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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238440, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870923

RESUMO

Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) is a serum biomarker of renal damage in dogs. Moreover, SDMA concentration is an independent predictor of development of severe heart failure (HF) in humans with cardiac disease. This study evaluates whether the serum concentration of SDMA in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is influenced by the severity of heart disease, pulmonary hypertension (PH) and treatment of HF. A total of 99 client-owned dogs were included in this retrospective case-control study; 78 dogs were affected by MMVD and classified according to the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) guidelines, and 21 were healthy controls. For each dog, history, physical examination, complete blood count, biochemical profile, thoracic radiography, 6-lead standard electrocardiogram and trans-thoracic echocardiography were available. Comparisons were performed between groups of dogs belonging to different ACVIM stages and between dogs with and without PH. The median SDMA concentration was neither significantly different among groups of dogs in different disease stages (overall P = 0.010), nor among dogs with MMVD, nor between those with [14.5 µg/dl (10.5-18.8)] and without PH [13 µg/dl (9-17.2)] (P = 0.295). The concentration of SDMA did not differ between dogs when considering the combined effect of the ACVIM group and cardiac treatment (overall P = 0.486). Furthermore, no correlation was found between SDMA concentration and radiographic and echocardiographic parameters associated with increased MMVD severity. In conclusion, this study failed to demonstrate the presence of renal impairment in dogs with MMVD, and the increase in renal parameters in some dogs in the more advanced stage of MMVD could be attributed to pre-renal azotemia.


Assuntos
Arginina/análogos & derivados , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Animais , Arginina/sangue , Arginina/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/veterinária , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/sangue , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/metabolismo , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e012420, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756775

RESUMO

Piroplasm species were analyzed by molecular tools in total 31 blood samples from positive dogs, previously checked by stained slides, stored until DNA extraction between 2016 to 2018 in the laboratory Clinical Analyzes in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. The piroplasms were identified by PCR, targeting the 18S rRNA gene and sequencing. From the total number of samples only 24 (77.4%) were positive and show adequate nucleotide sequences for interpretation with identity between 93%-100% with Babesia vogeli in compared to the sequences isolated of infected dogs from other states in Brazil deposited on GenBank. Most of dogs infected with B. vogeli had anemia (62.5%) and thrombocytopenia (95.8%). The findings of this study are compatible with previous reports in the literature and highlight B. vogeli as the most incriminated species in canine piroplasmosis in Brazil, and thrombocytopenia the hematological alteration most frequently identified in this infection. It is important to note that this is the first study involving the molecular characterization of piroplasms in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, based on PCR followed by sequencing.


Assuntos
Babesia , Babesiose , Sangue , Doenças do Cão , Manejo de Espécimes , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/sangue , Sangue/parasitologia , Análise Química do Sangue , Brasil , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237706, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817656

RESUMO

Endurance-trained sled dogs provide a unique translational model to characterize changes in hematologic and serum biochemical analytes due to the aging process. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of age and sex on specific hematologic and serum biochemical parameters in the endurance trained sled dog. Longitudinal and cross-sectional data were analyzed from 9,746 blood and serum samples from 4,804 dogs collected over 7 years as part of the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race pre-race examination program. Mixed models analysis was used for statistical analysis and P < 0.01 was considered significant. Dogs ranged from 1-12 years of age and 39% were female. Serum total calcium and phosphorus concentrations and white blood cell count decreased nonlinearly to asymptotic values by 6.6, 3.1, and 6.9 years of age, respectively, equivalent to estimated physiologic ages in human years of 44, 27, and 46 years. Serum glucose concentrations reached their lowest value at 7.8 years of age, equivalent to an estimated human physiologic age of 50 years, after which time the concentration increased. Serum globulin concentrations increased with age, but nonlinearly for females and linearly for males. Most sex-related differences were <5%; however, females had lower serum urea nitrogen (14.7%) and creatinine (7.3%) concentrations, lower serum alanine aminotransferase activity (16.6%), and higher serum total bilirubin concentration (12.8%) and platelet count (6.0%). The endurance-trained sled dog provides an excellent model to separate the physiologic effects of age from those of a sedentary lifestyle on hematologic and serum biochemical analytes.


Assuntos
Treino Aeróbico , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Feminino , Testes Hematológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Soroglobulinas/metabolismo
4.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 43, 2020 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The protein chromogranin A (CgA) is stored and co-released with catecholamines from the stimulated adrenal glands. Increased plasma concentrations of CgA have been shown in people with heart disease. The aim of the study was to investigate whether plasma concentrations of the CgA-derived biologically active peptides catestatin and vasostatin were associated with the severity of myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) in dogs and to assess potential associations between these blood variables and dog characteristics, echocardiographic variables, heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and plasma N-terminal-proBNP (NT-proBNP) concentration. Sixty-seven privately owned dogs with or without MMVD were included. The dogs underwent physical examination, blood pressure measurement, blood sample collection, and echocardiographic examination. Plasma concentrations of catestatin and vasostatin were analyzed using radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Catestatin concentration decreased with increasing left atrial and ventricular size (R2 ≤ 0.09, P ≤ 0.019), and increased with increasing systolic and diastolic blood pressures (R2 ≤ 0.08, P ≤ 0.038). Regression analyses showed no significant associations for vasostatin. No differences in plasma concentrations of catestatin or vasostatin were found between the disease severity groups used in the study. CONCLUSIONS: In the present dog population, the catestatin concentration showed weak negative associations with left atrial and ventricular sizes, both of which are known to increase with increasing severity of MMVD. Furthermore, the catestatin concentration showed weak positive associations with blood pressure.


Assuntos
Calreticulina/sangue , Cromogranina A/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/veterinária , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea , Cromogranina A/metabolismo , Cães , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Masculino , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/sangue , Prolapso da Valva Mitral/etiologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Suécia
5.
J Vet Sci ; 21(4): e47, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Homocysteine (HCY) was evaluated in healthy and chronic enteropathic dogs, however no studies on dogs with immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy are available. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate serum HCY concentrations and its prognostic role in dogs with immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy compared to healthy dogs. METHODS: Serum HCY concentration was statistically compared between 24 healthy dogs and 29 dogs with immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy. Correlation analyses between serum total protein, albumin (ALB), C-reactive protein (CRP), folate and cobalamin, and serum HCY concentration were performed in immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathic dogs. RESULTS: The associations between serum HCY concentration and clinical, histological, endoscopic scores and follow-up were evaluated. Mean serum HCY concentration was higher in immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathic dogs compared to control dogs (30.22 ± 8.67 µmol/L vs. 5.26 ± 2.78 µmol/L; p < 0.0001). No association between serum HCY concentration and total protein, ALB, CRP, folate concentration as well as, clinical score, histological and endoscopic scores was found. A negative correlation between serum HCY concentration and cobalamin was noted (p = 0.0025, r = -0.54). No significant difference in HCY was found between responsive and non-responsive dogs or between survivors and non-survivors. CONCLUSIONS: Although, serum HCY concentration was higher in immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy, its prognostic value remains unclear. However, further prospective, large-scale studies are warranted to better investigate the possible prognostic role of HCY in immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathic dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Homocisteína/sangue , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Enterite/diagnóstico , Feminino , Masculino , Prognóstico
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e021419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609243

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to do a serological survey on three rickettsial species: Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia parkeri, two species of the spotted fever group (SFG) that are considered to be great importance for public health; and Rickettsia bellii, a species of unknown pathogenicity that infects a variety of human-biting ticks. Serum samples from 273 dogs were tested using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). A total of 52 samples (19.04%) were seropositive for at least one of the three Rickettsia spp. antigens. Thirty-eight (73.07%), twelve (23.07%) and one (1.92%) of these dogs showed homologous reactions to R. bellii, R. rickettsii and R. parkeri, respectively. Our results showed that the seroprevalence of Rickettsia spp. was relatively low. However, the positive serological tests indicated that these dogs had become infected by these agents at some point in their lives. Lastly, our study adds to the previous knowledge on the epidemiology of rickettsiosis in the state of Goiás by doing the first record of detection of anti-R. rickettsii, R. parkeri and R. bellii antibodies by IFA among dogs, thus indicating that these agents may be circulating in the dog population analyzed.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Infecções por Rickettsia , Rickettsia , Rickettsiose do Grupo da Febre Maculosa/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Humanos , Rickettsia/fisiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/sangue , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008488, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major neglected disease, potentially fatal, whose control is still impaired by inefficient and/or expensive treatment and diagnostic methods. The most promising approach for VL diagnosis uses serological assays with recombinant proteins, since they are more efficient and easier to perform. Tests developed for the human form of the disease, however, have not been shown to be efficient for its diagnosis in the canine host, the major reservoir for the American VL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe a systematic approach aimed at the production of a new chimeric protein potentially able to be used for both human and canine VL diagnosis and based both on in silico gene design and experimental data. Starting from the previous identification of Leishmania infantum recombinant antigens efficient for the diagnosis of either human or canine VL, three of the best performing antigens were selected (Lci2, Lci3 and Lci12). After a preliminary evaluation validating the chimeric approach, DNA fragments encoding predicted antigenic regions from each protein, enriched with repeats, were joined in various combinations to generate a total of seventeen chimeric genes optimized for prokaryotic expression. These were assessed for optimal expression and purification yield, with four chimeric proteins being efficiently produced. Their diagnostic potential was then evaluated through ELISA assays with sera from VL afflicted humans and dogs. After two rounds of gene design, the results showed high levels of sensitivity for the best chimeric protein, named Q5, in humans (82%) and dogs (100%) with 100% specificity in comparison with healthy controls. A single non-specific reaction was seen with serum from individuals with tegumentary leishmaniasis. CONCLUSION: The newly described chimeric protein is potentially useful for the detection of both humans and dogs afflicted with VL, with its use in rapid tests necessary for validation as a new diagnostic tool.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/química , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Transcriptoma
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234712, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603378

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease is a common disease in dogs, and factors such as serum concentrations of creatinine, albumin, and phosphorus at the moment of diagnosis may influence the survival of these patients. The present retrospective study aimed to evaluate the relationship between survival in dogs with chronic kidney disease and laboratory parameters (creatinine, phosphorus, albumin, and hematocrit) and nutritional parameters (body condition score, muscle mass score, type of food, appetite and feeding method). A total of 116 dogs with chronic kidney disease stages 2 to 4 were included, and survival was calculated considering the time between diagnosis and death. Survival curves were configurated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and a comparison between survival curves was performed by the log-rank test. Factors related to survival were disease stage (p<0.0001), serum phosphorus concentration (p = 0.0005), hematocrit (0.0001), body condition score (p = 0.0391), muscle mass score (p = 0.0002), type of food (p = 0.0009), feeding method (p<0.0001) and appetite (p = 0.0007). Based on data obtained in this study, it is possible to conclude that early diagnosis, as well as nutritional evaluation and renal diet intake, are determinant strategies to increase survival in dogs with chronic kidney disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/metabolismo , Laboratórios , Estado Nutricional , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Feminino , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Fósforo/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
Arch Virol ; 165(9): 2079-2082, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627058

RESUMO

We evaluated the seroprevalence of Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) in dogs and cats in Córdoba, Argentina. Monotypic and heterotypic serological patterns were differentiated by means of a neutralization test. The SLEV seroprevalence in dogs was 14.6% (44/302; 100% monotypic). Two out of 94 (2.1%, 100% monotypic) cats were positive for WNV only. Four dogs (1.3%) exhibited neutralizing antibody titers against SLEV and WNV. During the study, three dogs seroconverted to SLEV. Our study demonstrates that pets were useful for detecting viral activity and could be considered as sentinels in the local surveillance of SLEV and WNV.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças do Gato/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Vírus da Encefalite de St. Louis/imunologia , Encefalite de St. Louis/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/sangue , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Animais , Argentina , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Vírus da Encefalite de St. Louis/isolamento & purificação , Encefalite de St. Louis/sangue , Encefalite de St. Louis/epidemiologia , Encefalite de St. Louis/virologia , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/sangue , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação
10.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 3023-3031, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725320

RESUMO

Hepatozoon canis is a hemoprotozoan organism that infects domestic and wild carnivores throughout much of Europe. The parasite is mainly transmitted through the ingestion of infected ticks containing mature oocysts. The aims of the present survey were to determine the prevalence of H. canis in hunting dogs living in Southern Italy and to assess potential infection risk factors. DNA extracted from whole blood samples, collected from 1433 apparently healthy dogs living in the Napoli, Avellino, and Salerno provinces of Campania region (Southern Italy), was tested by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to amplify H. canis. Furthermore, the investigated dog population was also screened by qPCR for the presence of Ehrlichia canis, a major tick-borne pathogen in Southern Italy, in order to assess possible co-infections. Two hundred dogs were H. canis PCR-positive, resulting in an overall prevalence of 14.0% (CI 12.2-15.9). Breed category (P < 0.0001), hair coat length (P = 0.015), and province of residence (P < 0.0001) represented significant risk factors for H. canis infection. The presence of H. canis DNA was also significantly associated with E. canis PCR positivity (P < 0.0001). Hunting dogs in Campania region (Southern Italy) are frequently exposed to H. canis, and the infection is potentially associated with close contact with wildlife. Further studies are needed to assess the pathogenic potential of H. canis, as well as the epidemiological relationships between hunting dogs and wild animal populations sharing the same habitats in Southern Italy.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/transmissão , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Eucoccidiida/genética , Eucoccidiida/fisiologia , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Risco , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Carrapatos/fisiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234404, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555688

RESUMO

Myocardial energy deprivation plays a causal role in the development of heart failure. A cardiac protection blend (CPB) of nutrients including medium chain triglycerides, fish oil and other key nutrients was developed to slow the progression of canine myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). A six-month dietary intervention demonstrated efficacy of CPB in slowing MMVD progression. Untargeted metabolomic analysis of serum from these dogs identified 102 differential metabolites (adjusted P < 0.05). The ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid (FA) changed from 2.41 and 1.46 in control and CPB groups at baseline to 4.30 and 0.46 at 6 months respectively. A 2.7-fold increase of α-aminobutyrate, a myocardial modulator of glutathione homeostasis, was found in CPB dogs compared to 1.3-fold increase in control dogs. Arginine and citrulline, precursors of nitric oxide biosynthesis, were both increased 2-fold; caprate, a medium chain FA, was increased 3-fold; and deoxycarnitine, precursor of carnitine biosynthesis, was increased 2.5-fold in CPB dogs. Margarate and methylpalmitate decreased in response to CPB, a potential benefit in MMVD dogs as positive correlations were found between changes in both these FAs and left atrial diameter (r = 0.69, r = 0.87 respectively, adjusted P < 0.05). Sphingomyelins with very long chain saturated FAs associated with decreased risk of heart failure in humans were increased in MMVD dogs fed the CPB diet. Our data supports the hypothesis that CPB improves FA utilization and energetics, reduces oxidative stress and inflammation in MMVD dogs. More studies are needed to understand the roles of specific metabolites in MMVD.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/dietoterapia , Metaboloma , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/veterinária , Aminoácidos/sangue , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dietoterapia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Masculino , Metabolômica , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/sangue , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/dietoterapia , Fosfolipídeos/sangue
12.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 39: 100403, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482282

RESUMO

Gastric dilation-volvulus (GDV) syndrome in dogs is associated with complex metabolic, acid-base, and electrolyte abnormalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate previously analyzed factors (lactate and BE) in combination with other acid-base parameters (pH, pCO2, bicarbonate, base excess [BE], anion gap [AG], and strong ion difference) and electrolyte concentrations and to evaluate their association with the incidence of gastric necrosis and outcome in dogs with GDV. A retrospective study in 75 dogs with gastric dilation-volvulus syndrome, University veterinary teaching hospital. Medical records were reviewed including signalment, history, initial plasma lactate, acid-base parameters, and electrolyte concentrations, surgical findings and outcome. The overall mortality was 18.7%. In dogs with gastric necrosis, higher initial plasma lactate (median 5.84 vs. 3.36 mmol/L) and AG (20.7 vs. 16.55 mmol/L) and lower pH (7.29 vs. 7.36), bicarbonate (18.7 vs. 22.9 mmol/L), and BE concentration (-8.1 vs. -1.85 mmol/L) were found compared to dogs without gastric necrosis. Anorganic phosphorus was the only electrolyte investigated for which a significant difference was noted between dogs with and without gastric necrosis (1.93 vs. 1.39 mmol/L). The initial plasma lactate concentration (3.36 mmol/L vs. 9.68 mmol/L) and AG (16.8 vs. 20.95 mmol/L) were lower in survivors than nonsurvivors. Survivors had higher pH (7.35 vs. 7.27), bicarbonate concentrations (22.9 vs. 17.35 mmol/L), and BE (-1.9 vs. -9.55 mmol/L) compared to nonsurvivors. Anorganic phosphorus was ultimately the only electrolyte with a significant difference between survivors and nonsurvivors (1.4 vs. 1.84 mmol/L). A multivariate logistic regression model of combination lactate, pH, bicarbonate, BE, AG, and anorganic phosphorus identified pH ≤7.331 and bicarbonate as factors independently associated with gastric necrosis. Similarly, pH ˃7.331, bicarbonate and anorganic phosphorus were independently associated with outcome. Higher initial plasma lactate, AG and anorganic phosphorus levels, and lower pH, BE and bicarbonate concentrations were found in GDV dogs with gastric necrosis. Similarly, initially higher plasma lactate, AG and anorganic phosphorus concentrations, and lower pH, BE and bicarbonate were found in GDV dogs who required euthanasia or who died after surgery. Of these parameters, pH and bicarbonate were strongly and independently associated with gastric necrosis, and pH, bicarbonate and phosphorus were independently associated with outcome.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/mortalidade , Dilatação Gástrica/veterinária , Volvo Gástrico/veterinária , Animais , República Tcheca , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Eletrólitos/sangue , Feminino , Dilatação Gástrica/mortalidade , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Necrose , Registros/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estômago/patologia , Volvo Gástrico/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Síndrome
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413075

RESUMO

Despite vulnerability and unsanitary conditions of animal hoarding may predispose environmental contamination and spread of vectors and pathogens, no study to date has focused on their impact on public health and zoonotic diseases. Accordingly, this study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and associated factors in individuals with animal hoarding disorder (AHD) and their dogs in Curitiba, Southern Brazil. Blood samples were obtained from 264 dogs (21 households) and 19 individuals with AHD (11 households). Their blood was tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Overall, anti-Toxoplasma gondii seropositivity was found in 21/264 dogs (7.95%; 95% CI: 4.69-11.22) with titers ranging from 16 to 4096, and in 7/19 individuals with AHD (36.84%; CI: 15.15-58.53) with titers ranging from 16 to 64. Serological analysis for anti-T. gondii antibodies were considered positive in at least one individual or dog in 9/11 (81.82%; 95% CI: 59.03-100.00) cases that were thoroughly assessed. Surprisingly, the seropositivity of individuals with AHD and their dogs was among the lowest reportedly observed in human and dog populations of Brazil. There was no significant association between positive owners and positive dogs or the presence of cats in the household. Regard epidemiological variables, a significant association was found between dog's seropositivity and the type of dog food. To the authors' knowledge, the present study represents the first investigation of T. gondii seroprevalence in individuals with hoarding disorder and their dogs. In conclusion, despite low sanitary conditions, anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies frequency in individuals with AHD and their dogs are lower than the general population likely due to low protozoan load in such isolated households.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Transtorno de Acumulação/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Cães , Geografia Médica , Colecionismo/sangue , Colecionismo/epidemiologia , Colecionismo/imunologia , Transtorno de Acumulação/sangue , Transtorno de Acumulação/imunologia , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Análise Espacial , Toxoplasmose/sangue , Toxoplasmose/imunologia
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e016919, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428183

RESUMO

Dogs have been implicated as main reservoirs for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in urban areas. Therefore, studies on this species provide important data for public health. Thus, the objective of the present study was to ascertain the seroprevalence of canine VL (CVL) and the associated factors in the Brejo Paraibano microregion, northeastern Brazil. A total of 409 dogs were sampled from the eight municipalities of the microregion: Alagoa Grande, Alagoa Nova, Areia, Bananeiras, Borborema, Matinhas, Pilões and Serraria. The diagnosis of CVL was made using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA S7®), through which the prevalence observed was 29.3%. By robust Poisson regression analysis two factors were associated with seroprevalence: illiterate/incomplete elementary owner's education level (prevalence ratio = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.05-2.34; p-value = 0.027) and tick infestation (prevalence ratio = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.27-2.61; p-value = 0.001). It is concluded that the seroprevalence of CVL in the Brejo Paraibano microregion is high. The factors associated with seroprevalence indicated the importance to develop socioeducational actions on the population, and the finding that tick infestation was associated with seroprevalence shows that there is a need for investigation regarding the role of ticks in the epidemiology of CVL.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
15.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(2): e021019, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428187

RESUMO

The midwest region of Brazil has witnessed an increase in the number of cases of human (HVL) and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the population's perception of these diseases, factors associated with CVL, its spatial distribution, and the prevalence of anti-Leishmania spp. in 385 dogs, determined using a commercially available immunochromatographic rapid test and confirmed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of the 385 samples, 54 were positive for CVL and confirmed by ELISA, corresponding to a prevalence of 14%. Knowledge of signs of CVL by tutors (p = 0.038); previous occurrence of CVL in the vicinity (p = 0.022); symptomatic dog(s) (p = 0.014), splenomegaly (p = 0.055), and ear ulcer(s) (p = 0.059) were significantly associated with CVL. The results revealed a significant prevalence of CVL spatially distributed in rural and urban contexts. The association between environmentally related variables and perception and the occurrence of CVL underscores the importance of implementing control and prevention strategies primarily focused on environmental management and health education activities.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Masculino , Percepção , Prevalência , Análise Espacial , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233206, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413894

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A surge in Food and Drug Administration (FDA) consumer complaints identified concerns that legume-rich, grain-free diets were associated with nutritionally-mediated dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Golden retrievers represent the most reported breed affected by this condition and previous studies documented the disease is responsive to dietary change and taurine supplementation. Although dietary findings across cases are compelling, prospective studies with control groups are lacking. The role of diet in developing taurine deficiency and echocardiographic changes consistent with DCM in healthy dogs is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that golden retrievers eating non-traditional diets are at a higher risk of having taurine deficiency and nutritionally-mediated DCM compared with those eating traditional commercial diets. We aimed to compare taurine concentrations and echocardiographic indices of systolic function between golden retrievers in each diet group and elucidate associations between diet and these variables. Additionally, we aimed to generate breed-specific reference intervals for whole blood and plasma taurine concentrations. ANIMALS: 86 golden retrievers. METHODS: Golden retrievers eating traditional or non-traditional diets were evaluated and diet history, taurine concentrations and echocardiographic data were collected. Dietary features, taurine concentrations and echocardiographic findings were compared between diet groups. Relative risks were calculated for the likelihood of echocardiographic abnormalities and taurine deficiency in each diet group. Breed-specific reference intervals were constructed for taurine concentrations in dogs from the traditional diet group. RESULTS: Golden retrievers eating non-traditional diets had significantly lower taurine concentrations and more frequent systolic dysfunction. Breed specific reference intervals are higher than previously reported across breeds. CONCLUSIONS: Non-traditional diets, which were typically grain-free and contained legumes in this study, were significantly associated with and have increased relative risk for the identification of taurine deficiency and echocardiographic abnormalities consistent with nutritionally-mediated DCM. These findings were identifiable in the absence of clinical signs and support the findings of multiple previous studies and the ongoing FDA investigation.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Taurina/sangue , Taurina/deficiência , Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/sangue , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Ecocardiografia , Grão Comestível , Fabaceae/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco
17.
Exp Hematol ; 86: 43-52.e1, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417302

RESUMO

Whole transferrin receptor (TfR) is present in reticulocyte exosomes. Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) is cleaved from whole TfR in human plasma, with the remnant cytoplasmic domain (cTfR) remaining membrane associated. In humans, sTfR is a biomarker that can detect iron deficiency in the presence of inflammatory disease. This condition is still a diagnostic dilemma in veterinary species. We aimed to (1) confirm the presence of exosomes and exosome-associated TfR in the serum of dogs, cats, and horses; and (2) to assess and compare the proportion of cTfR to total (cTfR + whole) in exosomal membranes of healthy and diseased dogs and cats and in healthy horses to indirectly predict their anticipated levels of circulating sTfR. We used discarded serum and whole blood samples from canine and feline patients, separated into healthy and diseased groups based on the health status of each patient, and healthy equine participants from a previous study. Ultracentrifugation, followed in some experiments by OptiPrep discontinuous density gradient fractionation, was used to isolate exosomes. Exosomes and associated TfR were identified using TEM and Western blot for TfR, respectively. Densitometry tracings of Western blots of serum exosomes were used to measure the proportion of cTfR to total TfR. Extracellular vesicles compatible with exosomes were successfully isolated and expressed TfR. The proportion of cTfR in dogs was greater than 50%, indicating that a majority of the whole TfR was cleaved to produce sTfR (and remnant cTfR). There was significant interindividual variation and no significant difference between healthy and diseased animals. The proportion of cTfR in cats was very low at 11%, indicating that very little sTfR was likely produced. There was a small yet significant difference between healthy and diseased cats. Healthy horses do not appear to cleave exosome-associated TfR. Diagnosis of iron deficiency in the presence of inflammatory disease remains a challenge in veterinary medicine. Our results indicate that TfR is poorly or unpredictably cleaved in veterinary species, revealing that there are species differences in exosomal TfR handling. These data suggest that development of an assay for the detection and quantification of sTfR in the species investigated may not be warranted.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Exossomos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Receptores da Transferrina/sangue , Animais , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Exossomos/patologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/patologia , Cavalos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232365, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330187

RESUMO

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), which carries tumor-specific mutations, is an emerging candidate biomarker for malignancies and for monitoring disease status in various human tumors. Recently, BRAF V595E mutation has been reported in 80% of dogs with urothelial carcinoma. This study investigates the BRAF V595E allele concentration in circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and assesses the clinical significance of BRAF-mutated ctDNA levels in canines with urothelial carcinoma. A total of 15 dogs with urothelial carcinoma were included. cfDNA concentration was measured using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the LINE-1 gene. To measure the concentration of the mutated BRAF gene in cfDNA, allele-specific real-time PCR with a locked nucleic acid probe was performed. BRAF mutations were detected in 11 (73%) of the 15 tested tumor samples. BRAF-mutated ctDNA concentrations were significantly higher in dogs with the BRAF mutation (14.05 ± 13.51 ng/ml) than in wild-type dogs (0.21 ± 0.41 ng/ml) (p = 0.031). The amount of BRAF-mutated ctDNA in plasma increased with disease progression and responded to treatment. Our results show that BRAF-mutated ctDNA can be detected using allele-specific real-time PCR in plasma samples of canines with urothelial carcinoma with the BRAF V595E mutation. This ctDNA analysis may be a potentially useful tool for monitoring the progression of urothelial carcinoma and its response to treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição/veterinária , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , Doenças do Cão/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Urológicas/veterinária , Alelos , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/sangue , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/sangue , Neoplasias Urológicas/sangue , Neoplasias Urológicas/genética
19.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 24(3): 201-207, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343952

RESUMO

Cysteine proteinases are well-known virulence factors of Leishmania spp. with demonstrated actions in both experimental mouse infection and human infection. However, studies on these enzymes in canine leishmaniasis are scarce. Here, we show, for the first time, the reactivity of sera from dogs living in an endemic area to a recombinant protein from the COOH-terminal region of cysteine B protease. In this work, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed using a 14kDa rcyspep protein obtained through a pET28-a expression system in Escherichia coli. First, 96-well plates were coated with rcyspep (500ng/well) and incubated with sera from dogs (1:100). Subsequently, IgG antibody detection was performed using rabbit anti-dog IgG antibodies conjugated with peroxidase. Sera from dogs (n=114), including suspect (n=30) and positive (n=50) dogs from a leishmaniasis-endemic area and dogs from a nonendemic area, (n=34), negative for leishmaniasis, were assessed. The results showed that sera from the suspect (42%) and positive (68%) groups responded differently to the antigen titers tested above the cut-off (Optical Density=0.166). This finding suggests that the immune response detected against cyspep may be related to clinical disorders present in these animals. Collectively, the data gathered here suggest that cyspep can sensitize the immune systems of dogs from a leishmaniasis-endemic area to elicit a humoral response, an immunological parameter indicating the contribution of this protein in host-parasite interaction.


Assuntos
Cisteína Proteases/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Leishmania , Leishmaniose/sangue , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Cisteína , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral , Camundongos , Coelhos
20.
Vet Ital ; 56(1)2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343094

RESUMO

Canine Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum is endemic in Mediterranean countries. The disease represents an important public health issue in Kosovo in which the autochthonous cases by humans were reported in the last years. The objective of this study was to survey the serological and clinical data of Canine Leishmaniasis in dogs in southwestern region of Kosovo. The blood samples were collected from stray dogs in four municipalities, respectively Prizren, Gjakova, Rahovec and Deçan. The total 125 samples were collected between April/September 2016. Antibodies of Leishmania infantum were detected by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA IgG). Out of total 125 serum samples, 23 dogs (18.4%) were positive for Leishmania infantum. In three of 23 infected dogs (13%) were shown the clinical signs of Canine Leishmaniasis as skin and ocular lesions, decreased appetite, lameness, diarrhea, lethargy and progressive weight loss. The highest infection rate was detected in Prizren municipality (21.6%), followed by Gjakova (17.6%), Rahovec (17.1%) and Deçan (7.8%). The present study confirmed that the Leishmaniasis is endemic in southwestern part of Kosovo and emphasized the need to establish the surveillance and control of this disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leishmania infantum/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Kosovo/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência
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