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1.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(4)2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826489

RESUMO

As the representative multidrug-resistant pathogen, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has multiple intrinsic and acquired resistances, including carbapenem resistance. In companion animals, the antimicrobial susceptibility and sequence types (STs) of S. maltophilia are not well understood due to its limited isolation rate. We investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities and multilocus sequence types (MLSTs) of 38 S. maltophilia strains isolated from dogs and cats in Japan. Prevalence of resistance was detected for imipenem (100 %), aztreonam (94.7 %), piperacillin (65.8 %), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (65.8 %), and ceftazidime (60.5 %). Rates of resistances to chloramphenicol, minocycline, and levofloxacin were low (2.6-5.3 %). MLST analysis revealed that all 38 strains were assigned to 34 STs, including 11 previously reported STs and 23 newly identified STs. Phylogenetic analysis of MLSTs enabled categorization of 13 isolates (34.2 %) into genogroup 6, which is a major genogroup of human isolates. Multinational surveillance would be needed to clarify the significance of antimicrobial-resistant S. maltophilia isolates from companion animals.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Genótipo , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Japão , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/classificação
2.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 72(5): 596-603, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524173

RESUMO

Non-lactose-fermenting Escherichia coli (NLFEC) has a few descriptive studies restricted to human infections. In the present study, isolates of NLFEC obtained from urine samples of dogs with hyperadrenocorticism were characterized regarding their virulence ability, biofilm formation capacity and antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Escherichia coli lactose-fermenting strains from urinary infection in dogs with the same conditions were analysed to provide comparisons. The non-lactose-fermenting E. coli strains were classified as belonging to clade I E. coli, whereas the lactose-fermenting strains were classified in phylogroup B2. All strains presented virulence markers to adhesion, iron acquisition, toxins, colicin and cytotoxin production, and biofilm regulation. Components of the extracellular matrix in addition to the in vitro biofilm formation ability were observed in the strains. Multidrug resistance (MDR) profiles were observed by in vitro susceptibility tests to all NLFEC strains. In summary, non-lactose-fermenting uropathogenic E. coli from dogs behaves similar to lactose-fermenting E. coli, exhibiting MDR profile, and pathogenic potential of promote animal infections.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Infecções Urinárias/veterinária , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Animais , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cães , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Fermentação/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/metabolismo , Virulência
3.
Res Vet Sci ; 134: 186-190, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388616

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by spirochetal bacterial of the genus Leptospira affecting virtually all mammals. The infection has a broad range of effects, from mild clinical manifestation to multiple organ failure, and ultimately death. A 5-months-old male unvaccinated dog was admitted to the University Veterinary Teaching Hospital presenting dullness, dehydration, jaundiced mucous, bloody diarrhea, vomiting, and hyporexia. Microscopic agglutination test (MAT) detected serological titers of 1:1.600 for serogroup Canicola. After five days of monitoring by the medical team he developed fever and swelling of carpal and tarsal joints, accompanied by functional limitation. Initial antimicrobial treatment was instituted for leptospirosis. Polyarthritis responsiveness to glucocorticoid therapy was observed through decreasing signs of inflammation of the affected joints. The diagnosis of leptospirosis was further confirmed by molecular investigation for Leptospira spp. on blood and synovial fluid samples. Amplification and sequencing of the secY partial gene characterized the infective bacterial as Leptospira interrogans. From the 7th day the respiratory condition worsened and on Day 14 the patient evolved to death, when necropsy and histological evaluation were performed. Prominent anatomopathological findings included: fibrinous polyarthritis, bronchointerstitial pneumonia, intense hepatocyte dissociation, cholestasis, and periportal multifocal hepatitis, diffuse acute tubular necrosis, and significant dystrophic mineralization in the renal parenchyma, lungs, and atrial endocardium. Here, we present a case report of systemic clinical manifestations polyarthritis associated with the presence of leptospiras in the synovial fluid. We highlight the need for richer knowledge about the different clinical manifestations of leptospirosis.


Assuntos
Artrite/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Síndrome Hepatorrenal/veterinária , Leptospira interrogans , Leptospirose/veterinária , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Animais , Antibacterianos , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Artrite/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Febre/veterinária , Síndrome Hepatorrenal/microbiologia , Leptospira interrogans/classificação , Leptospira interrogans/genética , Leptospira interrogans/imunologia , Leptospirose/complicações , Masculino , Sorogrupo
4.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 51(1): 155-169, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131916

RESUMO

The intestinal microbiome is an important immune and metabolic organ in health and disease. Recent molecular and metabolomic approaches have provided a better characterization of different types of dysbiosis, including mucosa-adherent bacteria and functional changes in the microbiome. This article summarizes recent advances in assessment of dysbiosis, the importance of the bile acid-converting Clostridium hiranonis as an important beneficial bacterium in the canine gut, and different therapeutic approaches to dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Disbiose/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Gatos , Diarreia/microbiologia , Cães , Disbiose/microbiologia
5.
Vet J ; 266: 105573, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323170

RESUMO

In humans, leptospiral acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterised by tubulointerstitial involvement and renal electrolyte losses, impacting clinical presentation and case management. The aim of this study was to evaluate urine chemistry findings in dogs with leptospirosis in order to identify characteristic patterns of tubular damage associated with this disease. Dogs with intrinsic AKI caused by leptospirosis and by other aetiologies were prospectively enrolled. Clinical and clinicopathological variables, including serum and urine chemistry, fractional excretion (FE%) of electrolytes, and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), were evaluated in both groups and compared statistically. Dogs with leptospirosis (n = 38) had significantly higher serum creatinine concentration than dogs with AKI caused by other aetiologies (n = 37). Serum potassium and glucose concentrations were comparable between groups. Dogs with leptospiral AKI had significantly higher FE of potassium (median 100%, range 20-480 vs. median 68%, range 5-300; P = 0.048), as well as higher magnitude of glucosuria (urine glucose to creatinine ratio, median 0.64, range 0-26 vs. median 0.22, range 0-13; P = 0.023) and frequency of positive glucose dipstick reaction (59% vs. 18%; P = 0.002), than dogs with AKI of other aetiologies. Additional markers of tubular damage considered in this study, including FE of other electrolytes and urinary NGAL, did not differ between groups. In conclusion, when compared to other aetiologies of intrinsic AKI, canine leptospirosis was characterised by increased glucosuria and kaliuresis.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/urina , Animais , Creatinina/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/urina , Cães , Feminino , Glicosúria/veterinária , Túbulos Renais/fisiopatologia , Leptospira , Leptospirose/complicações , Leptospirose/urina , Lipocalina-2/urina , Masculino , Potássio/urina
6.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(5): 565-569, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202509

RESUMO

This report describes the first clinical case of a transfusion-associated Mycoplasma haemocanis infection in a dog in Korea. A 6-year-old male Maltese underwent a red blood cell transfusion for idiopathic immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. Eighteen days after the blood transfusion, the recipient's packed cell volume decreased and basophilic organisms were found on erythrocytes. A polymerase chain reaction and sequential analysis showed that both the donor dog and recipient dog had M. haemocanis. Six weeks after doxycycline administration, no organisms were detected and the recipient's anemia had improved.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/terapia , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/veterinária , Transfusão de Sangue/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma , Reação Transfusional/microbiologia , Reação Transfusional/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , República da Coreia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e6, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054249

RESUMO

Although Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) can infect both animals and humans, there is a paucity of veterinary studies on antimicrobial resistance of P. aeruginosa in South Africa. Secondary data of canine clinical cases presented at the hospital from January 2007 to December 2013 was used. The following information was recorded: type of sample, the date of sampling and the antimicrobial susceptibility results. Frequencies, proportions and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all the categorical variables. In total, 155 P. aeruginosa isolates were identified and included in this study. All the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial (AMR), while 92% were multi-drug resistant (MDR). Most isolates were resistant to lincomycin (98%), penicillin-G (96%), orbifloxacin (90%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (90%) and doxycycline (87%). A low proportion of isolates was resistant to imipenem (6%), tobramycin (12%), amikacin (16%) and gentamicin (18%). A high proportion of MDR-P. aeruginosa isolates was resistant to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid (99%), tylosin (99%), chloramphenicol (97%) and doxycycline (96%). Few (6%) of MDR-P. aeruginosa isolates were resistant to imipenem. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was associated with infections of various organ systems in this study. All P. aeruginosa isolates of P. aeruginosa exhibited resistance to ß-lactams, fluoroquinolones and lincosamides. Clinicians at the hospital in question should consider these findings when treating infections associated with P. aeruginosa.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Pseudomonas/veterinária , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Animais , Antibacterianos/classificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cães , Hospitais Veterinários , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , África do Sul
8.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e005320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785527

RESUMO

Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens (TBRP) are important causes of infections in both dogs and humans. Dogs play an important role as a biological host for several tick species and can serve as sentinels for rickettsial infections. Our aim was to determine the presence of TBRP in dogs and in dog-associated ticks and their potential risk to human diseases in Medellin, Colombia. DNA for E. canis (16S rRNA and dsb) and A. platys (groEl) was detected in 17.6% (53/300) and 2.6% (8/300) of dogs, respectively. Antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. 82 (27.3%) and Anaplasma spp. 8 (2.6%) were detected in dogs. Antibody reactivity against both agents were found in 16 dogs (5.3%). Eight dogs showed antibody for Rickettsia spp. with titers that suggest 3 of them had a probable exposure to R. parkeri. Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (178/193) was the main tick in dogs, followed by R. microplus (15/193). The minimum infection rates (MIR) in R. sanguineus were 11.8% for E. canis and 3.4% for A. platys. E. canis and A. platys are the main TBRP infecting dogs and ticks and R. sanguineus s.l. is likely involved in the transmission of both agents. Interestingly, we found serological evidence of exposure in dogs for spotted fever group rickettsiae.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose , Doenças do Cão , Ehrlichiose , Rhipicephalus sanguineus , Infecções por Rickettsia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ehrlichia/genética , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/microbiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/microbiologia , Rickettsia/genética , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária
9.
J S Afr Vet Assoc ; 91(0): e1-e11, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787418

RESUMO

This study investigated the occurrence and phylogenetic relationship of protozoan parasites and Ehrlichia infecting domestic animals from three municipalities in uMkhanyakude district of KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. A total of 208 blood samples collected from clinically healthy cattle, sheep, goats and dogs from uMkhanyakude district were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, using either genus or species-specific primers to determine the occurrence and phylogenetic relationship of various protozoan parasites and Ehrlichia of veterinary importance. A total of 5/109 (4.6%) cattle were PCR-positive for the presence of Toxoplasma gondii, 33/109 (30.3%) for Babesia bovis, 24/109 (22.02%) for Babesia bigemina and 20/109 (18.3%) for Trypanosoma sp., while 3/10 (30%) of sheep were PCR-positive for Theileria ovis and none of the goats were positive for any of the detected pathogens. The co-infection of 4/109 (3.7%) B. bovis and B. bigemina was detected in cattle. Only Ehrlichia canis was detected in dogs with infection rate of 20/48 (41.7%). Sequences of PCR-positive isolates (B. bovis, B. bigemina, E. canis, T. ovis and T. gondii) showed that they were closely related to their relevant species from various countries. These findings have expanded our knowledge about the prevalence and phylogenetic similarity between protozoan parasites and Ehrlichia isolates of South African origin. To date, this is the first study in South Africa to detect T. gondii infections from cattle blood using PCR.


Assuntos
Babesiose/parasitologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Theileriose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Animais , Babesia/classificação , Babesia/isolamento & purificação , Babesiose/microbiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ehrlichia canis/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichiose/microbiologia , Ehrlichiose/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Theileria/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/microbiologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/microbiologia , Trypanosoma/classificação , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase/microbiologia , Tripanossomíase/parasitologia
10.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 42, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746875

RESUMO

Canine vector-borne diseases are caused by pathogens transmitted by arthropods including ticks, mosquitoes and sand flies. Many canine vector-borne diseases are of zoonotic importance. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of vector-borne infections caused by Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia canis, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Leishmania infantum in a dog kennel in Argeș County, Romania. Dog kennels are shelters for stray dogs with no officially registered owners that are gathered to be neutered and/or boarded for national/international adoptions by various public or private organizations. The international dog adoptions might represent a risk in the transmission of pathogens into new regions. In this context, a total number of 149 blood samples and 149 conjunctival swabs from asymptomatic kennel dogs were assessed using serology and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected in one dog (0.6%), anti-Anaplasma antibodies were found in five dogs (3.3%), while ten dogs (6.7%) tested positive for D. immitis antigen. Overall, 20.1% (30/149) of dogs were positive for L. infantum DNA. All samples were seronegative for anti-Leishmania antibodies. When adopting dogs from this region of Romania, owners should be aware of possible infection with especially L. infantum. The travel of infected dogs may introduce the infection to areas where leishmaniasis is not present.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/análise , Borrelia burgdorferi/isolamento & purificação , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Vetores de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ehrlichia canis/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/microbiologia , Feminino , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Romênia/epidemiologia
11.
J Vet Sci ; 21(4): e54, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a leading cause of severe infections in humans and animals worldwide. Studies elucidating the population structure, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec types, resistance phenotypes, and virulence gene profiles of animal-associated MRSA are needed to understand spread and transmission. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine 1) clonal complexes and spa types, 2) resistance phenotypes, and 3) virulence/resistance gene profiles of MRSA isolated from animals in Switzerland. METHODS: We analyzed 31 presumptive MRSA isolates collected from clinical infections in horses, dogs, cattle, sheep, and pigs, which had tested positive in the Staphaurex Latex Agglutination Test. The isolates were characterized by spa typing and DNA microarray profiling. In addition, we performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing using the VITEK 2 Compact system. RESULTS: Characterization of the 31 presumptive MRSA isolates revealed 3 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates, which were able to grow on MRSA2 Brilliance agar. Of the 28 MRSA isolates, the majority was assigned to CC398 (86%), but CC8 (11%) and CC1 (4%) were also detected. The predominant spa type was t011 (n = 23), followed by t009 (n = 2), t034 (n = 1), t008 (n = 1), and t127 (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study extend the current body of knowledge on the population structure, resistance phenotypes, and virulence and resistance gene profiles of MRSA from livestock and companion animals.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/veterinária , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236007, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668449

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease of high medical importance that affects humans worldwide. Humans or animals acquire an infection with pathogenic leptospires either by direct contact with infected animals or by indirect contact to contaminated environment. Survival of Leptospira spp. in the environment after having been shed via animal urine is thus a key factor to estimate the risk of infection, but not much is known about the tenacity of pathogenic leptospires. Here, the survival time of both a laboratory strain and a field strain of L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa in animal urine and their tenacity while drying was investigated and compared at different temperatures (15°C-37°C). Leptospira spp. are also often found in rivers and ponds. As the infection risk for humans and animals also depends on the spreading and survival of Leptospira spp. in these environments, the survival of L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa was investigated using a 50-meter-long hose system simulating a water stream. Both strains did not survive in undiluted cattle or dog urine. Comparing different temperatures and dilution media, the laboratory strain survived the longest in diluted cattle urine with a slightly alkaline pH value (3 days), whilst the field strain survived in diluted dog urine with a slightly acid pH value up to a maximum of 24 h. Both strains did not survive drying on a solid surface. In a water stream, leptospires were able to move faster or slower than the average velocity of the water due to their intrinsic mobility but were not able to survive the mechanical damage caused by running water in the hose system. From our results we conclude, that once excreted via animal urine, the leptospires immediately need moisture or a water body to survive and stay infectious.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leptospira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Urina/microbiologia , Poluentes da Água/análise , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Feminino , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas pela Água/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas pela Água/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
13.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 255-257, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592549

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to recognise the etiological factor of a disease with symptoms of lameness and cardiac failure, which occurred in one dog 4 weeks after invasion by ticks. A serological examination as well as molecular examination (PCR) was done. In the sample of the serum, the presence of antibodies specific to Borrelia burgdorferi were detected. Antibiotic therapy with doxycycline did not cause significant improvement, so the owners of the dog decided about its euthanasia. During the necroscopy, a dilated heart was recognised. In the heart samples, the genetic material of Borrelia was detected. The results of serological and molecular examinations showed that in the discussed case, an etiological factor of the disease was spirochetes. In light of the research, veterinary practitioners should keep in mind the presence of Lyme disease in dogs in Poland and include it in differential diagnoses for lameness and cardiological problems.


Assuntos
Infecções por Borrelia , Doenças do Cão , Miocardite , Infestações por Carrapato , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Infecções por Borrelia/complicações , Infecções por Borrelia/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Eutanásia Animal , Coração/parasitologia , Miocardite/diagnóstico , Miocardite/etiologia , Polônia , Infestações por Carrapato/complicações , Infestações por Carrapato/microbiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
14.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 26, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus halichoeri infections have been reported in grey seals, a European badger, a Stellar sea lion and humans, but its presence in companion and fur animals is unknown. Since 2010, S. halichoeri-like bacteria (SHL) have been isolated from fur animals and dogs in Finland. Our aim was to retrospectively investigate laboratory records for SHL from canine and fur animal infections, characterize the isolates and compare their genetic relatedness in relation to three reference strains: CCUG 48324T, originating from a grey seal, and strains 67100 and 61265, originally isolated from humans. RESULTS: A total of 138 and 36 SHLs from canine and fur animal infections, respectively, were identified in the laboratory records. SHL was commonly associated with skin infections, but rarely as the only species. A set of 49 canine and 23 fur animal SHLs were further characterized. MALDI-TOF confirmed them as being S. halichoeri. The growth characteristics were consistent with the original findings, but isolates were catalase positive. In total, 17 distinct API 20 Strep patterns were recorded among all 75 isolates tested, of which pattern 5563100 was the most common (n = 30). Antimicrobial resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin was common in canine isolates, but rare in fur animal isolates. Three clusters were observed by PFGE, and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed 98.1-100% similarities with the human strains and 98.1-99.5% with the seal strain. A phylogenetic tree of concatenated 16S rRNA and rpoB revealed closely related isolates with two clades. Fifteen canine isolates were identical to the human strains based on concatenated 16S rRNA and rpoB sequencing. CONCLUSIONS: Streptococcus halichoeri appears to be quite a common bacterial species in the skin of dogs and fur animals. The clinical significance of S. halichoeri is uncertain, as it was rarely isolated as a monoculture. No apparent temporal or spatial clustering was detected, but isolates from different sources were genetically very similar. Because many canine isolates were genetically similar to the human reference strains, transmission between dogs and humans may be possible. WGS sequencing of strains from different sources is needed to further investigate the epidemiology and virulence of S. halichoeri.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Raposas , Vison , Cães Guaxinins , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus/genética , Animais , Cães , Filogenia , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Estudos Retrospectivos , Streptococcus/química , Streptococcus/classificação , Streptococcus/fisiologia
15.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 39: 100429, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482286

RESUMO

Many Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains produce biofilm that confers antimicrobial resistance. However, studies of biofilm production by E. coli from canine pyometra are lacking. Objectives were to elucidate the role of biofilm production by E. coli in pyometra by: (1) assessing the ability of E. coli to produce biofilm in vitro, and (2) confirming biofilm in situ. Endometrial biopsies were obtained from bitches with pyometra and preserved for microscopic analysis (n = 25). An endometrial swab was submitted for aerobic culture. Samples with confirmed E. coli were evaluated further for biofilm production in vitro and in vivo. Seventy percent of cases (16/23) resulted in pure growth of 1 or 2 E. coli strains, totaling 20 isolates. Fifteen isolates (15/20, 75%) had higher optical densities then negative controls (P < .05). On histopathology, all tissues exhibited endometrial inflammation and mucus was located within endometrial glands and occasionally overlying epithelium on 14 slides (14/16, 88%). Bacteria was noted in 50% of slides (8/16). During FISH acellular debris within the uterine lumen consistent with biofilm was noted on 94% of samples (15/16) and E coli was positively identified on all samples (15/15). Areas suggestive of the presence of biofilm were observed on all samples on scanning electron microscopy; but, bacteria consistent with E. coli were only visualized in 9 samples (9/16, 56%). In conclusion, we demonstrated that relevant strains of E. coli produce biofilm in vitro and in vivo, which may be considered in the development of new pyometra treatments aimed at disrupting these E. coli biofilm.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Piometra/veterinária , Animais , Biofilmes , Cães , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Feminino , Piometra/microbiologia
17.
J Comp Pathol ; 176: 86-108, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359641

RESUMO

The canine infectious respiratory disease complex (CIRDC) is an endemic worldwide syndrome involving multiple viral and bacterial pathogens. Traditionally, Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb), canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV), canine herpesvirus (CHV) and canine parainfluenza virus (CPiV) were considered the major causative agents. Lately, new pathogens have been implicated in the development of CIRDC, namely canine influenza virus (CIV), canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine pneumovirus (CnPnV), Mycoplasma cynos and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus. To better understand the role of the different pathogens in the development of CIRDC and their epidemiological relevance in Europe, prevalence data were collected from peer-reviewed publications and summarized. Evidence of exposure to Bb is frequently found in healthy and diseased dogs and client-owned dogs are as likely to be infected as kennelled dogs. Co-infections with viral pathogens are common. The findings confirm that Bb is an important cause of CIRDC in Europe. CAV-2 and CDV recovery rates from healthy and diseased dogs are low and the most likely explanation for this is control through vaccination. Seroconversion to CHV can be demonstrated following CIRDC outbreaks and CHV has been detected in the lower respiratory tract of diseased dogs. There is some evidence that CHV is not a primary cause of CIRDC, but opportunistically re-activates at the time of infection and exacerbates the disease. The currently available data suggest that CIV is, at present, neither a prevalent nor a significant pathogen in Europe. CPiV remains an important pathogen in CIRDC and facilitates co-infection with other viral and bacterial pathogens. CnPnV and CRCoV are important new elements in the aetiology of CIRDC and spread particularly well in multi-dog establishments. M. cynos is common in Europe and is more likely to occur in younger and kennelled dogs. This organism is frequently found together with other CIRDC pathogens and is significantly associated with more severe respiratory signs. S. zooepidemicus infection is not common and appears to be a particular problem in kennels. Protective immunity against respiratory diseases is rarely complete, and generally only a reduction in clinical signs and excretion of pathogen can be achieved through vaccination. However, even vaccines that only reduce and do not prevent infection carry epidemiological advantages. They reduce spread, increase herd immunity and decrease usage of antimicrobials. Recommending vaccination of dogs against pathogens of CIRDC will directly provide epidemiological advantages to the population and the individual dog.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Europa (Continente) , Prevalência
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231893, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vaccination is the most important tool for controlling brucellosis, but currently there is no vaccine available for canine brucellosis, which is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution caused by Brucella canis. This study aimed to evaluate protection and immune response induced by Brucella ovis ΔabcBA (BoΔabcBA) encapsulated with alginate against the challenge with Brucella canis in mice and to assess the safety of this strain for dogs. METHODS: Intracellular growth of the vaccine strain BoΔabcBA was assessed in canine and ovine macrophages. Protection induced by BoΔabcBA against virulent Brucella canis was evaluated in the mouse model. Safety of the vaccine strain BoΔabcBA was assessed in experimentally inoculated dogs. RESULTS: Wild type B. ovis and B. canis had similar internalization and intracellular multiplication profiles in both canine and ovine macrophages. The BoΔabcBA strain had an attenuated phenotype in both canine and ovine macrophages. Immunization of BALB/c mice with alginate-encapsulated BoΔabcBA (108 CFU) induced lymphocyte proliferation, production of IL-10 and IFN-γ, and protected against experimental challenge with B. canis. Dogs immunized with alginate-encapsulated BoΔabcBA (109 CFU) seroconverted, and had no hematologic, biochemical or clinical changes. Furthermore, BoΔabcBA was not detected by isolation or PCR performed using blood, semen, urine samples or vaginal swabs at any time point over the course of this study. BoΔabcBA was isolated from lymph nodes near to the site of inoculation in two dogs at 22 weeks post immunization. CONCLUSION: Encapsulated BoΔabcBA protected mice against experimental B. canis infection, and it is safe for dogs. Therefore, B. ovis ΔabcBA has potential as a vaccine candidate for canine brucellosis prevention.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Vacina contra Brucelose/imunologia , Brucella ovis/genética , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Alginatos/química , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Brucella canis/patogenicidade , Brucella ovis/imunologia , Brucella ovis/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/microbiologia , Brucelose/patologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Imunização , Fígado/microbiologia , Fígado/fisiologia , Linfócitos/citologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mutação , Ovinos
19.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(1): e020219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267390

RESUMO

Rickettsia rickettsii is the causative agent of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), for which humans and dogs are both susceptible. Dogs are sentinels in serological surveys, however, canine disease is rarely reported. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate natural infection by spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. in dogs and ticks collected from domiciles close to forest fragments, featuring domestic-wildlife interface areas. Samples from 115 dogs and 135 ixodids were assessed by polymerase chain reactions (PCR) targeting the gltA gene for Rickettsia spp. and the ompA gene for the SFG rickettsial species. One dog (0.87%; 1/115) was positive for R. rickettsii. This dog presented nonspecific laboratory and clinical abnormalities (thrombocytopenia, hyperproteinemia, lymph node enlargement, emaciation, anorexia, and lethargy). Rickettsia parkeri was identified in 2.96% (4/135) of the ticks (Amblyomma sculptum, A. aureolatum, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus). This study confirmed the presence of SFG bacteria in non-endemic and preserved locations, where domestic and wild populations interact. We reinforce the fact that the dog is susceptible to natural R. rickettsii infection. Although this is a rare finding, preventive measures should be taken against BSF in the studied areas. Finally, R. parkeri infection is possibly being demonstrated in A. sculptum for the first time.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Rickettsia/genética , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/veterinária , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brasil , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rickettsia/classificação , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/diagnóstico , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/microbiologia
20.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 18, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334616

RESUMO

Sweden has a long tradition of monitoring occurrence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in both animals and humans, but there currently is no organised and harmonized monitoring on carriage of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase (pAmpC), or methicillin-resistant coagulase positive staphylococci e.g. methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in dogs. The aim of the current study was therefore to determine the prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin-resistant coagulase positive staphylococci in healthy dogs in Sweden, and to phenotypically and genotypically characterize any identified isolates. It was shown that 0.9% (95% confident interval 0.3-2.7%) of the dogs (n = 325) carried multi-resistant ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, but that no methicillin-resistant coagulase positive staphylococci could be detected. In conclusion, the occurrence of multi-drug resistant bacteria remains rare among healthy dogs in Sweden. In addition, the ESBL-producing E. coli identified showed genetic characteristics related to those reported from humans.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cefalosporinase/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/classificação , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Genótipo , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Suécia/epidemiologia
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