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1.
Am J Vet Res ; 82(4): 280-285, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the dose of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) needed to achieve at least a 3-fold increase in plasma CoQ10 concentration in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and congestive heart failure (CHF). ANIMALS: 18 dogs with CHF due to MMVD and 12 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES: In a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial, dogs with MMVD were given 50 or 100 mg of water-soluble CoQ10 (ubiquinone; total daily dose, 100 mg [n = 5] or 200 mg [6]) or a placebo (7), PO, twice a day for 2 weeks in addition to regular cardiac treatment. Plasma CoQ10 concentration was measured in dogs with MMVD before (baseline) and at various time points after supplementation began and in healthy dogs once. Concentrations were compared among and within groups. RESULTS: No significant difference in median baseline plasma CoQ10 concentration was detected between healthy dogs and dogs with MMVD. Fold increases in plasma CoQ10 concentrations ranged from 1.7 to 4.7 and 3.2 to 6.8 for individual dogs in the 100-mg and 200-mg groups, respectively. The change in plasma CoQ10 concentration after supplementation began was significantly higher than in the placebo group at 4 hours and 1 and 2 weeks for dogs in the 200-mg group and at 1 and 2 weeks for dogs in the 100-mg group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A daily CoQ10 dose of 200 mg was sufficient to achieve at least a 3-fold increase in plasma CoQ10 concentration and may be used in CoQ10 supplementation studies involving dogs with CHF due to MMVD.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Ubiquinona , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Valva Mitral , Plasma
2.
Am J Vet Res ; 82(3): 171-180, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the pharmacokinetics and opioid effects of methadone after administration of multiple doses by means of 2 dosing regimens of methadone-fluconazole-naltrexone. ANIMALS: 12 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES: Dogs were randomly allocated (6 dogs/group) to receive 1 of 2 oral dosing regimens of methadone-fluconazole-naltrexone. Treatment 1 doses were administered at 0 (methadone-to-fluconazole-to-naltrexone ratio of 1:5:0.25 mg/kg), 14 (1:5:0.25), 24 (0.5:2.5:0.125), and 38 (0.5:2.5:0.125) hours. Treatment 2 doses were administered at 0 (1:5:0.25), 4 (0.5:2.5:0.125), 10 (0.5:2.5:0.125), and 24 (0.5:2.5:0.125) hours. Blood samples, rectal temperatures, and von Frey antinociceptive measurements were obtained at designated times. RESULTS: Compared with baseline, temperatures significantly decreased for treatment 1 group dogs at 2 to ≥ 4 hours and from 16 to ≥ 50 hours (12 hours after last dose) and for treatment 2 group dogs at 2 to ≥ 36 hours (12 hours after last dose), when trough methadone concentrations were ≥ 21.3 ng/mL. Antinociception occurred after the first dose but was not maintained throughout the study. Lesions were noted in some dogs at the application site of the von Frey device. Naltrexone and ß-naltrexol were sporadically detected in plasma, and naltrexone glucuronide was consistently detected. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Opioid effects were noted after oral administration of the first dose, and data suggested that administering a second dose 6 hours later and every 12 hours thereafter was necessary to maintain opioid effects. Antinociception may have been lost because dogs became averse or hyperalgesic to the von Frey device, such that the antinociception model used here may not be robust for repeated measurements in dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Administração Oral , Analgésicos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Fluconazol , Humanos , Metadona , Naltrexona , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Res Vet Sci ; 134: 159-170, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387756

RESUMO

Joint pain is a major cause of lameness in animals such as horses and dogs, and it may affect their athletic performance and quality of life. The intra-articular administration of analgesic/antinflammatory drugs is a common practice in veterinary medicine, for both lameness diagnosis and joint pain management. It is used either perioperatively, such as in animals undergoing arthroscopy/arthrotomy, and in osteoarthritic animals. However, evidence regarding efficacy and safety of each drug is limited, and controversies persist in these areas. In particular, it is often uncertain whether a defined treatment is effective by simply relieving the symptomatic pain associated with the joint disease, or whether it has a positive effect on the joint environment. Moreover, there is still much hesitation about treatments for joint diseases, related to the time of their application for the best outcome, and to any possible deleterious side effects. This article includes a review of the literature concerning the main analgesic/antinflammatory drugs used intra-articularly for managing acute and chronic joint pain/inflammation in dogs and horses. Three main issues for each class of drugs are considered, including clinical efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and local cytotoxic effects.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Injeções Intra-Articulares/veterinária , Artropatias/veterinária , Dor/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Cavalos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/veterinária , Artropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida
4.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 36, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis by Leishmania infantum is a first-order pathology in canine veterinary clinics in endemic areas. Moreover, canine infections are considered the main reservoir for human disease; despite their importance in the control of the disease within a One Health approach, no scientometric study has been published. Aims of the study included analyzing the impact of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) on the scientific literature, drugs or combinations used, trends in the period from 2000 to 2020 and efficacy criteria employed. METHODS: A Web of Science (WOS)-based analysis of publications on CanL and chemotherapy of the disease in the period 2000-2020 was carried out using a stepwise methodology. Data were analyzed by year, geographical origin, chemical groups, drugs and combinations, and efficacy criteria. RESULTS: Reports on CanL (n = 3324) represented < 16% of all publications on leishmaniasis (n = 20,968), and of these around 18% (n = 596) were related to chemotherapy. Publication records on CanL followed the distribution of the infection by L. infantum in endemic areas although Mediterranean countries were overrepresented in the reports on chemotherapy of CanL. Publications on the main antileishmanial drugs used in clinical practice showed a sustained tendency in the period analyzed. Pentavalent antimonials (SbV), alone or in combination with allopurinol, represented > 50% of all publications on chemotherapy of CanL despite the availability of more recently marketed drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy of CanL still relies on SbV and combinations and to a lesser extent on miltefosine (MIL). Reports on chemotherapy are scarce and mostly publicly funded, and the variability of experimental conditions hampers the direct comparison of the efficacy of drugs, combinations and schedules. The vast majority of reports on efficacy do not include any information on supportive therapy; this reduces the actual value of the studies if intended for the practical management of the disease. Complete reports on the chemotherapy (etiological + symptomatic) would add value to the trials performed.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Tratamento Farmacológico/métodos , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/terapia , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Publicações
5.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 51(1): 33-41, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131917

RESUMO

A range of gastroprotective drugs are available for the treatment of esophagitis and gastroduodenal mucosal injury including acid suppressants (ie, histamine-2 receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors), coating agents, prostaglandin analogs, and antacids. Of these, the proton pump inhibitors are the most effective drugs for the medical treatment of upper gastrointestinal injury. However, proton pump inhibitors are not effective for all causes of upper gastrointestinal injury. The choice of gastroprotective drug should be guided by the cause and location of gastrointestinal injury and the potential for adverse effects.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/veterinária , Animais , Antiácidos/administração & dosagem , Antiácidos/uso terapêutico , Cães , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H2/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H2/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico
6.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 51(1): 171-217, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187621

RESUMO

Probiotics/or synbiotics products for small animals do not fulfill the criteria required to qualify as a probiotic. Studies explaining modes of action are lacking. Outcome measures are inconsistent, with some trials assessing only nonspecific routine diagnostic parameters or fecal scores. Preliminary evidence shows that specific preparations are beneficial in parvovirus infections and acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome in dogs and in Tritrichomonas fetus infection in cats. In dogs, inflammatory bowel disease specific probiotics can decrease clinical severity. More studies focusing on functional outcomes in dogs and cats with well-defined diseases to allow evidence-based clinical use of probiotics and synbiotics are needed.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/veterinária , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Gatos , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008947, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338041

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is among the world's most neglected diseases. Dogs are the main reservoirs/hosts of Leishmania infantum, causative agent of both canine and human visceral leishmaniosis. Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) represents a public health problem as one of the most prevalent zoonotic diseases worldwide. Current therapeutics present drawbacks; thus, there is a need for more effective, safer, and cheaper drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate and to compare the efficacy of oral administration of artesunate or meglumine antimoniate/allopurinol in dogs with clinical leishmaniasis. Forty-two dogs with naturally occurring clinical leishmaniasis were included in this open-label, simple randomized positive-control clinical field trial with 6 months of follow-up. Dogs received meglumine antimoniate 100 mg/kg/day and allopurinol 30 mg/kg/day for 28 days (control group, n = 26) or artesunate 25 mg/kg/day for 6 days (test group, n = 16). The animals were evaluated for their clinical evolution, parasite load (by qPCR) and humoral response at different time points: 0, 30, 90, and 180 days after treatment. Data analyses showed a significant improvement in both groups in clinical scores, parasitemia and antibody titers after treatment. Compared to the control group, the artesunate group showed significantly lower clinical score (P = 0.0001), lower parasitemia (P = 0.0001) and antibody titers after 6 months of follow-up. Compared to baseline values, a rapid, significant reduction (P < 0.012) in antibody levels, 2.28- versus 3.04-fold for the control versus artesunate groups, respectively, was observed 30 days after treatment. Antibody levels continued to decrease further in the artesunate group, where 58% of cases became seronegative at the 6-month follow-up. All qPCR-positive dogs were negative after treatment with artesunate, while 14.3% remained positive with the appearance of two new cases in the control group. Artesunate was well tolerated, and no side effects were recorded. Treatment failures were similar in both groups with 27.27% (6/22), including 18.18% (4/22) mortality in the control group, versus 26.66% (4/15), including 13.33% (2/15) mortality in the artesunate group. This is the first report showing the potential of artesunate in the treatment of dogs with clinical leishmaniasis. Artesunate showed higher efficacy than the current first-line treatment for CanL without any adverse effects. It could be a good alternative chemotherapy for CanL, and may be considered for further studies in human leishmaniases. Further clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings, to determine if there are relapses after treatment and if dogs remain infective to sandflies, to define the ideal therapeutic dosage and duration of treatment with artesunate.


Assuntos
Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Artesunato/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmania infantum/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Antimoniato de Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Masculino , Carga Parasitária/veterinária , Parasitemia/tratamento farmacológico , Zoonoses
8.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(9): 699-707, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112167

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine perioperative analgesia associated with oral administration of a novel methadone-fluconazole-naltrexone formulation in dogs undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy. ANIMALS: 43 healthy female dogs. PROCEDURES: Dogs were randomly assigned to receive the methadone-fluconazole-naltrexone formulation at 1 of 2 dosages (0.5 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg, and 0.125 mg/kg, respectively, or 1.0 mg/kg, 5.0 mg/kg, and 0.25 mg/kg, respectively, PO, q 12 h, starting the evening before surgery; n = 15 each) or methadone alone (0.5 mg/kg, SC, q 4 h starting the morning of surgery; 13). Dogs were sedated with acepromazine, and anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. A standard ovariohysterectomy was performed by experienced surgeons. Sedation and pain severity (determined with the Glasgow Composite Pain Scale-short form [GCPS-SF]) were scored for 48 hours after surgery. Rescue analgesia was to be provided if the GCPS-SF score was > 6. Dogs also received carprofen starting the day after surgery. RESULTS: None of the dogs required rescue analgesia. The highest recorded GCPS-SF score was 4. A significant difference in GCPS-SF score among groups was identified at 6:30 am the day after surgery, but not at any other time. The most common adverse effect was perioperative vomiting, which occurred in 11 of the 43 dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Oral administration of a methadone-fluconazole-naltrexone formulation at either of 2 dosages every 12 hours (3 total doses) was as effective as SC administration of methadone alone every 4 hours (4 total doses) in dogs undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy. Incorporation of naltrexone in the novel formulation may provide a deterrent to human opioid abuse or misuse.


Assuntos
Analgesia , Doenças do Cão , Administração Oral , Analgesia/veterinária , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Feminino , Fluconazol , Humanos , Histerectomia/veterinária , Metadona/uso terapêutico , Naltrexona/uso terapêutico , Ovariectomia/veterinária , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Dor Pós-Operatória/veterinária
9.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(11): 676-683, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical findings, magnetic resonance imaging features, management and outcome of canine cases with presumed optic neuritis of non-infectious origin that were presented to a UK referral centre from January 2000 to December 2015. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical database was searched for optic neuritis. Dogs with acute-onset vision impairment, systemic immunosuppressive treatment and follow-up of ≥6 months were included. Information collected included: age; gender; breed; clinical signs and duration; physical, ophthalmic and neurological examination findings; concurrent systemic disease; and results of electroretinogram, magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, polymerase chain reaction and serology testing for Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and canine distemper virus, haematology and serum biochemistry profiles, abdominal ultrasound, thoracic radiography, treatment and outcome. RESULTS: Twenty-eight dogs were included, with a total of 48 affected optic nerves. Age at presentation ranged from 6 months to 10.5 years. Fundoscopic evidence of optic nerve disease was present in 34 of 48 (71%) optic nerves. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed enlargement of 32 of 48 (67%) nerves and contrast enhancement of 28 of 48 (58%) nerves. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis performed in 25 of 28 (89%) dogs revealed pleocytosis (>5 nucleated cells/uL) in 11 of 25 (44%) and increased protein (>0.35 g/L) in 11 of 25 (44%). Immunosuppressive prednisolone was administered to all dogs. Prednisolone was used alone in 9 of 28 (32%) dogs; the remaining 19 dogs received a combination of prednisolone with cytosine arabinoside, cyclosporine and/or azathioprine. Vision was recovered in 24 eyes (50%) of 18 affected dogs. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: A positive response to treatment was observed in 64% of dogs with presumptively diagnosed optic neuritis treated with immunosuppressive medication.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Neurite Óptica , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Neurite Óptica/tratamento farmacológico , Neurite Óptica/veterinária , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico
10.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(10): 810-820, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969725

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the biochemical, functional, and histopathologic changes associated with lomustine-induced liver injury in dogs. ANIMALS: I0 healthy purpose-bred sexually intact female hounds. PROCEDURES: Dogs were randomly assigned to receive lomustine (approx 75 mg/m2, PO, q 21 d for 5 doses) alone (n = 5) or with prednisone (approx 1.5 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 12 weeks; 5). For each dog, a CBC, serum biochemical analysis, liver function testing, urinalysis, and ultrasonographic examination of the liver with acquisition of liver biopsy specimens were performed before and at predetermined times during and after lomustine administration. Results were compared between dogs that did and did not receive prednisone. RESULTS: 7 of the I0 dogs developed clinical signs of liver failure. For all dogs, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, bile acid concentrations, and liver histologic score increased and hepatic reduced glutathione content decreased over time. Peak serum ALT (r = 0.79) and ALP (r = 0.90) activities and bile acid concentration (r = 0.68) were positively correlated with the final histologic score. Prednisone did not appear to have a protective effect on histologic score. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In dogs, liver enzyme activities, particularly ALT and ALP activities, should be closely monitored during lomustine treatment and acute increases in those activities may warrant discontinuation of lomustine to mitigate liver injury. Nonspecific ultrasonographic findings and abnormal increases in liver function tests were not detected until the onset of clinical liver failure. Glutathione depletion may have a role in lomustine-induced hepatopathy and warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Lomustina , Alanina Transaminase , Fosfatase Alcalina , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Fígado , Lomustina/efeitos adversos
12.
Aust Vet J ; 98(10): 491-498, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse outcome in dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin (MUO) treated with prednisolone and ciclosporin and to assess the effect of a number of patient variables on survival time and rate of relapse. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Medical records of 40 client-owned dogs with a diagnosis of MUO treated with prednisolone and ciclosporin at one institution between June 2010 and January 2018 were reviewed retrospectively to assess survival times and prognostic indicators for death and/or relapse. The minimum follow-up time was 11 months post-diagnosis. RESULTS: Median survival was 1345 days (95% confidence interval: 487-∞). No associations with hazard of death or relapse were detected for the presence of multifocal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities, caudal fossa location of MRI abnormalities, value of cerebrospinal fluid total nucleated cell count or total protein at time of diagnosis, or suspected elevation in intracranial pressure at time of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Protracted survival time may be achieved with a treatment combination of prednisolone and ciclosporin. Suspected elevation in intracranial pressure at the time of diagnosis did not affect long-term outcome in this cohort.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Meningoencefalite/tratamento farmacológico , Meningoencefalite/veterinária , Animais , Ciclosporina/uso terapêutico , Cães , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Vet J ; 262: 105504, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792093

RESUMO

Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-transmitted disease caused by Borreliella burgdorferi (Bb). Temporal studies of maternal antibody (Ab) profiles in Bb infected pregnant dogs and their pups have not been conducted. In this study, Ab profiles of a client-owned Bb C6 Ab positive Rottweiler and her nine pups were assessed. The dam presented with lameness 12 days prior to parturition and was C6 Ab positive with a Quant C6 Ab concentration of 237U/mL. Treatment with amoxicillin was initiated and 11 days later nine pups were delivered. Screening of the sera from the dam and pups against Bb cell lysates and a panel of antigens revealed similar immunoreactivity profiles. While antigen-specific IgG and IgM reactivity persisted in the dam for at least 7 months, a rapid decline in IgG specific for BBA36, BBK53, BB0238, BBA73 and outer surface protein (Osp) E in the pups occurred between days 29 and 52 post-parturition. In contrast, Ab specific for DbpA and the diagnostic antigens VlsE (C6) and OspF, remained elevated in the pups. Sera from the dam displayed potent complement-dependent bactericidal activity against Bb. Sera from the pups was also bactericidal but primarily through a complement-independent mechanism. Lastly, single dose vaccination of the dam at day 51 post-parturition with a LD subunit vaccine consisting of OspA and an OspC chimeritope triggered a broad anti-OspC Ab response indicative of an anamnestic response. Although this study focused on a single case, these findings add to our knowledge of maternal Ab profiles and will aid the interpretation of serological assays in pups delivered by a Bb C6 Ab positive dog.


Assuntos
Borrelia burgdorferi/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Vacinas contra Doença de Lyme/imunologia , Doença de Lyme/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Cães , Feminino , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Doença de Lyme/imunologia , Ontário , Vacinação/veterinária
14.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(9): 554-560, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734615

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe infection in companion animals with the zoonotic pathogen Corynebacterium ulcerans and to determine its prevalence in clinically-affected and healthy animals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical presentation and treatment of three cases of C. ulcerans infection is described. Two studies to determine C. ulcerans prevalence rates were undertaken: (a) a prospective study of nasal samples from healthy animals, 479 dogs and 72 cats; (b) a retrospective analysis of records of nasal samples collected over a 10-year period from 189 dogs and 64 cats affected by respiratory signs. RESULTS: Toxigenic C. ulcerans was isolated from four cats with nasal discharge while concurrent C. ulcerans and mecC methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection was detected in a dog suffering from chronic nasal discharge. Clinical features were not distinctive and all cases recovered following antimicrobial treatment. Multilocus sequence typing supported a common source for isolates from the shelter cats. Carriage rates of C. ulcerans in healthy animals were 0.42% (2/479) in dogs and 0.00% (0/72) in cats whereas in animals with signs of upper respiratory tract infection prevalence rates were 0.53% (1/189) in dogs and 6.25% (4/64) in cats. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Clinicians should be aware that dogs and cats can be infected with (or carriers of) toxigenic C. ulcerans Considering the potential zoonotic risk, assistance from medical and public health colleagues should be sought in confirmed cases.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Infecções por Corynebacterium , Doenças do Cão , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Respiratórias , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Corynebacterium , Infecções por Corynebacterium/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Corynebacterium/epidemiologia , Infecções por Corynebacterium/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Aust Vet J ; 98(11): 563-569, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839975

RESUMO

AIM: To describe faecal PCR (fPCR) results and clinical findings of dogs seen at a university teaching hospital for diarrhoea. DESIGN: Retrospective case series (April 2015 to July 2018). PROCEDURE: Data were collected from the hospital electronic medical records. Data extracted included signalment, history, clinical signs, treatment, fPCR panel results, other faecal diagnostic test results and antimicrobial use. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-eight dogs with diarrhoea had a fPCR panel submitted. Most dogs (115, 68.5%) had diarrhoea of 3 days or less duration. Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin gene was most frequently detected (156, 92.9%) by fPCR, followed by Campylobacter spp. (55, 32.7%), canine parvovirus (CPV) (29, 17.3%), Salmonella spp. (14, 8.3%) and Giardia spp. (9, 5.4%). For the 45 dogs that had a negative point-of-care CPV test, 13 were CPV fPCR positive; some of which were adult dogs with current vaccination status. A total of 94/168 (56%) dogs received antimicrobials at some time during the treatment of diarrhoea. CONCLUSION: Faecal PCR panels can identify dogs with enteric organisms in their faeces that traditional faecal diagnostics may miss, thus contributing additional information to the diagnostic process. Nonetheless, fPCR results should be interpreted in light of the clinical findings, and particular consideration given to avoiding inappropriate use of antimicrobials. This study highlights that testing for C. perfringens alpha toxin gene is not likely to be diagnostically helpful, and that adult dogs with diarrhoea might be identified as CPV positive with PCR testing, despite a negative point-of-care CPV test result and a current vaccination status.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Parvovirus Canino , Animais , Austrália , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Fezes , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238183, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857815

RESUMO

Lymphoma (lymphosarcoma) is the second most frequent cancer in dogs and is clinically comparable to human non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Factors affecting canine lymphoma progression are unknown and complex, but there is evidence that genetic mutations play an important role. We employed Next Gen DNA sequencing of six dogs with multicentric B-cell lymphoma undergoing CHOP chemotherapy to identify genetic variations potentially impacting response. Paired samples from non-neoplastic tissue (blood mononuclear cells) and lymphoma were collected at the time of diagnosis. Cases with progression free survival above the median of 231 days were grouped as 'good' responders and cases below the median were categorized as 'poor' responders. The average number of variants found was 17,138 per case. The variants were filtered to examine those with predicted moderate or high impacts. Many of the genes with variants had human orthologs with links to cancer, but the majority of variants were not previously reported in canine or human lymphoma. Seven genes had variants found in the cancers of at least two 'poor' responders but in no 'good' responders: ATRNL1, BAIAP2L2, ZNF384, ST6GALNAC5, ENSCAFG00000030179 (human ortholog: riboflavin kinase RFK), ENSCAFG00000029320, and ENSCAFG00000007370 (human ortholog: immunoglobin IGKV4-1). Two genes had variants found in the cancers of at least two 'good' responders but in no 'poor' responders: COX18 and ENSCAFG00000030512. ENSCAFG00000030512 has no reported orthologue in any other species. The role of these mutations in the progression of canine lymphoma requires further functional analyses and larger scale study.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/genética , Linfoma de Células B/veterinária , Animais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Variação Genética , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Células B/genética , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Vincristina/administração & dosagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
17.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(9): 547-553, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716068

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Preliminary evaluation of the efficacy of two commercial ear solutions composed of (1) chlorhexidine-Tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or (2) medical grade honey, for the treatment of otitis externa in dogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dogs affected with otitis externa housed in an animal shelter were eligible for inclusion. Treatment was applied daily for 10 days and effect was measured by otitis clinical scores and microbiological counts. One of the treatments was applied to affected left ears, while the other was applied to affected right ears. RESULTS: A total of 24 ears from 13 dogs were included in the study. During the treatment period, with both treatments it was observed an improvement in clinical scores and a decrease in microbiological counts. At the end of the study 22 of 24 ears were deemed to have mild (4 ears), or no (18 ears) pain, with only two ears still showing pruritus. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The application of ear solutions composed of chlorhexidine-Tris-EDTA or medical grade honey, in the absence of antimicrobial treatment, might be effective for the control of clinical signs and microbial colonisation in dogs with otitis externa. Additional randomised studies on clinical patients are required to validate these findings.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Mel , Otite Externa , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Otite Externa/tratamento farmacológico , Otite Externa/veterinária
18.
Exp Parasitol ; 217: 107947, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628971

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, an intracytoplasmic parasite that affects humans and other species of domestic and wild mammals. In Brazil, the treatment of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) with miltefosine has been implemented since 2016, and the reports on the clinical and immunological conditions of treated dogs are scarce. Thus, this study aimed to assess and monitor the clinical, laboratory, and immunological condition of dogs with CVL before (D0) and after (D29) using three pharmacotherapeutic protocols: miltefosine monotherapy (Milteforan™, Virbac) (G1), miltefosine plus allopurinol (G2), and allopurinol monotherapy (G3). Forty-five dogs with CVL were assigned to one of three treatment groups. The dogs were evaluated for clinical signs, was well as haematological, biochemical, serological, and cytokine levels. Significant reduction in clinical scores was observed in all protocols, with no differences between groups. We did not observe a clinical cure in any of the dogs in the groups. Haematological and biochemical parameters showed slow recovery, with better results observed in G2. Anti-Leishmania antibody titre remained increased in all groups. The quantification of serum cytokines demonstrated a mixed Th1/Th2 profile in CVL. The IL-2 levels decreased in all groups after treatment. Evaluation of IFN-y and IL-10 did not show changes in the groups analysed, and it did not contribute to short term therapeutic monitoring. All therapeutic protocols promoted, to varying degrees, an improvement in the general condition (clinical signs, haematological, and biochemical levels) of the animals. Through clinical-pathological exams, we found that the combination of miltefosine plus allopurinol promoted better effects in the short-term, representing the best choice for the treatment of CVL, even when compared to the only therapeutic protocol allowed in Brazil, miltefosine monotherapy. Through the quantification of cytokines, IL-2 proved to be a potential therapeutic marker for the monitoring and follow-up of dogs with CVL.


Assuntos
Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Citocinas/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/parasitologia , Masculino , Fosforilcolina/uso terapêutico
19.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(8): 627-634, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the ability of acetaminophen-codeine (AC; 15.5 to 18.5 mg/kg and 1.6 to 2.0 mg/kg, respectively) or carprofen (4.2 to 4.5 mg/kg) administered PO to attenuate experimentally induced lameness in dogs. ANIMALS: 7 purpose-bred dogs. PROCEDURES: A blinded crossover study was performed. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive AC or carprofen treatment first and then the alternate treatment a minimum of 21 days later. Synovitis was induced in 1 stifle joint during each treatment by intra-articular injection of sodium urate (SU). Ground reaction forces were assessed, and clinical lameness was scored at baseline (before lameness induction) and 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after SU injection. Plasma concentrations of acetaminophen, carprofen, codeine, and morphine were measured at various points. Data were compared between and within treatments by repeated-measures ANOVA. RESULTS: During AC treatment, dogs had significantly higher lameness scores than during carprofen treatment at 3, 6, and 9 hours after SU injection. Peak vertical force and vertical impulse during AC treatment were significantly lower than values during carprofen treatment at 3, 6, and 9 hours. Plasma concentrations of carprofen (R)- and (S)-enantiomers ranged from 2.5 to 19.2 µg/mL and 4.6 to 25.0 µg/mL, respectively, over a 24-hour period. Plasma acetaminophen concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 4.6 µg/mL and codeine concentrations from 7.0 to 26.8 ng/mL, whereas plasma morphine concentrations ranged from 4.0 to 58.6 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Carprofen as administered was more effective than AC at attenuating SU-induced lameness in dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Sinovite/veterinária , Acetaminofen/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Carbazóis/uso terapêutico , Codeína/uso terapêutico , Estudos Cross-Over , Cães , Coxeadura Animal/tratamento farmacológico
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234714, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584842

RESUMO

As a consequence of a hormonal imbalance, Prostatic Hyperplasia (PH) is characterized by increased prostate volume, along with higher local angiogenesis and vascularization. Orchiectomy is the common treatment for dogs, however it is not an option for breeding animals. Thus, finasteride arises as the drug of choice for stud dogs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orchiectomy or finasteride therapies on hormonal and vascular dynamics of PH dogs. Fifteen dogs, aged 6-13 years were assigned to: Untreated Group (dogs diagnosed with PH-n = 5), Finasteride treated group (PH dogs treated with finasteride-n = 5) and Orchiectomy treated group (PH dogs submitted to orchiectomy-n = 5). Evaluations were performed in a monthly interval (first day of treatment; after 30 and 60 days). Doppler ultrasonography was performed to measure prostatic volume, vascularization and hemodynamic profile of prostatic artery. Dihydrotestosterone, estrogen and testosterone concentrations were measured. At day 60, prostatic biopsy was performed for histological, immunohistochemical and qPCR analysis for VEGF-A expression. At day 60, vascularization score was higher in untreated compared to treated groups (finasteride and orchiectomy). Furthermore, VEGF-A expression was lower in the Orchiectomy Treated Group, but VEGF-A was immunohistochemically lower in both treated groups (finasteride and orchiectomy) compared to the Untreated Group. The efficiency of finasteride treatment in reducing clinical signs, prostate volume and vascularization appears to be similar to orchiectomy. In conclusion, both PH medical and surgical therapy lead to reduction in prostate dimension and VEGF-A expression and, consequently, lower local vascularization. However, orchiectomy promotes marked hormonal changes, which ultimately lead to prostate atrophy.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Finasterida/farmacologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios/sangue , Neovascularização Patológica , Orquiectomia , Hiperplasia Prostática/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Cães , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/fisiopatologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/terapia , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
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