in 3 dogs from a single household. CASE SUMMARY: A 4-year-old neutered female Labrador Retriever was presented with severe hyperthermia (42.6°C [108.6°F]). Emergency management consisting of fluid resuscitation, active cooling, general anesthesia, gastric lavage, activated charcoal administration, and intravenous lipid emulsion was started immediately on the suspicion of toxin exposure. The dog developed symptoms following peracute death in 2 other small breed dog housemates. All dogs had a rapid onset of gastrointestinal signs, neurologic signs, and panting. The dog made a rapid and complete recovery and was discharged 48 hours later. Examination of gastric contents collected from the deceased dogs identified the presence of chlorfenapyr. NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: This is the first reported case of chlorfenapyr toxicity in dogs. Previous case reports in human medicine have reported a variable mortality rate, although 1 of 3 dogs described here made a complete recovery. Chlorfenapyr should be considered in cases of suspected toxicity with similar presenting signs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Animais , Carvão Vegetal/uso terapêutico , Cães , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Febre/induzido quimicamente , Febre/terapia , Febre/veterinária , Envenenamento
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 363, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids, among the most widely utilized drugs in veterinary medicine, are employed to treat a wide variety of diseases; however, their use often induces adverse events in dogs. The efficacy of glucocorticoids usually depends on dosage, although differences in sensitivity to glucocorticoids in individual animals have been reported. Glucocorticoids bind to the cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is expressed in almost all cells. These receptors are key factors in determining individual sensitivity to glucocorticoids. This study examined individual differences in glucocorticoid sensitivity in dogs, focusing on reactivity of the GR to prednisolone. RESULTS: We first molecularly cloned the GR gene from a healthy dog. We discovered a mutant GR in a dog suspected to have iatrogenic Cushing syndrome. The mutant GR had extra nucleotides between exons 6 and 7, resulting in a truncated form of GR that was 98 amino acids shorter than the wild-type dog GR. The truncated GR exhibited very low reactivity to prednisolone, irrespective of concentration. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified the truncated form of canine GR in a dog with iatrogenic Cushing syndrome. This truncated form showed the very less sensitivity to glucocorticoid in vitro, unfortunately, we could not elucidate its clinical significance. However, our data is a first report about the function of canine GR, and will facilitate the analysis of canine glucocorticoid sensitivity.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Cushing/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Células COS , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clonagem Molecular , Síndrome de Cushing/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome de Cushing/genética , Cães , Doença Iatrogênica/veterinária , Mutação , Prednisolona/farmacologia , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(6): 674-679, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of extracorporeal therapy (ECT) to treat severe cannabinoid intoxication in a dog with severe hyperlipidemia. CASE SUMMARY: A 7-month-old female intact Labrador Retriever presented with seizures and severe hyperesthesia that were refractory to multiple anticonvulsant medications and required induction of general anesthesia with propofol and mechanical ventilation. The dog's urine yielded a strong positive signal for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on urine drug test and exposure to THC oil was confirmed by the owner. Bloodwork revealed severe hyperlipidemia such that IV lipid emulsion was considered contraindicated. The dog was treated with a 3-hour ECT session, using charcoal hemoperfusion and hemodialysis in series. Neurologic signs improved during the session and mechanical ventilation was discontinued. Immediately after the session, the dog's mentation was significantly improved and seizures and hyperesthesia had ceased, although the dog remained moderately ataxic. The dog was hospitalized for 36 hours following the ECT session for continued monitoring. The dog fully recovered and was successfully discharged. NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published report to document ECT to treat THC intoxication in veterinary medicine. ECT may be considered as a treatment option for severe THC intoxication that is refractory to standard therapy or where severe hyperlipidemia precludes use of IV lipid emulsions.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/toxicidade , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Hemoperfusão/veterinária , Diálise Renal/veterinária , Respiração Artificial/veterinária , Convulsões/veterinária , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Carvão Vegetal/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Feminino , Propofol/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Vet J ; 251: 105349, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492383

RESUMO

Organophosphates (OP) and carbamates are commonly used insecticides and important intoxication sources of humans and animals. Nevertheless, large scale studies of these intoxications in dogs are unavailable. The medical records of dogs presented to a veterinary hospital were reviewed retrospectively. The study included 102 dogs definitely diagnosed with acute OP or carbamate intoxication. The most common presenting clinical signs included muscle tremor, hypersalivation, miosis, weakness, vomiting and diarrhea. Hypersalivation, muscle tremor and tachypnea were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with survival to discharge; while weakness, mental dullness, anorexia, pale mucous membranes and paddling were significantly associated with death. Common laboratory abnormalities included decreased butyrylcholine esterase activity, acidemia, increased total plasma protein, leukocytosis, hypochloridemia, hyperbilirubinemia, increased creatinine and alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and creatine kinase activities, and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Compared to the survivors, the non-survivors showed significantly: higher frequencies of thrombocytopenia, hypocarbemia, prolonged prothrombin time (PT), hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, hypocholesterolemia, hypoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, increased ALT activity and increased urea concentration; lower median concentrations of venous blood bicarbonate, serum chloride and total CO2; and higher medians of PT, serum total bilirubin and urea concentrations, and ALT and AST activities. Intoxicated dogs were commonly treated with diphenhydramine, atropine-sulfate, antibiotics, diazepam and pralidoxime, while some (19.2%) required general anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. The survival rate of dogs treated by gastric lavage was higher (P = 0.041) compared to that of the remaining dogs. Development of respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation requirement were significantly associated (P < 0.001) with death. The mortality rate was 17%.


Assuntos
Carbamatos/envenenamento , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Inseticidas/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/veterinária , Envenenamento/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Lavagem Gástrica/veterinária , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/diagnóstico , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/terapia , Envenenamento/diagnóstico , Envenenamento/terapia , Respiração Artificial/veterinária , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 46(6): 720-728, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547961

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of intraoperative anaesthetic complications in dogs undergoing general anaesthesia (GA) for thoracolumbar hemilaminectomy (TH), to determine whether GA duration affects incidence of intraoperative complications and to identify associations between intraoperative complications. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. ANIMALS: A total of 224 client-owned dogs of various breeds undergoing TH for intervertebral disc extrusion. METHODS: Anaesthetic records of dogs undergoing TH at a university teaching hospital between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Data recorded included breed, sex, body weight, GA duration, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under the same GA, pharmacological intervention to increase heart rate (PIHR), hypotension (mean arterial blood pressure < 60 mmHg for ≥ 10 minutes), mechanical ventilation (MV) for inadequate ventilation, hypothermia (oesophageal temperature < 37 °C), oesophageal temperature ≥ 39 °C (T ≥ 39 °C), temperature trend, regurgitation and use of alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonists, acepromazine, ketamine or lidocaine. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted for hypothermia, T ≥ 39 °C, hypotension and PIHR with forced inclusion of GA duration. RESULTS: Hypothermia was the most common complication (63.8% incidence), followed by MV implementation (63.4%), hypotension (33.9%), PIHR (24.6%), T ≥ 39 °C (20.5%) and regurgitation (4.9%). Multivariate models revealed that MRI and hypotension were associated with an increased risk of hypothermia, whilst increasing body weight, alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonists and MV were associated with a reduced risk. Alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonists and GA duration were associated with an increased risk of T ≥ 39 °C, whilst hypotension was associated with a reduced risk. Hypothermia and PIHR were associated with an increased risk of hypotension, whereas increased body weight was associated with a reduced risk. MV and hypothermia were associated with an increased risk of PIHR, whereas increased body weight was associated with a reduced risk. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Increasing GA duration was associated with increased risk of T ≥ 39 °C, but not any other intraoperative complications.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Hipotermia/veterinária , Complicações Intraoperatórias/veterinária , Laminectomia/veterinária , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Hipotermia/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Intraoperatórias/induzido quimicamente , Laminectomia/métodos , Masculino , Respiração Artificial/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 314, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malarone® is a drug used for the treatment of malaria in humans. This drug is also particularly effective in the treatment of canine Babesia gibsoni infections. Malarone® is rarely used in dogs, and its adverse effects have not been widely reported. Its mechanism of action is related to the inhibition of cytochrome b and electron transport in the cell. This is the first known report of the development of acute pancreatitis and alopecia in a dog following the administration of Malarone®. CASE PRESENTATION: A 3-year-old, intact, female Maltese was referred to our clinic with intermittent vomiting and sudden, generalized alopecia. Two months previously, the dog had been prescribed Malarone® for the treatment of a suspected B. gibsoni infection. The dog was evaluated using hematology, radiography, ultrasonography, a PCR for Babesia detection, and a canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) assay. The result of the PCR test was negative, whereas the cPLI assay yielded a positive result. Dermatologic examination revealed bacterial infection with hair cycle arrest. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, drug-induced acute pancreatitis and alopecia with superficial pyoderma were diagnosed. Malarone® may induce severe adverse reactions in dogs. Therefore, careful monitoring for adverse effects is required when using Malarone® in dogs.


Assuntos
Alopecia/veterinária , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Atovaquona/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Pancreatite/veterinária , Proguanil/efeitos adversos , Alopecia/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Atovaquona/uso terapêutico , Babesiose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Pancreatite/induzido quimicamente , Proguanil/uso terapêutico
19.
J Am Anim Hosp Assoc ; 55(6): 323-327, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525093

RESUMO

Fanconi syndrome is a renal proximal tubulopathy characterized by excessive urinary loss of glucose, amino acids, several electrolytes, and bicarbonate. Here, we report the case of transient Fanconi syndrome in a dog following administration of firocoxib, cefadroxil, tramadol, and famotidine. A 10 mo old Maltese was presented with lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, and weight loss. Transient Fanconi syndrome without azotemia was associated with firocoxib, cefadroxil, tramadol, and famotidine treatment. The dog received supportive care including IV fluids, gastroprotectants, and oral nutritional supplements. Two months after initial diagnosis and treatment, the dog showed complete resolution of glucosuria and aminoaciduria. The unique features of Fanconi syndrome in this case emphasize the potential renal tubular toxicity of this widely used multiple-drug combination.


Assuntos
4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Cefadroxila/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Famotidina/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Fanconi/veterinária , Sulfonas/efeitos adversos , Tramadol/efeitos adversos , 4-Butirolactona/administração & dosagem , 4-Butirolactona/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Antiulcerosos/administração & dosagem , Antiulcerosos/efeitos adversos , Cefadroxila/administração & dosagem , Cães , Famotidina/administração & dosagem , Síndrome de Fanconi/induzido quimicamente , Glucose , Glicosúria , Masculino , Sulfonas/administração & dosagem , Tramadol/administração & dosagem
20.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(6): 665-672, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Finding a medical treatment which can combat cell proliferation and relax smooth muscles in canine benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) appears to be imperative. AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the oxidative stress and inflammatory proteins following the treatment of dogs induced for BPH with an anti-proliferative agent called tadalafil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five adult intact male dogs were randomly designated into five groups (n = 5): Control group was not induced for BPH and not treated with tadalafil; dogs induced for BPH by testosterone enanthate and estradiol benzoate and treated with tadalafil (5 mg/day P.O.); dogs which received tadalafil (5 mg/day P.O.); dogs induced for BPH and treated with castration; and dogs induced for BPH. Oxidative stress factors (glutathione peroxidase [GPX], superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase) and inflammatory proteins (haptoglobin, serum amyloid A [SAA], malondialdehyde [MDA]) were measured in the blood serum for four sequential weeks. RESULTS: Glutathione peroxidase and SOD serum levels declined in dogs in the BPH-induced group compared to those in the control group. Those levels diminished in BPH-induced castrated and tadalafil-treated groups. The changes in the GPX and SOD serum concentrations were not significant between the BPH-induced castrated group and BPH-induced tadalafil-treated group. Moreover, MDA concentration increased slightly in groups with BPH and groups which were castrated. Generally, however, there were no significant differences in the MDA serum concentrations between other groups. Haptoglobin and SAA concentrations increased in BPH-castrated group. Also, the differences in haptoglobin and SAA were not significant between the groups. CONCLUSION: Tadalafil could not control oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators which happened during BPH in dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperplasia Prostática/veterinária , Tadalafila/uso terapêutico , Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Androgênios/toxicidade , Animais , Contraceptivos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Contraceptivos Hormonais/toxicidade , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Estradiol/administração & dosagem , Estradiol/análogos & derivados , Estradiol/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/uso terapêutico , Testosterona/administração & dosagem , Testosterona/análogos & derivados , Testosterona/toxicidade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...