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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007869, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Once a canine rabies-free status has been achieved, there is little guidance available on vaccination standards to maintain that status. In areas with risk of reintroduction, it may be practical to continue vaccinating portions of susceptible dogs to prevent re-establishment of canine rabies. METHODS: We used a modified version of RabiesEcon, a deterministic mathematical model, to evaluate the potential impacts and cost-effectiveness of preventing the reintroduction of canine rabies through proactive dog vaccination. We analyzed four scenarios to simulate varying risk levels involving the reintroduction of canine rabies into an area where it is no longer present. In a sensitivity analysis, we examined the influences of reintroduction frequency and intensity, the density of susceptible dog population, dog birth rate, dog life expectancy, vaccine efficacy, rate of loss of vaccine immunity, and the basic reproduction number (R0). RESULTS: To prevent the re-establishment of canine rabies, it is necessary to vaccinate 38% to 56% of free-roaming dogs that have no immunity to rabies. These coverage levels were most sensitive to adjustments in R0 followed by the vaccine efficacy and the rate of loss of vaccine immunity. Among the various preventive vaccination strategies, it was most cost-effective to continue dog vaccination at the minimum coverage required, with the average cost per human death averted ranging from $257 to $398 USD. CONCLUSIONS: Without strong surveillance systems, rabies-free countries are vulnerable to becoming endemic when incursions happen. To prevent this, it may be necessary to vaccinate at least 38% to 56% of the susceptible dog population depending on the risk of reintroduction and transmission dynamics.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Modelos Teóricos , Raiva/prevenção & controle
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 25, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803340

RESUMO

Introduction: Estimation of dog population is relevant in Animal Health Planning; some of the benefits include rabies control and possible elimination, estimation of quantity of dog vaccines and drugs required in the state, policy development and implementation. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the population of dogs in Nasarawa state; a local government area (LGA) was randomly selected from each of the three senatorial districts and two wards were selected randomly from the selected LGA's. Three hundred and thirteen questionnaires were administered through face to face interview with dog owners and their dogs in view. Results: Analysis indicated 97.7% of the dogs were local breeds, 1.7% mixed and 0.3% exotic breeds. Guard dogs were 77% and 23% were used for hunting. Majority of the dogs (67.5%) were owned/stray while 32.5% were owned/confined. In Nasarawa state, 21% of the dogs were vaccinated and 79% had no vaccination history. The low vaccination rate indicates possible threat to animal and human health; hunting dogs are possible source of rabies introduction into their immediate communities from contact with wild reservoirs of the virus. Majority of dogs were between 1-5 years (73%) and more female dogs (52.5%) than males (47.5%) were reported. The dog to household ratio was 1.1:1 while the dog to human ratio is 1.1:6. Estimated number of dogs in Nasarawa state was 462,586 dogs. Conclusion: Proper sensitization of dog owners on annual antirabies vaccination against rabies in dogs and postexposure prophylaxis in humans is recommended. The local authorities should institute effective measures for the control of stray dogs to prevent the risk of dog bites and other environmental hazards posed by such dogs. The state government should enact and enforce laws on responsible dog ownership to include compulsory annual vaccination of all dogs. This exercise should be replicated in other states of the federation for a comprehensive national dog ecological data necessary for planning, policy development and implementation.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Projetos Piloto , Raiva/veterinária , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/veterinária
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 509, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haemaphysalis longicornis is the major tick affecting dogs in most of the East Asia/Pacific region and has recently been detected in a number of areas of the USA. This tick is a vector for a number of pathogens of dogs, other mammals and humans. In this study, the efficacy of a single oral administration of sarolaner (Simparica®, Zoetis) at the minimum label dosage (2 mg/kg) was evaluated against an existing infestation of H. longicornis and subsequent weekly reinfestations for 5 weeks after treatment. METHODS: Sixteen dogs were ranked on pretreatment tick counts and randomly allocated to treatment on Day 0 with sarolaner at 2 mg/kg or a placebo. The dogs were infested with H. longicornis nymphs on Days - 2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. Efficacy was determined at 48 hours after treatment and subsequent re-infestations based on live tick counts relative to placebo-treated dogs. RESULTS: There were no adverse reactions to treatment. A single dose of sarolaner provided 100% efficacy on Days 2, 7, 14 and 21; and ≥ 97.4% efficacy on Days 28 and 35. Considering only attached, live ticks, efficacy was 100% for the entire 35 days of the study. Geometric mean live tick counts for sarolaner were significantly lower than those for placebo on all days (11.62 ≤ t(df) ≤ 59.99, where 13.0 ≤ df ≤ 14.1, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a single oral administration of sarolaner at 2 mg/kg provided 100% efficacy against an existing infestation of H. longicornis nymphs and ≥ 97.4% efficacy (100% against attached ticks) against weekly reinfestation for at least 35 days after treatment.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Vetores Aracnídeos , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Ixodidae , Compostos de Espiro/uso terapêutico , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle
4.
Vet Parasitol ; 276: 108978, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765865

RESUMO

A controlled clinical trial was carried out to assess the mortality and repellency of a new topical combination of fipronil-permethrin (Effitix® Virbac, Mexico) against Rhodnius prolixus in dogs. Ten medium-size dogs (10-15 kg) with short hair were used. The dogs were exposed to 8 adult triatomines once weekly for 7 weeks. On the control day (D0), the dogs were exposed to the insects without treatment. On D7, the dogs were immediately treated with a spot-on 2.2 ml pipette containing 134 mg of fipronil and 1200 mg permethrin after exposure to the insects. The dose was repeated after 4 weeks following the manufacturer's instructions. Repellency at D0 was, 0 % and the insects had a high blood content. After 12 h post-contact, repellency was 86.3 % and slowly decrease though D21 and D28. On D7, none of the insects survived after 3 h of feeding on the treated dogs. On D14, D35 and D42, all insects died within 12 h post-feeding, whereas no mortality was observed in the control D0 (P < 0.05). The results of this study indicated that administration of the product following the manufacturer's instructions was efficacious at inducing rapid mortality of R. prolixus and therefore could be useful to prevent the transmission of American trypanosomiasis in dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Insetos Vetores , Inseticidas , Rhodnius , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Ectoparasitoses/tratamento farmacológico , Ectoparasitoses/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Masculino , Permetrina , Pirazóis
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 977, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rabies is estimated to cause 59,000 deaths and economic losses of US$8.6 billion every year. Despite several years of rabies surveillance and awareness programmes, increased availability of post-exposure prophylaxis vaccinations and dog population control, the disease still remains prevalent in Sri Lanka. This study reports the roll-out of a high number, high coverage canine rabies vaccination campaign in Sri Lanka, providing estimates for the vaccination coverage achieved, analysing the local dog demographics, and identifying barriers of attendance to static vaccination clinics. METHODS: A mass dog vaccination campaign was undertaken in Negombo, Sri Lanka. The campaign was composed of static point and door-to-door vaccination stages, with a final survey of vaccination coverage. A large volume of data on the distribution, health, and signalment of vaccinated dogs was collected through a mobile phone application. A logistic regression model was developed to investigate which socio-spatial and dog-related factors influenced attendance of owners to static vaccination points. RESULTS: The campaign vaccinated over 7800 dogs achieving a vaccination coverage of 75.8%. A dog:human ratio of 1:17 was estimated. Most dogs were owned, and the dog population was mostly male, adult, and non-sterilized. Unawareness, unavailability and handling problems were the most common reasons given by owners to explain failure to attend a static vaccination point. The regression analysis showed that increasing distance to a static point, in addition to young age and poor health of the dog, were associated with a decrease in the likelihood of attendance to a static vaccination points. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the feasibility of high number, high coverage vaccination campaigns in Sri Lanka. The information on dog ecology and barriers of attendance to static point vaccination clinics will facilitate development of future vaccination campaigns.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/métodos , Animais , Telefone Celular , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Raiva/imunologia , Sri Lanka , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1398, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal of a 90% reduction in neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) by 2030 requires innovative control strategies. This proof-of-concept study examined the effectiveness of integrating control programs for two NTDs: mass drug administration (MDA) for soil-transmitted helminths in humans and mass dog rabies vaccination (MDRV). METHODS: The study was carried out in 24 Tanzanian villages. The primary goal was to demonstrate the feasibility of integrating community-wide MDA for STH and MDRV for rabies. The objectives were to investigate the popularity, participation and cost and time savings of integrated delivery, and to investigate the reach of the MDA with respect to primary school-aged children and other community members. To implement, we randomly allocated villages for delivery of MDA and MDRV (Arm A), MDA only (Arm B) or MDRV only (Arm C). RESULTS: Community support for the integrated delivery was strong (e.g. 85% of focus group discussions concluded that it would result in people getting "two for one" health treatments). A high proportion of households participated in the integrated Arm A events (81.7% MDA, 80.4% MDRV), and these proportions were similar to those in Arms B and C. These findings suggest that coverage might not be reduced when interventions are integrated. Moreover, in addition to time savings, integrated delivery resulted in a 33% lower cost per deworming dose and a 16% lower cost per rabies vaccination. The median percentage of enrolled primary school children treated by this study was 76%. However, because 37% of the primary school aged children that received deworming treatment were not enrolled in school, we hypothesize that the employed strategy could reach more school-aged children than would be reached through a solely school-based delivery strategy. CONCLUSIONS: Integrated delivery platforms for health interventions can be feasible, popular, cost and time saving. The insights gained could be applicable in areas of sub-Saharan Africa that are remote or underserved by health services. These results indicate the utility of integrated One Health delivery platforms and suggest an important role in the global campaign to reduce the burden of NTDs, especially in hard-to-reach communities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT03667079 , retrospectively registered 11th September 2018.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Criança , Redução de Custos/estatística & dados numéricos , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/economia , Cães , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/economia , Vacinação em Massa/economia , Vacinação em Massa/veterinária , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Raiva/transmissão , Raiva/veterinária , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Antirrábicas/economia , População Rural , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
7.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 480, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoparasites in dogs and cats are a concern related to pet health and zoonotic risks. Several determinants may affect the endoparasite transmission and infection of dogs and cats such as pet's lifestyle or regional parasite distribution. Although different zoonotic endoparasites, such as Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus spp., have been identified in France, little information exists about the deworming behaviors of owners or the frequency of occurrence of risk factors associated with endoparasite infection or transmission. Deworming guidelines, such as those created by the European Scientific Counsel Companion Animal Parasites (ESCCAP), recommend a deworming frequency according to the risk of infection of every pet and the potential risk for zoonotic transmission. The objectives of this study were to explore how lifestyles of dogs and cats from France were related to a particular risk of endoparasites and assess whether deworming frequencies complied with ESCCAP recommendations. METHODS: French data were extracted from a database created during a recent European pet owner survey regarding endoparasitic infection risk. Dogs and cats were grouped into risk categories based upon the ESCCAP guidelines. The compliance between the actual and recommended deworming frequencies were explored among the regions surveyed. RESULTS: The majority of dogs and cats were older than 6 months, had outdoor access, had contact with children or elderly people, and lived in rural and town areas. Most of the dogs were in contact with other dogs, snails or prey (83%), and ate slugs, snails, grass or dug in the garden (68%). Likewise, most of the cats hunted outside (57%) and caught prey animals (52%). Consequently, most of the dogs (89%) and cats (53%) were considered to be in the highest-risk category (D). However, independent of the region, the average deworming compliance for dogs was poor (6%). While deworming compliance for cats in category A (low-risk) was excellent (94%), for cats in category D it was poor (6%). CONCLUSIONS: Deworming compliance is needed to enhance pet health and reduce zoonotic risks. Future studies are warranted to thoroughly investigate the compliance and effectiveness of deworming protocols, and the risk factors associated with endoparasites in France.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
8.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 213-224, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564729

RESUMO

Since the emergence of rabies on Bali, Indonesia, in 2008, the Indonesian Government and other stakeholders have implemented disease control and prevention activities with the aim of re-securing Bali's freedom from dog-mediated rabies. The authors report on the lessons learned during these efforts, and their applicability to other regions where canine rabies is endemic, as well as to rabies-free populations that are at risk from incursions. To eliminate rabies from Bali will require time and commitment, as well as a combination of approaches employing the principle of One Health. Efforts should be directed towards well-coordinated, highcoverage, annual dog vaccination campaigns using high-quality vaccines, and enhanced surveillance focused on investigations of biting animals. Bali, an island, is an ideal target for achieving freedom from rabies, but the logistics of vaccinating its very large, free-roaming dog population are challenging. Lessons can be drawn from Bali for other large and dense dog populations, where dog management and rabies control appear difficult. Well-trained teams with nets can rapidly catch and vaccinate large numbers of dogs where central-point vaccination is insufficient, and post vaccination surveys of collared dogs can be used to evaluate coverage and target supplementary vaccination. However, careful planning is required to ensure that all communities are reached during such campaigns and that sufficient vaccine is available over the following years. Effective communication strategies are needed to coordinate intersectoral activities, and to keep communities engaged, particularly during the 'end game', when the risk of rabies appears only minimal. An effective One Health approach to eliminate rabies requires long-term planning, multisectoral communication and coordination, and sustained effort, using tried and tested methods.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Doenças do Cão , Saúde Única , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Raiva , Animais , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Indonésia , Vacinação em Massa , Raiva/prevenção & controle
9.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 199-212, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564730

RESUMO

Rabies is a fatal viral disease that causes an estimated 59,000 human deaths each year. The majority of these deaths occur in developing countries in Asia. Canine rabies is endemic to Vietnam, which is, however, moving towards the disease's elimination. Many countries, such as Vietnam, have invested tremendous resources in controlling rabies, highlighting the goal of regional and global elimination of this neglected disease. In Vietnam, rabies is recognised as one of five high-priority, zoonotic diseases by the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. Investment by the government and by international partners for rabies prevention and control has played a substantial role in reducing human rabies deaths from 404 cases in 1992 to 74 cases in 2017. The catalyst for this effort was the Prime Minister's creation of the National Rabies Program in 1996, which led to increased support and resources for rabies prevention and control. Interventions carried out since then include the expansion of post-exposure prophylaxis centres throughout the country, the introduction or revision of key legislation and guidelines, and improved multisectoral One Health collaboration. In addition, support from international partners, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), has helped to increase awareness, manage dog populations more effectively, and improve Vietnam's surveillance and diagnostic capabilities. To pursue the goal of eliminating dog-mediated rabies in Vietnam, political commitment is crucial. Resources must be made available to enforce the regulations and guidelines that will enable Vietnam to achieve greater canine rabies vaccination coverage. In this paper, the authors provide an overview of the animal and human health systems in Vietnam, as well as past, current and future directions of rabies prevention and control.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Doenças do Cão , Raiva , Animais , Erradicação de Doenças/tendências , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Humanos , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(10): e0007767, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652261

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a synthetic sex-aggregation pheromone of the sand fly vector Lu. longipalpis, co-located with residual insecticide, to reduce the infection incidence of Leishmania infantum in the canine reservoir. METHODS: A stratified cluster randomised trial was designed to detect a 50% reduction in canine incident infection after 24 months in 42 recruited clusters, randomly assigned to one of three intervention arms (14 cluster each): synthetic pheromone + insecticide, insecticide-impregnated dog collars, or placebo control. Infection incidence was measured by seroconversion to anti-Leishmania serum antibody, Leishmania parasite detection and canine tissue parasite loads. Changes in relative Lu. longipalpis abundance within households were measured by setting three CDC light traps per household. RESULTS: A total 1,454 seronegative dogs were followed-up for a median 15.2 (95% C.I.s: 14.6, 16.2) months per cluster. The pheromone + insecticide intervention provided 13% (95% C.I. 0%, 44.0%) protection against anti-Leishmania antibody seroconversion, 52% (95% C.I. 6.2%, 74·9%) against parasite infection, reduced tissue parasite loads by 53% (95% C.I. 5.4%, 76.7%), and reduced household female sand fly abundance by 49% (95% C.I. 8.2%, 71.3%). Variation in the efficacy against seroconversion varied between trial strata. Equivalent protection attributed to the impregnated-collars were 36% (95% C.I. 14.4%, 51.8%), 23% (95% C.I. 0%, 57·5%), 48% (95% C.I. 0%, 73.4%) and 43% (95% C.I. 0%, 67.9%), respectively. Comparison of the two interventions showed no statistically consistent differences in their efficacies; however, the errors were broad for all outcomes. Reductions in sand fly numbers were predominant where insecticide was located (chicken and dog sleeping sites), with no evidence of insecticide-induced repellence onto humans or dogs. CONCLUSION: The synthetic pheromone co-located with insecticide provides protection particularly against canine L. infantum parasite transmission and sand fly vector abundance. The effect estimates are not dissimilar to those of the insecticide-impregnated collars, which are documented to reduce canine infection incidence, human infection and clinical VL disease incidence, in different global regions. The trialled novel lure-and-kill approach is a low-cost potential vector control tool against ZVL in the Americas.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Psychodidae/metabolismo , Atrativos Sexuais/metabolismo , Atrativos Sexuais/farmacologia , Animais , Brasil , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Reservatórios de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Masculino , Carga Parasitária , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 444, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moxidectin has previously shown limited efficacy (≤ 44.4%) against confirmed macrocyclic lactone (ML)-resistant Dirofilaria immitis strains at 3 µg/kg after single and multiple oral dosages. Three studies were conducted to evaluate higher oral moxidectin doses for efficacy against confirmed ML-resistant D. immitis strains. METHODS: Dogs were inoculated with 50 D. immitis L3 and randomly allocated to treatments. Study 1: 6 groups of dogs (n = 8) were inoculated with JYD-34 (Day - 30) and treated as follows: T01, negative control; T02-T05, moxidectin at 3, 6, 12 or 24 µg/kg, respectively, on Day 0 only; T06, moxidectin at 3 µg/kg on Days 0, 30 and 60. Study 2: 10 groups of dogs (n = 5) were inoculated (Day - 30) with either JYD-34 (T01, T03-05) or ZoeLA (T02, T06-T10) and treated as follows: T01 and T02, negative controls; T03-T05, moxidectin at 24, 40 or 60 µg/kg, respectively, on Days 0, 28 and 56; T06 and T09, moxidectin at 3 or 60 µg/kg on Day 0 only; T07, T08 and T10, moxidectin at 24, 40 or 60 µg/kg, respectively, on Days 0, 28 and 56. Study 3: 5 groups of dogs (n = 5) were inoculated with ZoeMO (Day - 28) and treated as follows: T01, negative control; T02, moxidectin at 3 µg/kg moxidectin on Day 0 only; T03-T05, moxidectin at 24, 40 or 60 µg/kg, respectively, on Days 0, 28 and 56. All dogs were necropsied for adult heartworm recovery ~ 4-5 months post-inoculation. RESULTS: All moxidectin-treated dogs showed significantly lower worm counts than controls. The efficacy of moxidectin administered once at 3 µg/kg was 19% (JYD-34), 44.4% (ZoeLA) and 82.1% (ZoeMO). Increasing both the dose and the number of dosages of moxidectin improved efficacy, with 100% protection obtained using three dosages of moxidectin at either 40 µg/kg (JYD-34, ZoeMO) or 60 µg/kg (ZoeLA). Three dosages of 24 µg/kg were also highly effective, providing ≥ 98.8% efficacy for all three strains. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing both the dose and number of consecutive monthly dosages of moxidectin improved the efficacy against ML-resistant heartworms. Based on these data and other technical considerations, the 24 µg/kg dose was considered the optimal dose for further commercial development.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/administração & dosagem , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Dirofilaria immitis/isolamento & purificação , Dirofilariose/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Dirofilaria immitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Carga Parasitária , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 445, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dirofilaria immitis is a filarial parasite of dogs that can cause serious or fatal cardiopulmonary disease. Three studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of monthly treatment with moxidectin in a chewable tablet product in combination with sarolaner and pyrantel to prevent heartworm disease in dogs after experimental challenge and in a clinical field study in the USA. METHODS: In two laboratory studies, dogs (8 per group) that had been inoculated 30 days prior with 50 third-stage D. immitis larvae were randomized to treatment on Day 0 with placebo or combination product, at the minimum dose of 24 µg/kg moxidectin, 2 mg/kg sarolaner and 5 mg/kg pyrantel (as pamoate salt). Study 2 also included groups treated with tablets containing moxidectin-alone (24 µg/kg) or sarolaner-alone (2 mg/kg). Efficacy was evaluated ~ 5 months after inoculation by adult heartworm counts at necropsy. In the field study, 410 dogs ≥ 8 weeks-old from 23 USA veterinary clinics were treated for 11 months with either combination product at 24-48 µg/kg moxidectin, 2-4 mg/kg sarolaner and 5-10 mg/kg pyrantel (n = 272) or Heartgard® Plus (ivermectin/pyrantel) at the label recommended dose rate (n = 138). Efficacy was evaluated on Day 330 using antigen and microfilaria testing to assess adult heartworm infection. RESULTS: In the laboratory studies, there were no heartworms recovered from any dog treated with the combination product or moxidectin alone and all dogs treated with placebo or sarolaner-alone were infected with 20-44 adult heartworms. In the field study, all dogs treated with the combination product tested negative for heartworm infection on Day 330, whereas two dogs treated with Heartgard® Plus tested positive. The Heartgard® Plus-treated dogs that tested heartworm positive were from the lower Mississippi River Valley region, where heartworm resistance has been confirmed to occur. The combination product was well tolerated in all studies. CONCLUSIONS: In laboratory studies, no heartworms were recovered from dogs treated with a single dose of the novel combination product containing moxidectin, sarolaner and pyrantel. Additionally, in the field study no dog tested positive for adult heartworm infection when dosed with the combination product monthly for 11 months, while two dogs treated with Heartgard® Plus tested positive.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Dirofilariose/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Pirantel/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Dirofilaria immitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 335, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend parvovirus revaccination of adult dogs no more frequently than every 3 years. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dogs showing protective serum antibody titres against canine parvovirus 2 in breeding kennels in Northern Italy and to assess the effect of time from vaccination and the sex of the dog on antibody titres. The study was carried out on 370 animals of different breeds kept in 33 breeding kennels. Antibodies to canine parvovirus 2 in serum samples were measured with an indirect immunoenzymatic assay validated by the manufacturer in relation to the 'gold standard' haemagglutination inhibition test. The number of months that had elapsed since the last vaccination was calculated for each animal and categorized into the following classes: < 12 months; 13-24 months; 25-36 months; 37-48 months; and > 49 months. RESULTS: The prevalence of 'unprotected' dogs was 4.6%. A satisfactory solid herd immunity was present in the majority of breeding kennels, although some vaccination failures were detected. A significant negative correlation was found between antibody titre and months since last vaccination. Comparable antibody titres were found in the first 3 years after vaccination. Although the antibody titre over time was not affected by the sex of the dog, 'unprotected' females had been vaccinated more recently than males with analogous low titres. CONCLUSIONS: Parvovirus revaccination of adult dogs every 3 years, as currently recommended, is also the appropriate recommendation for breeding kennels. Serological tests could be a useful tool to assess the effectiveness of vaccination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Feminino , Itália , Masculino , Infecções por Parvoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/prevenção & controle , Parvovirus Canino/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/veterinária
14.
Prev Vet Med ; 172: 104774, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557685

RESUMO

Australia is free of canine rabies, however northern regions - such as the Northern Peninsula Area (NPA), Queensland - are at risk of an incursion from nearby rabies-infected Indonesian islands. Early detection and reactive vaccination is the current Australian policy to eradicate an incursion. Early detection in this region is challenging, so pre-emptive vaccination might be an effective strategy. The NPA dog population also has a heterogenous contact structure, with three roaming categories previously characterised, which could be exploited in targeted pre-emptive vaccination strategies for more efficient use of limited resources. To evaluate the effectiveness of a pre-emptive vaccination program, an agent-based rabies spread simulation model was used to simulate outbreaks with a range of pre-emptive vaccination coverages. Increasing proportions (10% increments) of the dog population randomly vaccinated were modelled, and at the most efficient random vaccination coverage we then explored 10 pre-emptive vaccination strategies targeting different dog roaming categories (whilst maintaining the same overall population level vaccination coverage). All pre-emptive vaccination strategies were simulated 2000 times without and with a 70% random reactive vaccination strategy, following rabies detection. All random pre-emptive vaccination coverages reduced outbreak size and duration compared to no pre-emptive vaccination. A 40% random coverage was most efficient. Targeted strategies that pre-emptively vaccinated proportionally more roaming dogs were more effective than a random 40% vaccination coverage and strategies that targeted non-roaming dogs. The pre-emptive vaccination strategies that targeted non-roaming dogs produced significantly larger and longer outbreaks. These results suggest that pre-emptive vaccination can reduce potential rabies outbreaks in this region and that such a strategy should not just focus on easily accessible dogs that do not roam often or at all. A cost-benefit analysis is required to determine whether the implementation of such pre-emptive vaccination strategies is also cost-effective, which is essential in the resource-poor communities of this region.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/veterinária , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Movimento , Queensland , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/métodos
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007739, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545810

RESUMO

Canine rabies was endemic pre-urbanisation, yet little is known about how it persists in small populations of dogs typically seen in rural and remote regions. By simulating rabies outbreaks in such populations (50-90 dogs) using a network-based model, our objective was to determine if rabies-induced behavioural changes influence disease persistence. Behavioural changes-increased bite frequency and increased number or duration of contacts (disease-induced roaming or paralysis, respectively)-were found to be essential for disease propagation. Spread occurred in approximately 50% of model simulations and in these, very low case rates (2.0-2.6 cases/month) over long durations (95% range 20-473 days) were observed. Consequently, disease detection is a challenge, risking human infection and spread to other communities via dog movements. Even with 70% pre-emptive vaccination, spread occurred in >30% of model simulations (in these, median case rate was 1.5/month with 95% range of 15-275 days duration). We conclude that the social disruption caused by rabies-induced behavioural change is the key to explaining how rabies persists in small populations of dogs. Results suggest that vaccination of substantially greater than the recommended 70% of dog populations is required to prevent rabies emergence in currently free rural areas.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Cães/psicologia , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas , Simulação por Computador , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/transmissão , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Vacinação/veterinária
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007630, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557160

RESUMO

The World Health Organization, the World Organization for Animal Health, and the Food and Agriculture Organization have resolved to eliminate human rabies deaths due to dog bites by 2030, and the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi) has added human rabies vaccines to their investments for 2021-2025. Implementing these goals cost-effectively and sustainably requires understanding the complex connections between dog rabies vaccination and human risk and response. The objective of this paper is to estimate how dog rabies vaccinations affect human rabies deaths, mediated through dog rabies cases, dog bite reporting, and post-exposure human rabies vaccination. To approach this objective, we apply multivariate regression analysis over five rabies-related outcomes: (a) dog vaccinations, (b) dog rabies cases, (c) reported human exposures, (d) human post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) use, and (e) human rabies cases. Analysis uses aggregate annual data over 1995-2005 for seven Latin American countries that experienced dramatic declines in canine and human rabies. Among other results, we estimate the following. (i) A 10% increase in dog vaccinations decreases dog rabies cases by 2.3%. (ii) Reported exposures decline as concurrent dog rabies cases decline, but these declines are more than offset by increases in reported exposures per dog rabies case, which may result from higher rabies awareness due to anti-rabies campaigns. (iii) A 10% increase in PEP use decreases human deaths by 7%, but a 10% increase in dog vaccination induces a 2.8% decrease in PEP use. The net effect is that a 10% increase in dog vaccination reduces human deaths by 12.4% overall, although marginal effectiveness declines as dog rabies incidence declines. (iv) Increases in income and public health expenditures increase PEP demand. The findings highlight the importance of mass dog vaccination, heightened awareness, treatment access, and clinical algorithms to reduce both false negatives leading to death and false positives leading to costly unnecessary PEP prescriptions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Erradicação de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Vacinação em Massa/veterinária , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Saúde Pública , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/virologia , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 112, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489090

RESUMO

Introduction: Animal bite injuries are a common public health concern in Uganda. We sought to characterize animal bite injuries among patients presenting to Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Methods: This was a cross sectional study from 1st September to 30th November 2011. Participants were animal bite injury victims presenting to the accident and emergency (A&E) unit at Mulago hospital and were consecutively enrolled into the study. Socio-demographics, severity and patterns of injury, health seeking and dog handling behaviours were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize participant characteristics and the animal bite injuries. Poisson regression model's incident rate ratios (IRR) was used to explore the relationship of the number of days to accessing treatment at Mulago hospital with; a) received prior first aid, b) animal bite injury sustained during day time, c) unknown dog and d) victim resident in Kampala. Data were analyzed using STATA version 12.0 and statistical significance set at P < 0.05. Results: Of 25,420 patients that presented to the A&E unit during the study period, 207 (0.8%) had animal bite injuries, mean age 22.7 years (SD 14.3), 64.7% male, and 40.1% were <18 years. Majority 199 (96.1%) were bitten by a lone unrestrained and un-signaled dog that had bitten someone else in 22.2% of cases, and eight victims (0.4%) were attacked in canine gangs of 2-5 dogs. Rabies vaccination was confirmed in only 23 dogs (11.1%) as 109 (52.7%) were unknown to the victims or the communities. One hundred and eighteen victims (57.0%) sustained the dog bites within Kampala district whilst the rest occurred near or far from Kampala district, and the victims especially referred to access anti-rabies vaccine. Of 207, 189 victims (91.3%) presented within 2.6 days (SD ± 4.3). Two hundred victims (96.6%) sustained extremity injuries while the rest had injuries to other body parts. All injuries were minor and managed on out-patient basis with wound dressing, analgesics, prophylactic antibiotics and anti-rabies vaccination. Victims who received prior first aid had a rate of 1.7 times greater for seeking treatment at Mulago hospital (IRR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.1) compared to those that had no prior first aid. Participants who sustained the animal bite injuries during day time had a rate of 1.6 times greater for seeking treatment at Mulago hospital (IRR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.1) compared to those that sustained injuries at other times. Participants bitten by unknown dog and participants residing in Kampala had IRR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9 and IRR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.8 respectively of accessing treatment at Mulago hospital compared to bitten by known dog and not residing in Kampala. Conclusion: Dog bites injuries from unrestrained, un-signaled dogs are the commonest source of animal bite injuries especially among children (<18 years). Vaccination against rabies was only confirmed for a very small number of dogs, as majority were unknown and likely stray dogs. Government and public sensitization is urgently required to limit stray dogs, vaccinate dogs and restrain them to prevent a grave probability of a looming canine rabies epidemic.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Primeiros Socorros/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição de Poisson , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394794

RESUMO

Approximately 1500 people die annually due to rabies in the United Republic of Tanzania. Moshi, in the Kilimanjaro Region, reported sporadic cases of human rabies between 2017 and 2018. In response and following a One Health approach, we implemented surveillance, monitoring, as well as a mass vaccinations of domestic pets concurrently in >150 villages, achieving a 74.5% vaccination coverage (n = 29, 885 dogs and cats) by September 2018. As of April 2019, no single human or animal case has been recorded. We have observed a disparity between awareness and knowledge levels of community members on rabies epidemiology. Self-adherence to protective rabies vaccination in animals was poor due to the challenges of costs and distances to vaccination centers, among others. Incidence of dog bites was high and only a fraction (65%) of dog bite victims (humans) received post-exposure prophylaxis. A high proportion of unvaccinated dogs and cats and the relative intense interactions with wild dog species at interfaces were the risk factors for seropositivity to rabies virus infection in dogs. A percentage of the previously vaccinated dogs remained unimmunized and some unvaccinated dogs were seropositive. Evidence of community engagement and multi-coordinated implementation of One Health in Moshi serves as an example of best practice in tackling zoonotic diseases using multi-level government efforts. The district-level establishment of the One Health rapid response team (OHRRT), implementation of a carefully structured routine vaccination campaign, improved health education, and the implementation of barriers between domestic animals and wildlife at the interfaces are necessary to reduce the burden of rabies in Moshi and communities with similar profiles.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Raiva/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Propriedade , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/transmissão , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007600, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369560

RESUMO

To control and prevent rabies in Latin America, mass dog vaccination campaigns (MDVC) are implemented mainly through fixed-location vaccination points: owners have to bring their dogs to the vaccination points where they receive the vaccination free of charge. Dog rabies is still endemic in some Latin-American countries and high overall dog vaccination coverage and even distribution of vaccinated dogs are desired attributes of MDVC to halt rabies virus transmission. In Arequipa, Peru, we conducted a door-to-door post-campaign survey on >6,000 houses to assess the placement of vaccination points on these two attributes. We found that the odds of participating in the campaign decreased by 16% for every 100 m from the owner's house to the nearest vaccination point (p = 0.041) after controlling for potential covariates. We found social determinants associated with participating in the MDVC: for each child under 5 in the household, the odds of participating in the MDVC decreased by 13% (p = 0.032), and for each decade less lived in the area, the odds of participating in the MDVC decreased by 8% (p<0.001), after controlling for distance and other covariates. We also found significant spatial clustering of unvaccinated dogs over 500 m from the vaccination points, which created pockets of unvaccinated dogs that may sustain rabies virus transmission. Understanding the barriers to dog owners' participation in community-based dog-vaccination programs will be crucial to implementing effective zoonotic disease preventive activities. Spatial and social elements of urbanization play an important role in coverage of MDVC and should be considered during their planning and evaluation.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Programas de Imunização , Vacinação em Massa/veterinária , Vacinas Antirrábicas , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal , Animais , Pré-Escolar , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Características da Família , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Peru , Raiva/transmissão , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(5): 742-746, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378166

RESUMO

To date, there is no clear standard to monitor drug treatment for canine Chagas disease. We used 2 real-time PCR (rtPCR) assays targeting Trypanosoma cruzi kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) and nuclear satellite DNA (nDNA) to detect T. cruzi in canine whole blood. Samples were collected randomly from 131 untreated dogs with unknown T. cruzi infection status in Texas. The kDNA-based rtPCR was slightly more sensitive (diagnostic sensitivity of kDNA = 49% vs. nDNA = 44%; p = 0.5732) but slightly less specific (diagnostic specificity of kDNA = 96% vs. nDNA = 97%; p > 0.9999) than the nDNA-based rtPCR. However, the differences in sensitivity and specificity between the nDNA- and kDNA-based rtPCR assays were not statistically significant. Using the nDNA- and kDNA-based qualitative rtPCR assays to monitor parasitemia from 137 itraconazole- and amiodarone-treated cases with nDNA- and kDNA-based PCR-positive baselines showed that the PCR positive rate decreased to 0% in 30 d. Using kDNA-based quantitative rtPCR to monitor normalized T. cruzi DNA copies in 4 representative dogs demonstrated that drug treatment could reduce parasite loads within 7-30 d. The kDNA-based qualitative rtPCR may be used for routine parasitemia screening of drug-treated Chagas-positive dogs, whereas nDNA-based qualitative rtPCR may be used for confirmation.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , DNA de Protozoário/sangue , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Tripanossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Amiodarona/uso terapêutico , Animais , DNA de Cinetoplasto/sangue , DNA Satélite/sangue , Cães , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Texas
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