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1.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200680, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331613

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The use of insecticide-impregnated dog collars is a potentially useful tool for the control of visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of the present study was to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of a program based on insecticide-impregnated collars compared to traditional visceral leishmaniasis control strategies used in Brazil. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the perspective of the Unified Health System, using data from the Visceral Leishmaniasis Control Program implemented in the municipality of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais. The direct costs of the three control strategies, which were 1) canine infection screening + sacrifice, 2) residual chemical control of the vector, and 3) insecticide-impregnated dog collars (Scalibor®), were evaluated over the two-year study period. RESULTS: The total cost of the program in the area subjected to the traditional control strategies (strategies 1 and 2; control area) was R$ 1,551,699.80, and in the area subjected to all three control strategies (intervention area), it was R$ 1,898,190.16. The collar program was considered highly cost-effective at preventing canine visceral leishmaniasis (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of approximately R$ 578 per avoided dog sacrifice). CONCLUSIONS: These results provide support for the decision by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2019 to provide insecticide-impregnated collars for the control of canine visceral leishmaniasis in a pilot project.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Inseticidas , Leishmaniose Visceral , Piretrinas , Animais , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Nitrilos , Projetos Piloto
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008948, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370285

RESUMO

Domestic dogs are responsible for 99% of all cases of human rabies and thus, mass dog vaccination has been demonstrated to be the most effective approach towards the elimination of dog-mediated human rabies. Namibia demonstrated the feasibility of this approach by applying government-led strategic rabies vaccination campaigns to reduce both human and dog rabies incidences in the Northern Communal Areas of Namibia since 2016. The lessons learnt using paper-based form for data capturing and management of mass dog vaccination campaign during the pilot and roll out phase of the project (2016-2018) led to the implementation of a simple and accurate data collection tool in the second phase (2019-2022) of the rabies elimination program. In this paper, we describe the implementation of such custom-developed vaccination tracking device, i.e. the Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC) Data Logger (GDL), and the integration of the collected data into a website-based rabies surveillance system (Rabies Epidemiological Bulletin-REB) during 2019 and 2020 campaigns. A total of 10,037 dogs and 520 cats were vaccinated during the 2019 campaign and 13,219 dogs and 1,044 cats during the 2020 campaign. The vaccination data were recorded with the GDL and visualized via REB. Subsequent GIS-analysis using gridded population data revealed a suboptimal vaccination coverage in the great majority of grid cells (82%) with a vaccination coverage below 50%. Spatial regression analysis identified the number of schools, estimated human density, and adult dog population were associated with the vaccination performance. However, there was an inverse correlation to human densities. Nonetheless, the use of the GDL improved data capturing and monitoring capacity of the campaign, enabling the Namibian government to improve strategies for the vaccination of at-risk areas towards achieving adequate vaccination coverage which would effectively break the transmission of rabies.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Vacinação em Massa/veterinária , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Namíbia/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/veterinária , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 778, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International organizations advocate for the elimination of dog-mediated rabies, but there is only limited guidance on interpreting surveillance data for managing elimination programmes. With the regional programme in Latin America approaching elimination of dog-mediated rabies, we aimed to develop a tool to evaluate the programme's performance and generate locally-tailored rabies control programme management guidance to overcome remaining obstacles. METHODS: We developed and validated a robust algorithm to classify progress towards rabies elimination within sub-national administrative units, which we applied to surveillance data from Brazil and Mexico. The method combines criteria that are easy to understand, including logistic regression analysis of case detection time series, assessment of rabies virus variants, and of incursion risk. Subjecting the algorithm to robustness testing, we further employed simulated data sub-sampled at differing levels of case detection to assess the algorithm's performance and sensitivity to surveillance quality. RESULTS: Our tool demonstrated clear epidemiological transitions in Mexico and Brazil: most states progressed rapidly towards elimination, but a few regressed due to incursions and control lapses. In 2015, dog-mediated rabies continued to circulate in the poorest states, with foci remaining in only 1 of 32 states in Mexico, and 2 of 27 in Brazil, posing incursion risks to the wider region. The classification tool was robust in determining epidemiological status irrespective of most levels of surveillance quality. In endemic settings, surveillance would need to detect less than 2.5% of all circulating cases to result in misclassification, whereas in settings where incursions become the main source of cases the threshold detection level for correct classification should not be less than 5%. CONCLUSION: Our tool provides guidance on how to progress effectively towards elimination targets and tailor strategies to local epidemiological situations, while revealing insights into rabies dynamics. Post-campaign assessments of dog vaccination coverage in endemic states, and enhanced surveillance to verify and maintain freedom in states threatened by incursions were identified as priorities to catalyze progress towards elimination. Our finding suggests genomic surveillance should become increasingly valuable during the endgame for discriminating circulating variants and pinpointing sources of incursions.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Algoritmos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cães , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Vacinação em Massa , México/epidemiologia , Raiva/transmissão , Raiva/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cobertura Vacinal
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238601, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881961

RESUMO

Canines are proven reservoir hosts of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of human zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, and therefore domestic dogs play a central role in transmitting the disease to humans. Studies on the effect of insecticide-impregnated dog collars for controlling canine visceral leishmaniasis (CanL) have been increasing; however, meta-analysis has not been conducted. This study assessed the effectiveness of insecticide-impregnated dog collars for preventing CanL. We searched (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Ovid Medline(R), and Cochrane library), from inception until 2 May 2020. Two authors independently performed articles screening and data extraction. We applied the RoB 2.0 tool to evaluate the risk of bias in randomized trials, while the ROBINS-I tool was used for non-randomized trials. I-squared statistics(I2) and funnel plot and Egger's test, respectively, were used to assesses heterogeneity between studies and publication bias. Relative Risk (RR) and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) were calculated using the random-effects model in Stata 14 software. Out of 242 citations identified, 14 studies comprising 3786 collared dogs and 3428 uncollared dogs were eligible for meta-analysis. The use of deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars(DMC) showed an overall effectiveness of 54% (95%CI: 35-65%, I2 = 63.2%, P = 0.002) in decreasing incidence of CanL, while 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin collars provided an overall effectiveness of 90% (95%CI: 80-96%, I2 = 0.0%, P = 0.376). DMC efficacy stratified by follow-up duration was estimated to be 58% (RR = 0.42, 95%CI: 0.20-0.87), 54% (RR = 0.46, 95%CI: 0.31-0.68), 53% (RR = 0.47, 95%CI: 0.29-0.82) for follow-up periods of 5 to 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The current evidence indicates that using insecticide-impregnated dog collars can reduce the risk of CanL caused by L. infantum. Therefore, insecticide-impregnated dog collars could be a viable alternative for inclusion as a public health measure for controlling CanL.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Nitrilos/farmacologia , Nitrocompostos/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008497, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845886

RESUMO

Current recommendations for the elimination of canine-mediated human rabies focus on mass dog vaccination as the most feasible and cost-effective strategy. However, attempts to control rabies are often combined with canine surgical sterilisation programmes. The added value of sterilisation is widely debated. A systematic review was undertaken to compare the outcomes and impact of vaccination and sterilisation programmes with vaccination only programmes. A systematic search of three electronic databases (CAB Abstracts, Medline and Global Health) and grey literature was performed. From 8696 abstracts found, 5554 unique studies were identified, and 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. Eight described vaccination only programmes and eight described vaccination and sterilisation programmes. Indicators of impact measured were dog bites and/or doses of post-exposure prophylaxis administered; numbers of dog and/or human rabies cases; dog population demographic changes; changes in health and welfare of dogs, and indicators related to human behaviour change. The studies were contextually very diverse, programmes being implemented were complex, and there was variation in measurement and reporting of key indicators. Therefore, it was difficult to compare the two types of intervention, and impossible to make an evaluation of the role of sterilisation, using this evidence. Given the large number of vaccination and sterilisation programmes conducted globally, the lack of studies available for review highlights a gap in data collection or reporting, essential for impact assessment. There are several knowledge gaps concerning the impact of the sterilisation component alone, as well as subsequent effects on rabies transmission and control. Prospective studies comparing the outcomes and impact of the two interventions would be required in order to establish any additional contribution of sterilisation, as well as the underlying mechanisms driving any changes. In the absence of such evidence, the priority for rabies control objectives should be implementation of mass vaccination, as currently recommended by the World Health Organisation.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Esterilização Reprodutiva/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Humanos , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Zoonoses
6.
Vet Rec ; 187(4): 134-135, 2020 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826357
7.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238371, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccination is the most important preventive measure for protection against infectious diseases in humans and companion animals. Nevertheless, scepticism about the safety and importance of vaccines is increasing in human and in veterinary medicine. Although owner attitudes towards vaccination have been investigated in cats, there are no similar studies in dogs. The goals of this study were therefore to investigate the vaccination status of dogs in Germany, to determine owner compliance with vaccination and to identify factors that play a role in owners' decisions to have their dogs vaccinated. METHODS: Data were collected from August 2018 to February 2019 using an online survey targeting dog owners in Germany. A total of 3,881 questionnaires were evaluated, and factors associated with the vaccination status of dogs were determined by a linear logistic regression model using Akaike information criterion. Cohen's kappa statistic was used to evaluate agreement between questionnaire and 340 vaccination passports submitted voluntarily by owners. RESULTS: A total of 46.8% (n = 1,818/3,881) of dogs were vaccinated with core vaccines according to current guidelines with the lowest vaccination rate for leptospirosis (50.1%; n = 1,941/3,874). Dog's age (16 weeks to 15 months) (odds ratio (OR): 3.08; 95% CI: 2.05-4.68), type (working dog) (OR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.22-3.53) and travelling abroad within previous 36 months (OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.12-2.96) had the strongest 'positive' association with the vaccination status. Recommendation from a veterinarian not to vaccinate against leptospirosis had the strongest 'negative' association (OR: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.04-0.18). CONCLUSION: The study revealed a need for improvement in vaccination compliance because of inadequate vaccination coverage, especially for leptospirosis, in dogs. Factors influencing owner compliance were numerous. Vaccination recommendations made by the veterinarian had a strong association with the vaccination status and should be used to increase canine vaccination rates.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Propriedade/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Atitude , Cães , Alemanha , Humanos , Leptospirose/imunologia , Leptospirose/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos Veterinários/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008478, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692739

RESUMO

A canine rabies epidemic started in early 2015 in Arequipa, Peru and the rabies virus continues to circulate in the dog population. Some city residents who suffer dog bites do not seek care or do not complete indicated post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens, increasing the risk of human rabies. The objectives of our study are to qualitatively assess knowledge about rabies, and preventive practices, such as rabies vaccine administration, following a dog bite. We conduct eight focus group discussions in peri-urban and urban communities with 70 total participants. In our results, we observe low awareness of rabies severity and fatality, and different practices following a dog bite, depending on the community type: for example, whereas participants in the urban communities report cleaning the wound with hydrogen peroxide rather than soap and water, participants in peri-urban areas cover the wound with herbs and hair from the dog that bit them. Misconceptions about rabies vaccines and mistreatment at health centers also commonly prevent initiating or completing PEP. We identify important behavioral and structural barriers and knowledge gaps that limit evidence-based preventive strategies against rabies and may threaten successful prevention of dog-mediated human rabies in this setting.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/virologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Peru/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , População Urbana , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692783

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important zoonosis in Brazil. Dogs are considered the main domestic reservoirs of the disease in the country; hence, control measures are focused on these reservoirs. Despite efforts to prevent and control VL, important reductions in disease prevalence and incidence have not been identified, stimulating the development and application of new strategies. The choice and implementation of new control strategies can benefit from the application of mathematical models that allow the simulation of different strategies in different scenarios. Selecting the best strategy to be implemented is also supported by cost-effectiveness studies. Here we used the results of a mathematical model in which scenarios, including isolated use of the vaccine and insecticide-impregnated collar (IIC), both at different coverage rates, were simulated to conduct a cost-effectiveness study. The costs were calculated for each scenario considering a simulation period of four years. Collar application in both infected and non-infected animals was the most cost-effective strategy. For example, to reduce the prevalence in humans and dogs by approximately 70%, the costs ranged from $250,000 and $550,000 for the IICs and vaccination, respectively. Even in the scenario with 40% loss/replacement of IICs, this measure was more advantageous in terms of cost-effectiveness than vaccination. If the vaccine were applied with culling of seropositive tested dogs, then the measure became more effective with a reduced cost compared with the vaccine alone. The use of the three first consecutive vaccine doses had the greatest impact on the cost of the vaccination strategy. The advantage of using IICs is that there is no need for a prior diagnosis, unlike vaccination, reducing costs and facilitating implementation. The present study aims to contribute to strategies to reduce hosts infected with VL by reducing public expenditure.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/economia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Leishmania donovani/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/economia , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/economia , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Leishmania donovani/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Prevalência
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231893, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vaccination is the most important tool for controlling brucellosis, but currently there is no vaccine available for canine brucellosis, which is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution caused by Brucella canis. This study aimed to evaluate protection and immune response induced by Brucella ovis ΔabcBA (BoΔabcBA) encapsulated with alginate against the challenge with Brucella canis in mice and to assess the safety of this strain for dogs. METHODS: Intracellular growth of the vaccine strain BoΔabcBA was assessed in canine and ovine macrophages. Protection induced by BoΔabcBA against virulent Brucella canis was evaluated in the mouse model. Safety of the vaccine strain BoΔabcBA was assessed in experimentally inoculated dogs. RESULTS: Wild type B. ovis and B. canis had similar internalization and intracellular multiplication profiles in both canine and ovine macrophages. The BoΔabcBA strain had an attenuated phenotype in both canine and ovine macrophages. Immunization of BALB/c mice with alginate-encapsulated BoΔabcBA (108 CFU) induced lymphocyte proliferation, production of IL-10 and IFN-γ, and protected against experimental challenge with B. canis. Dogs immunized with alginate-encapsulated BoΔabcBA (109 CFU) seroconverted, and had no hematologic, biochemical or clinical changes. Furthermore, BoΔabcBA was not detected by isolation or PCR performed using blood, semen, urine samples or vaginal swabs at any time point over the course of this study. BoΔabcBA was isolated from lymph nodes near to the site of inoculation in two dogs at 22 weeks post immunization. CONCLUSION: Encapsulated BoΔabcBA protected mice against experimental B. canis infection, and it is safe for dogs. Therefore, B. ovis ΔabcBA has potential as a vaccine candidate for canine brucellosis prevention.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Vacina contra Brucelose/imunologia , Brucella ovis/genética , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Alginatos/química , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Brucella canis/patogenicidade , Brucella ovis/imunologia , Brucella ovis/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/microbiologia , Brucelose/patologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Imunização , Fígado/microbiologia , Fígado/fisiologia , Linfócitos/citologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mutação , Ovinos
13.
Vet Parasitol ; 281: 109093, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32278149

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium spp., is an important zoonotic disease and is considered a global public health concern. Dogs are suggested as one of potential reservoirs for transmitting the Cryptosporidium infection to humans. However, there is a paucity of information about global patterns of occurrence of Cryptosporidium in dogs. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to evaluate the global prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection among dogs. In this study, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were systematically searched for relevant studies up until October 30, 2019. Finally, 127 articles (including 160 datasets) were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection was estimated at 8% (95 % CI: 5-11 %) using microscopic methods, 7% (95 % CI: 4-10%) using coprogantigenic methods and 6% (95 % CI: 4-9%) using molecular diagnostic methods. Molecular methods revealed that dogs were most frequently infected by C. canis (3.64 %) and C. parvum (1.28 %). The pooled prevalence different of subgroups (WHO regions, geographic and climate parameters, diagnostic methods, type of dog) were analyzed separately. The pooled odds ratio (OR) of Cryptosporidium was significantly higher than one for diarrhea status, with dogs suffering from diarrhea having a higher likelihood of Cryptosporidium infection, compared to dogs without diarrhea (OR; 3.61 95 % CI: 1.89-6.90%). The present study is the first systematic review and meta-analysis providing a comprehensive view of the global prevalence of Cryptosporidium in dogs and its related risk factors. Awareness of Cryptosporidium prevalence, risk factors, and disease complications for the health authorities, physicians, veterinarians and dog's owners is important for developing effective strategies to prevent infection.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Animais , Criptosporidiose/complicações , Criptosporidiose/prevenção & controle , Cryptosporidium/fisiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Saúde Global , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231967, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rabies is a vaccine-preventable neglected tropical viral zoonosis. It occurs worldwide, creating a very heavy burden in many developing countries, including Nepal. Dogs are the principle vector for the transmission of this disease in urban areas. Vaccination is the most important preventive measure in areas where dogs are the principle source of infection. This study was conducted with the aim of detecting virus-neutralising antibodies and associated factors against rabies in vaccinated household dogs of Kathmandu valley. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 110 vaccinated pet dogs in Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, and Lalitpur districts of Nepal. The samples were taken to the laboratory of the National Zoonosis and Food Hygiene Research Center where serum was separated. An indirect immune-enzymatic assay (PlateliaTM Rabies II kit ad usum Veterinarium, Biorad, China) was used for the detection of rabies virus anti-glycoprotein antibodies in the dog serum samples following the manufacturer's recommendations and instructions. Optical density values for unknown samples were compared with the positive sera titers in quantification tests obtained after a direct reading on the standard curve. Results were expressed as equivalent units per ml (EU/ml). FINDINGS: Of the total samples, 89.09% exceeded the required seroconversion level (≥ 0.5 EU/ml); another 9.09% did not reach the seroconversion level (0.125-0.5 EU/ml); and 1.81% had undetectable seroconversion levels (<0.125 EU/ml) suggesting that the animal had not seroconverted according to the PLATELIA™ RABIES II test. Only one factor, the condition under which the dog was kept, was significantly associated with the antibody titer level. No association was found for any of the other factors included in the study. INTERPRETATION: Vaccination is the most effective measure for prevention and control of rabies. The locally manufactured brand of vaccine, which is available in Nepal, is potent enough to generate a sufficient amount of protective antibodies, equal to international brands.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Animais , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Nepal , Raiva/patologia , Vírus da Raiva/imunologia , Vacinação
15.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(6): E1-E35, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227347

RESUMO

The World Small Animal Veterinary Association Vaccination Guidelines Group has produced global guidelines for small companion animal practitioners on best practice in canine and feline vaccination. Recognising that there are unique aspects of veterinary practice in certain geographical regions of the world, the Vaccination Guidelines Group undertook a regional project in Latin America between 2016 and 2019, culminating in the present document. The Vaccination Guidelines Group gathered scientific and demographic data during visits to Argentina, Brazil and Mexico, by discussion with national key opinion leaders, visiting veterinary practices and review of the scientific literature. A questionnaire survey was completed by 1390 veterinarians in five Latin American countries and the Vaccination Guidelines Group delivered continuing education at seven events attended by over 3500 veterinarians. The Vaccination Guidelines Group recognised numerous challenges in Latin America, for example: (1) lack of national oversight of the veterinary profession, (2) extraordinary growth in private veterinary schools of undetermined quality, (3) socioeconomic constraints on client engagement with preventive health care, (4) high regional prevalence of some key infectious diseases (e.g. feline leukaemia virus infection, canine visceral leishmaniosis), (5) almost complete lack of minimal antigen vaccine products as available in other markets, (6) relative lack of vaccine products with extended duration of immunity as available in other markets, (7) availability of vaccine products withdrawn from other markets (e.g. Giardia vaccine) or unique to Latin America (e.g. some Leishmania vaccines), (8) accessibility of vaccines directly by pet owners or breeders such that vaccination is not delivered under veterinary supervision, (9) limited availability of continuing education in veterinary vaccinology and lack of compulsion for continuing professional development and (10) limited peer-reviewed published scientific data on small companion animal infectious diseases (with the exception of leishmaniosis) and lack of support for such academic research. In this document, the Vaccination Guidelines Group summarises the findings of this project and assesses in evidence-based fashion the scientific literature pertaining to companion animal vaccine-preventable diseases in Latin America. The Vaccination Guidelines Group makes some recommendations on undergraduate and postgraduate education and academic research. Recognising that current product availability in Latin America does not permit veterinarians in these countries to vaccinate according to the global World Small Animal Veterinary Association guidelines, the Vaccination Guidelines Group makes a series of "pragmatic" recommendations as to what might be currently achievable, and a series of "aspirational" recommendations as to what might be desirable for the future. The concept of "vaccine husbandry" is addressed via some simple guidelines for the management of vaccine products in the practice. Finally, the Vaccination Guidelines Group emphasises the global trend towards delivery of vaccination as one part of an "annual health check" or "health care plan" that reviews holistically the preventive health care needs of the individual pet animal. Latin American practitioners should transition towards these important new practices that are now well embedded in more developed veterinary markets. The document also includes 70 frequently asked questions and their answers; these were posed to the Vaccination Guidelines Group during our continuing education events and small group discussions and should address many of the issues surrounding delivery of vaccination in the Latin American countries. Spanish and Portuguese translations of this document will be made freely available from the on-line resource pages of the Vaccination Guidelines Group.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Vacinação/veterinária , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Humanos , América Latina
16.
Int J Parasitol ; 50(3): 171-176, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126240

RESUMO

Prevention of canine Leishmania infantum infection is critical to management of visceral leishmaniasis in people living in endemic areas of Brazil. A bill (PL 1738/11), currently under consideration, proposes to establish a national vaccination policy against canine leishmaniasis in Brazil. However, there is no solid scientific evidence supporting the idea that this could reduce transmission from infected vaccinated dogs to sand flies to a level that would significantly reduce the risk of L. infantum infection or visceral leishmaniasis in humans. Thus, we advocate that insecticide-impregnated collars should the first line protective measure for public health purposes and that vaccines are applied on a case-by-case, optional basis for individual dog protection.


Assuntos
Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose Visceral , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/veterinária , Administração Tópica , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Humanos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Vacinas contra Leishmaniose , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Psychodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Piretrinas/farmacologia
17.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(2): e00221418, 2020.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130320

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis is an emerging and neglected disease that is currently expanding to urban areas. The incidence of human disease is related to canine infection. Araçatuba and Birigui are municipalities (counties) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, with 8-10% seroprevalence of canine infection and that employ control strategies targeting the canine reservoir, based on serological survey and culling of seropositive dogs. Using data from these control programs to parameterize mathematical models, this study assessed the efficacy of these activities. We estimated that current control is capable of reducing the incidence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) by approximately 20%. Assuming continuous control and three times the current serological survey activities in Araçatuba and Birigui, culling dogs with a positive CVL diagnosis would be effective for the control of canine infection. Although theoretically possible, in practice the control of CVL with the currently recommended strategies is insufficient, since it would require overcoming the difficulties in these activities, such as lack of material, human, and financial resources, besides associated ethical and legal issues.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Brasil , Cidades , Cães , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Modelos Teóricos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 57, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Five studies were conducted to evaluate a novel oral combination tablet containing sarolaner, moxidectin and pyrantel (Simparica Trio™), for efficacy against induced flea infestations, speed of kill and effects on flea reproduction on dogs. METHODS: Based on pre-treatment flea counts, dogs were randomly allocated to treatment with a single, oral dose of either placebo or Simparica Trio™ at the minimum label dose of 1.2 mg/kg sarolaner, 24 µg/kg moxidectin and 5 mg/kg pyrantel (as pamoate salt) on Day 0. All dogs were infested with approximately 100 unfed, adult fleas (C. felis or C. canis) prior to treatment and weekly for 5 weeks post-treatment. In Studies 1, 2 and 3, the number of viable fleas were comb-counted at 24 h after treatment and after each weekly infestation; Study 2 also included groups treated with tablets containing sarolaner-alone (1.2 mg/kg), moxidectin-alone (24 µg/kg) or pyrantel-alone (5 mg/kg). In Study 4, flea counts were conducted at 3, 4, 8 and 12 h after treatment and subsequent weekly infestations to establish speed of kill. In Study 5 (flea reproduction), dogs were housed in an enclosure designed to facilitate collection of flea eggs. RESULTS: Efficacy of Simparica Trio™ against C. felis was ≥ 99.7% and against C. canis was 100% at 24 h after treatment and after subsequent infestations for at least 35 days. Treatment with sarolaner-alone had similar efficacy to Simparica Trio™, while moxidectin-alone and pyrantel-alone were no different from placebo at most time points. In Study 4, significant flea killing started at 4 h after treatment; by 8 h after treatment, all treated dogs were free of fleas. Following weekly re-infestation, the combination product reduced fleas by ≥ 97.8% within 12 h for 28 days. Simparica Trio™ reduced flea egg-laying by 100% for 35 days. No treatment-related adverse reactions occurred in any study. CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of Simparica Trio™ at the recommended minimum dose provided highly efficacious and rapid treatment within 4 h of existing flea infestations and persistent control of fleas on dogs for 5 weeks. The efficacy against fleas resulted in 100% prevention of flea reproduction for over a month following a single oral dose.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Ctenocephalides/fisiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Carga Parasitária , Pirantel/administração & dosagem , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 100, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tick infestations can cause direct deleterious effects to dogs as a result of tick blood-feeding, and indirectly ticks can transmit disease agents that can be detrimental to the health of both dogs and humans. Six laboratory studies were conducted to support dosage selection and efficacy confirmation of a novel combination of sarolaner, moxidectin and pyrantel against four tick species that commonly infest dogs in Europe. METHODS: Two studies were conducted against Dermacentor reticulatus (one of which was a dose determination study), two against Ixodes ricinus, and one each against Ixodes hexagonus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato). In each study, eight purpose-bred Beagle or mix-breed dogs were randomly allocated to each treatment group and infested with 50 unfed adult ticks on Days-2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. On Day 0 dogs were treated orally with placebo or the combination product. In the dose determination study, dogs received sarolaner at point dosages of 0.6 mg/kg, 1.2 mg/kg or 2.4 mg/kg in combination with moxidectin and pyrantel, and in all other studies dogs received Simparica Trio™ to provide minimum dosages of 1.2 mg/kg sarolaner, 24 µg/kg moxidectin and 5 mg/kg pyrantel (as pamoate salt). Efficacy was assessed based on live tick counts conducted 48 hours after treatment and each weekly infestation. RESULTS: There were no treatment-related adverse events in any study. In the dose determination study, 1.2 mg/kg sarolaner was the lowest dosage evaluated that provided > 90% efficacy for at least 28 days and therefore was selected as the dosage to provide tick control for at least one month following a single oral treatment. In the dose confirmation studies, a single oral dose of Simparica Trio™ provided ≥ 99.2% efficacy against existing infestations of all tick species, and against re-infestations efficacy was ≥ 97.2% against D. reticulatus for 28 days and against all other species for 35 days. CONCLUSIONS: These studies support the sarolaner dose selected and confirm the efficacy of a single oral dose of Simparica Trio™ against existing infestations and re-infestations of the common tick species infesting dogs in Europe for at least one month.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Combinação de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Ixodidae/classificação , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pirantel/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Comprimidos , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 77, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113476

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of a novel oral combination product, Simparica Trio™, containing sarolaner, moxidectin and pyrantel was evaluated against five tick species that commonly infest dogs in the USA, Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. METHODS: Laboratory studies were conducted against two different strains of each tick species. In each study, 10 purpose-bred Beagle or mixed-breed dogs were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. Dogs were infested with approximately 50 (45-55) unfed adult ticks on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. On Day 0, dogs received either a single oral dose of Simparica Trio™ at the minimum label dose of 1.2 mg/kg sarolaner, 24 µg/kg moxidectin and 5 mg/kg pyrantel (as pamoate salt) or placebo. Tick counts were conducted at 48 h post-treatment and after each subsequent weekly re-infestation for A. maculatum, D. variabilis, I. scapularis and R. sanguineus studies and at 48 hours or at 72 h post-treatment and after weekly re-infestation in the first and second A. americanum studies, respectively. RESULTS: No treatment-related adverse reactions occurred in any study. In all studies, placebo-treated dogs maintained infestations throughout the entire study duration, and dogs treated with Simparica Trio™ had significantly lower (P ≤ 0.0010) mean live tick counts than placebo-treated dogs at all time-points. Against A. maculatum, D. variabilis, I. scapularis and R. sanguineus, a single oral dose of Simparica Trio™ evaluated at 48 h post-treatment provided ≥ 98.9% efficacy against existing infestations, and within 48 h of re-infestation efficacy was ≥ 90.4% through at least Day 28 (except for R. sanguineus on Day 14 in a single study with an efficacy of 89.7%). Against A. americanum, Simparica Trio™ provided ≥ 99.4% efficacy at ≤ 72 h after treatment of existing infestations and maintained ≥ 98.4% efficacy at ≤ 72 h after re-infestation through at least Day 35. CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of Simparica Trio™ administered orally at the minimum label dosage of 1.2 mg/kg sarolaner, 24 µg/kg moxidectin and 5 mg/kg pyrantel provided treatment and control of the common tick species infesting dogs in the USA for at least one month.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Ixodidae/classificação , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Carga Parasitária , Pirantel/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
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