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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e022419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236336

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of diseases transmitted by Amblyomma ovale in 61 dogs monitored for three years through collections of ticks and blood, interviews, telemetry and camera traps in three areas of Serra do Mar State Park, Brazil. Blood samples were used to investigate infection by Rangelia vitalii by real-time TaqMan PCR and Rickettsia parkeri by IIFA. The collected ticks were submitted to conventional PCR to investigate the presence of R. parkeri . These data were compared with the monitoring results and interviews with the owners. Dogs considered as companion presented a risk of infection by R. parkeri strain Mata Atlantica 5.4 times higher than those not considered as companion (p = 0.009). Dogs that had at least one A. ovale collected during the campaigns had a 10 times higher risk of infection by R. parkeri strain Mata Atlantica than those who did not (p = 0.009). One dog positive for R. vitalii by real-time TaqMan PCR was parasitized by A. ovale frequently during monitoring. Sequenced ompaA - positive DNA samples had 100% identity of R. parkeri strain Mata Atlantica clone As106. From the findings, it is urgent to control domestic dogs around rainforests to reduce zoonoses transmission.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Floresta Úmida , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/genética , Infecções por Rickettsia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Telemetria
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e020219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267390

RESUMO

Rickettsia rickettsii is the causative agent of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), for which humans and dogs are both susceptible. Dogs are sentinels in serological surveys, however, canine disease is rarely reported. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate natural infection by spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. in dogs and ticks collected from domiciles close to forest fragments, featuring domestic-wildlife interface areas. Samples from 115 dogs and 135 ixodids were assessed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) targeting the gltA gene for Rickettsia spp. and the ompA gene for the SFG rickettsial species. One dog (0.87%; 1/115) was positive for R. rickettsii. This dog presented nonspecific laboratory and clinical abnormalities (thrombocytopenia, hyperproteinemia, lymph node enlargement, emaciation, anorexia, and lethargy). Rickettsia parkeri was identified in 2.96% (4/135) of the ticks (Amblyomma sculptum, A. aureolatum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). This study confirmed the presence of SFG bacteria in non-endemic and preserved locations, where domestic and wild populations interact. We reinforce the fact that the dog is susceptible to natural R. rickettsii infection. Although this is a rare finding, preventive measures should be taken against BSF in the studied areas. Finally, R. parkeri infection is possibly being demonstrated in A. sculptum for the first time.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/veterinária , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brasil , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/diagnóstico , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/microbiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0220593, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have the potential to act as disease reservoirs for wildlife and are important sentinels for common circulating pathogens. Therefore, the infectious disease seroprevalence among domestic dogs in northern Botswana may be indicative of pathogen exposure of various wildlife species. The objective of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma spp., Dirofilaria immitis, canine adenovirus, canine parvovirus, and canine distemper virus in domestic dogs as proxies of disease prevalence in the local wildlife in the Okavango Delta region of Botswana. Statistical analysis assessed crude and factor-specific seroprevalence proportions in relation to age, sex, and geographical location as predictors of seropositivity. Logistic regression was used to identify adjusted predictors of seropositivity for each of the pathogens of interest. RESULTS: Samples from 233 dogs in a total of seven locations in Maun, Botswana, and surrounding villages were collected and serologically analyzed. No dogs were seropositive for B. burgdorferi, while low seroprevalence proportions were observed for Anaplasma spp. (2.2%) and D. immitis (0.9%). Higher seroprevalence proportions were observed for the tick-borne pathogen Ehrlichia spp. (21.0%), and 19.7% were seropositive for canine adenovirus (hepatitis). The highest seroprevalence proportions were for canine parvovirus (70.0%) and canine distemper virus (44.8%). The predictors of seropositivity revealed that adults were more likely to be seropositive for canine adenovirus, canine distemper virus, and canine parvovirus than juveniles, and location was a risk factor for canine adenovirus, canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, and Ehrlichia spp. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that increasing tick control and vaccination campaigns for domestic dogs may improve the health of domestic animals, and potentially wildlife and humans in the Okavango Delta since viral and vector-borne bacterial pathogens can be transmitted between them.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma/patogenicidade , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Anaplasmose/transmissão , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vetores Aracnídeos/microbiologia , Borrelia burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , Borrelia burgdorferi/patogenicidade , Botsuana/epidemiologia , Dirofilaria immitis/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilaria immitis/patogenicidade , Dirofilariose/microbiologia , Dirofilariose/transmissão , Cinomose/microbiologia , Cinomose/transmissão , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/patogenicidade , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichia/patogenicidade , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/microbiologia , Ehrlichiose/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/transmissão , Masculino , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/microbiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/transmissão , Parvovirus Canino/isolamento & purificação , Parvovirus Canino/patogenicidade , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Carrapatos/microbiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228038, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp., is a zoonotic infection that affects humans, dogs and many other mammalian species. Virtually any mammalian species can act as asymptomatic reservoir, characterized by chronic renal carriage and shedding of a host-adapted leptospiral serovar. Environmental contamination by chronic shedders results in acquisition of infection by humans and susceptible animals. METHODS: In this study, we investigated if clinically normal shelter dogs and cats harbor leptospires in their kidneys by screening urine samples for the presence of leptospiral DNA by a TaqMan based-quantitative PCR (qPCR) that targets pathogen-associated lipl32 gene. To identify the infecting leptospiral species, a fragment of leptospiral rpoB gene was PCR amplified and sequenced. Additionally, we measured Leptospira-specific serum antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), a gold standard in leptospiral serology. RESULTS: A total of 269 shelter animals (219 dogs and 50 cats) from seven shelters located in the tri-state area of western Virginia, eastern Tennessee, and southeastern Kentucky were included in this study. All cats tested negative by both qPCR and MAT. Of the 219 dogs tested in the study, 26/198 (13.1%, 95% CI: 8.4-17.8%) were positive for leptospiral DNA in urine by qPCR and 38/211 (18.0%, 95% CI: 12.8-23.2%) were seropositive by MAT. Twelve dogs were positive for both qPCR and MAT. Fourteen dogs were positive by qPCR but not by MAT. Additionally, leptospiral rpoB gene sequencing from a sub-set of qPCR-positive urine samples (n = 21) revealed L. interrogans to be the leptospiral species shed by dogs. CONCLUSIONS: These findings have significant implications regarding animal and public health in the Cumberland Gap Region and possibly outside where these animals may be adopted.


Assuntos
Derrame de Bactérias , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Leptospira/fisiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Região dos Apalaches , Cães , Geografia , Leptospirose/urina , Prevalência
5.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227234, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923195

RESUMO

Hemangiosarcoma (HSA), a locally invasive and highly metastatic endothelial cell neoplasm, accounts for two-thirds of all cardiac and splenic neoplasms in dogs. Bartonella spp. infection has been reported in association with neoplastic and non-neoplastic vasoproliferative lesions in animals and humans. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in conjunction with two other hemotropic pathogens, Babesia spp. and hemotropic Mycoplasma spp., in tissues and blood samples from 110 dogs with histopathologically diagnosed HSA from throughout the United States. This was a retrospective, observational study using clinical specimens from 110 dogs with HSA banked by the biospecimen repository of the Canine Comparative Oncology and Genomics Consortium. Samples provided for this study from each dog included: fresh frozen HSA tumor tissue (available from n = 100 of the 110 dogs), fresh frozen non-tumor tissue (n = 104), and whole blood and serum samples (n = 108 and 107 respectively). Blood and tissues were tested by qPCR for Bartonella, hemotropic Mycoplasma, and Babesia spp. DNA; serum was tested for Bartonella spp. antibodies. Bartonella spp. DNA was amplified and sequenced from 73% of dogs with HSA (80/110). In contrast, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. DNA was amplified from a significantly smaller proportion (5%, p<0.0001) and Babesia spp. DNA was not amplified from any dog. Of the 100 HSA tumor samples submitted, 34% were Bartonella PCR positive (32% of splenic tumors, 57% of cardiac tumors, and 17% of other tumor locations). Of 104 non-tumor tissues, 63% were Bartonella PCR positive (56% of spleen samples, 93% of cardiac samples, and 63% of skin/subcutaneous samples). Of dogs with Bartonella positive HSA tumor, 76% were also positive in non-tumor tissue. Bartonella spp. DNA was not PCR amplified from whole blood. This study documented a high prevalence of Bartonella spp. DNA in dogs with HSA from geographically diverse regions of the United States. While 73% of all tissue samples from these dogs were PCR positive for Bartonella DNA, none of the blood samples were, indicating that whole blood samples do not reflect tissue presence of this pathogen. Future studies are needed to further investigate the role of Bartonella spp. in the development of HSA.


Assuntos
Babesia/genética , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Hemangiossarcoma/epidemiologia , Hemangiossarcoma/veterinária , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/genética , Animais , Babesiose/parasitologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Hemangiossarcoma/microbiologia , Hemangiossarcoma/parasitologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
N Z Vet J ; 68(2): 69-83, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707934

RESUMO

Multidrug-resistant bacteria are increasingly isolated from the urinary tract of pets, particularly those that suffer from concurrent conditions, have been hospitalised, or were treated with antimicrobials in the recent past. Many of the multidrug-resistant bacteria encountered are resistant to all commonly used oral antibiotics. This poses both a therapeutic dilemma in the individual pet and a threat to public health. This article begins with an overview of multidrug resistance in organisms that are commonly isolated from the urinary tract of pets. This is followed by a proposed clinical approach to managing multidrug-resistant urinary bacteria, which summarises current knowledge regarding appropriate sampling and analysis, reviews the current guidelines regarding appropriate antimicrobial use and discusses treatment options that might be considered. The article highlights several shortcomings of the current knowledge to be considered when planning future clinical research and developing policies.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Bacteriúria/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/veterinária , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/urina , Bacteriúria/microbiologia , Gatos , Cães , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
7.
Intern Med ; 58(23): 3409-3413, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787630

RESUMO

We herein report a case of Brachyspira pilosicoli-caused severe colitis presenting with portal venous gas. A 75-year-old man was admitted because of a fever, severe abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. He was negative for anti-HIV antibodies. He had been in close contact with a dog earlier. Abdominal computed tomography detected severe wall-thickening and fat-stranding of the entire colon accompanied by portal venous gas. A smear examination of his stool showed many Gram-negative spiral rods, suggesting intestinal spirochetosis. A polymerase chain reaction assay using stool samples detected an amplified band specific for B. pilosicoli. He responded well to antimicrobial agents including metronidazole.


Assuntos
Brachyspira/isolamento & purificação , Colite/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/microbiologia , Idoso , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Colite/diagnóstico , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Fezes/microbiologia , Gases , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Veia Porta/diagnóstico por imagem
8.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226780, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887117

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves complex interactions between mucosal immunity and the intestinal microbiota. Glucocorticoids are commonly administered to reduce mucosal inflammation and gastrointestinal signs. The study objective was to evaluate the effects of diet and oral prednisone on the spatial distribution of mucosal bacteria in IBD dogs. Eight dogs diagnosed with IBD were treated with immunosuppressive doses of prednisone. The mucosal microbiota from endoscopic biopsies of IBD dogs and healthy controls (HC; n = 15 dogs) was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) targeting the 16S rRNA genes of total bacteria and bacterial species relevant in canine/human IBD. Apicaljunction protein (AJP) expression using immunohistochemistry investigated the effect of medical therapy on intestinal barrier integrity. All IBD dogs had a reduction in GI signs following diet and prednisone therapy compared with baseline CIBDAI scores (P < 0.05). The mucosal microbiota of HC and diseased dogs was most abundant in free and adherent mucus. Only Lactobacilli were increased (P < 0.05) in the adherent mucus of IBD dogs compared to HC. The spatial distribution of mucosal bacteria was significantly different (P < 0.05) in IBD dogs following prednisone therapy, with higher numbers of Bifidobacteria and Streptococci detected across all mucosal compartments and increased numbers of Bifidobacterium spp., Faecalibacterium spp., and Streptococcus spp. present within adherent mucus. Differences in intestinal AJPs were detected with expression of occludin increased (P < 0.05) in IBD dogs versus HC. The expressions of occludin and E-cadherin were increased but zonulin decreased (P < 0.05 for each) in IBD dogs following prednisone therapy. In conclusion, the spatial distribution of mucosal bacteria differs between IBD and HC dogs, and in response to diet and glucocorticoid administration. Medical therapy was associated with beneficial changes in microbial community structure and enhanced mucosal epithelial AJP expression.


Assuntos
Dieta , Doenças do Cão , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/veterinária , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Microbiota , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Caderinas/metabolismo , Demografia , Doenças do Cão/dietoterapia , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/dietoterapia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Ocludina/metabolismo , Prednisona/uso terapêutico
9.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(4): 669-671, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885244

RESUMO

Bartonellosis is a disease affecting a variety of animals. Many Bartonella infections are zoonotic, including cat scratch disease. Within the genus Bartonella are 45 species, of which more than 10 can infect cats and dogs. Companion animals serve as reservoirs for several zoonotic species of Bartonella, and may also serve as sentinels for zoonotic Bartonella species harbored by wildlife. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of the occurrence of Bartonella spp. DNA in dogs from households where cats with clinical bartonellosis were kept. The presence of DNA with 99-100% compliance of the nucleotide sequence with the sequence of the Bartonella DNA isolated from cats was demonstrated in the body of 10% of tested dogs. The results indicate that cats serve as a Bartonella reservoir for dogs, and the dogs can play the same role with regard to humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella henselae/fisiologia , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Bartonella henselae/genética , Bartonella henselae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
10.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 728-734, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721928

RESUMO

Free-ranging and feral dogs represent a group of unattended companion animals. They impact wild animal populations by predating native species, displacing predators and introducing exotic pathogens. The aim of this work was to describe the molecular occurrence of Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Mycoplasma and Bartonella in feral dogs. The study was carried out in the last relict of a protected area in Mexico City. Blood clots samples from 19 dogs were obtained and analyzed for detection of specific fragments of the 16S-rRNA gene for Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Mycoplasma and citrate synthase (gltA) for Bartonella and Rickettsia. Our results showed that DNA from three bacteria species (Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Ehrlichia canis and Mycoplasma haemocanis) was present with frequencies ranging from 5.3 to 15.8%. This is the first record of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and M. haemocanis in dogs from México, and also the first finding of Ehrlichia canis in Mexico City. It is important to perform surveillance of feral dog populations in order to identify the impact of these pathogens on wild animal populations and Public Health in order to establish prevention and protection programs.


Assuntos
Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Bartonella/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Ehrlichia/genética , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma/genética , Filogenia , Rickettsia/genética
11.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(11): 915-922, Nov. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056912

RESUMO

Malassezia pachydermatis is a lipophilic and lipid-dependent yeast mostly isolated from animals' skin; hence, it is regarded as a zoophilic species causing otitis externa in dogs. Aspects associated with its epidemiology and pathogenicity is a matter of interest. This study aimed to conduct a molecular characterization of 43 isolates of M. pachydermatis obtained from dogs with otitis externa. For this purpose, the 5.8S internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and D1/D2 26S rRNA regions were amplified, sequenced and analyzed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with AluI, CfoI, and BstF5I endonucleases. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these isolates grouped with the sequence types I, IV and V, previously proposed for M. pachydermatis. Interestingly, we found a new polymorphic RFLP pattern using BstF5I, these isolates were associated with the sequence types IV and V, nevertheless an association between polymorphic RFLP patterns, and fosfolipase activity or canine population data was not observed. These findings underline the genetic diversity of M. pachydermatis and provide new insights about the epidemiology of this species in the analyzed population.(AU)


Malassezia pachydermatis é uma levedura lipofílica e dependente de lipídios, principalmente da pele de animais. Sendo, por essa razão, considerada uma espécie zoofílica e causadora de otite externa em cães. Neste sentido, aspectos associados à sua epidemiologia e patogenicidade constituem um tema de interesse científico. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a caracterização molecular de 43 isolados de M. pachydermatis obtidos a partir de cães com otite externa. Para esta propósito, foram amplificadas, sequenciadas e analisadas com enzimas de restrição as regiões do gene 5.8S, do espaçador interno transcrito 2 (ITS2) e D1/D2 do 26S do rRNA pelo método RFLP, com as endonucleases AluI, CfOI e BstF5I. Análises filogenéticas revelaram que os isolados se agruparam com as sequências tipo I, IV e V de M. pachydermatis como já descrito anteriormente. De maneira interessante, se observou um novo RFLP polimórfico utilizando BstF5I. Os isolados que mostraram esse padrão foram associados com os padrões IV e V. No entanto, não foi observada associação entre padrões polimórficos de RFLP e atividade de fosfolipase ou dados da população canina. Estes resultados demonstram a diversidade genética de M. pachydermatis e fornecem novas perspectivas sobre a epidemiologia destas espécies na população analisada.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Variação Genética , Malassezia/isolamento & purificação , Malassezia/genética , Otite Externa/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 476, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are tick-borne infections transmitted by Ixodes scapularis in the eastern USA; both agents cause disease in dogs and people. To characterize changes in seroprevalence over time, Cochran Armitage trend tests were used to evaluate percent positive test results for antibodies to B. burgdorferi and Anaplasma spp. in approximately 20 million canine tests from 2010-2017 in 25 states and 905 counties in the eastern USA. RESULTS: A significant decreasing trend in seroprevalence to B. burgdorferi was evident in eight states along the mid-Atlantic coast from Virginia to New Hampshire, and in Wisconsin. In contrast, a continued increasing trend was evident in five northeastern and Midwestern states where Lyme borreliosis is endemic or emerging, as well as in three southern states where endemicity has not yet been widely established. Similarly, seroprevalence to Anaplasma spp. showed a significant, although smaller, decreasing trend in five states along the mid-Atlantic coast from Virginia to Connecticut and Rhode Island, as well as in Minnesota and Wisconsin in the Midwest; despite the fact that those trends were significant they were weak. However, a strong increasing trend was evident in Massachusetts and three states in northern New England as well as in Pennsylvania. CONCLUSIONS: As expected, seroprevalence continued to increase in regions where Lyme borreliosis and anaplasmosis are more newly endemic. However, the declining seroprevalence evident in other areas was not anticipated. Although the reasons for the decreasing trends are not clear, our finding may reflect shifting ecologic factors that have resulted in decreased infection risk or the combined positive influence of canine vaccination, tick control, and routine testing of dogs in regions where these infections have long been endemic. Analysis of trends in canine test results for tick-borne infections continues to be a valuable tool to understand relative geographical and temporal risk for these zoonotic agents.


Assuntos
Anaplasma/imunologia , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Borrelia burgdorferi/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Vet Ital ; 55(3): 203-220, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599545

RESUMO

Increasing antimicrobial resistance in both medicine and agriculture is recognised as a major emerging public health concern. Since 2005, campylobacteriosis has been the most zoonotic disease reported in humans in the European Union. Human infections due to Campylobacter spp. primarily comes from food. However, the human-animal interface is a potential space for the bidirectional movement of zoonotic agents, including antimicrobial resistant strains. Dogs have been identified as carriers of the Campylobacter species and their role as a source of infection for humans has been demonstrated. Furthermore, dogs may play an important role as a reservoir of resistant bacteria or resistance genes. Human beings may also be a reservoir of Campylobacter spp. for their pets. This review analyses the current literature related to the risk of Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance at the dog-human interface.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Humanos , Saúde Única , Medição de Risco
14.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 90(0): e1-e8, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588758

RESUMO

The growing population of free-roaming dogs in informal communities in South Africa may increasingly place humans at risk of possible zoonotic infections including, but not limited to, Brucella canis. Worldwide, the prevalence of B. canis infection has increased during the last two centuries, resulting in increased reports of dog and human infections. This study investigated the risk factors associated with B. canis infection in dogs in three predefined areas: Gauteng, the Eastern Cape and Western Cape provinces, of South Africa. Dogs aged 7 months and older presented to welfare organisations and breeders in the study areas were selected for sampling. A comprehensive questionnaire on dog ownership, general health and vaccination status was completed prior to sampling. One blood sample of 8 mL was collected aseptically per dog. Then, equal amounts (4 mL) were transferred to the different vacutainer tubes. The 2-mercaptoethanol-tube agglutination tests were used after validation. Fifty-two dogs out of the combined sample of 1191 dogs from the three study areas tested positive for B. canis, representing an overall occurrence of 4.4%. A binomial logistic regression model was fitted to identify risk factors associated with B. canis in dogs within the study areas. Dog age (0.371; p 0.05) and external parasite infestation (0.311; p 0.05) were significantly associated with the B. canis infection. Ownership and sterilisation need to be further investigated as possible risk factors because both had odds ratios of 1684 and 1107, respectively, in the univariate model.


Assuntos
Brucelose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Animais , Brucella canis/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 661-670, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618303

RESUMO

We report the first documented case of endocarditis associated with Bartonella clarridgeiae in a dog in Latin America. Infective vegetative valvular aortic endocarditis was diagnosed in a 10-year-old male mixed breed dog. The dog presented grade V/VI systolic and diastolic murmur, hyperthermia, and progressive weight loss. Cardiomegaly and presence of diffuse alveolar pattern in the lung fields were observed in the thorax radiography evaluation. Irregular and hyperechogenic structures adhered to the aortic leaflets, causing obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract and severe aortic insufficiency, were observed in the echocardiography evaluation. A vegetative, whitish, hardened structure measuring 1.0 cm in diameter was observed in aortic semilunar valve at necropsy. Based on a combination of pre-enrichment insect-based medium liquid culture, quantitative real-time and conventional PCR assays based on nuoG and gltA genes, respectively, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic inferences, B. clarridgeiae DNA was detected in the patient's aortic valve lesions. Clinical, echocardiographic, anatomopathologic and molecular features supported the diagnosis of severe aortic vegetative endocarditis possibly caused by B. clarridgeiae in a dog in Brazil.


Assuntos
Valva Aórtica/microbiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/genética , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Endocardite/veterinária , Animais , Bartonella/classificação , Infecções por Bartonella/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Endocardite/microbiologia , Evolução Fatal , Masculino , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 495, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our study aimed to assess the diversity of the species of Anaplasmataceae in Senegal that infect animals and ticks in three areas: near Keur Momar Sarr (northern region), Dielmo and Diop (Sine Saloum, central region of Senegal), and in Casamance (southern region of Senegal). METHODS: A total of 204 ticks and 433 blood samples were collected from ruminants, horses, donkeys and dogs. Ticks were identified morphologically and by molecular characterization targeting the 12S rRNA gene. Molecular characterization of species of Anaplasmataceae infecting Senegalese ticks and animals was conducted using the 23S rRNA, 16S rRNA, rpoB and groEL genes. RESULTS: Ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (84.3%), Hyalomma rufipes (8.3%), Hyalomma impeltatum (4.9%), R. bursa (1.5%) and R. muhsamae (0.9%). The overall prevalence of Anaplasmataceae infection in ticks was 0.9%, whereas 41.1% of the sampled animals were found infected by one of the species belonging to this family. We identified the pathogen Anaplasma ovis in 55.9% of sheep, A. marginale and A. centrale in 19.4% and 8.1%, respectively, of cattle, as well as a putative new species of Anaplasmataceae. Two Anaplasma species commonly infecting ruminants were identified. Anaplasma cf. platys, closely related to A. platys was identified in 19.8% of sheep, 27.7% of goats and 22.6% of cattle, whereas a putative new species, named here provisionally "Candidatus Anaplasma africae", was identified in 3.7% of sheep, 10.3% of goats and 8.1% of cattle. Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma platys were identified only from dogs sampled in the Keur Momar Sarr area. Ehrlichia canis was identified in 18.8% of dogs and two R. e. evertsi ticks removed from the same sheep. Anaplasma platys was identified in 15.6% of dogs. Neither of the dogs sampled from Casamance region nor the horses and donkeys sampled from Keur Momar Sarr area were found infected by an Anaplasmataceae species. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents a summary of Anaplasmataceae species that infect animals and ticks in three areas from the northern, central and southern regions of Senegal. To our knowledge, our findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of multiple Anaplasmataceae species that infect ticks and domestic animals in Senegal. We recorded two potentially new species commonly infecting ruminants named here provisionally as Anaplasma cf. platys and "Candidatus Anaplasma africae". However, E. canis was the only species identified and amplified from ticks. None of the other Anaplasmataceae species identified in animals were identified in the tick species collected from animals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/veterinária , Anaplasmataceae/classificação , Anaplasmataceae/genética , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/microbiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Bovinos , Chaperonina 60/genética , DNA Ribossômico/sangue , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/isolamento & purificação , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Equidae/microbiologia , Equidae/parasitologia , Feminino , Variação Genética , Cabras , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Cavalos , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 23S/genética , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Senegal , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Ovinos , Infestações por Carrapato/complicações , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
17.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(6): 696-701, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of successful management of epidural-subdural abscess and severe meningitis with secondary brain herniation in a dog. CASE SUMMARY: A rhino-sinusotomy was performed in a 3-year-old mixed-breed dog for management of refractory sinonasal aspergillosis. Initial recovery was good, but the dog became acutely stuporous 36 hours after surgery. Evidence of increased intracranial pressure with brain herniation and midline shift secondary to an epidural abscess was observed on magnetic resonance imaging. Decompressive craniectomy and drainage of the abscess was performed. Intensive nursing care and physiologic support was performed with consciousness returning 7 days after initial stupor. The dog was discharged 14 days after craniectomy and was ambulatory with support. NEW/UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: Intracranial abscesses are rarely described in dogs and few had a successful outcome reported. All previous reports have been of brain abscesses or empyema, rather than a combination of epidural and subdural abscessation. Additionally, the process of sino-rhinotomy for management of aspergillosis has not been previously linked to intracranial abscess formation. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of successful management of an epidural-subdural abscess and suggests that even with cases with low modified Glasgow Coma Scale scores outcome may be positive.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Empiema Subdural/veterinária , Abscesso Epidural/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Empiema Subdural/microbiologia , Empiema Subdural/terapia , Abscesso Epidural/microbiologia , Abscesso Epidural/terapia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/patologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/terapia , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/microbiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/veterinária
18.
Aust Vet J ; 97(10): 418-421, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556108

RESUMO

This study reports the prevalence of potential faecal pathogens in the microbiome detected in a cohort of cats and dogs with diarrhoea in Perth, Western Australia. Records from a commercial diagnostic laboratory using faecal PCR testing between July 2014 and August 2015 were reviewed.Of 289 feline faecal samples reviewed, Salmonella spp. (1.7%), Campylobacter spp. (47.6%), Clostridium perfringens (81.3%), Giardia spp. (11.1%), Toxoplasma gondii (1.2%), Tritrichomonas foetus (4.8%), panleukopenia virus (6.5%) and coronavirus (39.5%) were detected. In dogs, Salmonella spp. (5.4%), Campylobacter spp. (36.3%), C. perfringens (85.4%), Giardia spp. (6.2%), parvovirus (9.4%), coronavirus (4.7%) and distemper virus (1.5%) were detected.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 331, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dogs that have clinical leishmaniosis (ClinL), caused by the parasite Leishmania infantum, are commonly co-infected with other pathogens, especially vector-borne pathogens (VBP). A recent PCR-based study found that ClinL dogs are more likely to be additionally infected with the rickettsial bacteria Ehrlichia canis. Further information on co-infections in ClinL cases with VBP, as assessed by serology, is required. The research described in this report determined if dogs with ClinL are at higher risk of exposure to VBP than healthy control dogs using a case-control serology study. RESULTS: Of the 47 dogs with ClinL, anti-E. canis/ Ehrlichia ewingii antibodies were detected in 17 (36.2%), anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum/Anaplasma platys antibodies in 5 (10.6%) and antigen for Dirofilaria immitis in 2 (4.3%). Of the 87 control dogs, anti-E. canis/E. ewingii antibodies were detected in 14 (16.1%) and anti-A. phagocytophilum/A. platys antibodies in 2 (2.3%). No anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibody tests were positive. No statistical differences between the ClinL dogs and control dogs regarding lifestyle or use of ectoparasitic prevention, were identified. The ClinL was significantly associated with anti-E. canis/E. ewingii antibodies (odds ratio = 2.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-6.7, P = 0.010) compared to controls by both multivariable logistic regression and structural equation modelling. CONCLUSIONS: It was demonstrated that an increased risk for E. canis/E. ewingii seropositivity is present in dogs with ClinL compared to clinically healthy control dogs, despite similar ectoparasitic prevention use and lifestyle. Based on these findings it is suggested that dogs with ClinL should not only be tested for E. canis co-infection using PCR but also serologically for E. canis/E. ewingii.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Anaplasma/imunologia , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Chipre/epidemiologia , Dirofilaria immitis/imunologia , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ectoparasitoses/prevenção & controle , Ehrlichia/imunologia , Ehrlichiose/sangue , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
20.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 69(5): 353-357, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508840

RESUMO

The ability of chemotherapeutic agents to affect the growth of common bacterial pathogens and the relationship between the effects of chemotherapeutics and antimicrobials is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to describe the susceptibility of canine bacterial isolates to chemotherapeutic agents and to compare these results to their antimicrobial susceptibility. The effects of bleomycin, doxorubicin, cytarabine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil and gemcitabine on the growth of 33 Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates and 32 Escherichia coli isolates from dogs was determined by agar dilution. In addition to MICs, the lowest drug concentration associated with a decreased colony size was recorded. Results were compared to the MICs of a panel of antimicrobial agents. Bleomycin consistently inhibited bacterial growth of S. pseudintermedius and E. coli. Doxorubicin inhibited S. pseudintermedius but not E. coli while the opposite was seen for gemcitabine. Reduction in colony size on exposure to 5-fluorouracil for both organisms, and methotrexate for S. pseudintermedius was seen. No observable effect of cyclophosphamide or cytarabine was observed. Associations between elevated MICs to chemotherapeutic drugs and antimicrobial resistance were not found. These results indicate that chemotherapeutic agents affect the growth of bacteria, but do not support a role in the selection of antimicrobial resistance. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study shows that chemotherapy drugs commonly used in veterinary oncology have an effect of the growth of canine isolates of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. No associations between susceptibility to chemotherapeutic drugs and antibiotics were found, which does not support selection of antimicrobial resistance by chemotherapy drugs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bleomicina/farmacologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoruracila/farmacologia , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cães , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação
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