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1.
Vet Surg ; 50(5): 933-943, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969898

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Design 3D printed skull contoured brain biopsy guides (3D-SCGs) from computed tomography (CT) or T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T1W MRI). STUDY DESIGN: Feasibility study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Five beagle dog cadavers and two client-owned dogs with brain tumors. METHODS: Helical CT and T1W MRI were performed on cadavers. Planned target point was the head of the caudate nucleus. Three-dimensional-SCGs were created from CT and MRI using commercially available open-source software. Using 3D-SCGs, biopsy needles were placed into the caudate nucleus in cadavers, and CT was performed to assess needle placement accuracy, followed by histopathology. Three-dimensional-SCGs were then created and used to perform in vivo brain tumor biopsies. RESULTS: No statistical difference was found between the planned target point and needle placement. Median needle placement error for all planned target points was 2.7 mm (range: 0.86-4.5 mm). No difference in accuracy was detected between MRI and CT-designed 3D-SCGs. Median needle placement error for the CT was 2.8 mm (range: 0.86-4.5 mm), and 2.2 mm (range: 1.7-2.7 mm) for MRI. Biopsy needles were successfully placed into the target in the two dogs with brain tumors and biopsy was successfully acquired in one dog. CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional-SCGs designed from CT or T1W MRI allowed needle placement within 4.5 mm of the intended target in all procedures, resulting in successful biopsy in one of two live dogs. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This feasibility study justifies further evaluation of 3D-SCGs as alternatives in facilities that do not have access to stereotactic brain biopsy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Modelos Anatômicos , Impressão Tridimensional , Crânio , Animais , Biópsia/veterinária , Biópsia por Agulha/métodos , Biópsia por Agulha/veterinária , Encéfalo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Cadáver , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Estudos de Viabilidade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
2.
Mol Carcinog ; 60(7): 455-468, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003526

RESUMO

Canine mammary gland tumors (CMTs) are the most common tumor type in female dogs. This study evaluated the expression pattern and role of thyroglobulin (Tg) in CMT and in human breast cancer (HBC). CMT samples were subjected to fine-needle aspiration, primary cell culture, and histopathology. The expression level of Tg was higher in benign CMT than in malignant CMT (mCMT) primary cells, particularly in the epithelial lineage. Moreover, treatment with Tg enhanced the sensitivity of doxorubicin in mCMT epithelial cells and mitigated proinflammatory response by increasing nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The proximal region of the Tg promoter was hypermethylated in mCMT epithelial cells, silencing Tg expression with concurrent downregulation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant signaling. An identical pattern of Tg expression was observed in cytological and tissue samples. Tissue microarray analysis showed that Tg was highly expressed in normal and benign tissues when compared with their malignant counterparts, which was diminished along with higher histological grades. The survival rate was significantly higher in HBC patients with high Tg expression than those with low Tg expression. This study also showed that the progression of HBC is accompanied by the reduction of Tg expression along with augmentation of proinflammatory signaling. Our data suggested that Tg could be a negative indicator of malignancy in canine and human breast neoplasia.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/patologia , Tireoglobulina/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doenças do Cão/metabolismo , Cães , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Metilação , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tireoglobulina/genética , Tireoglobulina/farmacologia
3.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(4): 772-776, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047229

RESUMO

We characterized the immunohistochemical expression profiles of dysgerminomas from a 16-y-old maned wolf and 13 domestic dogs using the following biomarkers: Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4), octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 (OCT3/4), placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), c-kit, and vimentin. The maned wolf had nonspecific and long-standing clinical signs of lethargy, anorexia, and weight loss, and was euthanized because of poor prognosis. At autopsy, the left ovary was effaced by a 12 × 8 × 6 cm mass, comprised of anaplastic cells with a mitotic count of 20 mitoses in 10 high power fields. Dysgerminomas from 7 of 13 domestic dogs had nuclear expression of SALL4. Dysgerminomas from the maned wolf and 2 domestic dogs had both nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of SALL4. Cytoplasmic expression of PLAP and OCT3/4 was present in dysgerminomas from the maned wolf and 3 (PLAP) or 4 (OCT3/4) domestic dogs. All dysgerminomas expressed vimentin. Membranous c-kit expression was rare in the dysgerminoma from the maned wolf, and variable in dysgerminomas from 4 domestic dogs. A dysgerminoma from a domestic dog had cytoplasmic expression of c-kit. SALL4 is a useful marker to confirm germ cell origin of dysgerminoma in canids.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Canidae , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Disgerminoma/veterinária , Neoplasias Ovarianas/veterinária , Ovário/patologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Brasil , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Disgerminoma/diagnóstico , Disgerminoma/patologia , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
4.
Res Vet Sci ; 137: 86-93, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940351

RESUMO

Analysis of large datasets of uroliths is necessary to illustrate the prevalence and risk factors of urolithiasis. Furthermore, it may help to improve treatment and prevention of urolithiasis. In this study, 7866 uroliths (44.5% feline and 55.5% canine) from veterinary practitioners in the Netherlands between 2014 and 2020 were analysed. Between 2014 and 2020 the distribution over the different types of uroliths remained similar over time. Female cats, obese cats, Domestic Shorthair cats, female dogs, and large breed dogs had an increased risk for struvite. Neutered cats, all cat breeds except Domestic Shorthair, neutered dogs, male dogs, intact male dogs, and small breed dogs had an increased risk for calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Cystine and urate were found predominantly in male dogs. Dalmatians were at highest risk for urate urolithiasis. The findings of this study in the Netherlands were similar to findings in previous studies from different countries. However, urate urolithiasis in the English Cocker Spaniel and cystine urolithiasis in the Yorkshire Terrier were new associations. Body condition score, information about recurrence of urolithiasis, medical history, and diet history should be included in submission sheets in the future to explore other possible associations.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/patologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cálculos Urinários/veterinária , Urolitíase/veterinária , Animais , Oxalato de Cálcio/química , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Compostos de Magnésio/química , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Fosfatos/análise , Fatores de Risco , Estruvita , Ácido Úrico , Cálculos Urinários/química , Cálculos Urinários/patologia , Urolitíase/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS Genet ; 17(4): e1009395, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793571

RESUMO

Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is a rare but aggressive cancer in both humans and dogs. The spontaneous canine model, which has clinical, epidemiological, and histological similarities with human HS and specific breed predispositions, provides a unique opportunity to unravel the genetic basis of this cancer. In this study, we aimed to identify germline risk factors associated with the development of HS in canine-predisposed breeds. We used a methodology that combined several genome-wide association studies in a multi-breed and multi-cancer approach as well as targeted next-generation sequencing, and imputation We combined several dog breeds (Bernese mountain dogs, Rottweilers, flat-coated retrievers, and golden retrievers), and three hematopoietic cancers (HS, lymphoma, and mast cell tumor). Results showed that we not only refined the previously identified HS risk CDKN2A locus, but also identified new loci on canine chromosomes 2, 5, 14, and 20. Capture and targeted sequencing of specific loci suggested the existence of regulatory variants in non-coding regions and methylation mechanisms linked to risk haplotypes, which lead to strong cancer predisposition in specific dog breeds. We also showed that these canine cancer predisposing loci appeared to be due to the additive effect of several risk haplotypes involved in other hematopoietic cancers such as lymphoma or mast cell tumors as well. This illustrates the pleiotropic nature of these canine cancer loci as observed in human oncology, thereby reinforcing the interest of predisposed dog breeds to study cancer initiation and progression.


Assuntos
Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina/genética , Doenças do Cão/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Sarcoma Histiocítico/genética , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/veterinária , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Sarcoma Histiocítico/patologia , Humanos
6.
Vet Clin Pathol ; 50(2): 236-239, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797110

RESUMO

Currently, canine soft tissue sarcoma (STS) grading is based on histopathology. In humans, several studies have demonstrated concordance between cytologic grading systems for STS and histologic grade. The aim of this study was to correlate several cytologic parameters (smear cellularity, anisokaryosis, nucleolar malignancy score, multinucleation, and the number of mitotic figures per 200 cells) that form part of a human STS cytologic grading system, with histologic grades of canine cutaneous and subcutaneous STS. Three observers (blinded) reviewed the cytologic preparations independently from cases with confirmed histologic diagnoses of STS. A cytologic grading score was assigned for each parameter. Correlations between cytologic grading scores (averaged between observers) and histologic grades were assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient, with statistical significance defined as P < .05. Twenty-one cases were included in the study (10 Grade I STS, nine Grade II STS, and two Grade III STS). The number of mitotic figures (≥3) per 200 cells was the only parameter that showed a significant but weak, positive correlation with histologic grade (rs  = .469; P = .032). No Grade I tumors had ≥3 mitotic figures per 200 cells; however, ≥3 mitotic figures per 200 cells were only observed in 33% of Grade II tumors and 50% (one out of two) of the Grade III tumors. This pilot study suggests that an increased number of mitotic figures seen on cytology might correlate with higher grade STS; however, the sensitivity of this parameter for grading STS appears to be low.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Sarcoma , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles , Animais , Citodiagnóstico/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Projetos Piloto , Sarcoma/patologia , Sarcoma/veterinária , Pele/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/patologia , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles/veterinária
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 174, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra complex (CEH-P) is one of the most common uteropathies in bitches. In diseases with mild or obscure clinical signs and normal uterine size, a diagnosis based on a clinical assessment might be incorrect. The main aim of the research was to determine the morphological variables accompanying uterine diseases in bitches in microscopic evaluation. Consequently, the obtained results can be used to create a new classification system for uterine pathological changes during the development of the CEH-P, diagnosed by microscopic examination in bitches. Material for the study consisted of the uteri of 120 female dogs, aged 1-16 years, obtained during routine ovariohysterectomies. Macroscopic observation after a longitudinal incision of the uterine horns, allowed a preliminary classification of the uteri into research groups: control group (physiological uteri), and groups GI-III uteri collected form bitches with varying degrees of endometrial pathology. These preliminary classifications were then verified by histological analysis (H&E stain). RESULTS: The obtained results made it possible to determine and describe the prevalence (%) of pathological changes characteristic of the analyzed uterine diseases in the examined bitches. Histopathological analyses that were conducted have confirmed preliminary macroscopic evaluation for the control group, group GII (CEH), and group GIII (pyometra). In the uteri of the GI group, a severe congestion of the endometrium has been observed - this is typical of inflammation - which was not confirmed during histopathological examinations. However, these examinations revealed acute endometrial haemorrhage of varying severity. CONCLUSIONS: Early reproduction disorders in bitches are, in general, not confirmed by clinical signs in the examined animals. The results show that during classification of typical morphological changes in the endometrium over the development of the CEH-P complex in bitches microscopic examinations are required. The obtained results indicate a frequent lack of consistency in the macroscopic assessment and histological analysis of the endometrium, observed in the analyzed uterine diseases, which in most cases is not followed by clinical symptoms. The presented classification of uterine diseases may be useful as a diagnostic tool in reproductive disorders in bitches and in examination in the field of basic research.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/patologia , Hiperplasia Endometrial/veterinária , Piometra/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Hiperplasia Endometrial/patologia , Feminino , Prevalência , Piometra/patologia , Útero/patologia
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 144, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors report a case of keratinized squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in a 14-year-old dog with extensive cranial bone invasion. To our knowledge, this is the first description of such a case of cranial keratinized SCC with aggressive generalized osteolysis described in a dog. CASE PRESENTATION: The 14-year-old dog was referred for radiological examination with suspicion of head trauma with clinical signs of head deformation, exophthalmos and nasal discharge. The skull radiographs showed a large osteolytic defect of the frontal bone and parietal bone in the region of the external sagittal crest. Findings from the skull CT scan included generalized osteolysis in the region of parietal bone, frontal bones, maxilla on the right side and the nasal bone including the dorsal nasal concha. In the area of bone loss, new soft tissue formation with multifocal foci of mineralization was visible. The ultrasound examination revealed hypoechogenic changes with hyperechoic foci consistent with mineralization and poor vascularization. The brain and ocular structures were without visible changes. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed, and squamous cell carcinoma was suspected. After 3 months, the re-presented to the clinic. The dog became progressively listless, his appetite was decreased, and he became acutely blind. Follow-up skull CT scan revealed significant osteolysis, which affected a significant aspect of the cranium. All bone defects had been replaced by new 3.5 cm-thick soft tissue formations with multifocal small 1-2 mm areas of mineralization. There was no evidence of metastasis. Histological examination confirmed the suspicion of squamous cell carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: This paper is the first report of cranial SCC in a dog causing extensive bone osteolysis. The lesions in this dog originated from the frontal and parietal bones including frontal sinuses. There are variants of tumors that arise from squamous epithelium or resemble SCC in the skull. These examples include adenosquamous carcinoma and proliferating trichilemmal tumours. In addition, there is possible malignant transformation caused by papilloma viruses. In the veterinary literature, there is only one similar description of adenosquamous carcinoma in a cat with similar clinical manifestations. It is justified to suspect a process of neoplastic epithelial origin in all cases of aggressive and extensive skull bone lysis. This issue should be subject to further investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/veterinária , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Crânio/patologia , Animais , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Masculino
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 147, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine malignant melanoma is highly aggressive and generally chemoresistant. Toceranib is a kinase inhibitor drug that inhibits several tyrosine kinases including the proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase KIT. Although canine malignant melanoma cells often express KIT, a therapeutic effect for toceranib has yet to be reported for this tumor, with only a small number of patients studied to date. This is a case report of a dog with malignant melanoma that experienced a transient response to toceranib. Furthermore, the KIT expressed in the tumor of this case was examined using molecular analysis. CASE PRESENTATION: A Shiba Inu dog presented with a gingival malignant melanoma extending into surrounding structures with metastasis to a submandibular lymph node. The dog was treated with toceranib (Palladia®; 2.6-2.9 mg/kg, orally, every other day) alone. Improvement of tumor-associated clinical signs (e.g., halitosis, tumor hemorrhage, trismus, and facial edema) with reduced size of the metastatic lymph node was observed on Day 15. The gingival tumor and associated masses in the masseter and pterygoid muscles decreased in size by Day 29 of treatment. Toceranib treatment was terminated on Day 43 due to disease progression and the dog died on Day 54. The tumor of this dog had a novel deletion mutation c.1725_1733del within KIT and the mutation caused ligand-independent phosphorylation of KIT, which was suppressed by toceranib. This mutation was considered to be an oncogenic driver mutation in the tumor of this dog, thereby explaining the anti-tumor activity of toceranib. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report that presents a canine case of malignant melanoma that responded to toceranib therapy. KIT encoded by KIT harboring a mutation c.1725_1733del is a potential therapeutic target for toceranib in canine malignant melanoma. Further investigation of the KIT mutation status and toceranib therapy in canine malignant melanoma will need to be undertaken.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gengivais/veterinária , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/veterinária , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Deleção de Genes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Gengivais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Gengivais/patologia , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/patologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 163, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal lymphoma in dogs is rare and has a poor prognosis. Granular lymphocyte morphology is rarely reported in canine renal lymphoma. Mild to moderate polycythemia is reported in a number of canine renal lymphoma cases. CASE PRESENTATION: A 10-year-old Labrador retriever presented to a university veterinary teaching hospital after a 1-month history of polyuria, polydipsia, and pollakiuria and a 2-week history of abdominal distention, lethargy, and increased respiratory effort. Abdominal ultrasound showed a wedge-shaped to rounded, heterogeneously hypoechoic mass lesion in the left kidney. Cytologic analysis of a percutaneous aspirate of the mass was consistent with lymphoma of granular lymphocytes. Severe polycythemia (hematocrit 0.871) was noted on a complete blood cell count. Clonality analysis identified a clonally rearranged T-cell receptor (TCR) gene and immunohistochemical staining was CD3+, CD79a- and CD11d+, supporting cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of renal cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma with severe polycythemia in a dog. Severe polycythemia and renal cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma are both rare in dogs; this report adds to the body of knowledge on these conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/veterinária , Linfoma de Células T/veterinária , Policitemia/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Linfócitos , Linfoma de Células T/patologia , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
11.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(4): 749-752, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899610

RESUMO

A 10-y-old intact male Labrador Retriever dog had a history of ataxia, inability to stand, and grand mal seizures. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry profiles revealed profound hypoglycemia, mildly increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, mild hypernatremia, and lymphopenia. The seizures could not be controlled with intravenous dextrose, diazepam, or propofol. The dog was euthanized given poor quality of life, and an autopsy was performed. Primary autopsy findings included firm hepatic masses that ranged from dark-red to tan, with the largest ~1.5 cm diameter, and pulmonary edema. Histologic examination of the hepatic masses revealed redundant, several-cell-thick cords, and packeted or acinar arrangements of polygonal cells, supported on a fibrovascular stroma. The neoplastic cells were immunopositive for insulin, synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase immunohistochemistry; granules in the tumor cells had an affinity for Grimelius silver stain. The histologic features, as well as the immunohistochemical staining profile, identified the neoplasm as a primary multifocal hepatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. Neuroendocrine carcinomas are rare in dogs and usually occur in the gastrointestinal or respiratory tract.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Hipoglicemia/veterinária , Neoplasias Hepáticas/veterinária , Convulsões/veterinária , Animais , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/complicações , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Hipoglicemia/complicações , Imuno-Histoquímica , Neoplasias Hepáticas/complicações , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Convulsões/complicações , Sinaptofisina
13.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(4): 792-796, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884946

RESUMO

An 8-y-old spayed female Beagle dog was presented with peripheral lymphadenomegaly. Lymph node cytology and flow cytometry led to the diagnosis of large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL). We detected minimal percentages of LBCL cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow samples. However, a monomorphic population of neoplastic cells different from those found in the lymph node was found in the bone marrow. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia was suspected based on flow cytometric immunophenotyping. PCR for antigen receptor rearrangement (PARR) revealed clonal rearrangement of both B-cell and T-cell receptors, and the presence of both neoplastic clones in the lymph node, peripheral blood, and bone marrow. The dog was treated with multi-agent chemotherapy but died 46 d following diagnosis. Tumor staging and patient classification are needed to accurately establish a prognosis and select the most appropriate therapeutic protocol.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Leucemia de Células T/veterinária , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/veterinária , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/veterinária , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/veterinária , Animais , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo/veterinária , Imunofenotipagem/veterinária , Leucemia de Células T/diagnóstico , Leucemia de Células T/patologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/diagnóstico , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Prognóstico
14.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(4): 640-647, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870768

RESUMO

We examined the cerebellum and cerebrum of 4 vaccinated dogs, 3-60-mo-old, that displayed clinical signs of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection, and died 7-40 d after developing neurologic signs. The main histologic lesions were demyelination, gliosis, meningitis, perivascular lymphocytic cuffing, and inclusion bodies. These lesions were similar in all 4 cases regardless of the time since vaccination, except that meningoencephalitis and gliosis were subacute in 3 dogs and chronic in 1 dog. However, these differences did not appear to be related to their vaccination status. Immunohistologically, a CDV-positive immunoreaction was seen mainly in astrocytes, neurons and their axons, lymphocytes around and in the blood vessels of the pia mater and choroid plexus, ependymal cells of each ventricle, and the cells of the choroid plexus. The histologic and immunohistologic changes were similar in the cerebellum and cerebrum. The genetic characterization of the virus strains in 2 of these naturally occurring canine distemper cases confirmed that they were South American wild-type strains (Kiki and Uy251) belonging to the EU1/SA1 lineage. These strains are not included in the commercial CDV vaccines available in Uruguay.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/veterinária , Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/fisiologia , Cinomose/patologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/virologia , Cinomose/virologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino
15.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 31(3): 428-431, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical presentation, clinical course, and management of a dog with thyroid storm (TS) secondary to a functional thyroid carcinoma. CASE SUMMARY: A 12-year-old neutered female Golden Retriever was evaluated for severe weight loss, hyperthermia, and tachycardia. The dog had a ventral neck mass and markedly increased thyroxine concentration. Cervical ultrasound showed a suspected left thyroid mass with invasion into the jugular vein. Despite aggressive therapy, the patient progressed to a clinical TS. Postmortem examination was supportive of the clinical diagnosis. NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of TS in a dog.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Crise Tireóidea/veterinária , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Crise Tireóidea/etiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/complicações
16.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 31(3): 402-413, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinicopathological prognostic indicators associated with survival based on hematology and serum biochemistry profile findings at presentation of dogs with canine parvoviral enteritis (CPE). Secondary objectives were to describe the signalment, history, physical examination findings, and progression of disease while in hospital and correlate them to survival. DESIGN: Retrospective study from medical records of dogs diagnosed with CPE between 2001 and 2018. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Three hundred twenty-two dogs diagnosed with CPE that received in-hospital treatment. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 322 hospitalized dogs, 294 dogs (91%) survived infection with a median hospitalization time of 79 hours. Multivariable analysis showed that glucose (P = 0.04), total magnesium (P = 0.011), and the dichotomized variable of a low HCT (P = 0.033) on presentation were significantly associated with survival. For every 1 mmol/L (18 mg/dL) decrease in glucose concentration, cases had 1.85 lower odds of survival. For every 0.1 mmol/L (0.2 mEq/L) increase in total magnesium concentration, cases had 2.50 lower odds of survival. Cases with a low HCT had 10.69 lower odds of survival. On univariable analyses, non-survivors had a lower median body weight (P = 0.006) and presented more commonly for diarrhea (P = 0.015). At least 1 episode of diarrhea (P = 0.003) and hematochezia or melena (P < 0.001) in hospital were negatively associated with outcome, in addition to the persistence of diarrhea (P = 0.026) and hyporexia (P = 0.018) in hospital for 5 to 6 days. CONCLUSIONS: Survival rates of 91% were achieved with in-hospital treatment in this cohort of dogs. Negative biochemical prognostic indicators affecting survival include a low HCT, decreased blood glucose concentrations, and increased total serum magnesium concentrations at presentation.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/virologia , Enterite/veterinária , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino , Animais , Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Enterite/virologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 62(4): 483-489, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855776

RESUMO

Two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE) can be used to quantitatively evaluate the elastic modulus of the liver as shear wave velocity (SWV), which can noninvasively predict clinically relevant hepatic fibrosis in both dogs and humans. However, extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EHBO), regardless of the presence of clinically relevant hepatic fibrosis, can influence SWVs in humans and thus may interfere with hepatic fibrosis prediction using 2D-SWE in dogs. The aim of this prospective, observational, and one-group pretest-posttest study is to investigate whether SWV measured by 2D-SWE displays a difference between dogs with and without EHBO. A total of 20 dogs were included (7 with EHBO and 13 with gallbladder pathology but no EHBO) that underwent preoperative SWV measurement using 2D-SWE. In all dogs, stages of hepatic fibrosis were evaluated histopathologically using a scoring scheme. In addition, postoperative SWVs in dogs with EHBO relieved via laparotomy were also evaluated. The median (range) SWVs in the dogs with and without EHBO were 1.91 (1.81-2.54) m/s and 1.57 (1.37-1.64) m/s, respectively. Although there was no significant difference in the histopathological hepatic fibrosis stages between the dogs with and without EHBO, the preoperative SWVs in the dogs with EHBO were significantly higher than in dogs without EHBO (P = .0004), and SWVs were found to decrease significantly after surgery (P = .0097). This study demonstrates that EHBO can increase the SWV of dogs without clinically relevant hepatic fibrosis and can interfere with the prediction of noninvasive hepatic fibrosis using 2D-SWE.


Assuntos
Colestase/complicações , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/veterinária , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Acta Vet Scand ; 63(1): 14, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781325

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Granulomatous myositis is a rare condition in both humans and dogs. In humans it is most frequently related to sarcoidosis, where a concurrent granulomatous neuritis has been reported occasionally. Simultaneous granulomatous myositis and neuritis have been diagnosed previously in dogs (unpublished observations), but have not been studied further. Additional investigations are therefore warranted to characterize this disorder. Here we present a detailed description of concurrent idiopathic granulomatous myositis and granulomatous neuritis in a dog with suspected immune-mediated aetiology. CASE PRESENTATION: The dog presented with dysphonia and paresis in the pelvic limbs and tail. In addition to muscle biopsies being taken for histopathology, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and electrodiagnostics were performed. Muscle biopsies displayed granuloma formation with giant cells and epithelioid macrophages in muscle fibres and nerve branches. Microorganisms were not detected. Long-term treatment with glucocorticoids was clinically successful. Two years after the clinical signs started, the dog presented with signs of sepsis and died. Histopathologically, no granulomatous inflammation could be demonstrated in either muscles or nerves at that time. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates a granulomatous interstitial polymyositis and intramuscular neuritis that improved clinically and resolved histologically with glucocorticoid treatment. Idiopathic granulomatous myositis and neuritis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs with clinical signs of neuromuscular disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Granuloma/veterinária , Neurite (Inflamação)/veterinária , Polimiosite/veterinária , Animais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Evolução Fatal , Granuloma/complicações , Granuloma/diagnóstico , Neurite (Inflamação)/complicações , Neurite (Inflamação)/diagnóstico , Polimiosite/complicações , Polimiosite/diagnóstico
19.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247560, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705437

RESUMO

In canine leishmaniosis caused by the protozoan Leishmania infantum, little is known about how co-infections with or co-seropositivities for other pathogens can influence aggravation of this disease. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the frequency of co-infections with or co-seropositivities for certain pathogens in dogs seropositive for L. infantum and their relationship with clinical signs, histological changes and L. infantum load. Sixty-six L. infantum-seropositive dogs were submitted to clinical examination, collection of blood and bone marrow, culling, and necropsy. Antibodies against Anaplasma spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Ehrlichia spp. and Toxoplasma gondii and Dirofilaria immitis antigens were investigated in serum. Samples from different tissues were submitted to histopathology and immunohistochemistry for the detection of Leishmania spp. and T. gondii. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess the L. infantum load in spleen samples. For detection of Coxiella burnetii, conventional PCR and nested PCR were performed using bone marrow samples. All 66 dogs tested positive for L. infantum by qPCR and/or culture. Fifty dogs (76%) were co-seropositive for at least one pathogen: T. gondii (59%), Ehrlichia spp., (41%), and Anaplasma spp. (18%). Clinical signs were observed in 15 (94%) dogs monoinfected with L. infantum and in 45 (90%) dogs co-seropositive for certain pathogens. The L. infantum load in spleen and skin did not differ significantly between monoinfected and co-seropositive dogs. The number of inflammatory cells was higher in the spleen, lung and mammary gland of co-seropositive dogs and in the mitral valve of monoinfected dogs. These results suggest that dogs infected with L. infantum and co-seropositive for certain pathogens are common in the region studied. However, co-seropositivities for certain pathogens did not aggravate clinical signs or L. infantum load, although they were associated with a more intense inflammatory reaction in some organs.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/sangue , Coinfecção/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Ehrlichia canis/imunologia , Ehrlichiose/sangue , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Carga Parasitária , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/patologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Ehrlichiose/parasitologia , Ehrlichiose/patologia , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Masculino , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/patologia
20.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 130, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) is a rare malignant breast tumor and a variant form of invasive ductal carcinoma that is an aggressive neoplasm of the human breast and canine mammary gland. The importance of the tumor microenvironment in cancer development has gradually been recognized, but little is known about the cell types outlining the cystic space of canine IMPC. This study aimed to characterize the neoplastic cells outlining the cystic space of IMPC. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF), superresolution and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to assess the cell types in the cystic areas of IMPCs. Cells expressing the mesenchymal markers alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), Vimentin, and S100A4 outlined the cystic space of IMPC. Furthermore, loss of epithelial cell polarity in IMPC was shown by the localization of MUC1 at the stroma-facing surface. This protein modulates lumen formation and inhibits the cell-stroma interaction. Immunohistochemical and IF staining for the myoepithelial cell marker p63 were negative in IMPC samples. Furthermore, associated with peculiar morphology, such as thin cytoplasmic extensions outlining cystic spaces, was observed under TEM. These observations suggested cells with characteristics of myoepithelial-like cells. CONCLUSIONS: The cells outlining the cystic space of IMPC in the canine mammary gland were characterized using IHC, IF and TEM. The presence of cells expressing αSMA, Vimentin, and S100A4 in the IMPC stroma suggested a role for tumor-associated fibroblasts in the IMPC microenvironment. The reversal of cell polarity revealed by the limited basal localization of MUC1 may be an important factor contributing to the invasiveness of IMPC. For the first time, the cystic space of canine mammary gland IMPC was shown to be delimited by myoepithelial-like cells that had lost p63 expression. These findings may enhance our understanding of the cellular microenvironment of invasive tumors to improve cancer diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Papilar/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Papilar/metabolismo , Carcinoma Papilar/patologia , Doenças do Cão/metabolismo , Cães , Feminino , Imunofluorescência/veterinária , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/patologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão/veterinária , Fenótipo
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