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1.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 22, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588935

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. Infections of animals with SARS-CoV-2 have recently been reported, and an increase of severe lung pathologies in domestic dogs has also been detected by veterinarians in Spain. Therefore, further descriptions of the pathological processes in those animals that show symptoms similar to those described in humans affected by COVID-19 would be highly valuable. The potential for companion animals to contribute to the continued transmission and community spread of this known human-to-human disease is an urgent issue to be considered. Forty animals with pulmonary pathologies were studied by chest X-ray, ultrasound analysis, and computed tomography. Nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs were analyzed to detect canine pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2. An additional twenty healthy dogs living in SARS-CoV-2-positive households were included. Immunoglobulin detection by several immunoassays was performed. Our findings show that sick dogs presented severe alveolar or interstitial patterns with pulmonary opacity, parenchymal abnormalities, and bilateral lesions. The forty sick dogs were negative for SARS-CoV-2 but Mycoplasma spp. was detected in 26 of 33 dogs. Five healthy and one pathological dog presented IgG against SARS-CoV-2. Here we report that despite detecting dogs with α-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, we never obtained a positive RT-qPCR for SARS-SoV-2, not even in dogs with severe pulmonary disease; suggesting that even in the case of canine infection, transmission would be unlikely. Moreover, dogs living in COVID-19-positive households could have been more highly exposed to infection with SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , /virologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Imunidade Humoral , Masculino , Espanha , Zoonoses/virologia
2.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(5): 565-569, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202509

RESUMO

This report describes the first clinical case of a transfusion-associated Mycoplasma haemocanis infection in a dog in Korea. A 6-year-old male Maltese underwent a red blood cell transfusion for idiopathic immune-mediated hemolytic anemia. Eighteen days after the blood transfusion, the recipient's packed cell volume decreased and basophilic organisms were found on erythrocytes. A polymerase chain reaction and sequential analysis showed that both the donor dog and recipient dog had M. haemocanis. Six weeks after doxycycline administration, no organisms were detected and the recipient's anemia had improved.


Assuntos
Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/terapia , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/veterinária , Transfusão de Sangue/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Doxiciclina/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Mycoplasma/transmissão , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma , Reação Transfusional/microbiologia , Reação Transfusional/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , República da Coreia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1942-1950, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901603

RESUMO

The campaign to eradicate dracunculiasis (Guinea worm [GW] disease) and its causative pathogen Dracunculus medinensis (GW) in Chad is challenged by infections in domestic dogs, which far outnumber the dwindling number of human infections. We present an agent-based simulation that models transmission of GW between a shared water source and a large population of dogs. The simulation incorporates various potential factors driving the infections including external factors and two currently used interventions, namely, tethering and larvicide water treatments. By defining and estimating infectivity parameters and seasonality factors, we test the simulation model on scenarios where seasonal patterns of dog infections could be driven by the parasite's life cycle alone or with environmental factors (e.g., temperature and rainfall) that could also affect human or dog behaviors (e.g., fishing versus farming seasons). We show that the best-fitting model includes external factors in addition to the pathogen's life cycle. From the simulation, we estimate that the basic reproductive number, R 0, is approximately 2.0; our results also show that an infected dog can transmit the infection to 3.6 other dogs, on average, during the month of peak infectivity (April). The simulation results shed light on the transmission dynamics of GWs to dogs and lay the groundwork for reducing the number of infections and eventually interrupting transmission of GW.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Dracunculíase/veterinária , Dracunculus/fisiologia , Animais , Chade/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Dracunculíase/epidemiologia , Dracunculíase/parasitologia , Dracunculíase/transmissão , Dracunculus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Modelos Teóricos , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Água
4.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1293, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the extent of knowledge and understanding of rabies disease in rural and urban communities of Pakistan. It also identified malpractices after suspected dog bite that might pose a risk for humans contracting rabies. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted (n = 1466) on people having different age groups and educational levels in four different geographic regions of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces in Pakistan. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of people were assessed using a structured questionnaire. We used a bivariate and multivariate analysis to study the association between rabies related mortalities in near or extended family members and different risk behaviors. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that the majority of the juvenile population (less than 18 years of age) were not aware of the clinical signs of rabies in animals. 75% of the total respondents were not vaccinated against rabies, 60% did not seek a doctor's advice after a suspected animal bite, and 55% had inadequate health care facilities for rabies patients in local hospitals. Respondents that had pets at home had not vaccinated (38%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.58) themselves against rabies due to lack of knowledge and awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis for rabies (51%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.25). They also tend to not visit doctor after suspected bite (52%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.97), which may had resulted in more deaths (65%; p < 0.05; odds ratio 1.73) of someone in their near or extended family due to rabies. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of knowledge about the nature of rabies disease and prophylaxis has contributed to increase of rabies related deaths. Inadequate health care facilities and poor attitude of not seeking medical attention after suspected dog bite are the major reasons of rabies related deaths. These findings could help in devising a targeted management strategy and awareness program to control and reduce the incidence of human rabies related deaths in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Raiva/veterinária , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/mortalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692783

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important zoonosis in Brazil. Dogs are considered the main domestic reservoirs of the disease in the country; hence, control measures are focused on these reservoirs. Despite efforts to prevent and control VL, important reductions in disease prevalence and incidence have not been identified, stimulating the development and application of new strategies. The choice and implementation of new control strategies can benefit from the application of mathematical models that allow the simulation of different strategies in different scenarios. Selecting the best strategy to be implemented is also supported by cost-effectiveness studies. Here we used the results of a mathematical model in which scenarios, including isolated use of the vaccine and insecticide-impregnated collar (IIC), both at different coverage rates, were simulated to conduct a cost-effectiveness study. The costs were calculated for each scenario considering a simulation period of four years. Collar application in both infected and non-infected animals was the most cost-effective strategy. For example, to reduce the prevalence in humans and dogs by approximately 70%, the costs ranged from $250,000 and $550,000 for the IICs and vaccination, respectively. Even in the scenario with 40% loss/replacement of IICs, this measure was more advantageous in terms of cost-effectiveness than vaccination. If the vaccine were applied with culling of seropositive tested dogs, then the measure became more effective with a reduced cost compared with the vaccine alone. The use of the three first consecutive vaccine doses had the greatest impact on the cost of the vaccination strategy. The advantage of using IICs is that there is no need for a prior diagnosis, unlike vaccination, reducing costs and facilitating implementation. The present study aims to contribute to strategies to reduce hosts infected with VL by reducing public expenditure.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/economia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Leishmania donovani/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/economia , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/economia , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Leishmania donovani/isolamento & purificação , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Prevalência
6.
Parasitol Res ; 119(9): 3023-3031, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725320

RESUMO

Hepatozoon canis is a hemoprotozoan organism that infects domestic and wild carnivores throughout much of Europe. The parasite is mainly transmitted through the ingestion of infected ticks containing mature oocysts. The aims of the present survey were to determine the prevalence of H. canis in hunting dogs living in Southern Italy and to assess potential infection risk factors. DNA extracted from whole blood samples, collected from 1433 apparently healthy dogs living in the Napoli, Avellino, and Salerno provinces of Campania region (Southern Italy), was tested by a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay to amplify H. canis. Furthermore, the investigated dog population was also screened by qPCR for the presence of Ehrlichia canis, a major tick-borne pathogen in Southern Italy, in order to assess possible co-infections. Two hundred dogs were H. canis PCR-positive, resulting in an overall prevalence of 14.0% (CI 12.2-15.9). Breed category (P < 0.0001), hair coat length (P = 0.015), and province of residence (P < 0.0001) represented significant risk factors for H. canis infection. The presence of H. canis DNA was also significantly associated with E. canis PCR positivity (P < 0.0001). Hunting dogs in Campania region (Southern Italy) are frequently exposed to H. canis, and the infection is potentially associated with close contact with wildlife. Further studies are needed to assess the pathogenic potential of H. canis, as well as the epidemiological relationships between hunting dogs and wild animal populations sharing the same habitats in Southern Italy.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Eucoccidiida/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/transmissão , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Eucoccidiida/genética , Eucoccidiida/fisiologia , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Risco , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Carrapatos/fisiologia
8.
Nature ; 586(7831): 776-778, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408337

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first detected in Wuhan in December 2019 and caused coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)1,2. In 2003, the closely related SARS-CoV had been detected in domestic cats and a dog3. However, little is known about the susceptibility of domestic pet mammals to SARS-CoV-2. Here, using PCR with reverse transcription, serology, sequencing the viral genome and virus isolation, we show that 2 out of 15 dogs from households with confirmed human cases of COVID-19 in Hong Kong were found to be infected with SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in five nasal swabs collected over a 13-day period from a 17-year-old neutered male Pomeranian. A 2.5-year-old male German shepherd was positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA on two occasions and virus was isolated from nasal and oral swabs. Antibody responses were detected in both dogs using plaque-reduction-neutralization assays. Viral genetic sequences of viruses from the two dogs were identical to the virus detected in the respective human cases. The dogs remained asymptomatic during quarantine. The evidence suggests that these are instances of human-to-animal transmission of SARS-CoV-2. It is unclear whether infected dogs can transmit the virus to other animals or back to humans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471058

RESUMO

Over time the human-animal bond has been changed. For instance, the role of pets has changed from work animals (protecting houses, catching mice) to animals with a social function, giving companionship. Pets can be important for the physical and mental health of their owners but may also transmit zoonotic infections. The One Health initiative is a worldwide strategy for expanding collaborations in all aspects of health care for humans, animals, and the environment. However, in One Health communications the role of particularly dogs and cats is often underestimated. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of positive and negative One Health issues of the human-companion animal relationship with a focus on zoonotic aspects of cats and dogs in industrialized countries. METHOD: Literature review. RESULTS: Pets undoubtedly have a positive effect on human health, while owners are increasing aware of pet's health and welfare. The changing attitude of humans with regard to pets and their environment can also lead to negative effects such as changes in feeding practices, extreme breeding, and behavioral problems, and anthropozoonoses. For the human, there may be a higher risk of the transmission of zoonotic infections due to trends such as sleeping with pets, allowing pets to lick the face or wounds, bite accidents, keeping exotic animals, the importation of rescue dogs, and soil contact. CONCLUSIONS: One Health issues need frequently re-evaluated as the close human-animal relationship with pet animals can totally differ compared to decennia ago. Because of the changed human-companion animal bond, recommendations regarding responsible pet-ownership, including normal hygienic practices, responsible breeding, feeding, housing, and mental and physical challenges conforming the biology of the animal are required. Education can be performed by vets and physicians as part of the One Health concept.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Saúde Única , Zoonoses , Animais , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Humanos , Animais de Estimação , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233567, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437470

RESUMO

An outbreak of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) transmitted by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) has emerged as a major human and animal health concern in Mexicali, Mexico. Due to high rates of brown dog tick infestation, susceptibility, and association with humans, dogs serve as sentinels and have a key role in the ecology of RMSF. A cross-sectional household questionnaire study was conducted in six rural and urban locations to characterize dog ecology and demography in RMSF high-and low-risk areas of Mexicali. In addition, we tracked movement patterns of 16 dogs using a GPS data logger. Of 253 households, 73% owned dogs, and dog ownership tended to be higher in high-risk areas, with a mean dog:human ratio of 0.43, compared with 0.3 in low-risk areas. Dogs in high-risk areas had higher fecundity and roamed more, but the dog density and numbers of free-roaming dogs were comparable. There was a higher proportion of younger dogs and lower proportion of older dogs in high-risk areas. The high proportion of immunologically naïve puppies in high risk areas could result in a lack of herd immunity leading to a more vulnerable dog and human population. The marked increase of space use of free-roaming dogs in high-risk areas suggests that unrestrained dogs could play an important role in spreading ticks and pathogens. As means to limit RMSF risk, practical changes could include increased efforts for spay-neuter and policies encouraging dog restraint to limit canine roaming and spread of ticks across communities; due to dog density is less impactful such policies may be more useful than restrictions on the number of owned dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães/parasitologia , Febre Maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas/veterinária , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Animais de Estimação/fisiologia , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/fisiologia , Febre Maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas/epidemiologia , Febre Maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas/transmissão , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/transmissão
11.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 64-68, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342850

RESUMO

Hookworm infections are classified as the most impactful of the human soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, causing a disease burden of ∼4 million disability-adjusted life years, with a global prevalence of 406-480 million infections. Until a decade ago, epidemiological surveys largely assumed Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale as the relevant human hookworm species implicated as contributing to iron-deficiency anemia. This assumption was based on the indistinguishable morphology of the Ancylostoma spp. eggs in stool and the absence of awareness of a third zoonotic hookworm species, Ancylostoma ceylanicum. The expanded use of molecular diagnostic assays for differentiating hookworm species infections during STH surveys has now implicated A. ceylanicum, a predominant hookworm of dogs in Asia, as the second most common hookworm species infecting humans in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Despite this, with the exception of sporadic case reports, there is a paucity of data available on the impact of this emerging zoonosis on human health at a population level. This situation also challenges the current paradigm, necessitating a One Health approach to hookworm control in populations in which this zoonosis is endemic. Here, we have summarized the available research studies and case reports on human A. ceylanicum infections in Southeast Asia and the Pacific after 2013 using a systematic review approach. We summarized eight research articles and five clinical case studies, highlighting the importance of future in-depth investigation of zoonotic A. ceylanicum infections using sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic tools.


Assuntos
Ancylostoma/patogenicidade , Ancilostomíase/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Ancylostoma/isolamento & purificação , Ancilostomíase/diagnóstico , Ancilostomíase/parasitologia , Ancilostomíase/transmissão , Animais , Ásia Sudeste/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Doenças Negligenciadas/diagnóstico , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Saúde Única/legislação & jurisprudência , Ilhas do Pacífico/epidemiologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
13.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 80(2): 103-110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282314

RESUMO

To diagnose dogs infected by Leishmania infantum rK39 rapid diagnosis test is widely used in the Americas, while dual path platform (DPP) was recently adopted by Brazil. In this study we assessed the performance of rK39-RDT and DPP tests in recent urban transmission scenarios of Argentina. The sensitivity and specificity were evaluated with a sera panel and field samples, taken as true infected those from parasitological and/or PCR positive tests. Since none of these tests can be taken as a gold standard, the performance was also evaluated using Latent Class Analysis, a statistical modeling technique which allows to estimating sensitivity and specificity defining a latent class variable as the reference standard. The sensitivity of both tests in the panel was around 92% (symptomatic dogs 96%, asymptomatic 83%), while the sensitivity in field samples of rK39-RDT was 77%, and DPP 98% (mean in symptomatic dogs 89%, asymptomatic 82%). The specificity was similar for both tests and samples, around 98%. Therefore, these tests are acceptable for program dog population-based studies, as spatial stratification, focus intervention and follow up, and they could be used for individual screening and confirmation of clinical presumptive diagnosis in polysymptomatic dogs. The inability to discriminate between immunity and actual infectiousness suggest that a combination with other non-immunological based tests will be required for highly sensitive/specific diagnosis in order to targeting control measures in individual reservoirs from public health perspective, as for individual management from animal health perspective.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Argentina , Brasil , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(4): e1008409, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287326

RESUMO

The continual emergence of novel influenza A strains from non-human hosts requires constant vigilance and the need for ongoing research to identify strains that may pose a human public health risk. Since 1999, canine H3 influenza A viruses (CIVs) have caused many thousands or millions of respiratory infections in dogs in the United States. While no human infections with CIVs have been reported to date, these viruses could pose a zoonotic risk. In these studies, the National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Centers of Excellence for Influenza Research and Surveillance (CEIRS) network collaboratively demonstrated that CIVs replicated in some primary human cells and transmitted effectively in mammalian models. While people born after 1970 had little or no pre-existing humoral immunity against CIVs, the viruses were sensitive to existing antivirals and we identified a panel of H3 cross-reactive human monoclonal antibodies (hmAbs) that could have prophylactic and/or therapeutic value. Our data predict these CIVs posed a low risk to humans. Importantly, we showed that the CEIRS network could work together to provide basic research information important for characterizing emerging influenza viruses, although there were valuable lessons learned.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Furões , Cobaias , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/genética , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Influenza Humana/virologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Estados Unidos , Zoonoses/transmissão
16.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 162(3): 141-151, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146434

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are of increasing importance in human and veterinary medicine. Also, small animal clinics and practices are facing patients carrying antibiotic-resistant bacteria. What risk do these animals pose for animal owners? How can the risk of transmission to humans be reduced? A working group of human and veterinary medicine experts developed a guide for dog or cat owners with pets carrying antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The guide contains background information on the most important antibiotic-resistant bacteria in dogs and cats, namely methicillin-resistant staphylococci and extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Measures are listed to reduce the risk of transmission to humans. This review explains the pathophysiology, occurrence and risk factors of these bacteria in dogs, cats and humans. Recommended measures are outlined.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Humanos
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 95: 216-220, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173575

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The global Guinea Worm Eradication Program has reduced numbers of human infections of Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) to 49 cases in four countries. However, infections of domestic animals (dogs and cats) have recently been recognized and are increasing. Typically, Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) transmission occurs via the ingestion of copepods from water. Despite several interventions, including tethering of dogs while worms emerge, the number of infected dogs continue to increase. One hypothesis is that dogs could be infected through the ingestion of copepods in provisioned water. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether copepods can survive in water containers under typical Chadian temperatures. METHODS: Four container types (plastic, glass, gourd, and metal) were seeded with copepods and exposed to simulated Chadian temperatures. RESULTS: All copepods in the metal containers died within 4 h. Conversely, after 8 h live copepods were still present in plastic, glass, and gourd containers. CONCLUSIONS: If provisioned water is provided to potential hosts of D. medinensis, metal containers create the most inhospitable environment for copepods. Plastic containers have little effect on copepod mortality. The use of metal containers for water provisions could be a useful tool assisting with the interruption of D. medinensis transmission among dogs.


Assuntos
Copépodes/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Dracunculíase/veterinária , Animais , Chade , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Dracunculíase/transmissão , Dracunculus , Controle de Infecções , Água
20.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(3): 481-485, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194000

RESUMO

We characterized the antibody response to decorin-binding protein A (DbpA) or DbpB from immune serum samples collected from 27 dogs infected with Borrelia burgdorferi by Ixodes scapularis ticks. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to DbpA or DbpB were rarely detected, but high levels of IgG antibodies to DbpA were detected in 16 of 27 of the immune sera collected 1 mo after infection, 20 of 25 of the sera collected after 2 mo, and each of the 23, 17, or 11 serum samples evaluated after 3, 4, or 5 mo, respectively. In addition, IgG antibodies to DbpB were detected in 22 of 27 (p = 0.005) tested dogs after 1 mo, and the frequency of detecting the antibodies thereafter closely mimicked the antibody responses to DbpA. Moreover, antibodies to DbpA or DbpB were not produced by dogs vaccinated with a whole-cell B. burgdorferi bacterin; removing the antibodies to DbpA by adsorption to recombinant DbpA (rDbpA) did not affect the reactivity detected by a rDbpB ELISA. Therefore, the findings from our preliminary study showed that antigenically distinct antibodies to DbpA or DbpB are produced reliably during canine infection with B. burgdorferi, and the response is not confounded by vaccination with a Lyme disease bacterin. Larger studies are warranted to more critically evaluate whether detecting the antibody responses can improve serodiagnostic confirmation of canine Lyme disease.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Borrelia burgdorferi/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Adesinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Doença de Lyme/imunologia , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Carrapatos/imunologia , Carrapatos/metabolismo
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