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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 423, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gaining insight into the risk perceptions and the knowledge evolution of the public about emerging or changing health risks is vital for the improvement of health promotion activities. Currently, scientific evidence regarding the attitudes of the Romanian public towards ticks is scanty. This study aimed to identify how the lockdown enforced by the COVID-19 pandemic in Romania impacted the recreational behaviour, risk perceptions, and protective practices of the Romanian population regarding ticks. METHODS: A cross-sectional, nationwide web-based questionnaire was designed and distributed via social media to evaluate if, and how, the COVID-19 lockdown impacted the behaviour of the Romanian public concerning ticks. The survey was available online from 6 May until 15 May 2020, which marked the last day of the travel ban in Romania. The collected data were processed by applying both uni- and multivariate methods. RESULTS: Respondents reported a higher frequency of finding ticks on themselves and their dogs during the lockdown. Bathing/showering and checking the body for ticks were the two most used protective behaviours both before and during the lockdown. Nevertheless, an overall lower usage rate of protective measures was registered during the lockdown. Almost all dog owners used a form of ectoparasite control for their dogs, and only three stopped due to lockdown-associated reasons. Respondent characteristics that were found to be positively associated with risk perceptions were being female and living in peri-urban/suburban/rural environments. CONCLUSIONS: Despite spending less time outdoors during the lockdown, more respondents reported finding ticks on themselves or their dogs. Changes in the preferences for recreational locations, rates of protective practices usage, amount of time spent in specific areas, or tick seasonal activity might have contributed to this outcome. Concerning risk groups, men of all ages, senior citizens, and rural inhabitants should be targeted by the relevant Romanian authorities when promoting local or nationwide tick awareness campaigns.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Recreação , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Romênia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Picadas de Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(7)2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296984

RESUMO

Introduction. Bartonellosis is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by bacteria of the genus Bartonella. Mixed Bartonella infections are a well-documented phenomenon in mammals and their ectoparasites. The accurate identification of Bartonella species in single and mixed infections is valuable, as different Bartonella species have varying impacts on infected hosts.Gap Statement. Current diagnostic methods are inadequate at identifying the Bartonella species present in mixed infections.Aim. The aim of this study was to adopt a Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) approach using Illumina sequencing technology to identify Bartonella species and demonstrate that this approach can resolve mixed Bartonella infections.Methodology. We used Illumina PCR amplicon NGS to target the ssrA and gltA genes of Bartonella in fleas collected from cats, dogs and a hedgehog in Israel. We included artificially mixed Bartonella samples to demonstrate the ability for NGS to resolve mixed infections and we compared NGS to traditional Sanger sequencing.Results. In total, we identified 74 Ctenocephalides felis, two Ctenocephalides canis, two Pulex irritans and three Archaeopsylla e. erinacei fleas. Real-time PCR of a subset of 48 fleas revealed that twelve were positive for Bartonella, all of which were cat fleas. Sanger sequencing of the ssrA and gltA genes confirmed the presence of Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella koehlerae. Illumina NGS of ssrA and gltA amplicons further confirmed the Bartonella species identity in all 12 flea samples and unambiguously resolved the artificially mixed Bartonella samples.Conclusion. The adaptation and multiplexing of existing PCR assays for diversity profiling via NGS is a feasible approach that is superior to traditional Sanger sequencing for Bartonella speciation and resolving mixed Bartonella infections. The adaptation of other PCR primers for Illumina NGS will be useful in future studies where mixed bacterial infections may be present.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/veterinária , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bartonella/classificação , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bartonella/transmissão , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ouriços-Cacheiros , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Insetos Vetores/genética , Insetos Vetores/microbiologia , Israel , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sifonápteros/classificação , Sifonápteros/genética , Sifonápteros/microbiologia
3.
Parasitol Res ; 120(7): 2681-2687, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110503

RESUMO

Babesial parasites are some of the most ubiquitous blood pathogens and consequently have considerable worldwide veterinary impact. Dogs living in the tropics are highly exposed to babesial parasites, particularly to Babesia vogeli. Limited data on the seroprevalence and molecular prevalence of Babesia spp. in dogs are available in Latin America. We conducted a cross-sectional study combining serological and molecular tests to estimate the seroprevalence and molecular epidemiology of Babesia spp. infections in dogs in two hyperendemic foci in Brazil. A total of 630 privately owned dogs (417 from Goiana municipality, Pernambuco state, north-eastern Brazil, and 213 from São Joaquim de Bicas municipality, Minas Gerais state, south-eastern Brazil) were sampled and molecularly and serologically tested for Babesia spp. Overall, 519 dogs (82.4%) presented detectable IgG antibodies against Babesia spp., and seropositivity was significantly higher in dogs older than 1 year. Molecularly, 34 dogs (5.4%) were positive for a ~ 200 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp. and 88 (14.0%) for a longer fragment (~ 450 bp) of the same gene of Babesia spp. and other protozoa. The 18S rRNA gene sequences generated herein corresponded to B. vogeli (n = 52) or Hepatozoon canis (n = 20). This study confirms a high level of exposure to B. vogeli in two areas of Brazil and highlights that most of the dogs living in these areas are infected during the course of their life, reflected by increased seroprevalence in older dogs. Increased awareness and prevention of tick-borne protozoa infections in dogs from Brazil and Latin America are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Babesia/classificação , Babesia/genética , Babesia/imunologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , DNA de Protozoário/química , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Cães , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia
4.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(2): 345-347, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184521

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cryptosporidium spp. are common protozoan parasites of animals and humans. Due to their zoonotic potential it is important to know their species and prevalence in dogs and cats. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the occurrence and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs and cats in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 365 faecal samples (264 dogs and 101 cats) collected from animals living in Poland were analyzed using the Ziehl-Neelsen staining method and genus-specific PCR assay to amplify the Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA gene. RESULTS: Cryptosporidium were found in 11 out of the 365 examined stool samples (3%). PCR analysis identified Cryptosporidium in 9 out of 264 canine stool samples (3.4%) and 2 out of 101 feline specimens (2%). DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of C. canis and C. parvum in dogs and C. felis in cats. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in dogs and cats in Poland.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Cryptosporidium/genética , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia
5.
Parasitol Res ; 120(7): 2671-2680, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180003

RESUMO

The presence of zoonotic relevant Angiostrongylus cantonensis infections has recently been reported in rat final hosts and gastropod intermediate hosts in Tenerife, Spain. However, data on A. cantonensis, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Aelurostrongylus abstrusus prevalences in endemic gastropods for other islands of the Macaronesian Archipelago are still missing. In order to fill this gap, we conducted an epidemiological study on terrestrial native slug (Plutonia lamarckii) and snail (Cornu aspersum, Theba pisana, Rumina decollata) species in 27 selected locations of Tenerife, Gran Canaria, El Hierro, Lanzarote, La Palma and Fuerteventura. Overall, 131 terrestrial gastropods were collected in winter/spring season 2018/2019 and examined for the presence of metastrongyloid lungworm larvae via artificial digestion. The current data revealed a total prevalence of 4.6% for A. vasorum, 3.8% for A. abstrusus and 0.8% for A. cantonensis. In Tenerife, three lungworm species were detected, thereby re-confirming A. cantonensis endemicity for this island. Prevalences of snails (C. aspersum) originating from El Hierro were 5% for A. abstrusus and 15% for A. vasorum, respectively, with larval burdens up to 290 larvae per specimen. This epidemiological study indicates the presence of human, canine and feline lungworm species in Macaronesia, Spain. The current data-particularly those on anthropozoonotic A. cantonensis-call for a regular large-scale monitoring on intermediate hosts, paratenic hosts and definitive hosts to prevent further spread of lungworm-related diseases in humans and animals.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis/isolamento & purificação , Angiostrongylus/isolamento & purificação , Gastrópodes/parasitologia , Metastrongyloidea/isolamento & purificação , Angiostrongylus/classificação , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Humanos , Ilhas/epidemiologia , Metastrongyloidea/classificação , Prevalência , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Estações do Ano , Espanha/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(5): e0009389, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interruption of domestic vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi is still an unmet goal in several American countries. In 2007 we launched a long-term intervention program aimed to suppress house infestation with the main domestic vector in southern South America (Triatoma infestans) and domestic transmission in Pampa del Indio, a resource-constrained, hyperendemic municipality with 1446 rural houses inhabited by Creole and indigenous people, in the Argentine Chaco ecoregion. Here, we assessed whether the 10-year insecticide-based program combined with community mobilization blocked vector-borne domestic transmission of T. cruzi to humans and dogs. METHODS: We carried out two municipality-wide, cross-sectional serosurveys of humans and dogs (considered sentinel animals) during 2016-2017 to compare with baseline data. We used a risk-stratified random sampling design to select 273 study houses; 410 people from 180 households and 492 dogs from 151 houses were examined for antibodies to T. cruzi using at least two serological methods. RESULTS: The seroprevalence of T. cruzi in children aged <16 years was 2.5% in 2017 (i.e., 4- to 11-fold lower than before interventions). The mean annual force of child infection (λ) sharply decreased from 2.18 to 0.34 per 100 person-years in 2017. One of 102 children born after interventions was seropositive for T. cruzi; he had lifetime residence in an apparently uninfested house, no outside travel history, and his mother was T. cruzi-seropositive. No incident case was detected among 114 seronegative people of all ages re-examined serologically. Dog seroprevalence was 3.05%. Among native dogs, λ in 2016 (1.21 per 100 dog-years) was 5 times lower than at program onset. Six native adult dogs born after interventions and with stable lifetime residence were T. cruzi-seropositive: three had exposure to T. infestans at their houses and one was an incident case. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the interruption of vector-borne transmission of T. cruzi to humans in rural Pampa del Indio. Congenital transmission was the most likely source of the only seropositive child born after interventions. Residual transmission to dogs was likely related to transient infestations and other transmission routes. Sustained vector control supplemented with human chemotherapy can lead to a substantial reduction of Chagas disease transmission in the Argentine Chaco.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Argentina , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Controle de Insetos , Insetos Vetores , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Triatoma
7.
Vet Parasitol ; 294: 109392, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971481

RESUMO

A diverse array of ixodid and argasid ticks infest dogs and cats in North America, resulting in skin lesions, blood loss, and disease. The ticks most commonly found on pets in this region are hard ticks of the genera Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Ixodes, and Rhipicephalus, as well as the more recently established Haemaphysalis longicornis. Soft tick genera, especially Otobius and Ornithodoros, are also reported from pets in some regions. In this review, we provide a summary of the complex and diverse life histories, distinct morphologies, and questing and feeding behaviors of the more common ticks of dogs and cats in North America with a focus on recent changes in geographic distribution. We also review pathogens of dogs and cats associated with the different tick species, some of which can cause serious, potentially fatal disease, and describe the zoonotic risk posed by ticks of pets. Understanding the natural history of ticks and the maintenance cycles responsible for providing an ongoing source of tick-borne infections is critical to effectively combatting the challenges ticks pose to the health of pets and people.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Ixodidae/classificação , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Masculino , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/transmissão , Zoonoses
8.
Parasitol Res ; 120(6): 2109-2124, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963428

RESUMO

Acanthocheilonema reconditum is a filarial parasite transmitted by arthropods (fleas, lice, and ticks) that infect dogs. There is minimal published data available to date on potential haematological and biochemical changes associated with this parasitic infection. Study aims were (i) provide an overview of A. reconditum in Europe, (ii) define A. reconditum prevalence and risk factors in a specific dog population (hunting) from southern Italy, and (iii) assess the frequency of haemato-biochemical abnormalities associated with infection. Blood samples collected from 3020 dogs were tested by a modified Knott's technique to count and identify microfilariae. Eighty-four dogs were infected by A. reconditum (2.78%; 95% CI 2.19-3.37%). Microfilariae ranged from 1 to 212/ml. Based on clinical examination, all but six dogs with non-specific symptoms were healthy. Haematological abnormalities included leucocytosis (n = 15), with eosinophilia (n = 14) and monocytosis (n = 13). Serum biochemical abnormalities included increased total serum proteins (n = 19), albumins (n = 7), total globulins (n = 14), ALT (n = 1), and ALP (n = 1); one dog was hypoalbuminemic, and BUN was mildly increased in 2 dogs. Risk factors included the province origin (Napoli, OR=5.4, 95%CI: 2.1-14.0; Caserta, OR=5.1, 95%CI: 2.5-10.6), hunting wild mammals (OR=2.8, 95% 95%CI: 1.6-4.8), and ectoparasite infestation (OR=1.9, 95%CI: 1.1-3.1). There was a negative correlation between microfilaraemic load and decreased albumin level (-0.37; p=0.021). Our results showed that A. reconditum circulates within the hunting dog population of southern Italy, with seemingly low pathogenic potential.


Assuntos
Acanthocheilonema/patogenicidade , Acantoqueilonemíase/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças Hematológicas/veterinária , Cães Trabalhadores/parasitologia , Acanthocheilonema/isolamento & purificação , Acantoqueilonemíase/sangue , Acantoqueilonemíase/epidemiologia , Acantoqueilonemíase/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Doenças Hematológicas/sangue , Doenças Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Hematológicas/parasitologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Microfilárias/isolamento & purificação , Microfilárias/patogenicidade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 162, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leishmania parasites express various essential proteins in different growth phases (logarithmic/stationary) and forms (promastigote/amastigote). Targeting the genes encoding such proteins paves the way for controlling these parasites. Centrin is an essential gene, which its protein product seems to be vital for the proliferation of Leishmania parasites. Herein, this study was contrived to analyze the expression level of the centrin gene in different growth phases and forms of Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) parasites isolated from various endemic areas of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Iran. RESULTS: All three collected isolates were identified as L. infantum using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR revealed a statistically significant up-regulation (3.13-fold) in the logarithmic phase promastigotes compared to stationary ones (p < 0.01), whereas centrin was expressed equally in intracellular amastigotes at different time points during cell culture. Also, our finding revealed a slight up-regulation of the centrin gene (1.22-fold) in the intracellular amastigotes compared to logarithmic phase promastigotes, which was found statistically non-significant (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Centrin gene in Iranian isolates of L. infantum is more expressed in exponential than stationary phases and seems to be considered as a promising target in the development of a genetically modified live attenuated vaccine for CanL control.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmania infantum/metabolismo , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/metabolismo , Animais , Cães , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Irã (Geográfico) , Leishmania infantum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
10.
Parasitol Int ; 83: 102341, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33819572

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection and the potential for transmission of Cryptosporidium spp. between animals and humans in northern Vietnam. A total of 2715 samples (2120 human diarrheal samples, 471 human non-diarrheal samples, and 124 animal stool samples) were collected through our community survey in an agricultural area. All samples were tested for Cryptosporidium spp. by direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) using a fluorescent microscope. DNA extraction, PCR amplification of three genes (COWP, SSU-rRNA, and GP60), and sequencing analysis were performed to identify Cryptosporidium spp. Of 2715 samples, 15 samples (10 diarrheal samples, 2 non-diarrheal samples, and 3 animal stool samples) tested positive by PCR for the COWP gene. Three species of Cryptosporidium spp. were identified as C. canis (from six human diarrheal samples, two human non-diarrheal samples, and one dog sample), C. hominis (from four human diarrheal samples), and C. suis (from two pig samples) by sequencing the amplified COWP and/or SSU-rRNA genes. In terms of C. hominis, the GP60 subtype IeA12G3T3 was detected in all four human diarrheal samples. Although the number of positive samples was very small, our epidemiological data showed that the emerging pattern of each of the three species (C. canis, C. hominis, and C. suis) was different at this study site. While C. hominis and C. suis were only detected in human and pig samples, respectively, C. canis was detected in samples from both dogs and humans. We suspect that C. canis infections in humans at this study site may be due to environmental contamination with animal and human feces.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Especificidade da Espécie , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
11.
J Helminthol ; 95: e20, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820570

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore through cross-sectional study the variation in the prevalence of parasitic helminths in canine faeces collected from green spaces of Buenos Aires according to the human density (HD) and economic level (EL) in the surroundings. HD and EL were considered as independent variables with three categories each. Twenty public squares (one hectare of surface) were randomly selected for each existing combination of the two independent variables. Ten random samples of fresh canine faeces were obtained in each square and analysed for helminths by the sedimentation and flotation techniques. The prevalence for each of the species was analysed using generalized linear models (GLM). The prevalence was modelled with a binomial error distribution and a logit link function. Helminth eggs were detected in 45 out of the 200 (22.5%) faecal samples collected and in 18 of the 20 green spaces sampled. The species observed were Ancylostoma caninum (13% of samples), Trichuris vulpis (8%) and Toxocara canis (4.5%). The GLM indicated that the prevalence of A. caninum in the slum areas (very high HD and very low EL) was higher than that in the other areas studied. However, the HD seemed to contribute more than the EL to the variations in the prevalence of A. caninum in faecal samples. The GLM showed no differences in the prevalence of the other parasite species for the different levels of the independent variables.


Assuntos
Ancylostoma/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Toxocara canis , Trichuris/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Argentina , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Densidade Demográfica , Prevalência , Toxocara canis/isolamento & purificação
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009268, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Echinococcosis (canine Echinococcus disease) is a neglected tropical disease that causes serious public harm. Dogs, as a terminal host of Echinococcus spp., are a key part of the Echinococcus epidemic. Echinococcosis spreads easily in humans and animals in some areas of China and it is therefore necessary to fully understand the prevalence of Echinococcus spp. in dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chongqing VIP, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and WanFang databases were searched for relevant articles published in the past 10 years. A final total of 108 studies were included. The overall prevalence of Echinococcus spp. in dogs in China was 7.3%, with the highest point estimate found in sampling year 2015 (8.2%) and publication year 2015 (16.5%). Northwestern China (7.9%) had the highest infection rate in China. Qinghai Province (13.5%) showed the highest prevalence among the 11 provinces we included. We also found that geographical and climatic factors are related to the incidence of canine echinococcosis. We further investigated the source of heterogeneity by analysis of subgroups (sampling district, detection method, dog type, season, parasite species, medication, and study quality level). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our research indicated that Echinococcus spp. were still prevalent in some areas in China. More localized prevention and control policies should be formulated, including improving drinking water hygiene and strengthening hygiene promotion. We recommend the rational use of anti-Echinococcus drugs. In addition, treatment of livestock offal and feces and improving the welfare of stray dogs may play an important role in reducing canine Echinococcus infections.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
13.
Vet J ; 271: 105638, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840483

RESUMO

Quantitative anti-Leishmania antibody titres are critical in the management of dogs with leishmaniosis, from diagnosis to treatment and follow-up, and there is a paucity of data relating changes in antibody titres to sand fly vector seasonality. This study aimed to evaluate seasonal variations in anti-Leishmania infantum antibody titres in dogs from a hyperendemic area for canine leishmaniosis (CanL). Leishmania infantum-seropositive and clinically healthy dogs (n=65) were sampled in June 2019 (sand fly season) and again in February-March 2020 (non-transmission season) to monitor clinical status and serological titres. There was a reduction in anti-L. infantum antibody titres during the non-transmission season in most dogs (n=36; 55.4%), and 44% of those dogs (n=16/36) became seronegative (i.e. below the cut-off value of 1:80). Given the relevance of serology to epidemiological, preventive and clinical studies related to CanL, seasonal variations in antibody titres are important in areas where phlebotomine vectors have seasonal patterns of activity. Sand fly seasonal period must be considered in the interpretation of annual anti-L. infantum antibody screening test results in asymptomatic dogs, to make clinical decisions about staging, treatment and prevention.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Estações do Ano , Animais , Vetores de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Masculino , Psychodidae/parasitologia
14.
Vet J ; 271: 105649, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840489

RESUMO

The nematode, Angiostrongylus vasorum is a nematode that lives in the pulmonary arteries of canids and has an obligate gastropod intermediate host. It can cause various clinical signs. with the two most common clinical scenarios consisting of acute respiratory distress and haemorrhagic diathesis, either separately or together. Younger dogs (< 2 years) are overrepresented, and dogs often show pulmonary granulomata (radiographically and pathologically). Thoracic ultrasonography offers a safe, rapid, commonly available, non-invasive means of assessing the lungs. We prospectively examined the utility of thoracic ultrasonography in the diagnosis of angiostrongylosis in 26 client-owned dogs <2 years old, presenting with respiratory distress. We identified small hypoechoic subpleural nodules in 15/26 dogs; 14 of these were subsequently confirmed to have angiostrongylosis by faecal Baermann concentration test, A. vasorum antigen testing or both. The remaining 11 dogs without subpleural nodules had negative faecal analysis and A. vasorum antigen testing and diagnosed with other respiratory diseases. This resulted in a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 92% for the detection of angiostrongylosis by thoracic ultrasonography in young dogs presenting with respiratory distress. Our results suggest that thoracic ultrasonography might offer a safe, rapid, relatively accurate diagnostic test for diagnosis of angiostrongylosis in young adult dogs with respiratory distress living in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/veterinária , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Itália , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/parasitologia , Masculino , Artéria Pulmonar/parasitologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
J Parasitol ; 107(2): 358-363, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906232

RESUMO

The life cycle of Dioctophyma renale involves an intermediate host (oligochaete), a paratenic hosts (fish and frogs), and a definitive host (mustelids and canids). Dogs are at risk of infection with D. renale when they consume paratenic hosts infected with the larval form of D. renale. Water containing the oligochaete intermediate host cannot be disregarded as another source of infection. Infections occur mainly in the right kidney, but worms have also been found in the abdominal cavity as well as other organs. Most dogs appear asymptomatic and infections are usually noted as incidental findings on necropsy. Recently, the Ontario Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) and Humane Society conducted transports of dogs located in northern remote communities. In 2016, some female dogs were found to be infected with D. renale upon ovariohysterectomy. In response to this discovery, we developed a screening protocol to screen for D. renale infections. In 2018, a total of 130 intact dogs were transferred from 2 northern communities in the provinces of Ontario and Manitoba. A prevalence of 7.94% (95% confidence interval 3.87-14.11%) was found from dogs from the northern communities. The screening protocol we developed provides a method of screening for dogs that are transported from communities that could be at risk of infection with D. renale.


Assuntos
Dioctophymatoidea/fisiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Animais , Intervalos de Confiança , Dioctophymatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Infecções por Enoplida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enoplida/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enoplida/terapia , Feminino , Rim/parasitologia , Rim/fisiologia , Testes de Função Renal/veterinária , Masculino , Manitoba/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/veterinária , Ontário/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Urina/parasitologia
16.
J Parasitol ; 107(2): 295-303, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33844841

RESUMO

Anaplasmosis is a widespread vector-borne disease affecting dogs, and Anaplasma platys is the major etiological agent of the disease. The study examines anaplasmosis molecular prevalence, related risk factors, and alteration of hematological variables in Anaplasma-affected dogs. A total of 150 blood samples were collected from dogs in the district of Lahore, Pakistan. The samples were screened with PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Anaplasma. Sequencing of samples that were found positive after performing PCR was conducted. A questionnaire was developed to collect epidemiological data on subject dogs, and the information was analyzed with a logistic regression model using SPSS. The current study revealed an 11.34% (17/150) prevalence of anaplasmosis in dogs based on PCR detection. Tick infestation, previous tick history, house hygiene, and tick control status were major risk factors linked with disease occurrence. Red blood cell count, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, and platelet count were decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in Anaplasma-infected dogs. Phylogenetically, the 2 isolates of the current study clustered together, and that cluster was very similar to A. platys isolates from India, Malaysia, and Thailand.


Assuntos
Anaplasma/classificação , Anaplasma/genética , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Anaplasmose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Anaplasma/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasmose/sangue , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar/veterinária , Feminino , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Alinhamento de Sequência , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Parasitol Int ; 83: 102334, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753235

RESUMO

Pearsonema (syn. Capillaria) plica is a nematode that resides in the urinary bladder of canids, felids and mustelids (definitive hosts) and is classified in the same class as Trichuris spp. Epidemiological and clinical data on Pearsonema plica infection in domestic animals are limited. The nematode has an indirect lifecycle that involves earthworms as intermediate hosts. A six-year-old crossbred dog from Greece, presented a history of intermittent pollakiuria and hematuria. At urine analysis, P. plica eggs were found in the urine sediment. The dog was successfully treated with a double dose of milbemycin. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of urinary capillariasis diagnosed in a domestic animal in Greece.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Infecções por Enoplida/veterinária , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Infecções por Enoplida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enoplida/parasitologia , Infecções por Enoplida/prevenção & controle , Grécia , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/parasitologia , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária/prevenção & controle
18.
Parasitol Int ; 83: 102337, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771679

RESUMO

Both Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are enteric protozoan parasites that infect a wide variety of domestic animals as well as humans worldwide, causing diarrheal diseases. Giardia duodenalis assemblages C and D are specific to canine hosts and zoonotic assemblages A and B are also found in dogs as a reservoir host. In dogs, Cryptosporidium canis is the host-specific species while humans are infected by C. hominis and C. parvum and at least another 16 zoonotic Cryptosporidium species have been reported causing human infections, with C. meleagridis, C. viatorum, and C. ubiquitum being the most frequent. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis from stray dogs in areas of Bangkok and to identify the species and assemblages. Fecal samples (540) were collected from dogs residing in 95 monasteries in 48 districts in the Bangkok metropolitan area. Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed using the ssu-rRNA gene for both parasites. In total, 3.0% (16/540) samples were positive for G. duodenalis, with most being G. duodenalis assemblage D (7/16) followed by assemblage C (7/16) and zoonotic assemblage A (2/16). The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 0.7% (4/540) based on the PCR results and all were the dog genotype C. canis. These results indicated that dogs residing in Bangkok monasteries poses a limited role as source of human giardiosis and cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/veterinária , Animais , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Tailândia/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 135, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella spp. represent a significant zoonotic concern to pregnant owners as infection can cause septic abortions and post-partum illness. Enteric salmonellosis is well documented in canines however urinary salmonellosis is rarely described and Salmonella prostatitis has never been described in dogs. CASE PRESENTATION: This case report describes the diagnosis and management of a five-year-old, intact male Labrador Retriever mix dog that was diagnosed with Salmonella prostatitis among other comorbidities including heartworm infestation. Additionally, mitigation of zoonotic spread is emphasized as one of the owners was six months pregnant at the time of diagnosis. DISCUSSION: The pathogenesis of Salmonella prostatitis is unknown but explanations pertaining to enteric salmonellosis, such as the lifestyle and stress of living as a stray may have contributed and contamination from an enteric infection may have also been possible. Several recommendations were made to reduce the likelihood of zoonotic transmission including frequent hand washing, avoidance of the patient's mouth, change in location of where the patient was fed, the use of an isolated area outside for urination and defecation, and the use of dilute bleach to clean areas soiled by the patient's bodily fluids. Monitoring of the prostatic infection was facilitated with prostatic wash instead of urine culture. This decision was made as prostatic infections have been shown to intermittently shed bacteria into the urine, leading to possible false negative urine cultures and potential catastrophic zoonotic infection.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Prostatite/veterinária , Salmonelose Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Masculino , Orquiectomia/veterinária , Prostatite/diagnóstico , Prostatite/tratamento farmacológico , Prostatite/microbiologia , Salmonella arizonae/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
20.
Malar J ; 20(1): 154, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding malaria vector's population dynamics and their spatial distribution is important to define when and where the largest infection risks occur and implement appropriate control strategies. In this study, the seasonal spatio-temporal dynamics of the malaria vector population and transmission intensity along intermittent rivers in a semi-arid area of central Ethiopia were investigated. METHODS: Mosquitoes were collected monthly from five clusters, 2 close to a river and 3 away from a river, using pyrethrum spray catches from November 2014 to July 2016. Mosquito abundance was analysed by the mixed Poisson regression model. The human blood index and sporozoite rate was compared between seasons by a logistic regression model. RESULTS: A total of 2784 adult female Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) were collected during the data collection period. All tested mosquitoes (n = 696) were identified as Anopheles arabiensis by polymerase chain reaction. The average daily household count was significantly higher (P = 0.037) in the clusters close to the river at 5.35 (95% CI 2.41-11.85) compared to the clusters away from the river at 0.033 (95% CI 0.02-0.05). Comparing the effect of vicinity of the river by season, a significant effect of closeness to the river was found during the dry season (P = 0.027) and transition from dry to wet season (P = 0.032). Overall, An. arabiensis had higher bovine blood index (62.8%) as compared to human blood index (23.8%), ovine blood index (9.2%) and canine blood index (0.1%). The overall sporozoite rate was 3.9% and 0% for clusters close to and away from the river, respectively. The overall Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax entomologic inoculation rates for An. arabiensis in clusters close to the river were 0.8 and 2.2 infective bites per person/year, respectively. CONCLUSION: Mosquito abundance and malaria transmission intensity in clusters close to the river were higher which could be attributed to the riverine breeding sites. Thus, vector control interventions including targeted larval source management should be implemented to reduce the risk of malaria infection in the area.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Anopheles/fisiologia , Clima Desértico , Malária Falciparum/transmissão , Malária Vivax/transmissão , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Animais , Anopheles/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/veterinária , Malária Vivax/veterinária , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Plasmodium vivax/isolamento & purificação , Dinâmica Populacional , Rios , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Carneiro Doméstico
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