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1.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229736, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of intravenous maropitant on arterial blood pressure in healthy dogs while awake and under general anesthesia. DESIGN: Experimental crossover study. ANIMALS: Eight healthy adult Beagle dogs. PROCEDURE: All dogs received maropitant (1 mg kg-1) intravenously under the following conditions: 1) awake with non-invasive blood pressure monitoring (AwNIBP), 2) awake with invasive blood pressure monitoring (AwIBP), 3) premedication with acepromazine (0.005 mg kg-1) and butorphanol (0.2 mg kg-1) intramuscularly followed by propofol induction and isoflurane anesthesia (GaAB), and 4) premedication with dexmedetomidine (0.005 mg kg-1) and butorphanol (0.2 mg kg-1) intramuscularly followed by propofol induction and isoflurane anesthesia (GaDB). Heart rate (HR), systolic (SAP), diastolic (DAP), and mean blood pressures (MAP) were recorded before injection of maropitant (baseline), during the first 60 seconds of injection, during the second 60 seconds of injection, at the completion of injection and every 2 minutes post injection for 18 minutes. The data were compared over time using a Generalized Linear Model with mixed effects and then with simple effect comparison with Bonferroni adjustments (p <0.05). RESULTS: There were significant decreases from baseline in SAP in the GaAB group (p < 0.01) and in MAP and DAP in the AwIBP and GaAB (p < 0.001) groups during injection. A significant decrease in SAP (p < 0.05), DAP (p < 0.05), and MAP (p < 0.05) occurred at 16 minutes post injection in GaDB group. There was also a significant increase in HR in the AwIBP group (p < 0.01) during injection. Clinically significant hypotension occurred in the GaAB group with a mean MAP at 54 ± 6 mmHg during injection. CONCLUSION: Intravenous maropitant administration significantly decreases arterial blood pressure during inhalant anesthesia. Patients premedicated with acepromazine prior to isoflurane anesthesia may develop clinically significant hypotension.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Antieméticos/efeitos adversos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinuclidinas/administração & dosagem , Quinuclidinas/efeitos adversos , Acepromazina/efeitos adversos , Anestesia por Inalação/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Hipotensão/veterinária , Injeções Intravenosas/veterinária , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Animais , Pré-Medicação/efeitos adversos , Pré-Medicação/veterinária , Vigília
2.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227701, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995582

RESUMO

In the last decade, there has been a marked increase in opioid-related human deaths in the U.S. However, the effects of the growth in opioid use on vulnerable populations, such as pet dogs, are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate potential risk factors at the dog, county, and state-levels that contributed to accidental dog opioid poisonings. Dog demographic information was collected during calls to the Animal Poison Control Center (APCC), operated by the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, about pet dog exposures to poisons from 2006-2014. Data concerning state-level opioid-related human death rates and county-level human opioid prescription rates were collected from databases accessed from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A multilevel logistic regression model with random intercepts for county and state was fitted to explore associations between the odds of a call to the APCC being related to dog opioid poisonings with the following independent variables: sex, weight, age, reproductive status, breed class, year, source of calls, county-level human opioid prescription rate, and state-level opioid human death rate. There was a significant non-linear positive association between accidental opioid dog poisoning calls and county-level human opioid prescription rates. Similarly, the odds of a call being related to an opioid poisoning significantly declined over the study period. Depending on the breed class, the odds of a call being related to an opioid poisoning event were generally lower for older and heavier dogs. The odds of a call being related to an opioid poisoning were significantly higher for intact compared to neutered dogs, and if the call was made by a veterinarian compared to a member of the public. Veterinarians responding to poisonings may benefit from knowledge of trends in the use and abuse of both legal and illegal drugs in human populations.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Overdose de Drogas/veterinária , Animais de Estimação , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 440, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805935

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostatic hyperplasia (PH) is one of the most important disorders in intact dogs. In this study, we aimed to induce PH experimentally using the combination of testosterone and estrogen and evaluate important factors associated with this disease. RESULTS: The results showed that in the induction group, prostate volume and prostate specific antigen (PSA) concentration increased significantly on day 21 onwards compared to those of the control group. Canine prostatic specific esterase (CPSE) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations increased significantly on day 42 onwards while the testosterone levels increased on day 63. In addition, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) concentration did not change significantly in the control and induction groups. Biochemistry profiles and hematologic factors were measured for monitoring the function of liver and kidney, and there were no adverse effects following the induction of PH. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that testosterone and estrogen administration led to prostatic hyperplasia during 2 months. Investigating the size of the prostate, accompanied by prostate markers including CPSE, PSA, DHT, and testosterone, is helpful for the PH diagnosis. However, further studies should be carried out on PAP.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Estrogênios/toxicidade , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/veterinária , Testosterona/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Di-Hidrotestosterona/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Esterases/sangue , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/induzido quimicamente
5.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(6): 674-679, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of extracorporeal therapy (ECT) to treat severe cannabinoid intoxication in a dog with severe hyperlipidemia. CASE SUMMARY: A 7-month-old female intact Labrador Retriever presented with seizures and severe hyperesthesia that were refractory to multiple anticonvulsant medications and required induction of general anesthesia with propofol and mechanical ventilation. The dog's urine yielded a strong positive signal for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on urine drug test and exposure to THC oil was confirmed by the owner. Bloodwork revealed severe hyperlipidemia such that IV lipid emulsion was considered contraindicated. The dog was treated with a 3-hour ECT session, using charcoal hemoperfusion and hemodialysis in series. Neurologic signs improved during the session and mechanical ventilation was discontinued. Immediately after the session, the dog's mentation was significantly improved and seizures and hyperesthesia had ceased, although the dog remained moderately ataxic. The dog was hospitalized for 36 hours following the ECT session for continued monitoring. The dog fully recovered and was successfully discharged. NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published report to document ECT to treat THC intoxication in veterinary medicine. ECT may be considered as a treatment option for severe THC intoxication that is refractory to standard therapy or where severe hyperlipidemia precludes use of IV lipid emulsions.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/toxicidade , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Hemoperfusão/veterinária , Diálise Renal/veterinária , Respiração Artificial/veterinária , Convulsões/veterinária , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Carvão Vegetal/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Feminino , Propofol/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico
6.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(6): 680-685, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of mannitol overdose associated with acute kidney injury (AKI), hypertonic hyponatremia, and neurologic abnormalities in a dog. CASE SUMMARY: A 10-year-old intact male Shiba Inu dog was referred to the emergency service of a veterinary teaching hospital for inappetence and acute onset of seizures. The dog had received 2 IV boluses of 3 g/kg of mannitol in less than 24 hours for a glaucoma crisis. Twelve hours after the second injection, the dog became inappetant and developed 2 generalized seizures. Seizure activity was treated with diazepam (0.5 mg/kg IV). Serum biochemistry profile showed severe hyponatremia and hypochloremia, mild hypokalemia, marked increased creatinine (381 µmol/L [44-133 µmol/L]) and moderately increased BUN (13.8 mmol/L [1.6-10.9 mmol/L]). Urinalysis revealed a urine specific gravity of 1.018, glucosuria, proteinuria, pigmenturia and the presence of vacuolized tubular epithelial cells. A presumptive diagnosis of mannitol intoxication was made based on the high dose of mannitol, severe hyponatremia, neurological abnormalities suggestive of intracranial disease, AKI, and urine cytology. Initial calculated plasma osmolality was 263.4 mOsm/kg and measured plasma osmolality was 332 mOsm/kg with an osmolal gap of 68.6 mOsm/kg, confirming the presence of an unmeasured solute attributed to mannitol. Treatment consisted of fluid therapy and supportive care. On day 3, osmolal gap had resolved and serum creatinine concentration returned to normal within 12 days. NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: Mannitol intoxication has been reported in human medicine. This case report is, to our knowledge, the first to describe AKI, hypertonic hyponatremia, and neurological abnormalities secondary to mannitol overdose in a dog.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Hiponatremia/veterinária , Manitol/toxicidade , Convulsões/veterinária , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Creatinina , Diazepam/uso terapêutico , Cães , Overdose de Drogas , Hipopotassemia/complicações , Hiponatremia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Manitol/administração & dosagem , Concentração Osmolar , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Urinálise
7.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(6): 686-689, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637843

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of acute chlorfenapyr toxicity in 3 dogs from a single household. CASE SUMMARY: A 4-year-old neutered female Labrador Retriever was presented with severe hyperthermia (42.6°C [108.6°F]). Emergency management consisting of fluid resuscitation, active cooling, general anesthesia, gastric lavage, activated charcoal administration, and intravenous lipid emulsion was started immediately on the suspicion of toxin exposure. The dog developed symptoms following peracute death in 2 other small breed dog housemates. All dogs had a rapid onset of gastrointestinal signs, neurologic signs, and panting. The dog made a rapid and complete recovery and was discharged 48 hours later. Examination of gastric contents collected from the deceased dogs identified the presence of chlorfenapyr. NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: This is the first reported case of chlorfenapyr toxicity in dogs. Previous case reports in human medicine have reported a variable mortality rate, although 1 of 3 dogs described here made a complete recovery. Chlorfenapyr should be considered in cases of suspected toxicity with similar presenting signs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Animais , Carvão Vegetal/uso terapêutico , Cães , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Febre/induzido quimicamente , Febre/terapia , Febre/veterinária , Envenenamento
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 363, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glucocorticoids, among the most widely utilized drugs in veterinary medicine, are employed to treat a wide variety of diseases; however, their use often induces adverse events in dogs. The efficacy of glucocorticoids usually depends on dosage, although differences in sensitivity to glucocorticoids in individual animals have been reported. Glucocorticoids bind to the cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which is expressed in almost all cells. These receptors are key factors in determining individual sensitivity to glucocorticoids. This study examined individual differences in glucocorticoid sensitivity in dogs, focusing on reactivity of the GR to prednisolone. RESULTS: We first molecularly cloned the GR gene from a healthy dog. We discovered a mutant GR in a dog suspected to have iatrogenic Cushing syndrome. The mutant GR had extra nucleotides between exons 6 and 7, resulting in a truncated form of GR that was 98 amino acids shorter than the wild-type dog GR. The truncated GR exhibited very low reactivity to prednisolone, irrespective of concentration. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified the truncated form of canine GR in a dog with iatrogenic Cushing syndrome. This truncated form showed the very less sensitivity to glucocorticoid in vitro, unfortunately, we could not elucidate its clinical significance. However, our data is a first report about the function of canine GR, and will facilitate the analysis of canine glucocorticoid sensitivity.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Cushing/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/genética , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Células COS , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clonagem Molecular , Síndrome de Cushing/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome de Cushing/genética , Cães , Doença Iatrogênica/veterinária , Mutação , Prednisolona/farmacologia , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 314, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malarone® is a drug used for the treatment of malaria in humans. This drug is also particularly effective in the treatment of canine Babesia gibsoni infections. Malarone® is rarely used in dogs, and its adverse effects have not been widely reported. Its mechanism of action is related to the inhibition of cytochrome b and electron transport in the cell. This is the first known report of the development of acute pancreatitis and alopecia in a dog following the administration of Malarone®. CASE PRESENTATION: A 3-year-old, intact, female Maltese was referred to our clinic with intermittent vomiting and sudden, generalized alopecia. Two months previously, the dog had been prescribed Malarone® for the treatment of a suspected B. gibsoni infection. The dog was evaluated using hematology, radiography, ultrasonography, a PCR for Babesia detection, and a canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) assay. The result of the PCR test was negative, whereas the cPLI assay yielded a positive result. Dermatologic examination revealed bacterial infection with hair cycle arrest. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, drug-induced acute pancreatitis and alopecia with superficial pyoderma were diagnosed. Malarone® may induce severe adverse reactions in dogs. Therefore, careful monitoring for adverse effects is required when using Malarone® in dogs.


Assuntos
Alopecia/veterinária , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Atovaquona/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Pancreatite/veterinária , Proguanil/efeitos adversos , Alopecia/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Atovaquona/uso terapêutico , Babesiose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Pancreatite/induzido quimicamente , Proguanil/uso terapêutico
10.
Vet Anaesth Analg ; 46(6): 720-728, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547961

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence of intraoperative anaesthetic complications in dogs undergoing general anaesthesia (GA) for thoracolumbar hemilaminectomy (TH), to determine whether GA duration affects incidence of intraoperative complications and to identify associations between intraoperative complications. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. ANIMALS: A total of 224 client-owned dogs of various breeds undergoing TH for intervertebral disc extrusion. METHODS: Anaesthetic records of dogs undergoing TH at a university teaching hospital between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Data recorded included breed, sex, body weight, GA duration, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under the same GA, pharmacological intervention to increase heart rate (PIHR), hypotension (mean arterial blood pressure < 60 mmHg for ≥ 10 minutes), mechanical ventilation (MV) for inadequate ventilation, hypothermia (oesophageal temperature < 37 °C), oesophageal temperature ≥ 39 °C (T ≥ 39 °C), temperature trend, regurgitation and use of alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonists, acepromazine, ketamine or lidocaine. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted for hypothermia, T ≥ 39 °C, hypotension and PIHR with forced inclusion of GA duration. RESULTS: Hypothermia was the most common complication (63.8% incidence), followed by MV implementation (63.4%), hypotension (33.9%), PIHR (24.6%), T ≥ 39 °C (20.5%) and regurgitation (4.9%). Multivariate models revealed that MRI and hypotension were associated with an increased risk of hypothermia, whilst increasing body weight, alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonists and MV were associated with a reduced risk. Alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonists and GA duration were associated with an increased risk of T ≥ 39 °C, whilst hypotension was associated with a reduced risk. Hypothermia and PIHR were associated with an increased risk of hypotension, whereas increased body weight was associated with a reduced risk. MV and hypothermia were associated with an increased risk of PIHR, whereas increased body weight was associated with a reduced risk. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Increasing GA duration was associated with increased risk of T ≥ 39 °C, but not any other intraoperative complications.


Assuntos
Anestesia/veterinária , Anestésicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Hipotermia/veterinária , Complicações Intraoperatórias/veterinária , Laminectomia/veterinária , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Hipotermia/induzido quimicamente , Complicações Intraoperatórias/induzido quimicamente , Laminectomia/métodos , Masculino , Respiração Artificial/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Vet J ; 251: 105349, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492383

RESUMO

Organophosphates (OP) and carbamates are commonly used insecticides and important intoxication sources of humans and animals. Nevertheless, large scale studies of these intoxications in dogs are unavailable. The medical records of dogs presented to a veterinary hospital were reviewed retrospectively. The study included 102 dogs definitely diagnosed with acute OP or carbamate intoxication. The most common presenting clinical signs included muscle tremor, hypersalivation, miosis, weakness, vomiting and diarrhea. Hypersalivation, muscle tremor and tachypnea were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with survival to discharge; while weakness, mental dullness, anorexia, pale mucous membranes and paddling were significantly associated with death. Common laboratory abnormalities included decreased butyrylcholine esterase activity, acidemia, increased total plasma protein, leukocytosis, hypochloridemia, hyperbilirubinemia, increased creatinine and alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and creatine kinase activities, and prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Compared to the survivors, the non-survivors showed significantly: higher frequencies of thrombocytopenia, hypocarbemia, prolonged prothrombin time (PT), hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, hypocholesterolemia, hypoproteinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, increased ALT activity and increased urea concentration; lower median concentrations of venous blood bicarbonate, serum chloride and total CO2; and higher medians of PT, serum total bilirubin and urea concentrations, and ALT and AST activities. Intoxicated dogs were commonly treated with diphenhydramine, atropine-sulfate, antibiotics, diazepam and pralidoxime, while some (19.2%) required general anesthesia and mechanical ventilation. The survival rate of dogs treated by gastric lavage was higher (P = 0.041) compared to that of the remaining dogs. Development of respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation requirement were significantly associated (P < 0.001) with death. The mortality rate was 17%.


Assuntos
Carbamatos/envenenamento , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Inseticidas/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/veterinária , Envenenamento/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Lavagem Gástrica/veterinária , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/diagnóstico , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/terapia , Envenenamento/diagnóstico , Envenenamento/terapia , Respiração Artificial/veterinária , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(6): 665-672, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410874

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Finding a medical treatment which can combat cell proliferation and relax smooth muscles in canine benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) appears to be imperative. AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the oxidative stress and inflammatory proteins following the treatment of dogs induced for BPH with an anti-proliferative agent called tadalafil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five adult intact male dogs were randomly designated into five groups (n = 5): Control group was not induced for BPH and not treated with tadalafil; dogs induced for BPH by testosterone enanthate and estradiol benzoate and treated with tadalafil (5 mg/day P.O.); dogs which received tadalafil (5 mg/day P.O.); dogs induced for BPH and treated with castration; and dogs induced for BPH. Oxidative stress factors (glutathione peroxidase [GPX], superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase) and inflammatory proteins (haptoglobin, serum amyloid A [SAA], malondialdehyde [MDA]) were measured in the blood serum for four sequential weeks. RESULTS: Glutathione peroxidase and SOD serum levels declined in dogs in the BPH-induced group compared to those in the control group. Those levels diminished in BPH-induced castrated and tadalafil-treated groups. The changes in the GPX and SOD serum concentrations were not significant between the BPH-induced castrated group and BPH-induced tadalafil-treated group. Moreover, MDA concentration increased slightly in groups with BPH and groups which were castrated. Generally, however, there were no significant differences in the MDA serum concentrations between other groups. Haptoglobin and SAA concentrations increased in BPH-castrated group. Also, the differences in haptoglobin and SAA were not significant between the groups. CONCLUSION: Tadalafil could not control oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators which happened during BPH in dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperplasia Prostática/veterinária , Tadalafila/uso terapêutico , Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Androgênios/toxicidade , Animais , Contraceptivos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Contraceptivos Hormonais/toxicidade , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Estradiol/administração & dosagem , Estradiol/análogos & derivados , Estradiol/toxicidade , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/uso terapêutico , Testosterona/administração & dosagem , Testosterona/análogos & derivados , Testosterona/toxicidade
13.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2235-2238, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448839

RESUMO

A 11-year-old male neutered Shih Tzu was referred to a tertiary facility with a history of weight loss, decreased appetite, polydipsia, and lethargy. The dog had a 10-year history of nonspecific allergic dermatitis and was being treated with 16 mg/kg of ketoconazole q12h for Malassezia dermatitis. Vague gastrointestinal signs, hypocholesterolemia, and lack of a stress leukogram increased suspicion for hypoadrenocorticism (HA). An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test identified hypocortisolemia on pre- and post-ACTH samples and ketoconazole was discontinued. After a short course of corticosteroid treatment, an ACTH stimulation test was repeated and pre-ACTH cortisol concentration was within the reference range, and the post-ACTH cortisol concentration was mildly increased. The temporal association between return of adequate adrenocortical cortisol production and discontinuation of ketoconazole led to the conclusion that the dog had developed iatrogenic HA secondary to ketoconazole treatment.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doença Iatrogênica/veterinária , Cetoconazol/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Adrenal/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Adrenal/diagnóstico , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/administração & dosagem , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/farmacologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Cetoconazol/administração & dosagem , Cetoconazol/uso terapêutico , Malassezia , Masculino
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 283, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the new isoxazoline drug fluralaner (Bravecto®) is generally well tolerated in dogs, adverse drug reactions involving neurological dysfunction occurred in individual dogs. However, most of these cases are documented inadequately and none of them is reported and discussed in the literature. As isoxazoline drugs target neuronal chloride channels with a clear preference for invertebrates, they are considered to have a good safety profile. However, pharmacodynamic effects in the nervous system of vertebrates cannot be ruled out completely. CASE PRESENTATION: A seven-month-old female Kooikerhondje dog was treated with Bravecto® at the recommended dose. About 24 h after administration, the dog exhibited signs of neurological toxicity, including generalized ataxia, myoclonic jerks, tremor of head and body, muscle twitching and oral dysphagia. All symptoms were transient and the dog fully recovered without any treatment after 10 h. CONCLUSION: This case report describes transient occurrence of neurological dysfunction after administration of Bravecto®. It may help to better classify adverse drug reactions after application of isoxazoline drugs and documents a good prognosis even after occurrence of severe neurological dysfunction in the present case.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Isoxazóis/efeitos adversos , Animais , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/induzido quimicamente , Cães , Feminino
15.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(4): 424-430, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe 2 cases of organophosphate intoxication through a previously unreported method of exposure. CASE SERIES: A 2-year-old intact male Australian Cattle Dog (case 1) presented with progressive muscarinic and nicotinic clinical signs, and a 3-year-old neutered male mixed breed dog (case 2) presented after known ingestion of cattle ear tags. The dog in case 1 was discovered to have ingested cattle ear tags after abdominal radiographs. Organophosphate testing of gastric contents confirmed diazinon toxicosis. The dog in case 2 was found to be eating ear tags by the owner. The tags in case 2 contained diazinon and coumaphos. The dog in case 1 was treated with gastric lavage, gastroprotectants, prokinetics, antiemetics, pralidoxime chloride, and atropine. The dog in case 2 was treated with pralidoxime chloride. Both patients received standard supportive and nursing care and recovered completely with no further concerns. NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: This is a novel exposure to organophosphates that has not been reported in small animals. In dogs with relevant clinical signs and potential environmental exposure, cattle ear tag ingestion is an important differential diagnosis to consider.


Assuntos
Diazinon/toxicidade , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Compostos de Pralidoxima/uso terapêutico , Animais , Bovinos , Cumafos/toxicidade , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Corpos Estranhos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Masculino
16.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(4): 1619-1626, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synbiotics decrease antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal signs (AAGS) in cats, but data supporting synbiotic use to ameliorate AAGS in dogs are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To determine if administration of synbiotics mitigates AAGS in dogs. ANIMALS: Twenty-two healthy research dogs. METHODS: Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 2-way, 2-period, crossover study with an 8-week washout period. Each period included a 1-week baseline and 3-week treatment phase. Dogs received enrofloxacin (10 mg/kg PO q24h) and metronidazole (12.5 mg/kg PO q12h), followed 1 hour later by a bacterial/yeast synbiotic combination or placebo. Food intake, vomiting, and fecal score were compared using repeated-measures crossover analyses, with P < .05 considered significant. RESULTS: Hyporexia, vomiting, and diarrhea occurred in 41% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21-64), 77% (95% CI, 55-92), and 100% (95% CI, 85-100) of dogs, respectively, during the first treatment period. Derangements in food intake were smaller in both periods for dogs receiving synbiotics (F-value, 5.1; P = .04) with treatment-by-period interactions (F-value, 6.0; P = .02). Days of vomiting differed over time (F-value, 4.7; P = .006). Fecal scores increased over time (F-value, 33.5; P < .001), were lower during period 2 (F-value, 14.5; P = .001), and had treatment-by-period effects (F-value, 4.8; P = .04). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Enrofloxacin/metronidazole administration is associated with a high frequency of AAGS. Synbiotic administration decreases food intake derangements. The presence of milder AAGS in period 2 suggests that clinical effects of synbiotics persist >9 weeks after discontinuation, mitigating AAGS in dogs being treated with antibiotics followed by placebo.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Enrofloxacina/efeitos adversos , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Metronidazol/efeitos adversos , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Vômito/prevenção & controle , Vômito/veterinária
17.
Aust Vet J ; 97(6): 197-201, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136692

RESUMO

CASE REPORT: We describe the clinical signs and management of a case of anaphylaxis in a dog after intravenous administration of alphaxalone (Alfaxan®, Jurox, NSW, Aust), which has not been previously published. A female spayed cattle dog undergoing routine imaging for forelimb lameness was induced with Alfaxan after receiving sedation with acepromazine and methadone 70 min prior. Immediately after intravenous administration of Alfaxan, the dog exhibited vomiting and diarrhoea associated with acute hypotension. Gallbladder wall oedema was visualised consistent with anaphylaxis. The dog responded to rapid volume expansion. Adrenaline was not required. The dog made a full recovery within 6 h of the reaction and was re-anaesthetised 3 days later without incident, using propofol as the induction agent. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first published case of anaphylaxis associated with intravenous Alfaxan in the dog. The APVMA reporting of reactions in small animals from 2003 to 2013 of Alfaxan is consistent with this case report's finding involving the respiratory, circulatory and gastrointestinal systems.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia/veterinária , Anestésicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Pregnanodionas/efeitos adversos , Anafilaxia/induzido quimicamente , Anestésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Pregnanodionas/uso terapêutico
18.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 48(3): 425-428, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093999

RESUMO

A 10-year-old golden retriever bitch was treated for diarrhea and vomiting that lasted about 1 month without a specific diagnosis until a hepatic biopsy provided a histopathologic diagnosis of lymphoma. The dog was referred to the Swedish University of Agricultural Science and treated with one dose of l-asparaginase. The day after chemotherapy, the urine was dark yellow, very turbid, and had large amounts of small amorphous crystals and many casts made of similar appearing material identified by infrared spectroscopy to be 100% uric acid dihydrate. Serum uric acid was elevated at 224 µmol/L (RI 0-59). The dog's illness became worse after chemotherapy. Lymphoma treatment was not continued, and the dog was euthanized 9 days after the l-asparaginase treatment. Among other problems were persistent proteinuria with a urine protein-to-creatinine ratio of 2.3 and severe hypoalbuminemia. Serum protein electrophoresis performed 3 weeks prior to chemotherapy indicated hyperproteinemia (total protein 78 g/L) having a biclonal gammopathy with 35 g/L ß-2 globulins and 11 g/L γ globulins. Despite prominent cylinduria and crystalluria, the patient did not develop azotemia or isosthenuria.


Assuntos
Asparaginase/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Cão/urina , Linfoma/veterinária , Ácido Úrico/urina , Animais , Asparaginase/uso terapêutico , Cristalização , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Feminino , Linfoma/complicações , Linfoma/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma/urina , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Urinálise/veterinária
19.
Toxicol Mech Methods ; 29(7): 518-530, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099292

RESUMO

In this study, an analytical strategy to identify brucine, strychnine, methomyl, carbofuran (alkaline compounds), phenobarbital, and warfarin (acid compounds) using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) screening with ultraviolet (UV) detection at 254 nm in stomach content is shown. The optimum mobile phase was found to be a chloroform: ethyl acetate: diethylamine (0.5:8.5:1) mixture for alkaline substances while a mixture of chloroform: acetone (9:1) has given better results for acidic substances. As for extraction, an equal proportion between distillated water and crude material (1:1) is required. For alkaline compounds, a filtration system was created in order to avoid any interferences from the biological matrix while for acidic compounds only centrifugation (4000 rpm/10 minutes) was required to obtain an appropriate sample. After the respective pretreatments, a one-step liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) has been employed for alkaline substances using a 3 mL of chloroform: ethyl ether (2:1) mixture for 2 min while acidic analytes used 3 mL of chloroform only during 5 min. For both methodologies described, the respective organic layers were dried down and re-suspended with 50 µL of methanol for further TLC plate application. The methodologies have been developed, successfully validated and applied to gastric contents from real case samples of suspected animal poisoning. Positive results from TLC/UV screening were confronted with HPLC-UV and confirmed by GC-MS.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Carbamatos/análise , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Fenobarbital/análise , Envenenamento/veterinária , Varfarina/análise , Alcaloides/envenenamento , Animais , Carbamatos/envenenamento , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Gatos , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Cães , Fenobarbital/envenenamento , Envenenamento/etiologia , Varfarina/envenenamento
20.
Toxicon ; 166: 46-55, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102596

RESUMO

'Go Slow myopathy' (GSM) is a suspected toxic myopathy in dogs that primarily occurs in the North Island of New Zealand, and affected dogs usually have a history of consuming meat, offal or bones from wild pigs (including previously frozen and/or cooked meat). Previous epidemiological and pathological studies on GSM have demonstrated that changes in mitochondrial structure and function are most likely caused by an environmental toxin that dogs are exposed to through the ingestion of wild pig. The disease has clinical, histological and biochemical similarities to poisoning in people and animals from the plant Ageratina altissima (white snakeroot). Aqueous and lipid extracts were prepared from liver samples of 24 clinically normal dogs and 15 dogs with GSM for untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Group-wise comparisons of mass spectral data revealed 38 features that were significantly different (FDR<0.05) between normal dogs and those with GSM in aqueous extracts, and 316 significantly different features in lipid extracts. No definitive cause of the myopathy was identified, but alkaloids derived from several plant species were among the possible identities of features that were more abundant in liver samples from affected dogs compared to normal dogs. Mass spectral data also revealed that dogs with GSM have reduced hepatic phospholipid and sphingolipid concentrations relative to normal dogs. In addition, affected dogs had changes in the abundance of kynurenic acid, various dicarboxylic acids and N-acetylated branch chain amino acids, suggestive of mitochondrial dysfunction.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Metaboloma , Miopatias Mitocondriais/veterinária , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/metabolismo , Cães , Fígado/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas/veterinária , Miopatias Mitocondriais/patologia , Nova Zelândia , Intoxicação por Plantas/diagnóstico
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