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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 401, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis is an important but neglected disease that is spreading and is highly lethal when left untreated. This study sought to measure the Leishmania infantum seroprevalence in dogs, the coverage of its control activities (identification of the canine reservoir by serological survey, dog culling and insecticide spraying) and to evaluate its relationship with the occurrence of the disease in humans in the municipalities of Araçatuba and Birigui, state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Information from 2006 to 2015 was georeferenced for each municipality and modeling was performed for the two municipalities together. To do this, latent Gaussian Bayesian models with the incorporation of a spatio-temporal structure and Poisson distribution were used. The Besag-York-Mollie models were applied for random spatial effects, as also were autoregressive models of order 1 for random temporal effects. The modeling was performed using the INLA (Integrated Nested Laplace Approximations) deterministic approach, considering both the numbers of cases as well as the coverage paired year by year and lagged at one and two years. RESULTS: Control activity coverage was observed to be generally low. The behavior of the temporal tendency in the human disease presented distinct patterns in the two municipalities, however, in both the tendency was to decline. The canine serological survey presented as a protective factor only in the two-year lag model. CONCLUSIONS: The canine serological coverage, even at low intensity, carried out jointly with the culling of the positive dogs, suggested a decreasing effect on the occurrence of the disease in humans, whose effects would be seen two years after it was carried out.


Assuntos
Formigas/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Humanos , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Distribuição de Poisson , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234404, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555688

RESUMO

Myocardial energy deprivation plays a causal role in the development of heart failure. A cardiac protection blend (CPB) of nutrients including medium chain triglycerides, fish oil and other key nutrients was developed to slow the progression of canine myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). A six-month dietary intervention demonstrated efficacy of CPB in slowing MMVD progression. Untargeted metabolomic analysis of serum from these dogs identified 102 differential metabolites (adjusted P < 0.05). The ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid (FA) changed from 2.41 and 1.46 in control and CPB groups at baseline to 4.30 and 0.46 at 6 months respectively. A 2.7-fold increase of α-aminobutyrate, a myocardial modulator of glutathione homeostasis, was found in CPB dogs compared to 1.3-fold increase in control dogs. Arginine and citrulline, precursors of nitric oxide biosynthesis, were both increased 2-fold; caprate, a medium chain FA, was increased 3-fold; and deoxycarnitine, precursor of carnitine biosynthesis, was increased 2.5-fold in CPB dogs. Margarate and methylpalmitate decreased in response to CPB, a potential benefit in MMVD dogs as positive correlations were found between changes in both these FAs and left atrial diameter (r = 0.69, r = 0.87 respectively, adjusted P < 0.05). Sphingomyelins with very long chain saturated FAs associated with decreased risk of heart failure in humans were increased in MMVD dogs fed the CPB diet. Our data supports the hypothesis that CPB improves FA utilization and energetics, reduces oxidative stress and inflammation in MMVD dogs. More studies are needed to understand the roles of specific metabolites in MMVD.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/dietoterapia , Metaboloma , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/veterinária , Aminoácidos/sangue , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dietoterapia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Masculino , Metabolômica , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/sangue , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/dietoterapia , Fosfolipídeos/sangue
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234714, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584842

RESUMO

As a consequence of a hormonal imbalance, Prostatic Hyperplasia (PH) is characterized by increased prostate volume, along with higher local angiogenesis and vascularization. Orchiectomy is the common treatment for dogs, however it is not an option for breeding animals. Thus, finasteride arises as the drug of choice for stud dogs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orchiectomy or finasteride therapies on hormonal and vascular dynamics of PH dogs. Fifteen dogs, aged 6-13 years were assigned to: Untreated Group (dogs diagnosed with PH-n = 5), Finasteride treated group (PH dogs treated with finasteride-n = 5) and Orchiectomy treated group (PH dogs submitted to orchiectomy-n = 5). Evaluations were performed in a monthly interval (first day of treatment; after 30 and 60 days). Doppler ultrasonography was performed to measure prostatic volume, vascularization and hemodynamic profile of prostatic artery. Dihydrotestosterone, estrogen and testosterone concentrations were measured. At day 60, prostatic biopsy was performed for histological, immunohistochemical and qPCR analysis for VEGF-A expression. At day 60, vascularization score was higher in untreated compared to treated groups (finasteride and orchiectomy). Furthermore, VEGF-A expression was lower in the Orchiectomy Treated Group, but VEGF-A was immunohistochemically lower in both treated groups (finasteride and orchiectomy) compared to the Untreated Group. The efficiency of finasteride treatment in reducing clinical signs, prostate volume and vascularization appears to be similar to orchiectomy. In conclusion, both PH medical and surgical therapy lead to reduction in prostate dimension and VEGF-A expression and, consequently, lower local vascularization. However, orchiectomy promotes marked hormonal changes, which ultimately lead to prostate atrophy.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Finasterida/farmacologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios/sangue , Neovascularização Patológica , Orquiectomia , Hiperplasia Prostática/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Cães , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/fisiopatologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/terapia , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
4.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 39: 100403, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482282

RESUMO

Gastric dilation-volvulus (GDV) syndrome in dogs is associated with complex metabolic, acid-base, and electrolyte abnormalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate previously analyzed factors (lactate and BE) in combination with other acid-base parameters (pH, pCO2, bicarbonate, base excess [BE], anion gap [AG], and strong ion difference) and electrolyte concentrations and to evaluate their association with the incidence of gastric necrosis and outcome in dogs with GDV. A retrospective study in 75 dogs with gastric dilation-volvulus syndrome, University veterinary teaching hospital. Medical records were reviewed including signalment, history, initial plasma lactate, acid-base parameters, and electrolyte concentrations, surgical findings and outcome. The overall mortality was 18.7%. In dogs with gastric necrosis, higher initial plasma lactate (median 5.84 vs. 3.36 mmol/L) and AG (20.7 vs. 16.55 mmol/L) and lower pH (7.29 vs. 7.36), bicarbonate (18.7 vs. 22.9 mmol/L), and BE concentration (-8.1 vs. -1.85 mmol/L) were found compared to dogs without gastric necrosis. Anorganic phosphorus was the only electrolyte investigated for which a significant difference was noted between dogs with and without gastric necrosis (1.93 vs. 1.39 mmol/L). The initial plasma lactate concentration (3.36 mmol/L vs. 9.68 mmol/L) and AG (16.8 vs. 20.95 mmol/L) were lower in survivors than nonsurvivors. Survivors had higher pH (7.35 vs. 7.27), bicarbonate concentrations (22.9 vs. 17.35 mmol/L), and BE (-1.9 vs. -9.55 mmol/L) compared to nonsurvivors. Anorganic phosphorus was ultimately the only electrolyte with a significant difference between survivors and nonsurvivors (1.4 vs. 1.84 mmol/L). A multivariate logistic regression model of combination lactate, pH, bicarbonate, BE, AG, and anorganic phosphorus identified pH ≤7.331 and bicarbonate as factors independently associated with gastric necrosis. Similarly, pH ˃7.331, bicarbonate and anorganic phosphorus were independently associated with outcome. Higher initial plasma lactate, AG and anorganic phosphorus levels, and lower pH, BE and bicarbonate concentrations were found in GDV dogs with gastric necrosis. Similarly, initially higher plasma lactate, AG and anorganic phosphorus concentrations, and lower pH, BE and bicarbonate were found in GDV dogs who required euthanasia or who died after surgery. Of these parameters, pH and bicarbonate were strongly and independently associated with gastric necrosis, and pH, bicarbonate and phosphorus were independently associated with outcome.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/mortalidade , Dilatação Gástrica/veterinária , Volvo Gástrico/veterinária , Animais , República Tcheca , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Eletrólitos/sangue , Feminino , Dilatação Gástrica/mortalidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Necrose , Registros/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estômago/patologia , Volvo Gástrico/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Síndrome
5.
J Vet Sci ; 21(3): e44, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital portosystemic shunt (cPSS) is one of the most common congenital disorders diagnosed in dogs. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a frequent complication in dogs with a cPSS and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite HE been a major cause of morbidity in dogs with a cPSS, little is known about the cellular changes that occur in the central nervous system of dogs with a cPSS. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to characterise the histological changes in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of dogs with cPSS with particular emphasis on astrocyte morphology. METHODS: Eight dogs with a confirmed cPSS were included in the study. RESULTS: Six dogs had substantial numbers of Alzheimer type II astrocytes and all cases had increased immunoreactivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein in the cerebral cortex, even if there were minimal other morphological changes. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that dogs with a cPSS have marked cellular changes in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum. The cellular changes that occur in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of dogs with spontaneously arising HE are similar to changes which occur in humans with HE, further validating dogs with a cPSS as a good model for human HE.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/patologia , Cerebelo/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/congênito , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Cães , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/congênito , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/patologia , Masculino
6.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 20(6): 393-405, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186587

RESUMO

Problem: The emergence of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, in November 2019 and a growing body of information compel inquiry regarding the transmissibility of infection between humans and certain animal species. Although there are a number of issues to be considered, the following points are most urgent: The potential for domesticated (companion) animals to serve as a reservoir of infection contributing to continued human-to-human disease, infectivity, and community spread. The ramifications to food security, economy, and trade issues should coronavirus establish itself within livestock and poultry. The disruption to national security if SARS-CoV-2 and its fairly well-established effects on smell (hyposmia/anosmia) to critical military service animals including explosive detector dog, narcotics detector dog, specialized search dog, combat tracker dog, mine detection dog, tactical explosive detector dog, improvised explosive device detector dog, patrol explosive detector dog, and patrol narcotics detector dog, as well as multipurpose canines used by special operations such as used by the U.S. customs and border protection agency (e.g., Beagle Brigade). This article presents in chronological order data that both individually (as received independently from multiple countries) and collectively urge studies that elucidate the following questions. 1.What animal species can be infected with SARS-CoV-2, the likely sources of infection, the period of infectivity, and transmissibility between these animals and to other animal species and humans? 2.What are the best diagnostic tests currently available for companion animals and livestock? 3.What expressions of illness in companion and other animal species can serve as disease markers? Although it is recognized that robust funding and methodology need to be identified to apply the best scientific investigation into these issues, there may be easily identifiable opportunities to capture information that can guide decision and study. First, it may be possible to quickly initiate a data collection strategy using in-place animal gatekeepers, such as zookeepers, veterinarians, kennel owners, feed lots, and military animal handlers. If provided a simple surveillance form, their detection of symptoms (lethargy, hyposmia, anosmia, and others) might be quickly reported to a central data collection site if one were created. Second, although current human COVID-19 disease is aligning around areas of population density and cluster events, it might be possible to overlay animal species density or veterinary reports that could signal some disease association in animals with COVID-19 patients. Unfortunately, although companion animals and zoo species have repeatedly served as sentinels for emerging infectious diseases, they do not currently fall under the jurisdiction of any federal agency and are not under surveillance.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Gado/virologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Transtornos do Olfato/veterinária , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pandemias/história , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Zoonoses/virologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0225675, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469869

RESUMO

A cross-sectional hypothesis generating study was performed to investigate modifiable exposures such as whether feeding pattern (a non-processed meat based diet, NPMD, or an ultra-processed carbohydrate based diet, UPCD), certain environmental factors and their timing of exposure might be associated with the development of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD). Also, genetic and demographic factors were tested for associations with CAD. The data was collected from the validated internet-based DogRisk food frequency questionnaire in Finland. A total of 2236 dogs were eligible for the study (the owners reported 406 cases and 1830 controls). Our main interest was to analyze modifiable early risk factors of CAD, focusing on nutritional and environmental factors. We tested four early life periods; prenatal, neonatal, early postnatal and late postnatal periods. Twenty-two variables were tested for associations with CAD using logistic regression analysis. From the final models we identified novel dietary associations with CAD: the NPMD during the prenatal and early postnatal periods had a significant negative association with the incidence of CAD in adult dogs (age above 1 year). Oppositely, UPCD was associated with a significantly higher risk for CAD incidence. Other variables that were associated with a significantly lower risk for CAD were maternal deworming during pregnancy, sunlight exposure during early postnatal period, normal body condition score during the early postnatal period, the puppy being born within the same family that it would stay in, and spending time on a dirt or grass surface from 2 to 6 months. Also, the genetic factors regarding maternal history of CAD, allergy-prone breeds and more than 50% white-colored coat all showed a significant positive association with CAD incidence in agreement with previous findings. Although no causality can be established, feeding NPMD early in life seemed to be protective against CAD, while UPCD could be considered a risk factor. Prospective intervention studies are needed to establish the causal effects of the protective role of NPMD on prevalence of CAD during the fetal and early postnatal life.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Animais , Dermatite Atópica/etiologia , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Humanos , Internet , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis ; 20(6): 393-405, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374208

RESUMO

Problem: The emergence of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, in November 2019 and a growing body of information compel inquiry regarding the transmissibility of infection between humans and certain animal species. Although there are a number of issues to be considered, the following points are most urgent: The potential for domesticated (companion) animals to serve as a reservoir of infection contributing to continued human-to-human disease, infectivity, and community spread. The ramifications to food security, economy, and trade issues should coronavirus establish itself within livestock and poultry. The disruption to national security if SARS-CoV-2 and its fairly well-established effects on smell (hyposmia/anosmia) to critical military service animals including explosive detector dog, narcotics detector dog, specialized search dog, combat tracker dog, mine detection dog, tactical explosive detector dog, improvised explosive device detector dog, patrol explosive detector dog, and patrol narcotics detector dog, as well as multipurpose canines used by special operations such as used by the U.S. customs and border protection agency (e.g., Beagle Brigade). This article presents in chronological order data that both individually (as received independently from multiple countries) and collectively urge studies that elucidate the following questions. 1.What animal species can be infected with SARS-CoV-2, the likely sources of infection, the period of infectivity, and transmissibility between these animals and to other animal species and humans? 2.What are the best diagnostic tests currently available for companion animals and livestock? 3.What expressions of illness in companion and other animal species can serve as disease markers? Although it is recognized that robust funding and methodology need to be identified to apply the best scientific investigation into these issues, there may be easily identifiable opportunities to capture information that can guide decision and study. First, it may be possible to quickly initiate a data collection strategy using in-place animal gatekeepers, such as zookeepers, veterinarians, kennel owners, feed lots, and military animal handlers. If provided a simple surveillance form, their detection of symptoms (lethargy, hyposmia, anosmia, and others) might be quickly reported to a central data collection site if one were created. Second, although current human COVID-19 disease is aligning around areas of population density and cluster events, it might be possible to overlay animal species density or veterinary reports that could signal some disease association in animals with COVID-19 patients. Unfortunately, although companion animals and zoo species have repeatedly served as sentinels for emerging infectious diseases, they do not currently fall under the jurisdiction of any federal agency and are not under surveillance.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Gado/virologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Transtornos do Olfato/veterinária , Transtornos do Olfato/virologia , Pandemias/história , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Zoonoses/virologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231893, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vaccination is the most important tool for controlling brucellosis, but currently there is no vaccine available for canine brucellosis, which is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution caused by Brucella canis. This study aimed to evaluate protection and immune response induced by Brucella ovis ΔabcBA (BoΔabcBA) encapsulated with alginate against the challenge with Brucella canis in mice and to assess the safety of this strain for dogs. METHODS: Intracellular growth of the vaccine strain BoΔabcBA was assessed in canine and ovine macrophages. Protection induced by BoΔabcBA against virulent Brucella canis was evaluated in the mouse model. Safety of the vaccine strain BoΔabcBA was assessed in experimentally inoculated dogs. RESULTS: Wild type B. ovis and B. canis had similar internalization and intracellular multiplication profiles in both canine and ovine macrophages. The BoΔabcBA strain had an attenuated phenotype in both canine and ovine macrophages. Immunization of BALB/c mice with alginate-encapsulated BoΔabcBA (108 CFU) induced lymphocyte proliferation, production of IL-10 and IFN-γ, and protected against experimental challenge with B. canis. Dogs immunized with alginate-encapsulated BoΔabcBA (109 CFU) seroconverted, and had no hematologic, biochemical or clinical changes. Furthermore, BoΔabcBA was not detected by isolation or PCR performed using blood, semen, urine samples or vaginal swabs at any time point over the course of this study. BoΔabcBA was isolated from lymph nodes near to the site of inoculation in two dogs at 22 weeks post immunization. CONCLUSION: Encapsulated BoΔabcBA protected mice against experimental B. canis infection, and it is safe for dogs. Therefore, B. ovis ΔabcBA has potential as a vaccine candidate for canine brucellosis prevention.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Vacina contra Brucelose/imunologia , Brucella ovis/genética , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Alginatos/química , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Brucella canis/patogenicidade , Brucella ovis/imunologia , Brucella ovis/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/microbiologia , Brucelose/patologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Imunização , Fígado/microbiologia , Fígado/fisiologia , Linfócitos/citologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mutação , Ovinos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231967, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rabies is a vaccine-preventable neglected tropical viral zoonosis. It occurs worldwide, creating a very heavy burden in many developing countries, including Nepal. Dogs are the principle vector for the transmission of this disease in urban areas. Vaccination is the most important preventive measure in areas where dogs are the principle source of infection. This study was conducted with the aim of detecting virus-neutralising antibodies and associated factors against rabies in vaccinated household dogs of Kathmandu valley. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 110 vaccinated pet dogs in Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, and Lalitpur districts of Nepal. The samples were taken to the laboratory of the National Zoonosis and Food Hygiene Research Center where serum was separated. An indirect immune-enzymatic assay (PlateliaTM Rabies II kit ad usum Veterinarium, Biorad, China) was used for the detection of rabies virus anti-glycoprotein antibodies in the dog serum samples following the manufacturer's recommendations and instructions. Optical density values for unknown samples were compared with the positive sera titers in quantification tests obtained after a direct reading on the standard curve. Results were expressed as equivalent units per ml (EU/ml). FINDINGS: Of the total samples, 89.09% exceeded the required seroconversion level (≥ 0.5 EU/ml); another 9.09% did not reach the seroconversion level (0.125-0.5 EU/ml); and 1.81% had undetectable seroconversion levels (<0.125 EU/ml) suggesting that the animal had not seroconverted according to the PLATELIA™ RABIES II test. Only one factor, the condition under which the dog was kept, was significantly associated with the antibody titer level. No association was found for any of the other factors included in the study. INTERPRETATION: Vaccination is the most effective measure for prevention and control of rabies. The locally manufactured brand of vaccine, which is available in Nepal, is potent enough to generate a sufficient amount of protective antibodies, equal to international brands.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Animais , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Nepal , Raiva/patologia , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Vacinação
11.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(3): 435-439, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274980

RESUMO

A 6-mo-old female Beagle dog was inappetent and depressed. The radiographic, ultrasonographic, and computed tomographic examination of the chest revealed a 10 × 7 cm multicystic mediastinal structure interpreted as altered thymus, in association with moderate pleural effusion that laboratory tests confirmed as hemothorax. No history of trauma or anticoagulant drug intoxication was reported, and no coagulation disorders were detected. Afterward, medial cranial sternotomy was performed to remove the altered tissue. Histologically, this tissue was compatible with a thymic remnant, characterized by numerous cystic lesions, mostly blood filled and lined by flattened-to-cuboidal epithelial cells, occasionally projecting into the surrounding stroma, and forming cytokeratin-positive ribbons, trabeculae, and papillae. Lymphocytes were scant, and numerous areas of congestion and hemorrhage were present throughout the samples. This case of idiopathic thymic hemorrhage with cystic degeneration of the thymus and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia was an incidental finding; the dog recovered from surgery uneventfully.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/patologia , Hiperplasia do Timo/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Hiperplasia do Timo/diagnóstico por imagem , Hiperplasia do Timo/patologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0225901, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119674

RESUMO

Hereditary nasal parakeratosis (HNPK) is an inherited disorder described in Labrador Retrievers and Greyhounds. It has been associated with breed-specific variants in the SUV39H2 gene encoding a histone 3 methyltransferase involved in epigenetic silencing. Formalin-fixed biopsies of the nasal planum of Labrador Retrievers were screened by immunofluorescence microscopy for the presence and distribution of epidermal proliferation and differentiation markers. Gene expression of these markers was further analysed using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and ultrastructural epidermal differences were investigated by electron microscopy. Differentiation of the nasal planum in the basal and suprabasal epidermal layers of HNPK-affected dogs (n = 6) was similar compared to control dogs (n = 6). In the upper epidermal layers, clear modifications were noticed. Loricrin protein was absent in HNPK-affected nasal planum sections in contrast to sections of the same location of control dogs. However, loricrin was present in the epidermis of paw pads and abdominal skin from HNPK dogs and healthy control dogs. The patterns of keratins K1, K10 and K14, were not markedly altered in the nasal planum of HNPK-affected dogs while the expression of the terminal differentiation marker involucrin appeared less regular. Based on RNA-seq, LOR and IVL expression levels were significantly decreased, while KRT1, KRT10 and KRT14 levels were up-regulated (log2fold-changes of 2.67, 3.19 and 1.71, respectively) in HNPK-affected nasal planum (n = 3) compared to control dogs (n = 3). Electron microscopical analysis revealed structural alterations in keratinocytes and stratum corneum, and disrupted keratinocyte adhesions and distended intercellular spaces in lesional samples (n = 3) compared to a sample of a healthy control dog (n = 1). Our findings demonstrate aberrant keratinocyte terminal differentiation of the nasal planum of HNPK-affected Labrador Retrievers and provide insights into biological consequences of this inactive SUV39H2 gene variant.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Diferenciação , Doenças do Cão , Doenças Genéticas Inatas , Doenças Nasais , Paraceratose , Animais , Antígenos de Diferenciação/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/genética , Doenças do Cão/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/metabolismo , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/patologia , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/veterinária , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/patologia , Masculino , Doenças Nasais/genética , Doenças Nasais/metabolismo , Doenças Nasais/patologia , Doenças Nasais/veterinária , Paraceratose/genética , Paraceratose/metabolismo , Paraceratose/patologia , Paraceratose/veterinária
13.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(3): 11, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176262

RESUMO

Purpose: To define remodeling of photoreceptor synaptic terminals and second-order retinal neurons in canine X-linked progressive retinal atrophy 1 caused by a five-nucleotide deletion in the RPGR exon ORF15. Methods: Retinas of normal and mutant dogs were used for gene expression, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Cell-specific markers were used to examine disease-dependent retinal remodeling. Results: In mutant retinas, a number of rod axon terminals retract into the outer nuclear layer. This neuritic atrophy preceded significant loss of rods and was evident early in disease. Rod bipolar and horizontal cell processes were found to extend into the outer nuclear layer, where they seemed to form contacts with the spherules of rod photoreceptors. No ectopic rewiring was observed. Because cytoskeletal reorganization was previously shown to underlie photoreceptor axon retraction, we examined normal and mutant retinas for expression of axon guidance receptors ROBO1 and ROBO2, which are known to regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics. We found that the overall expression of both ROBO1 and ROBO2 is retained at the same level in premature and fully developed normal retinas. However, analysis of predisease and early disease retinas identified markedly decreased levels of ROBO1 in rod spherules compared with controls. In contrast, no differences in ROBO1 signals were noted in cone pedicles in normal and mutant retinas, where ROBO1 levels remained similarly low. Conclusions: Depletion of ROBO1 in rod synaptic terminals correlates with the remodeling of axonal and dendritic processes in the outer retina of dogs with X-linked progressive retinal atrophy 1 and may play a role in the retraction of rod axons.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/metabolismo , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Degeneração Retiniana/metabolismo , Animais , Orientação de Axônios/fisiologia , Axônios/patologia , Doenças do Cão/genética , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/patologia , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/veterinária , Microscopia Confocal , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/deficiência , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/patologia , Receptores Imunológicos/deficiência , Retina/metabolismo , Degeneração Retiniana/genética , Degeneração Retiniana/patologia , Degeneração Retiniana/veterinária , Neurônios Retinianos/metabolismo , Neurônios Retinianos/patologia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Bastonetes/patologia
14.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(2): 329-335, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180541

RESUMO

We describe and illustrate herein a case of eosinophilic pulmonary granulomatosis (EPG) in a 16-mo-old, castrated male, Great Pyrenees crossbred dog. EPG appears to differ from eosinophilic pneumonias and eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy in dogs by the presence of nodules and masses in the lungs composed of eosinophils, macrophages, and various combinations of lymphocytes, plasma cells, neutrophils, and mast cells within fibrous tissue. Specific information from this dog was added to the information from the limited number of other dogs diagnosed with EPG reported in the veterinary literature, and the information analyzed. EPG appears to have no breed or sex predilection and tends to be a disease of younger dogs, often ≤ 3 y of age. Antemortem imaging of nodules and masses in the lungs, combined with cytologic evidence of eosinophils in the lesions, is highly suggestive of EPG, and the diagnosis can be confirmed postmortem. Concurrent eosinophilia and basophilia can be features of EPG, but their diagnostic value requires further investigation, as does the possible causal association with Dirofilaria immitis infection.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Granuloma Eosinófilo/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Granuloma Eosinófilo/diagnóstico , Granuloma Eosinófilo/diagnóstico por imagem , Granuloma Eosinófilo/patologia , Masculino
15.
Parasite Immunol ; 42(5): e12706, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119124

RESUMO

To provide useful information based on the macropathology, histopathology and immunohistochemical investigation in the spleens of dogs with Babesia rossi infection. Control spleens were collected from four healthy dogs euthanized for welfare reasons. Nine dogs that died naturally because of a mono-infection with Babesia rossi were selected for the diseased group. One haematoxylin-and-eosin-stained section of splenic tissue from each of the infected and control dogs was examined under the light microscope. Immunohistochemical markers were applied to characterize different immunocyte populations. The application of analytic software enabled semi-quantitative comparison of leucocyte subpopulations. Routine splenic histopathology revealed diffuse intermingling of white and red pulp from infected dogs with a clear loss of distinction between these zones. Immunohistochemistry revealed an increase in the proportion of tissue resident and bone marrow origin macrophages in the infected spleens. Apart from a few remnant lymphocytes within the peri-arteriolar lymphatic sheaths and follicles, the majority of the immunocytes redistributed to the red pulp, supporting the observation of white and red pulp intermingling. The majority of our findings are in agreement with histomorphological descriptions of the spleen in a variety of noncanid mammalian hosts with lethal malaria or babesiosis.


Assuntos
Babesia/fisiologia , Babesiose/patologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Baço/patologia , Animais , Babesiose/imunologia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/parasitologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/parasitologia , Baço/imunologia , Baço/parasitologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230272, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32168360

RESUMO

Canine prostate adenocarcinoma (PAC) and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of prostate and urinary bladder are highly invasive and metastatic tumors of closely neighbored organs. Cell lines are valuable tools to investigate tumor mechanisms and therapeutic approaches in vitro. PAC in dogs is infrequent, difficult to differentiate from TCC and usually characterized by poor prognosis, enhancing the value of the few available cell lines. However, as cell lines adapt to culturing conditions, a thorough characterization, ideally compared to original tissue, is indispensable. Herein, six canine PAC cell lines and three TCC cell lines were profiled by immunophenotype in comparison to respective original tumor tissues. Three of the six PAC cell lines were derived from primary tumor and metastases of the same patient. Further, two of the three TCC cell lines were derived from TCCs invading into or originating from the prostate. Cell biologic parameters as doubling times and chemoresistances to commonly used drugs in cancer treatment (doxorubicin, carboplatin and meloxicam) were assessed. All cell lines were immunohistochemically close to the respective original tissue. Compared to primary tumor cell lines, metastasis-derived cell lines were more chemoresistant to doxorubicin, but equally susceptive to carboplatin treatment. Two cell lines were multiresistant. COX-2 enzyme activity was demonstrated in all cell lines. However, meloxicam inhibited prostaglandin E2 production in only seven of nine cell lines and did neither influence metabolic activity, nor proliferation. The characterized nine cell lines represent excellent tools to investigate PAC as well as TCC in prostate and urinary bladder of the dog. Furthermore, the profiled paired cell lines from PAC primary tumor and metastasis provide the unique opportunity to investigate metastasis-associated changes PAC cells undergo in tumor progression. The combination of nine differently chemoresistant PAC and TCC cell lines resembles the heterogeneity of canine lower urinary tract cancer.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/imunologia , Animais , Carboplatina/farmacologia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/genética , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/genética , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Meloxicam/farmacologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia
17.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 38: 100371, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115074

RESUMO

A 5-year-old male Beagle dog produced ejaculates with a high percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology, especially sperm tail defects. Although libido and semen volume were normal, ejaculates showed asthenospermia, oligozoospermia, and teratozoospermia. The spermatozoa exhibited morphologic defects affecting the flagellum, mainly coiled tails with or without macrocephalia (33.5 ± 2.1%), bent tails (18.3 ± 3.4%), and proximal cytoplasmic droplets (6.7 ± 2.8%). The peripheral plasma testosterone level was 2.76 ± 0.21 ng/mL. The resistive index and the pulsatility index from marginal and intratesticular vessels measured by Doppler ultrasound showed higher values in the right testicle than in the left testicle. Histologic evaluation revealed focal reduction in the number of germ cells and sperm in the seminiferous tubules in the right testicle. This is the first report that describes simultaneously the presence of sperm tail defects in the ejaculate and changes in the blood flow of testicular vessels in the dog.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cauda do Espermatozoide/patologia , Testículo/irrigação sanguínea , Animais , Cães , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen , Espermatozoides/anormalidades , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Testosterona/sangue , Ultrassonografia Doppler/veterinária
18.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 38: 100381, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115081

RESUMO

A 6.5-year-old male neutered Trailhound was admitted for hyperacute, nonprogressive, left-sided hemiparesis. Physical and neurologic examination revealed nonpainful, left-sided poorly ambulatory hemiparesis, decreased left-sided postural reactions and thoracic limbs hyporeflexia. Neuroanatomic localisation was consistent with a left-sided C6-T2 myelopathy. Haematology and biochemistry revealed nonspecific abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging of the neck revealed a focal intramedullary lesion at the level of C6-C7 vertebrae compatible with acute hydrated noncompressive nucleus pulposus extrusion or ischemic myelopathy. During the second day of hospitalization, the dog developed convergence-retraction nystagmus, up-gaze palsy and eyelid retraction (Collier's sign) compatible with dorsal midbrain syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a focal lesion compatible with dorsal midbrain ischemic infarct. Further clinicopathologic testing, thoracic and abdominal imaging were unremarkable. Ischemic encephalopathy of unknown etiology was additionally diagnosed. Physiotherapy was performed therapeutically. At 1-year follow-up the dog was normal. This is an unusual report of a dog with myelopathy followed by ischemic encephalopathy with manifestation of convergence-retraction nystagmus in the absence of vestibular signs. This saccadic intrusion is a characteristic clinical manifestation of a dorsal midbrain syndrome localization. The importance of a complete differential diagnoses list formation in a dog with ischemic encephalopathy which leads to a thorough diagnostic investigation plan is highlighted. Moreover, this report contributes to the enrichment of the clinical reasoning veterinary literature on convergence-retraction nystagmus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the second case report (fourth dog) to describe convergence-retraction nystagmus in dogs as a manifestation of dorsal midbrain syndrome.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Nistagmo Patológico/veterinária , Doenças da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Masculino , Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Paresia/diagnóstico , Paresia/veterinária , Modalidades de Fisioterapia/veterinária
19.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 197-202, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200159

RESUMO

Mammary tumors represent the second most common neoplasia in the canine species, where more than 50% of the cases are classified as malignant. The histological classification is used as a prognostic tool. Cadherins and catenins are responsible for cell adhesion and are intrinsic connected with the process of metastasis. E-cadherin expression in canine mammary tissues have been extensively studied. However, the studies with catenins are still scarce in the canine species. This study evaluated 74 canine mammary tissues by assessing the expression of E-cadherin and α, ß and P-120 catenin molecules using the immunohistochemistry technique and their relationship with clinicopathological parameters. Three patterns of expression were identified in this study: membranous, cytoplasmic and both (membranous and cytoplasmic). In benign tumors, more than 80% of the cases had preserved expression and in malignant tumors 20% of the cases had reduced expression. A correlation between E-cadherin and P-120-catenin expression was found as well as a significant relationship between the histological type and the expression of α-catenin in malignant tumors.


Assuntos
Caderinas/metabolismo , Cateninas/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/genética , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/genética , alfa Catenina/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/patologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/patologia
20.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 30(3): 342-346, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the development of a tension pneumomediastinum during mechanical ventilation of a young Irish Wolfhound with aspiration pneumonia. CASE SUMMARY: A 9-month-old intact female Irish Wolfhound was presented for clinical signs consistent with aspiration pneumonia. Evaluation of her pedigree and clinical signs prompted suspicion of Irish Wolfhound rhinitis bronchopneumonia syndrome as a contributing factor. Despite supportive care for bronchopneumonia, progressive hypoxemia and increased work of breathing required mechanical ventilation (MV). Development of a pneumothorax 36 hours after initiation of MV necessitated bilateral thoracostomy tubes. Cardiovascular decline persisted despite resolution of the pneumothorax and 1 hour later the dog was humanely euthanized. On necropsy, severe pneumomediastinum was identified without other evidence of barotrauma. Necropsy results suggested tension pneumomediastinum as the cause of pneumothorax and cardiovascular deterioration. NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: Pneumomediastinum has not been described in dogs receiving MV. This case highlights the importance of rapid detection of pneumomediastinum during MV, as the complication can quickly become life-threatening.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Enfisema Mediastínico/veterinária , Respiração Artificial/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Enfisema Mediastínico/etiologia , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos
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