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1.
Vet Parasitol ; 277: 109015, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874403

RESUMO

Canine leishmaniosis (CanL)-associated chronic kidney disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Mediterranean countries. Novel renal biomarkers, such as serum symmetric dimethylarginine (sSDMA), may be useful surrogates for the detection of renal functional impairment. The objectives of this study were to investigate sSDMA concentrations in dogs with CanL, with and without azotemia, and to establish any potential association with the prevalence and severity of proteinuria, with the prevalence of decreased urine specific gravity and with the LeishVet clinical stages of CanL. Serum samples from 68 dogs with CanL (50 nonazotemic and 18 azotemic) and 17 healthy dogs were retrospectively examined. Increased sSDMA was documented in 26 % of dogs with CanL without azotemia and in 83.3 % of dogs with azotemia. Serum SDMA was significantly higher in azotemic compared to nonazotemic dogs and was associated with the presence and severity of proteinuria, the decreased urine specific gravity and the advanced clinical stages of CanL. The results of the present study indicate that sSDMA may be a useful adjunct to serum creatinine and urine protein/creatinine ratio for the detection of CanL-associated nephropathy, but it is of limited value for distinguishing among the LeishVet clinical stages of CanL.


Assuntos
Arginina/análogos & derivados , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/complicações , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Animais , Arginina/sangue , Azotemia/veterinária , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Vet J ; 252: 105343, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554584

RESUMO

Hyperadrenocorticism is a relatively common endocrine disorder in dogs that has been extensively described. However, its diagnosis remains challenging because there is no true reference standard test, and a myriad factors can affect the diagnostic performance of the commonly used adrenal function tests. Ultimately, the diagnosis is based on a combination of signalment, history and clinical findings, and a variety of diagnostic test results. The second part of this review aims to appraise available data on diagnostic performance of adrenal function tests in naturally occurring canine hyperadrenocorticism.


Assuntos
Testes de Função do Córtex Suprarrenal/veterinária , Hiperfunção Adrenocortical/veterinária , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Hiperfunção Adrenocortical/diagnóstico , Animais , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães
3.
Vet Parasitol ; 274: 108921, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536867

RESUMO

Dogs are the main domestic reservoir of Leishmania infantum, and in cases of uncontrolled infection, a strong humoral immune response is elicited, which is inefficient against the parasites. Previous studies have suggested that an adequate antigen/antibody ratio, with a moderate prevalence of antigens with respect to the antibodies, could result in the formation of circulating immune complexes (CIC) in canine leishmaniosis (CanL). Deposition of these complexes in tissues has been associated with vasculitis, uveitis, arthritis, dermatitis and especially glomerulonephritis and renal failure. However, little is known about the relationship between the presence of CIC and disease progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum CIC level and its correlation with disease severity in infected dogs with different stages of disease and non-infected animals as a control. A total of 60 dogs were included in the study, classified according to the proposed LeishVet classification criteria: healthy non-infected (n = 13); healthy infected (n = 12); sick stage I (n = 9); sick stage II (n = 17); sick stage III (n = 8); and sick stage IV (n = 1). CIC were isolated from serum samples using a modified polyethylene glycol precipitation method, and their levels measured by ELISA and bicinchoninic acid protein assay. A nanoparticle tracking analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the molecular size distribution of the CIC and disease progression. In conclusion, the results confirmed a positive association between CIC levels, their molecular size and disease progression that suggests a potential use of CIC as biomarkers of CanL.


Assuntos
Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Imunofluorescência/veterinária , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Leishmaniose/imunologia , Leishmaniose/patologia
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 331, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dogs that have clinical leishmaniosis (ClinL), caused by the parasite Leishmania infantum, are commonly co-infected with other pathogens, especially vector-borne pathogens (VBP). A recent PCR-based study found that ClinL dogs are more likely to be additionally infected with the rickettsial bacteria Ehrlichia canis. Further information on co-infections in ClinL cases with VBP, as assessed by serology, is required. The research described in this report determined if dogs with ClinL are at higher risk of exposure to VBP than healthy control dogs using a case-control serology study. RESULTS: Of the 47 dogs with ClinL, anti-E. canis/ Ehrlichia ewingii antibodies were detected in 17 (36.2%), anti-Anaplasma phagocytophilum/Anaplasma platys antibodies in 5 (10.6%) and antigen for Dirofilaria immitis in 2 (4.3%). Of the 87 control dogs, anti-E. canis/E. ewingii antibodies were detected in 14 (16.1%) and anti-A. phagocytophilum/A. platys antibodies in 2 (2.3%). No anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibody tests were positive. No statistical differences between the ClinL dogs and control dogs regarding lifestyle or use of ectoparasitic prevention, were identified. The ClinL was significantly associated with anti-E. canis/E. ewingii antibodies (odds ratio = 2.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-6.7, P = 0.010) compared to controls by both multivariable logistic regression and structural equation modelling. CONCLUSIONS: It was demonstrated that an increased risk for E. canis/E. ewingii seropositivity is present in dogs with ClinL compared to clinically healthy control dogs, despite similar ectoparasitic prevention use and lifestyle. Based on these findings it is suggested that dogs with ClinL should not only be tested for E. canis co-infection using PCR but also serologically for E. canis/E. ewingii.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Anaplasma/imunologia , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Chipre/epidemiologia , Dirofilaria immitis/imunologia , Dirofilariose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ectoparasitoses/prevenção & controle , Ehrlichia/imunologia , Ehrlichiose/sangue , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
5.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 1995-2004, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The cause of low serum vitamin D concentrations in dogs with chronic inflammatory enteropathy (CIE) is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: Improve understanding of pathogenesis of low serum vitamin D concentrations in dogs with CIE by comparing several clinical, clinicopathologic, and histologic variables between CIE dogs with low and normal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (25[OH]D). ANIMALS: Fifteen dogs with CIE and low serum 25[OH]D concentrations; 15 dogs with CIE and normal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. METHODS: Prospective cohort study. Clinical and clinicopathologic variables were compared between groups. Correlations between serum 25(OH)D concentration and histopathologic variables were assessed. RESULTS: Dogs with CIE and low serum 25(OH)D concentrations had higher canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index scores (P = .003), lower serum α-tocopherol (P < .001), cholesterol (P < .001), and albumin (P < .001) concentrations and higher serum C-reactive protein (P = .004) concentrations compared to CIE dogs with normal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Serum concentrations of vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) were not different between groups (P = .91). Duodenal morphologic and inflammatory histopathological scores (P = .002 and P = .004, respectively) and total histopathological scores in duodenum and combined duodenum and ileum negatively correlated with serum 25(OH)D concentration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: The pathogenesis of low serum vitamin D concentrations in dogs with CIE is likely multifactorial. Fat malabsorption deserves further study in dogs with low serum vitamin D concentration and CIE. Loss of VDBP does not appear to be an important cause of low serum vitamin D concentration in dogs with CIE.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/patologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/veterinária , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Animais , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Feminino , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/sangue , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Albumina Sérica/análise , Tocoferóis/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Proteína de Ligação a Vitamina D/sangue
6.
Res Vet Sci ; 126: 150-154, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493682

RESUMO

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is the manifestation of the systemic response to an infectious or non-infectious disease. We evaluated the association between erythrocyte parameters, including nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) and leukocyte ratios (NLR, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio; BLR, band neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio; BLNR, band neutrophil-to-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio). A review of the medical records was conducted searching SIRS dogs among those admitted to our intensive care unit and a SIRS grading was obtained based on how many criteria were fulfilled. The Acute Patient Physiology and Laboratory Evaluation (APPLEfast) score was assessed in each dog. Survival rate was assessed 15 days after admission. Dogs with clinical and/or clinicopathological signs of hemolytic or hemorrhagic disorders were excluded. Dogs with ≥2 criteria of SIRS along with a documented underlying infectious cause were recorded as septic (32/90, 35%). A SIRS grading >2 (p = .001) and an APPLEfast score > 25 (p = .03) were associated with mortality. Twenty-two of SIRS dogs (24%) showed circulating NRBCs. The occurrence of circulating NRBCs was associated with the mortality in SIRS groups (p = .0025). The median NLR was 11.69 and NLR was lower in septic dogs compared to non-septic ones (p = .0272). APPLEfast, SIRS grading and circulating NRBCs may be considered as negative prognostic factors in canine SIRS. NLR could be a useful tool in dogs with SIRS, which was significantly lower in the septic group. Further prospective, large-scale studies investigating BLR and BNLR in canine SIRS are warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Neutrófilos/fisiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/veterinária , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cães , Eritroblastos/fisiologia , Contagem de Eritrócitos , Eritrócitos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/sangue
7.
Vet Parasitol ; 274: 108920, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493694

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis caused by the parasite Leishmania infantum and the dog is its main reservoir in rural and urban areas. The diagnosis of infection is mainly based on the presence of anti-Leishmania IgG antibodies in the serum of infected dogs. In this study, the sensitivity and specificity of qualitative rapid tests (RTs) dual path platform (DPP) Bio-Manguinhos, rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) IDEXX, Kalazar Detect and ALERE, as well as quantitative ELISA Bio-Manguinhos and in-house indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) tests were analyzed in sera from infected and uninfected dogs. Serial dilutions of the in-house IFA were compared with RTs and ELISA Bio-Manguinhos. The results showed that none of the tests reached 100% sensitivity and specificity. There was no statistical difference between the analyzed RTs. The most sensitive test was the DPP Bio-Manguinhos (97.9%), while the rapid ELISA IDEXX showed higher specificity (100%). In the treatment setting of infected and/or diseased animals, quantitative tests for monitoring the evolution of antibody titers are required, which indicates the maintenance of in-house IFA in animal handling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the RTs present higher sensitivity in serum samples with superior antibody titers obtained in the in-house IFA. However, the RTs exhibited false negatives in samples with low titers of antibodies. Among the RTs, only the DPP Bio-Manguinhos presented better performance in this situation. Therefore, the use of RTs for the diagnosis of VL in dogs with low titers of antibodies, such as asymptomatic, should be carefully evaluated.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 36: 9-11, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472727

RESUMO

A 7-year-old mixed breed dog was evaluated for erythrocytosis with an initial hematocrit of 82.3%. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a 6 cm mass on the cranial pole of the right kidney. Daily therapeutic phlebotomies were performed, reducing the hematocrit to 54%. The dog underwent a right nephroureterectomy, recovered without complications, and was discharged 3 days after surgery. Histopathologic evaluation revealed a completely excised grade II soft tissue sarcoma. The preoperative erythropoietin level was 7.00 mU/mL (RI 1.90-22.90 mU/mL) and the 3-day postoperative erythropoietin level was 0.99 mU/mL, supporting a diagnosis of inappropriate secondary erythrocytosis due to the renal tumor. Secondary erythrocytosis resulting from renal soft tissue sarcoma is rare. Confirmatory testing with erythropoietin levels can assist in the diagnosis of secondary erythrocytosis. Erythropoietin levels that are normal or increased in the face of erythrocytosis indicate a source of inappropriate erythropoietin production.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Neoplasias Renais/veterinária , Policitemia/veterinária , Sarcoma/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Eritropoetina/sangue , Feminino , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Policitemia/etiologia , Sarcoma/cirurgia
9.
Vet Res Commun ; 43(4): 231-238, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473888

RESUMO

This study was performed to evaluate the hepatocyte-derived microRNA (miR)-122 as novel diagnostic biomarker in canine lymphoma. Fifteen dogs were enrolled in this study. Dogs presented at Small Animal Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University. Dogs were divided into 8 clinically healthy dogs act as control and 7 clinically ill dogs. All dogs were subjected to clinical, ultrasonographic, hemato-biochemical and ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy for cytological and histopathological investigations. On the basis of these results, 7 dogs were found to be suffering from multicentric lymphoma involving liver. Serum hepatocyte-derived miRA-122 was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in all dogs. Multicentric lymphoma involving liver manifested by inappetance for several days, depression and peripheral lymphadenopathy. Hematological examination showed significant lymphocytosis. Serum biochemical analysis revealed significant increase in ALT, AST, ALP compared to control dogs. Ultrasonography revealed hypoechoic lymphoid aggregation at area of "porta hepatis" and circumscribed hypoechoic nodule interrupt liver parenchyma. Cytology revealed infiltration of liver tissue by lymphoblast cells and histopathology revealed diffuse infiltration of hepatic sinusoids and portal area by uniform population of small lymphocytes. Serum miRNA-122 analysis showed a significant increase represented as 9.00 fold in canine multicentric lymphoma involving liver. Serum hepatocyte-derived miRNA-122 is of diagnostic value, non invasive, stable and easily measurable blood biomarker for the detection of hepatocellular injury in dogs with multicentric lymphoma involving liver.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Fígado/patologia , Linfoma/veterinária , MicroRNAs/sangue , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Hepatócitos/patologia , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/complicações , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Linfoma/sangue , Linfoma/complicações , Linfoma/diagnóstico , MicroRNAs/genética
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007599, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is a neglected, vector-borne, tropical parasitic disease that is responsible for several thousand human deaths every year. The transmission route involves sand flies becoming infected after feeding on infected reservoir host, mainly dogs, and then transmitting the Leishmania infantum parasites while feeding on humans. A major component of the VL control effort is the identification and euthanasia of infected dogs to remove them as a source of infection. A rapid, non-invasive, point-of-care device able to differentiate between the odours of infected and uninfected dogs may contribute towards the accurate diagnosis of canine VL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analysed the headspace volatile chemicals from the hair of two groups of dogs collected in 2017 and 2018 using a bench-top eNose volatile organic chemical analyser. The dogs were categorised as infected or uninfected by PCR analysis of blood samples taken by venepuncture and the number of parasites per ml of blood was calculated for each dog by qPCR analysis. We demonstrated using a robust clustering analysis that the eNose data could be discriminated into infected and uninfected categories with specificity >94% and sensitivity >97%. The eNose device and data analysis were sufficiently sensitive to be able to identify infected dogs even when the Leishmania population in the circulating blood was very low. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study illustrates the potential of the eNose to rapidly and accurately identify dogs infected with Le. infantum. Future improvements to eNose analyser sensor sensitivity, sampling methodology and portability suggest that this approach could significantly improve the diagnosis of VL infected dogs in Brazil with additional potential for effective diagnosis of VL in humans as well as for the diagnosis of other parasitic diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/análise , Patologia Molecular/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Leishmania infantum/genética , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(5): 542-548, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the successful management of a dog following a period of prolonged food deprivation. CASE SUMMARY: A 7-year-old, intact male Labrador Retriever presented with profound weakness and loss of nearly 50% of his body weight due to severe prolonged starvation after being trapped in a well for 27 days. Electrolyte concentrations were managed with intensive intravenous supplementation during refeeding. The dog's electrolyte abnormalities resolved, wounds healed, and strength returned during the first 3 weeks of treatment. During the next 3 months, body condition score normalized and muscle mass improved. NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: This report describes the management of a severely malnourished dog during refeeding, and highlights treatment considerations that may be important in the prevention of refeeding syndrome in such cases.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Eletrólitos/uso terapêutico , Síndrome da Realimentação/veterinária , Inanição/veterinária , Administração Intravenosa/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Eletrólitos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Síndrome da Realimentação/diagnóstico , Síndrome da Realimentação/terapia , Inanição/diagnóstico , Inanição/terapia
12.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(5): 461-471, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448558

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, and treatment recommendations for hyponatremia in dogs and cats. ETIOLOGY: Hyponatremia almost always results from an increase in total body water (TBW), and not from loss of sodium. Abnormalities in antidiuretic hormone (ADH) are commonly part of the etiology of hyponatremia. DIAGNOSIS: Diagnosis of hyponatremia focuses on the cause of the increase of TBW. Assessment of the patient's volume status and measurement of urine sodium concentration are important factors. Measurement or calculated estimation of plasma osmolality can also guide the assessment of hyponatremia. THERAPY: Too rapid correction of serum sodium can precipitate osmotic demyelination syndrome. As a general rule, serum sodium concentration should be raised ≤10 mmol/L over 24 hours, but rapid increases in serum sodium are indicated if neurologic abnormalities are evident. Serum sodium can be increased using hypertonic saline, with dosing based on the patient's calculated sodium deficit. Treatment of the underlying cause of water ingestion or retention is also required to fully resolve hyponatremia. PROGNOSIS: Mortality rates are significantly higher in dogs and cats with hyponatremia compared to those with normal serum sodium concentrations, even in patients with mild hypontremia (<5 mmol/L below the lower value of the reference interval). Hyponatremia is also associated with increased risk of death if present during specific disease states in dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/terapia , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Hiponatremia/veterinária , Solução Salina Hipertônica/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças do Gato/sangue , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Esquema de Medicação/veterinária , Hiponatremia/terapia , Infusões Intravenosas/veterinária , Solução Salina Hipertônica/administração & dosagem , Sódio/sangue
13.
Parasite ; 26: 49, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432778

RESUMO

This experimental study aimed to determine the efficacy of Afoxolaner (NexGard®) to prevent Babesia rossi transmission by Haemaphysalis elliptica ticks on dogs. The study included three groups of seven dogs each. Groups 1 and 2 remained untreated, whereas group 3 dogs received NexGard® on Day 0. All dogs were infested by 50 Haemaphysalis elliptica adult ticks: Group 1 on Day 2, Group 2 on Day 28 and Group 3 on Days 2 and 28. The ticks were originally nymphs having fed on B. rossi infected donor dogs. Their infection rate, assessed by PCR, was 12.8% at Day 2 and 6% at Day 28. On Days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56, and in case of suspicion of babesiosis, blood samples were collected for blood smears, PCR and ELISA. The B. rossi infection rate in the untreated group 1 was 100% (6/6, as one dog was inadvertently treated on Day 15 and removed from statistical analysis). The infection rate was 57.1% (4/7) in group 2, and 0% (0/7) in the afoxolaner treated group 3 at all time-points until the end of the study on Day 56. After tick removal and count 144 h after each infestation, the control groups had an arithmetic mean of ticks of 23.8 (group 1) and 26.8 (group 2). No tick was recovered from any treated dogs. This study demonstrated that NexGard® protected dogs against infection by B. rossi for at least 28 days.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Babesiose/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Naftalenos/administração & dosagem , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/sangue , Babesiose/transmissão , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(2): 145-149, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376344

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to analyse the amino acid sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia canis strains and the proteomic analysis of the serum of dogs infected with three various genotypes: 18S rRNA B. canis. Material for the research was DNA B. canis obtained from dogs with babesiosis. In total, 60 DNA tested samples were divided into three groups (20 samples each). The groups were formed by DNA samples of the sequences marked as 18S RNA-A (group 1), 18S RNA-B (group 2), and 18S RNA-C (group 3). The basis for the classification of protozoa to a specific group was the location of relevant nucleotides (GA, AG, or TT) in position 150-151 of the tested nucleotide sequence 18S rRNA. Nucleotide sequences were transcribed into amino acid sequences and then analysed using DNASTAR software. From all 60 infected and ten healthy dogs (control group), the serum was taken to make proteomic tests using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. It was demonstrated that the mutations found in position 150 and 151 of the nucleotide sequence, result in a change of amino acid sequences. Moreover, it was also demonstrated that the disease course in dogs infected with different strains of protozoa is different. Each of the analysed strains of protozoa induced in the serum of infected animals the appearance of a protein fraction of mass 51 kDa, which may then be treated as a nonspecific disease marker used for the diagnosis of this disease but not to differentiate the protozoa strains.


Assuntos
Babesia , Babesiose , Doenças do Cão , Proteoma , RNA de Protozoário , RNA Ribossômico 18S , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/sangue , Babesiose/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Proteínas de Protozoários/sangue , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , RNA de Protozoário/química , RNA Ribossômico 18S/química , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
15.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 215: 109904, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420068

RESUMO

During immune activation, CD25 is expressed by T cells, and its soluble form (sCD25) is released into the extracellular matrix and the bloodstream. In humans, serum sCD25 concentrations are used as a surrogate marker for autoimmune diseases, malignancies, and transplant rejection. However, a canine-specific assay for the measurement of sCD25 in dog serum has not previously been described. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop and analytically validate a radioimmunoassay to measure sCD25 in canine serum, to establish a reference interval for canine sCD25, and to test the clinical utility of this assay with serum samples for dogs with various diseases. A competitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed and analytically validated. Analytical validation consisted of lower limit of detection (LLOD), dilutional parallelism, spiking recovery, and intra- and inter-assay variability using pooled surplus canine serum samples. A reference interval was established in healthy dogs and serum samples from dogs with various types of neoplasia, IBD, liver disease, suspected pancreatitis, or suspected small intestinal disease and serum samples with an increased C-reactive protein concentration (CRP) were analyzed to test the clinical utility of the assay. LLOD was calculated to be 0.5 ng/mL. The mean (±SD) observed-to-expected ratio (O/E) for serial dilutions was 101.7 ±â€¯14.0%, and the mean (± SD) O/E for spiking recovery was 93.2 ±â€¯4.2%. Coefficients of variation (CVs) for intra-assay variability were ≤12.5% (mean ±â€¯SD: 7.5 ±â€¯4.2%), and inter-assay CVs were ≤15.7% (mean ±â€¯SD: 11 ±â€¯4.4%). A reference interval (RI) for canine sCD25 of 1.2-4.2 ng/mL was established from a population of 112 clinically healthy dogs. Dogs with neoplasia and dogs with suspected small intestinal disease had decreased concentrations of serum sCD25 when compared to healthy dogs (p < 0.0001, respectively). However, the majority of clinical samples used in this study were within the reference interval. Median concentrations of serum sCD25 were 1.9 ng/mL for healthy dogs. Dogs with cancer, IBD, liver disease, suspected pancreatitis, or suspected small intestinal disease, as well as sera with an increased serum CRP concentration, had median serum sCD25 concentrations of 1.6 ng/mL, 2.1 ng/mL, 2.2 ng/mL, 1.7 ng/mL, 1.5 ng/mL, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Thus, the RIA described here is linear, accurate, precise, and reproducible for measuring sCD25 in canine serum. However, this assay shows little clinical utility of sCD25 as a biomarker for dogs with inflammatory, autoimmune, and/or neoplastic conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães/sangue , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/sangue , Radioimunoensaio/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Humanos , Radioimunoensaio/métodos , Valores de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 38, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391084

RESUMO

Canine leishmaniosis is a disease caused by Leishmania infantum, a vector-borne parasite. Due to the zoonotic potential of canine leishmaniosis, infected dogs must be identified. Serological assays are the most common methods for the detection of L. infantum infection in dogs used in veterinary practice. The aim of the study was to assess the performance of a rapid immunochromatographic test (FASTest LEISH®, MEGACOR Diagnostik) for the detection of specific antibodies to that of the L. infantum in dog sera. The results were simultaneously compared using a commercial brand of indirect immunofluorescence antibody test and an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as references. Between the two reference tests, 232 serum samples out of 244, produced concordant results while 12 exhibited discordant results. Of the 232 concordant samples, 121 were classified as L. infantum seropositive, and 111 samples were previously classified as L. infantum seronegative by a combination of the reference assays. All samples that were seropositive by the reference tests were also positive according to the rapid test, and only one sample that was seronegative according to the two reference assays was positive according to the rapid test. Compared with the reference tests, the rapid test sensitivity was 100%, specificity was 99.1%, accuracy was 99.6%, Cohen's kappa coefficient was 0.99, and the area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.995. The FASTest LEISH® is a rapid, qualitative in-clinic test with high sensitivity and specificity.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Imunoensaio/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2029-2036, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bleeding tendencies can occur with uremia. OBJECTIVES: To characterize primary hemostatic function in dogs with acute kidney injury (AKI). ANIMALS: Ten dogs with International Renal Interest Society AKI grade III or above and 10 healthy controls. METHODS: Prospective study comparing PCV, platelet count, platelet aggregometry (Multiplate), and von Willebrand factor antigen to collagen binding activity ratio (vWF:Ag:vWF:CBA) in 2 groups of dogs (AKI group versus controls). Buccal mucosal bleeding time was measured in the AKI group only. Data are presented as median [25th, 75th percentile] unless otherwise stated. Significance was set at P < .05. RESULTS: Mean PCV was significantly lower in the AKI (34.7%; ±SD, 8.8) than in the control (46.1%; ±SD, 3.6; P < .001) group. Platelet count was significantly higher in the AKI (350.5 × 103 /µL [301, 516]) than in the control (241 × 103 /µL [227, 251]; P = .01) group. Collagen-activated platelet aggregometry measured as area under the curve was significantly lower in the AKI (36.9 ± 17.7) than in the control (54.9 ± 11.2; P = .05) group. vWF:Ag:vWF:CBA was significantly higher in the AKI (2.2 [1.9, 2.6]) than in the control (1.1 [1.1, 1.2]; P = .01) group. There was a strong correlation between vWF:Ag:vWF:CBA and creatinine (r = 0.859; P < .001), but no other variables. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Dogs with AKI had decreased collagen-activated platelet aggregation and appear to have a type II von Willebrand disease-like phenotype as indicated by the high vWF:Ag:vWF:CBA.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/veterinária , Colágeno/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Fator de von Willebrand/análise , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/fisiopatologia , Animais , Tempo de Sangramento/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal , Contagem de Plaquetas/veterinária , Testes de Função Plaquetária/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 29(5): 573-577, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the use of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to confirm a diagnosis of synthetic cannabis toxicosis in a dog and to describe the clinical course of the intoxication. CASE SUMMARY: An 11-year-old neutered female Boxer dog was referred due to acute onset of vomiting, ataxia, dull mentation, and delirium that progressed to generalized seizures, unresponsive to diazepam. Prior to presentation, the dog was found lying down, minimally responsive with vomitus around it. A chewed bag containing dried plant material was found next to the dog. The dog was anesthetized and ventilated with positive pressure for 16 hours, and eventually made a full recovery. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the plant material and a plasma sample from the dog revealed presence of the synthetic cannabinoid N-[(1S)-1-(aminocarbonyl)-2-methylpropyl]-1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide, also known as AB-CHMINACA, a relatively new illegal synthetic cannabinoid, known by the local forensic police department as a drug of recreational abuse. NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: Reports of synthetic cannabinoid toxicosis in dogs are scarce and are based on urine test kits for tetrahydrocannabinol that have not been validated in the veterinary literature. This is the first report to describe utilization of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry on canine plasma to reach a definitive diagnosis.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/toxicidade , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/veterinária , Animais , Canabinoides/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/veterinária
20.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(5): 665-673, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347473

RESUMO

Accurate staging of hepatic fibrosis (HF) is important for treatment and prognosis of canine chronic hepatitis. HF scores are used in human medicine to indirectly stage and monitor HF, decreasing the need for liver biopsy. We developed a canine HF score to screen for moderate or greater HF. We included 96 dogs in our study, including 5 healthy dogs. A liver biopsy for histologic examination and a biochemistry profile were performed on all dogs. The dogs were randomly split into a training set of 58 dogs and a validation set of 38 dogs. A HF score that included alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, potassium, and gamma-glutamyl transferase was developed in the training set. Model performance was confirmed using the internal validation set, and was similar to the performance in the training set. The overall sensitivity and specificity for the study group were 80% and 70% respectively, with an area under the curve of 0.80 (0.71-0.90). This HF score could be used for indirect diagnosis of canine HF when biochemistry panels are performed on the Konelab 30i (Thermo Scientific), using reagents as in our study. External validation is required to determine if the score is sufficiently robust to utilize biochemical results measured in other laboratories with different instruments and methodologies.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/veterinária , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Bilirrubina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biópsia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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