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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e014920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935772

RESUMO

Dogs play a potential role as reservoirs for zoonotic parasites, being especially problematic uncontrolled dog populations such as stray and farm dogs with access to populated areas. In order to investigate the prevalence of canine intestinal parasites in at-risk dog populations, we tested a total of 233 faecal samples shed by stray and dairy farm dogs from northern Spain. Telemann method was used to detect the presence of eggs and (oo)cysts of common dog intestinal parasites and Cryptosporidium was detected by PCR. One hundred and forty eight out of 233 samples (63.5%) were positive for at least one intestinal parasite, being Ancylostomidae (35.6%; 83/233) and Trichuris (35.2%; 82/233) the parasites most frequently identified. Cryptosporidium DNA was not detected in any of the faecal samples analysed. The overall prevalence was significantly higher in stray dogs than in farm dogs (72.5% vs 58.8%). Specifically, stray dogs had a significantly higher prevalence of Ancylostomatidae, Toxocara, Toxascaris and Taenidae. These dog populations are an important source of environmental contamination with intestinal parasite forms, which could be of significance to animal and human health.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Fazendas , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e005320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785527

RESUMO

Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens (TBRP) are important causes of infections in both dogs and humans. Dogs play an important role as a biological host for several tick species and can serve as sentinels for rickettsial infections. Our aim was to determine the presence of TBRP in dogs and in dog-associated ticks and their potential risk to human diseases in Medellin, Colombia. DNA for E. canis (16S rRNA and dsb) and A. platys (groEl) was detected in 17.6% (53/300) and 2.6% (8/300) of dogs, respectively. Antibodies against Ehrlichia spp. 82 (27.3%) and Anaplasma spp. 8 (2.6%) were detected in dogs. Antibody reactivity against both agents were found in 16 dogs (5.3%). Eight dogs showed antibody for Rickettsia spp. with titers that suggest 3 of them had a probable exposure to R. parkeri. Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. (178/193) was the main tick in dogs, followed by R. microplus (15/193). The minimum infection rates (MIR) in R. sanguineus were 11.8% for E. canis and 3.4% for A. platys. E. canis and A. platys are the main TBRP infecting dogs and ticks and R. sanguineus s.l. is likely involved in the transmission of both agents. Interestingly, we found serological evidence of exposure in dogs for spotted fever group rickettsiae.


Assuntos
Anaplasmose , Doenças do Cão , Ehrlichiose , Rhipicephalus sanguineus , Infecções por Rickettsia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Anaplasmose/microbiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ehrlichia/genética , Ehrlichiose/epidemiologia , Ehrlichiose/microbiologia , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/microbiologia , Rickettsia/genética , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e012420, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756775

RESUMO

Piroplasm species were analyzed by molecular tools in total 31 blood samples from positive dogs, previously checked by stained slides, stored until DNA extraction between 2016 to 2018 in the laboratory Clinical Analyzes in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. The piroplasms were identified by PCR, targeting the 18S rRNA gene and sequencing. From the total number of samples only 24 (77.4%) were positive and show adequate nucleotide sequences for interpretation with identity between 93%-100% with Babesia vogeli in compared to the sequences isolated of infected dogs from other states in Brazil deposited on GenBank. Most of dogs infected with B. vogeli had anemia (62.5%) and thrombocytopenia (95.8%). The findings of this study are compatible with previous reports in the literature and highlight B. vogeli as the most incriminated species in canine piroplasmosis in Brazil, and thrombocytopenia the hematological alteration most frequently identified in this infection. It is important to note that this is the first study involving the molecular characterization of piroplasms in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, based on PCR followed by sequencing.


Assuntos
Babesia , Babesiose , Sangue , Doenças do Cão , Manejo de Espécimes , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/sangue , Sangue/parasitologia , Análise Química do Sangue , Brasil , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008465, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is one of the most important vector-borne diseases and it represents a serious world health problem affecting millions of people. High levels of Leishmania infections, affecting both humans and animals, are recognized among Italian regions. Among these, Sicily has one of the highest prevalence of Leishmania infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seventy-eight Leishmania strains isolated from human and animal samples across Sicily, were analyzed for the polymorphic k26-gene and genotypes were assigned according to the size of the PCR products. A multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) approach based on the analysis of 11 independent loci was used to investigate populations structure and genetic diversity of the isolated strains. Six L. infantum reference strains were included in the analysis for comparison. Bayesian clustering analysis of microsatellite data showed that all the isolated strains clustered in two genetically distinct populations, corresponding to human and canine isolates respectively. A further subdivision was observed between the two main groups, giving a good correlation between human strains and their geographic origin, conversely canine population showed a great genetic variability diffused in the territory. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Among the 78 Leishmania isolates, K26 analysis detected 71 samples (91%) as MON-1 zymodeme, confirming it as the predominant strain in Mediterranean area and 7 human samples (9%) as non-MON-1. MLMT gives important insights into the epidemiology of leishmaniases and allows characterization of different strains to a higher resolution than possible with zymodeme typing. Two main populations presented a strong correlation respect to the different hosts, exhibiting a co-circulation of two distinct populations of L. infantum. The population found in infected humans exhibited a correlation with geographic origin. These clusters could represent a geographically restricted population of strains with the same or related genotypes. This study can contribute to an understanding of Leishmania epidemiology, including the spread of reservoirs and sand fly vectors in the different foci of infection, characterizing parasites within the different hosts.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Leishmania infantum/classificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia
5.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107941, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622940

RESUMO

Distinct antigens have been evaluated with diagnostic purpose for canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), and variable sensitivity and specificity values have been obtained in the assays. In the present study, a Leishmania infantum hypothetical protein called LiHyG, which was identified in an immunoproteomics study in Leishmania infantum amastigote extracts by antibodies in VL dogs sera; was cloned, expressed, purified and evaluated as a recombinant protein (rLiHyG) for the diagnosis of canine and human disease. The recombinant amastigote-specific A2 protein (rA2) and a soluble L. infantum protein extract (SLA) were used as controls. For canine VL, the sensitivity values were of 100%, 57.29% and 48.57%, when rLiHyG, rA2 and SLA were used, respectively, while the specificity values were of 100%, 81.43% and 88.57%, respectively. In addition, AUC values were of 1.00, 0.72 and 0.65, when rLiHyG, rA2 and SLA were used, respectively, while accuracy was of 100%, 72.38% and 75.24%, respectively. For human VL, the sensitivity values were of 100%, 84.00% and 88.00%, when rLiHyG, rA2 and SLA were used, respectively, while the specificity values were of 100%, 58.75% and 73.75%, respectively. In addition, AUC values were of 1.00, 0.76 and 0.83, when rLiHyG, rA2 and SLA were used, respectively, while accuracy was of 100%, 64.8% and 66.6%, respectively. The prognostic role of rLiHyG in the human VL was also evaluated, by means of post-therapeutic serological follow-up with sera samples collected before and six months after treatment. Results showed that treated patients presented significant reductions in the anti-rLiHyG IgG, IgG1, and IgG2 antibody levels, with results being similar to those found in healthy subjects. Testing the rA2 protein and SLA as antigens, lower IgG, IgG1, and IgG2 levels were also found, although they were higher after treatment than those obtained for rLiHyG. In conclusion, results suggested that rLiHyG could be considered for future studies as a diagnostic and/or prognostic marker for canine and human VL.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Medula Óssea/parasitologia , Biologia Computacional , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Epitopos de Linfócito B/química , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Alinhamento de Sequência , Testes Sorológicos , Baço/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e021419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609243

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to do a serological survey on three rickettsial species: Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia parkeri, two species of the spotted fever group (SFG) that are considered to be great importance for public health; and Rickettsia bellii, a species of unknown pathogenicity that infects a variety of human-biting ticks. Serum samples from 273 dogs were tested using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). A total of 52 samples (19.04%) were seropositive for at least one of the three Rickettsia spp. antigens. Thirty-eight (73.07%), twelve (23.07%) and one (1.92%) of these dogs showed homologous reactions to R. bellii, R. rickettsii and R. parkeri, respectively. Our results showed that the seroprevalence of Rickettsia spp. was relatively low. However, the positive serological tests indicated that these dogs had become infected by these agents at some point in their lives. Lastly, our study adds to the previous knowledge on the epidemiology of rickettsiosis in the state of Goiás by doing the first record of detection of anti-R. rickettsii, R. parkeri and R. bellii antibodies by IFA among dogs, thus indicating that these agents may be circulating in the dog population analyzed.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Infecções por Rickettsia , Rickettsia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Humanos , Rickettsia/fisiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/sangue , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
7.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(3): 257-265, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615739

RESUMO

The outbreak of human toxoplasmosis can be attributed to ingestion of food contaminated with Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasmosis recently increased in domestic and stray dogs and cats. It prompted studies on the zoonotic infectious diseases transmitted via these animals. Sero- and antigen prevalences of T. gondii in dogs and cats were surveyed using ELISA and PCR, and B1 gene phylogeny was analyzed in this study. Toxoplasmosis antibodies were measured on sera of 403 stray cats, 947 stray dogs, 909 domestic cats, and 2,412 domestic dogs collected at nationwide regions, Korea from 2017 to 2019. In addition, whole blood, feces, and tissue samples were also collected from stray cats (1,392), stray dogs (686), domestic cats (3,040), and domestic dogs (1,974), and T. gondii-specific B1 gene PCR was performed. Antibody prevalence of stray cats, stray dogs, domestic cats, and domestic dogs were 14.1%, 5.6%, 2.3%, and 0.04%, respectively. Antigen prevalence of these animals was 0.5%, 0.2%, 0.1%, and 0.4%, respectively. Stray cats revealed the highest infection rate of toxoplasmosis, followed by stray dogs, domestic cats, and domestic dogs. B1 gene positives were 5 of stray cats, and identified to high/moderate pathogenic Type I/III group. These findings enforce that preventive hygienic measure should be strengthened at One Health level in dogs and cats, domestic and stray, to minimize human toxoplasmosis infections.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Genes de Protozoários/genética , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0007986, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716941

RESUMO

Genetic polymorphisms in natural Leishmania populations have been reported in endemic areas. Microsatellite typing is a useful tool to elucidate the genetic variability of parasite strains, due to its capability for high-resolution mapping of genomic targets. The present study employed multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) to explore the genotypic composition of Leishmania infantum in naturally infected dogs by genotyping parasites infecting different tissues with or without in vitro expansion. Eighty-six samples were collected from 46 animals in an endemic region of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). MLMT was performed for 38 spleen samples and 48 L. infantum cultures isolated from different tissues. Of the 86 samples, 23 were effectively genotyped by MLMT, identifying nine multilocus genotypes (MLG; referred to as MLG A-I). MLGs A, B and C were detected in more than one type of tissue and in more than one sample. Conversely, MLG D-I were uniquely detected in one sample each. The results showed that multiple genotype infections occur within a single host and tissue. Paired sample analysis revealed the presence of different MLMT alleles in 14 dogs, while the same MLG allele was present in 15 animals. STRUCTURE analysis demonstrated the presence of two populations; 13 samples displayed a similar admixture of both ancestral populations, and these were not assigned to any population. Only samples for which Q ≥ 0.70 after CLUMPP alignment were considered to be part of Population 1 (POP1) or Population 2 (POP2). POP2 comprised the majority of samples (n = 54) compared to POP1 (n = 19). This study presents evidence of multiple genotype infections (caused by L. infantum) in dogs in an area with high VL transmission. Further investigations must be undertaken to determine the effects of multiple infection on the host immune response and disease dynamics and treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Leishmania infantum/classificação , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Filogenia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692783

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important zoonosis in Brazil. Dogs are considered the main domestic reservoirs of the disease in the country; hence, control measures are focused on these reservoirs. Despite efforts to prevent and control VL, important reductions in disease prevalence and incidence have not been identified, stimulating the development and application of new strategies. The choice and implementation of new control strategies can benefit from the application of mathematical models that allow the simulation of different strategies in different scenarios. Selecting the best strategy to be implemented is also supported by cost-effectiveness studies. Here we used the results of a mathematical model in which scenarios, including isolated use of the vaccine and insecticide-impregnated collar (IIC), both at different coverage rates, were simulated to conduct a cost-effectiveness study. The costs were calculated for each scenario considering a simulation period of four years. Collar application in both infected and non-infected animals was the most cost-effective strategy. For example, to reduce the prevalence in humans and dogs by approximately 70%, the costs ranged from $250,000 and $550,000 for the IICs and vaccination, respectively. Even in the scenario with 40% loss/replacement of IICs, this measure was more advantageous in terms of cost-effectiveness than vaccination. If the vaccine were applied with culling of seropositive tested dogs, then the measure became more effective with a reduced cost compared with the vaccine alone. The use of the three first consecutive vaccine doses had the greatest impact on the cost of the vaccination strategy. The advantage of using IICs is that there is no need for a prior diagnosis, unlike vaccination, reducing costs and facilitating implementation. The present study aims to contribute to strategies to reduce hosts infected with VL by reducing public expenditure.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/economia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Leishmania donovani/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/economia , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/economia , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Leishmania donovani/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Prevalência
10.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 3099-3104, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627079

RESUMO

The first case of feline ocular Thelazia callipaeda infection and two new canine imported infections in West Germany are here described. The three animals had a history of recent travel to/from other countries. The young adult cat imported from Spain presented an intermittent unilateral ocular discharge. During in-depth ophthalmic examination, a single alive nematode was removed from the conjunctival compartment of the affected eye. Referring to the canine cases, an adult female dog originated from Kenya presented epiphora and mucous whitish-grey discharge of the right eye. During flushing of the nasolacrimal duct two small, thin and long nematodes were removed. Furthermore, a male Borzoi racing dog with regular visit to racing tracks in different countries presented ocular mucous discharge. At ophthalmologic examination, two transparent-whitish vital nematodes were removed. All nematode specimens of the three cases were morphologically identified as adult T. callipaeda parasites. The animals were treated orally with milbemycin oxime (2.0 mg/kg; cat) or milbemycin oxime/praziquantel (0.5 mg/kg and 5.0 mg/kg; dogs) twice with 1-week interval resulting in complete resolution of symptoms. The repeated introduction of patent T. callipaeda-infected animals, especially from southern and eastern endemic countries, will ease the establishment of ophthalmic thelaziosis in Northern Europe. The male fruit fly, Phortica variegata, an intermediate host of T. callipaeda, is endemic within European countries. Considering the clinical and zoonotic relevance of ophthalmic thelaziosis, enhanced disease awareness of European medical and veterinarian doctors and in-depth eye examination for proper detection of T. callipaeda are crucial for appropriate anthelmintic treatments and to limit spreading of the infection.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Thelazioidea/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Cães , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Alemanha , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Infecções por Spirurida/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Thelazioidea/genética , Thelazioidea/fisiologia
11.
Exp Parasitol ; 217: 107947, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628971

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, an intracytoplasmic parasite that affects humans and other species of domestic and wild mammals. In Brazil, the treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) with miltefosine has been implemented since 2016, and the reports on the clinical and immunological conditions of treated dogs are scarce. Thus, this study aimed to assess and monitor the clinical, laboratory, and immunological condition of dogs with CVL before (D0) and after (D29) using three pharmacotherapeutic protocols: miltefosine monotherapy (Milteforan™, Virbac) (G1), miltefosine plus allopurinol (G2), and allopurinol monotherapy (G3). Forty-five dogs with CVL were assigned to one of three treatment groups. The dogs were evaluated for clinical signs, was well as haematological, biochemical, serological, and cytokine levels. Significant reduction in clinical scores was observed in all protocols, with no differences between groups. We did not observe a clinical cure in any of the dogs in the groups. Haematological and biochemical parameters showed slow recovery, with better results observed in G2. Anti-Leishmania antibody titre remained increased in all groups. The quantification of serum cytokines demonstrated a mixed Th1/Th2 profile in CVL. The IL-2 levels decreased in all groups after treatment. Evaluation of IFN-y and IL-10 did not show changes in the groups analysed, and it did not contribute to short term therapeutic monitoring. All therapeutic protocols promoted, to varying degrees, an improvement in the general condition (clinical signs, haematological, and biochemical levels) of the animals. Through clinical-pathological exams, we found that the combination of miltefosine plus allopurinol promoted better effects in the short-term, representing the best choice for the treatment of CVL, even when compared to the only therapeutic protocol allowed in Brazil, miltefosine monotherapy. Through the quantification of cytokines, IL-2 proved to be a potential therapeutic marker for the monitoring and follow-up of dogs with CVL.


Assuntos
Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Citocinas/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Masculino , Fosforilcolina/uso terapêutico
12.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 3023-3031, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725320

RESUMO

Hepatozoon canis is a hemoprotozoan organism that infects domestic and wild carnivores throughout much of Europe. The parasite is mainly transmitted through the ingestion of infected ticks containing mature oocysts. The aims of the present survey were to determine the prevalence of H. canis in hunting dogs living in Southern Italy and to assess potential infection risk factors. DNA extracted from whole blood samples, collected from 1433 apparently healthy dogs living in the Napoli, Avellino, and Salerno provinces of Campania region (Southern Italy), was tested by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to amplify H. canis. Furthermore, the investigated dog population was also screened by qPCR for the presence of Ehrlichia canis, a major tick-borne pathogen in Southern Italy, in order to assess possible co-infections. Two hundred dogs were H. canis PCR-positive, resulting in an overall prevalence of 14.0% (CI 12.2-15.9). Breed category (P < 0.0001), hair coat length (P = 0.015), and province of residence (P < 0.0001) represented significant risk factors for H. canis infection. The presence of H. canis DNA was also significantly associated with E. canis PCR positivity (P < 0.0001). Hunting dogs in Campania region (Southern Italy) are frequently exposed to H. canis, and the infection is potentially associated with close contact with wildlife. Further studies are needed to assess the pathogenic potential of H. canis, as well as the epidemiological relationships between hunting dogs and wild animal populations sharing the same habitats in Southern Italy.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/transmissão , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Eucoccidiida/genética , Eucoccidiida/fisiologia , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Risco , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Carrapatos/fisiologia
13.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 2863-2875, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666190

RESUMO

Taenia species of domestic dogs can cause cysticercosis and coenurosis in a wide range of intermediate hosts including humans. Most taeniids of dogs are globally distributed, but some wildlife-transmitted species can be specific for certain regions. Generally, little information exists on the species composition and frequency in most regions of the world, which impairs risk assessment and control strategies. This study determined the range of taeniid species in dogs in four widely spaced areas of Kenya by genetic identification of eggs in faeces collected from the environment. Individual taeniid eggs were characterised by nested polymerase chain reaction of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome C oxidase 1 genes, restriction fragment length polymorphism and partial sequencing. Overall 79/1621 (4.9%) faecal samples contained eggs of Taenia or Hydatigera (8.0% in Turkana, 4.8% in Isiolo, 3.8% in Maasai Mara and 1.3% in Meru). Taenia hydatigena and T. multiceps were the most frequent, found in 36 and 15 samples, respectively. Other eggs found in the faeces belonged to T. serialis (sensu lato), T. madoquae (the first record in domestic dogs), T. ovis, T. saginata and Hydatigera taeniaeformis. Polymorphism of nad1 sequences revealed 22 and 8 haplotypes of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps, respectively. The results show the involvement of dogs in both domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles. In addition to the species range, this study provides data on the intraspecific diversity of T. hydatigena and T. multiceps in Kenya, which will serve as baseline information for further studies into cysticercosis and coenurosis in livestock and humans in the region.


Assuntos
Cisticercose/epidemiologia , Cisticercose/veterinária , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Taenia/genética , Animais , Cestoides/genética , Cisticercose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Ovinos/genética
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e000820, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490893

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most important protozoa parasites worldwide. Although many seroprevalence studies have been performed in domestic and wild species, data on the cumulative incidence and the spatial distribution of T. gondii in animals are extremely scarce. In the present study, dogs from Botucatu municipality, São Paulo state, were followed for one year and their blood samples were collected on three moments: days 1, 180, and 360. The sera were submitted to the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) to detect IgG antibodies to T. gondii. Age and sex were compared with IFAT results through statistical tests. Spatial analysis was used to detect clusters of seropositive dogs. Among the 350 dogs that were seronegative on day 1, 53 became seropositive in subsequent samplings; thus, cumulative incidence was 15.1% exposed dogs/year. Age and sex were not associated with serological results. The spatial analysis revealed that seropositive dogs were distributed in all the studied areas, with a significant cluster in a zone with poor sanitary conditions and low socioeconomic status. T. gondii is frequent and widely distributed in the urban area of Botucatu, and impoverished areas are possibly associated with high levels of environmental contamination by this parasite.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Análise Espacial , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
15.
Ann Parasitol ; 66(2): 255-257, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592549

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to recognise the etiological factor of a disease with symptoms of lameness and cardiac failure, which occurred in one dog 4 weeks after invasion by ticks. A serological examination as well as molecular examination (PCR) was done. In the sample of the serum, the presence of antibodies specific to Borrelia burgdorferi were detected. Antibiotic therapy with doxycycline did not cause significant improvement, so the owners of the dog decided about its euthanasia. During the necroscopy, a dilated heart was recognised. In the heart samples, the genetic material of Borrelia was detected. The results of serological and molecular examinations showed that in the discussed case, an etiological factor of the disease was spirochetes. In light of the research, veterinary practitioners should keep in mind the presence of Lyme disease in dogs in Poland and include it in differential diagnoses for lameness and cardiological problems.


Assuntos
Infecções por Borrelia , Doenças do Cão , Miocardite , Infestações por Carrapato , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Infecções por Borrelia/complicações , Infecções por Borrelia/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Eutanásia Animal , Coração/parasitologia , Miocardite/diagnóstico , Miocardite/etiologia , Polônia , Infestações por Carrapato/complicações , Infestações por Carrapato/microbiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
16.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e016919, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428183

RESUMO

Dogs have been implicated as main reservoirs for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas. Therefore, studies on this species provide important data for public health. Thus, the objective of the present study was to ascertain the seroprevalence of canine VL (CVL) and the associated factors in the Brejo Paraibano microregion, northeastern Brazil. A total of 409 dogs were sampled from the eight municipalities of the microregion: Alagoa Grande, Alagoa Nova, Areia, Bananeiras, Borborema, Matinhas, Pilões and Serraria. The diagnosis of CVL was made using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA S7®), through which the prevalence observed was 29.3%. By robust Poisson regression analysis two factors were associated with seroprevalence: illiterate/incomplete elementary owner's education level (prevalence ratio = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.05-2.34; p-value = 0.027) and tick infestation (prevalence ratio = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.27-2.61; p-value = 0.001). It is concluded that the seroprevalence of CVL in the Brejo Paraibano microregion is high. The factors associated with seroprevalence indicated the importance to develop socioeducational actions on the population, and the finding that tick infestation was associated with seroprevalence shows that there is a need for investigation regarding the role of ticks in the epidemiology of CVL.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
17.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e021019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428187

RESUMO

The midwest region of Brazil has witnessed an increase in the number of cases of human (HVL) and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the population's perception of these diseases, factors associated with CVL, its spatial distribution, and the prevalence of anti-Leishmania spp. in 385 dogs, determined using a commercially available immunochromatographic rapid test and confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of the 385 samples, 54 were positive for CVL and confirmed by ELISA, corresponding to a prevalence of 14%. Knowledge of signs of CVL by tutors (p = 0.038); previous occurrence of CVL in the vicinity (p = 0.022); symptomatic dog(s) (p = 0.014), splenomegaly (p = 0.055), and ear ulcer(s) (p = 0.059) were significantly associated with CVL. The results revealed a significant prevalence of CVL spatially distributed in rural and urban contexts. The association between environmentally related variables and perception and the occurrence of CVL underscores the importance of implementing control and prevention strategies primarily focused on environmental management and health education activities.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Masculino , Percepção , Prevalência , Análise Espacial , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(2): 168-173, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a rapid nucleic acid detection technique for identification of Echinococcus multilocularis based on the recombinase aided isothermal amplification assay (RAA) and assess its diagnostic efficiency. METHODS: The mitochondrial gene sequence of E. multilocularis (GenBank accession number: AB018440) was used as a target sequence. The primers were designed according to the RAA reaction principle and synthesized, and RAA was performed using the generated primers. E. multilocularis genomic DNA at various concentrations and the pMD19-T (Simple) vector containing various copies of the target gene fragment were amplified using RAA to evaluate its sensitivity for detection of E. multilocularis, and RAA was em- ployed to detect the genomic DNA of E. granulosus G1 genotype, Taenia saginata, T. asiatica, T. multiceps, Dipylidium caninum, Toxocara canis, Trichuris trichiura, Giardia lamblia, Fasciola hepatica, Paragonimus westermani, Fasciola gigantica and Clonorchis sinensis to evaluate its specificity. In addition, the optimized RAA was employed to detect nine tissue specimens of E. granulosus-infected animals, 3 fecal samples from E. granulosus-infected dogs and 2 fecal samples from field infected dogs to examine its reliability and feasibility. RESULTS: The established RAA was able to detect the specific target gene fragment of E. multilocularis within 40 min. The lowest detect limit of RAA was 10 pg if E. multilocularis genomic DNA served as a template. If the re- combinant plasmid was used as a template, the minimally detectable copy number of RAA was 104. In addition, RAA was nega- tive for the genomic DNA of E. granulosus G1 genotype, T. saginata, T. asiatica, T. multiceps, D. caninum, T. canis, T. trichiura, G. lamblia, F. hepatica, P. westermani, F. gigantica and C. sinensis. The established RAA was positive for detection of the tissue specimens of infected animals, and simulated and field dog stool samples. CONCLUSIONS: A rapid, sensitive and specific RAA is established, which shows promising values in identification of E. multilocularis and gene diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Equinococose , Echinococcus multilocularis , Animais , Primers do DNA , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/parasitologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Echinococcus multilocularis/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Recombinases/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008242, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401754

RESUMO

Alveolar and cystic echinococcosis (AE, CE) caused by E. multilocularis and E. granulosus s.l., respectively, are considered emerging zoonotic diseases in Kyrgyzstan with some of the world highest regional incidences. Little is known regarding the molecular variability of both species in Kyrgyzstan. In this study we provide molecular data from a total of 72 parasite isolates derived from humans (52 AE and 20 CE patients) and 43 samples from dogs (23 infected with E. multilocularis and 20 with E. granulosus s.l.).Genetic variability in E. multilocularis was studied using the concatenated complete sequences of the cob, nad2 and cox1 mitochondrial genes adding a total of 3,558bp per isolate. The cob/nad2/cox1 A2 haplotype was identified in 63.4% of the human and in 65.2% of the dog samples. This haplotype was originally described in samples from Kazakhstan and St. Lawrence Island (Alaska, USA). We also describe here 16 non-previously defined variants of E. multilocularis (called A11-A26). All haplotypes cluster together within the Asian group in the haplotype network. Based on Fst values, low level of genetic differentiation was found between the populations of E. multilocularis isolated from different regions within the country. However, high degree of differentiation was found when all the concatenated sequences from Kyrgyzstan are considered as a single population and compared with the population of the parasite from the neighbouring country China. In the case of E. granulosus s.l. the analysis was based in 1,609bp of the cox1 gene. One isolate from a dog was identified as E. equinus, while all the other sequences were identified belonging to E. granulosus s.s. In total, 24 cox1 haplotypes of E. granulosus s.s. were identified including the already described variants: Eg01 (in 6 samples), Eg33 (in 4 samples), EgCl04 (in 2 samples), Eg03 (in 1 sample) and Eg32 (in 1 sample). From the twenty-five other isolates of E. granulosus s.s. a total of 19 non-previously described cox1 haplotypes were identified and named as EgKyr1 to EgKyr19. The most common haplotype infecting human is the EgKyr1 which was found in 5 isolates.The cob/nad2/cox1 A2 haplotype of E. multilocularis is responsible for the majority of human infections in Kyrgyzstan and is also found in the majority of dogs included in this study. Further similar studies in different parts of Asia could elucidate if it is also the most common variant infecting humans in other countries. It remains unknown if this particular haplotype presents differences in virulence which could have contributed to the emergency of alveolar echinococcosis in Kyrgyzstan. In the case of E. granulosus s.s. it seems that there is no dominant haplotype infecting humans in Kyrgzstan. Further characterization of biological or antigenic features of dominant mitochondrial haplotypes could help to elucidate if they present differences which could be relevant in the diagnostic, pathogenicity or in the host/parasite interaction when infecting humans.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/parasitologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus granulosus/classificação , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Echinococcus multilocularis/classificação , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Variação Genética , Adulto , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Haplótipos , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Humanos , Incidência , Quirguistão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , NADH Desidrogenase/genética
20.
Parasitol Res ; 119(7): 2085-2091, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458117

RESUMO

The present study aims to perform comparative genetic characterization for R. sanguineus s.l. infesting Algerian dogs living in steppe and high plateau regions based on mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. In total, 1043 ticks were collected from 147 infested dogs, including 756 ticks from 124 dogs in Djelfa and 287 ticks from 23 dogs in Bordj-Bou-Arreridj. All ticks were morphologically identified as R. sanguineus s.l., and 87 specimens were randomly selected for molecular analysis. Sequences obtained from selected ticks clustered with sequences of R. sanguineus s.l. from France, Germany, Portugal, and Spain, all of which belong to R. sanguineus s.s. The occurrence of R. sanguineus s.s. in Algeria is an interesting result given that most R. sanguineus in Africa cluster among the tropical lineage. This finding should prompt further investigation by exhaustive studies across Algerian territory. Such data can be useful to understand the dispersal route of R. sanguineus s.s. from Europe to North Africa, or whether their occurrence in Algeria is a result of historical biogeography.


Assuntos
Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/classificação , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/genética , Argélia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Europa (Continente)
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