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1.
Vet J ; 254: 105398, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836165

RESUMO

Canine lymphoma is one of the most common malignant tumours occurring in dogs and has a high incidence worldwide. Despite advances in cancer prevention, the treatment of neoplastic diseases still requires improvement. Some cancer cells may resist the effect of chemotherapeutic agents by up-regulating drug transporters leading to increased drug efflux, resulting in intrinsic or acquired drug resistance, which is a mechanism commonly seen in doxorubicin-resistant tumour cells. In this study, canine B-cell lymphoma cell line CLBL1-8.0, a doxorubicin-resistant B cell lymphoma cell line derived from CLBL-1 by increasing the doxorubicin concentration during culturing, exhibited high expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 [ABCB1]). These proteins are commonly involved in cancer cell resistance to doxorubicin. Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor significantly potentiated the sensitivity of doxorubicin in P-gp-overexpressing doxorubicin-resistant cells. Moreover, a combination of these two drugs may increase the retention of doxorubicin by decreasing the efflux of doxorubicin without affecting P-gp protein overexpression. In conclusion, imatinib reversed doxorubicin resistance by decreasing drug efflux in P-gp-overexpressing doxorubicin-resistant canine lymphoma cells. These results suggest that combining doxorubicin, one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of canine lymphoma, with imatinib might potentially overcome doxorubicin resistance in a clinical setting.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Mesilato de Imatinib/farmacologia , Linfoma de Células B/veterinária , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cães , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico
2.
Vet J ; 253: 105377, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685135

RESUMO

Management of urinary retention after spinal cord injury in dogs is often needed and can include use of medications to relax the urethral sphincter. This was a retrospective study evaluating two such medications, prazosin and diazepam, and whether dogs treated with these medications had different lengths of hospitalization, urinary continence levels, or development of bacteriuria compared to dogs not receiving these medications after thoracolumbar hemilaminectomy for intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH). Electronic medical records were searched for dogs that underwent CT or MRI followed by a hemilaminectomy between the 3rd thoracic and 3rd lumbar vertebra for treatment of IVDH. Dogs were grouped based on whether or not they received a medication to aid in urethral sphincter relaxation (either prazosin, diazepam, or both medications). The total length of hospitalization, urinary continence at the time of discharge, and presence of bacteriuria were recorded from the medical file. Medical records from 71 dogs were included in the analysis. There were no significant associations between administration of prazosin and/or diazepam and length of hospitalization or urinary continence scores at the time of discharge from the hospital (P > 0.05).


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Anestésicos/uso terapêutico , Diazepam/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/veterinária , Prazosina/uso terapêutico , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Retenção Urinária/veterinária , Adjuvantes Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Diazepam/administração & dosagem , Cães , Feminino , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Laminectomia/veterinária , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Prazosina/administração & dosagem , Registros/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Vértebras Torácicas , Resultado do Tratamento , Retenção Urinária/tratamento farmacológico
3.
Vet J ; 253: 105379, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685140

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease in dogs. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to treat OA; however, many dogs do not obtain adequate pain relief with an NSAID alone. This pilot study evaluated the systemic anti-inflammatory and mobility enhancing effects of an eggshell membrane-based nutritional supplement in dogs with OA-associated pain and mobility impairment. Twenty-seven dogs with OA-associated pain were enrolled into a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, proof of principle pilot study and received either placebo or an eggshell membrane-based nutritional supplement over a 12-week period. Inflammatory biomarkers (IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, C-reactive protein, S100A12, and N-methylhistamine) were measured at Day 0 and Day 84. Owner questionnaires (CBPI and LOAD) were completed at Day 0, Day 42, and Day 84. Differences between groups over time were calculated. Twenty-two dogs completed the pilot study. Inflammatory biomarker IL-2 decreased in the supplement group, compared to the placebo group. Although small, the difference was statistically significant at an alpha of 0.1 (P=0.069). LOAD scores were numerically lower in the supplement group, but not significantly different from the placebo group at Day 0. Day 84 LOAD scores were significantly lower in the supplement group compared to the placebo group (P=0.034). CBPI results did not show the same pattern. The changes in biomarkers and LOAD scores were small, and do not provide definitive evidence of positive effects. However, these pilot results provide a rationale for performing a larger placebo-controlled study of the potential effects of the eggshell membrane-based nutritional supplement.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Casca de Ovo , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Masculino , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos Piloto , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 161(11): 749-754, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685448

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Caval syndrome due to infection with Dirofilaria (D.) immitis is a life-threatening situation, needing immediate therapeutic intervention. Severe pulmonary hypertension due to dirofilariosis was diagnosed echocardiographically in a 3.6 kg dog with heart failure and moderate hemolytic anemia. A ball of adult worms was visualized in the tricuspid valve area. Using a modified pigtail catheter, these worms were removed under fluoroscopic guidance by a transvenous approach. Already intraoperatively the hemodynamic condition improved. Subsequently, additional routine adulticide treatment was performed without complications. Over the following weeks the severe pulmonary hypertension normalized slowly but steadily. Manual extraction of adult D. immitis can be achieved with relatively simple tools and allows rapid stabilization of a critically sick patient.


Assuntos
Dirofilariose/complicações , Dirofilariose/cirurgia , Doenças do Cão/cirurgia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/veterinária , Animais , Dirofilaria immitis , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 509, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haemaphysalis longicornis is the major tick affecting dogs in most of the East Asia/Pacific region and has recently been detected in a number of areas of the USA. This tick is a vector for a number of pathogens of dogs, other mammals and humans. In this study, the efficacy of a single oral administration of sarolaner (Simparica®, Zoetis) at the minimum label dosage (2 mg/kg) was evaluated against an existing infestation of H. longicornis and subsequent weekly reinfestations for 5 weeks after treatment. METHODS: Sixteen dogs were ranked on pretreatment tick counts and randomly allocated to treatment on Day 0 with sarolaner at 2 mg/kg or a placebo. The dogs were infested with H. longicornis nymphs on Days - 2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. Efficacy was determined at 48 hours after treatment and subsequent re-infestations based on live tick counts relative to placebo-treated dogs. RESULTS: There were no adverse reactions to treatment. A single dose of sarolaner provided 100% efficacy on Days 2, 7, 14 and 21; and ≥ 97.4% efficacy on Days 28 and 35. Considering only attached, live ticks, efficacy was 100% for the entire 35 days of the study. Geometric mean live tick counts for sarolaner were significantly lower than those for placebo on all days (11.62 ≤ t(df) ≤ 59.99, where 13.0 ≤ df ≤ 14.1, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a single oral administration of sarolaner at 2 mg/kg provided 100% efficacy against an existing infestation of H. longicornis nymphs and ≥ 97.4% efficacy (100% against attached ticks) against weekly reinfestation for at least 35 days after treatment.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Vetores Aracnídeos , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Ixodidae , Compostos de Espiro/uso terapêutico , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle
6.
Vet Parasitol ; 276: 108978, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765865

RESUMO

A controlled clinical trial was carried out to assess the mortality and repellency of a new topical combination of fipronil-permethrin (Effitix® Virbac, Mexico) against Rhodnius prolixus in dogs. Ten medium-size dogs (10-15 kg) with short hair were used. The dogs were exposed to 8 adult triatomines once weekly for 7 weeks. On the control day (D0), the dogs were exposed to the insects without treatment. On D7, the dogs were immediately treated with a spot-on 2.2 ml pipette containing 134 mg of fipronil and 1200 mg permethrin after exposure to the insects. The dose was repeated after 4 weeks following the manufacturer's instructions. Repellency at D0 was, 0 % and the insects had a high blood content. After 12 h post-contact, repellency was 86.3 % and slowly decrease though D21 and D28. On D7, none of the insects survived after 3 h of feeding on the treated dogs. On D14, D35 and D42, all insects died within 12 h post-feeding, whereas no mortality was observed in the control D0 (P < 0.05). The results of this study indicated that administration of the product following the manufacturer's instructions was efficacious at inducing rapid mortality of R. prolixus and therefore could be useful to prevent the transmission of American trypanosomiasis in dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Insetos Vetores , Inseticidas , Rhodnius , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Ectoparasitoses/tratamento farmacológico , Ectoparasitoses/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Masculino , Permetrina , Pirazóis
7.
Vet Parasitol ; 276: 108966, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759192

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the larval expulsion, larvicidal effect, retention rate of dead larvae and overall efficacy of sarolaner on the treatment of myiasis caused by New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax in naturally infested dogs. Eight Beagle dogs received a single dose of saroalner 40 mg, with dosage ranging from 2.7 mg/kg to 3.7 mg/kg. Evaluations occurred every 15 min in the first hour, every hour for up to 6 h, and after 24 h of treatment. At 24 h post-treatment, total wound cleaning was performed, including removal and counting of remaining live and dead larvae. The animals received antibiotic, analgesic and wound cleaning support until complete wound healing. The average expulsion of the larvae was 50.9 % occurring mainly after 4 h of treatment. The larvicidal effect was 70.6 % at 6 h after treatment and 100 % at 24 h. The mean retention rate of dead larvae of sarolaner was 33.9 %, The overall efficacy was 100 %, thus making sarolaner an excellent treatment option in myiasis caused by C. hominivorax larvae in dogs.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Miíase/veterinária , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/veterinária , Compostos de Espiro/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Miíase/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção por Mosca da Bicheira/tratamento farmacológico
8.
J Vet Sci ; 20(5): e57, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31565900

RESUMO

Theophylline acts as a bronchodilator and has an anti-inflammatory effect. In addition, theophylline can be applied in patients where there are concerns regarding the side-effects of corticosteroids. This retrospective case series evaluated theophylline-based therapy in tracheal collapse (TC) canine patients. Forty-seven dogs with TC that received theophylline-based therapy during 2013-2017 were investigated. A fluoroscopic examination was performed to diagnose and grade TC. Theophylline was prescribed (7.5-30 mg/kg PO q12h) and the theophylline serum concentrations were measured. Coughing was assessed using a coughing scoring scale. The mean coughing score decreased after the theophylline-based therapy compared with that observed before treatment. Clinical improvements were observed in 46/47 patients (97.9%). As the intrathoracic TC grading increased, the final theophylline dosage also increased (p value 0.019). The symptom-free period (SFP) with therapy was 189.7 ± 194.45 days (range, 0-720 days) and there was no statistically significant correlation between the SFP and age, sex, or TC grade on fluoroscopy. Although theophylline has generally been used as a third-line treatment, it was used as the main treatment in this study and most patients showed improvements. Dogs have a wider therapeutic index of serum concentrations than humans, and any undesirable effects were easily overcome. With further research, this therapy may prove to be a useful approach, but its safety for long-term use in the treatment of canine TC patients needs to be established.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Teofilina/uso terapêutico , Estenose Traqueal/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Cães , Feminino , Fluoroscopia/veterinária , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estenose Traqueal/tratamento farmacológico , Estenose Traqueal/etiologia
9.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 49(6): 981-991, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581985

RESUMO

Surgery is the mainstay of therapy for canine and human solid cancers. Alarmingly, evidence suggests that the process of surgery may exacerbate metastasis and accelerate the kinetics of cancer progression. Understanding the mechanisms by which cancer progression is accelerated as a result of surgery may provide pharmacologic interventions. This review discusses surgery-induced cancer progression. It focuses on immunomodulatory properties of anesthesia and opioids and evidence that studies evaluating the role of opioids in tumor progression are indicated. It concludes by discussing why companion animals with spontaneously arising cancer are an ideal model for clinical trials to investigate this phenomenon.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/veterinária , Dor/veterinária , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Cães , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Neoplasias/veterinária , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/veterinária
10.
Am J Vet Res ; 80(11): 1001-1006, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ability of a proprietary antagonist of E-type prostanoid receptor (EP) 4, grapiprant, and carprofen to attenuate lameness attributable to urate-induced synovitis in dogs. ANIMALS: 5 purpose-bred hound-cross dogs. PROCEDURES: A blinded, 3-way crossover study was performed. Dogs received each of 3 treatments (L-766, a proprietary antagonist of EP4; 4.0 mg/kg), grapiprant (an antagonist of EP4; 2.0 mg/kg), and carprofen (4.4 mg/kg); dogs received 4 doses of each treatment (14 and 2 hours before and 22 and 46 hours after urate injection). Synovitis was induced by intra-articular injection of sodium urate. Measurements (vertical ground reaction forces and clinical lameness scores) were obtained immediately before (0 hours; baseline) and 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after sodium urate injection. All data were analyzed with repeated-measures ANOVA. RESULTS: Lameness scores at 6 hours were significantly higher than baseline lameness scores for all treatments. Lameness scores for the grapiprant treatment remained significantly higher at 12 and 24 hours, compared with baseline lameness scores. Lameness scores for the carprofen treatment were significantly lower than lameness scores for the grapiprant treatment at 6, 12, and 24 hours. Analysis of peak vertical force and vertical impulse data revealed a pattern similar to that for lameness scores. Treatment with L-766 resulted in a significantly higher vertical impulse at 48 hours than did treatment with carprofen or grapiprant. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In these dogs, carprofen was the most effective treatment for attenuating lameness induced by injection of sodium urate, and grapiprant was the least effective treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Carbazóis/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Coxeadura Animal/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Prostaglandina E Subtipo EP4/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/uso terapêutico , Sinovite/veterinária , Animais , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Cães , Marcha , Injeções Intra-Articulares/veterinária , Coxeadura Animal/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Método Simples-Cego , Sinovite/induzido quimicamente , Sinovite/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Úrico
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 349, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: NSAIDs are accepted as the most predictably efficacious medical treatment of the clinical signs of osteoarthritis (OA). The marine-based fatty-acid compound PCSO-524 has been proposed as an adjunctive treatment for canine OA, however benefits of this agent is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of PCSO-524 combined with the NSAID firocoxib using force plate gait analysis, orthopedic assessment score (OAS) and canine brief pain inventory score (CBPI) in dogs with OA. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study was conducted. Seventy-nine dogs that had hip and/or stifle OA were assigned randomly into three treatment groups: firocoxib, PCSO-524 and combination of firocoxib and PCSO-524, orally for 4 weeks. Peak vertical force (PVF, expressed as a percentage of bodyweight), OAS, CBPI, serum prostaglandin E2 concentration, hematology and blood chemistry values were evaluated before treatment (Day0), as well as at the second (Day14) and fourth week (Day28) during treatment. RESULTS: Within group analysis revealed significant increases in PVF over the 4-week treatment period for firocoxib, PCSO-524 and the combination (p < 0.05). Mean increases in PVF were 3.25 ± 4.13, 2.01 ± 3.86, 4.11 ± 4.69%BW (mean ± SD) respectively. The OAS showed non-significant change in all treatment groups. There were significant decreases in CBPI pain severity score (PSS) and CBPI pain interference scores (PIS) within some groups over time, however no significant differences were found between the groups. Significantly decreased serum PGE2 concentration (p < 0.05) was found in the combination group. Significant increases in BUN and creatinine (p < 0.05) compared to pre-treatment values were found in the firocoxib and combination groups but not in the PCSO-524 group at day28, but all values in all dogs remained within the normal ranges. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggested combination of both PCSO-524 and firocoxib is more effective in alleviation of inflammation and improvement of weight bearing ability when compared to the uses of either PCSO-524 or firocoxib alone. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm this, and to determine if there is any benefit of PCSO-524 over placebo.


Assuntos
4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/uso terapêutico , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Sulfonas/uso terapêutico , 4-Butirolactona/uso terapêutico , Animais , Dinoprostona/sangue , Cães , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Marcha/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Osteoartrite/complicações , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/etiologia , Dor/veterinária , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Vet Ital ; 55(3): 203-220, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599545

RESUMO

Increasing antimicrobial resistance in both medicine and agriculture is recognised as a major emerging public health concern. Since 2005, campylobacteriosis has been the most zoonotic disease reported in humans in the European Union. Human infections due to Campylobacter spp. primarily comes from food. However, the human-animal interface is a potential space for the bidirectional movement of zoonotic agents, including antimicrobial resistant strains. Dogs have been identified as carriers of the Campylobacter species and their role as a source of infection for humans has been demonstrated. Furthermore, dogs may play an important role as a reservoir of resistant bacteria or resistance genes. Human beings may also be a reservoir of Campylobacter spp. for their pets. This review analyses the current literature related to the risk of Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance at the dog-human interface.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Humanos , Saúde Única , Medição de Risco
13.
Exp Parasitol ; 206: 107768, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539540

RESUMO

Canine leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum is a widespread zoonotic disease. Although aminosidine can be an effective treatment, current therapeutic recommendations do not advocate its use, mainly due to concerns regarding the potential nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of this drug. The aim of this randomized, blinded, controlled study was to evaluate the nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminosidine-allopurinol combination and compare it with that of meglumine antimonate-allopurinol combination in non-azotemic dogs with leishmaniosis. Forty dogs with leishmaniosis were randomly assigned to be treated with either aminosidine at 15 mg/kg, subcutaneously, once daily for 28 days (group A) or with meglumine antimonate at 100 mg/kg, subcutaneously, once daily for 28 days (group B). In addition to either drug, dogs in both groups were administered allopurinol at 10 mg/kg per os twice daily for 2 months. Kidney function was evaluated through measurement of serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, inorganic phosphorus, and cystatin-c concentrations and complete urinalysis, including protein-to-creatinine ratio, at baseline and after 14, 28, and 60 days from the beginning of the treatment. At the same time points, vestibular and auditory functions were evaluated through neurological examination and brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) recordings of wave I, wave V, inter-wave I-V latencies, and minimum hearing thresholds. None of the dogs developed clinicopathological evidence of kidney disease during the study. Serum creatinine concentration increased >0.3 mg/dl over baseline in 2 dogs in group A and in 5 dogs in group B. Parameters of kidney function were not significantly different or were improved compared to baseline and the only difference between the two groups was the lower concentration of serum creatinine in group A. None of the dogs developed peripheral vestibular syndrome or hearing impairment. At the end of the study, parameters of auditory function were not significantly different or were improved compared to baseline and there were no differences between the two groups. The results of this study show that the nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminosidine, when administered to non-azotemic dogs with leishmaniosis at 15 mg/kg subcutaneously once daily for 28 days along with allopurinol, is minimal and does not differ from that of meglumine antimonate.


Assuntos
Alopurinol/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Audição/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Paromomicina/efeitos adversos , Alopurinol/administração & dosagem , Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cóclea/efeitos dos fármacos , Creatinina/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/induzido quimicamente , Perda Auditiva/veterinária , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Antimoniato de Meglumina/administração & dosagem , Antimoniato de Meglumina/efeitos adversos , Antimoniato de Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Exame Neurológico/veterinária , Paromomicina/administração & dosagem , Paromomicina/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Aleatória , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 314, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malarone® is a drug used for the treatment of malaria in humans. This drug is also particularly effective in the treatment of canine Babesia gibsoni infections. Malarone® is rarely used in dogs, and its adverse effects have not been widely reported. Its mechanism of action is related to the inhibition of cytochrome b and electron transport in the cell. This is the first known report of the development of acute pancreatitis and alopecia in a dog following the administration of Malarone®. CASE PRESENTATION: A 3-year-old, intact, female Maltese was referred to our clinic with intermittent vomiting and sudden, generalized alopecia. Two months previously, the dog had been prescribed Malarone® for the treatment of a suspected B. gibsoni infection. The dog was evaluated using hematology, radiography, ultrasonography, a PCR for Babesia detection, and a canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) assay. The result of the PCR test was negative, whereas the cPLI assay yielded a positive result. Dermatologic examination revealed bacterial infection with hair cycle arrest. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, drug-induced acute pancreatitis and alopecia with superficial pyoderma were diagnosed. Malarone® may induce severe adverse reactions in dogs. Therefore, careful monitoring for adverse effects is required when using Malarone® in dogs.


Assuntos
Alopecia/veterinária , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Atovaquona/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Pancreatite/veterinária , Proguanil/efeitos adversos , Alopecia/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Atovaquona/uso terapêutico , Babesiose/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Pancreatite/induzido quimicamente , Proguanil/uso terapêutico
15.
Vet Parasitol ; 274: 108911, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499401

RESUMO

Giardia duodenalis is a common parasite in dogs in shelters where new introductions, including numerous juvenile individuals, are ongoing. A safe and effective single dose parasiticide is highly desirable for shelters experiencing disease caused by G. duodenalis (giardiosis). Secnidazole is an efficacious, low-cost medication used for the treatment of giardiosis in humans and has the advantage of requiring only a single oral dose. The aim of this study was to determine retrospectively the effectiveness of secnidazole on dogs of all ages during an outbreak of giardiosis in a shelter. Patients recruited into this retrospective study were divided into two groups. Group A consisted of adult dogs and weaned dogs (>10 weeks-of-age). Group B was comprised of puppies (<10 weeks-of-age). Giardiosis resolved in all 14 patients in Group A within 13 days following a single oral dose of secnidazole (30 mg/kg). There were no individuals with both gastrointestinal signs and a positive G. duodenalis antigen test at the time of the first and second follow-up examination. For the young puppies in Group B, giardiosis was reduced by 90% (9/10) within 22 days following two consecutive doses of secnidazole (30 mg/kg; 2 weeks apart). No adverse reactions were observed in any patients treated with secnidazole. Secnidazole is an effective and easily administered drug for the treatment of clinical canine giardiosis.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Giardíase/veterinária , Abrigo para Animais , Metronidazol/análogos & derivados , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/tratamento farmacológico , Metronidazol/administração & dosagem , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/parasitologia , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/veterinária
16.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 36: 4-8, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472726

RESUMO

This report describes a 10-month-old dog with a sudden loss of vision and severe dyspnoea. The ocular examination revealed bilateral panuveitis, lens subluxation, secondary glaucoma, and retinal detachment. In addition, the ocular ultrasound showed in the vitreous body of the right eye, a small doubled-lined foreign body compatible with an intraocular parasite. Radiographs of the thorax revealed an increased opacity with mixed lung pattern (alveolar and bronchial) and thoracic ultrasonography showed several subpleural nodules. The presence of Angiostrongylus vasorum first stage larvae was confirmed with 324 larvae per gram of feces and an antigen test for the parasite (AngioDetect, IDEXX) also yielded a positive result. The severe and irreversible ocular lesions described in this case enhanced the complexity of the clinical picture of canine angiostrongylosis. Infection with the parasite should be included in the list of differential diagnoses for ocular uveitis to avoid potentially serious complications related to a missed or delayed diagnosis.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Oftalmopatias/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Oftalmopatias/diagnóstico , Oftalmopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Oftalmopatias/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Glaucoma/complicações , Itália , Subluxação do Cristalino/parasitologia , Subluxação do Cristalino/veterinária , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Pan-Uveíte/parasitologia , Pan-Uveíte/veterinária , Descolamento Retiniano/parasitologia , Descolamento Retiniano/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/diagnóstico , Infecções por Strongylida/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Res Vet Sci ; 126: 131-138, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491669

RESUMO

This study examines correlations among serum proteins, clinical score, body weight and kidney function biomarkers after a standard treatment course (meglumine antimoniate plus allopurinol) in twelve Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) patients at the three times points pre treatment, after treatment and after the end of treatment. The laboratory variables measured were those used for the follow-up of sick dogs along with biomarkers of kidney function: glomerular filtration rate (GFR), creatinine (Cr), urea, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, urine specific gravity (USG) and urine protein to creatinine ratio (UPC). Arterial blood pressure (systolic blood pressure, SBP), clinical score (CS) and weight were also monitored over the study period. At Tp0, GFR was within the normal range in most dogs. Hyperfiltration was detected in three patients and hypofiltration in one. In dogs showing hyperfiltration, this factor remained in the non-azotemic range over the whole study period. After treatment normal filtration values were recovered. Meglumine antimoniate did not modify GFR or USG. A significant reduction in UPC was recorded. In all dogs, clinical scores improved. Negative correlation was found between GFR and Cr, UPC and albumin (Alb) and CS and Alb, while positive correlation was detected between UPC and total globulins (GlobT), CS and GlobT, UPC and total solids (TS), SBP and CS and SBP and UPC. Our findings indicate no impacts on kidney function of the treatment of CanL with meglumine antimoniate, as no effects were produced on GFR or USG. Treatment was effective and found to reduce UPC which could suggest improved glomerular injury.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Antimoniato de Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Alopurinol/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antiprotozoários/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores , Creatinina/urina , Cães , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Antimoniato de Meglumina/administração & dosagem
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 433, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety of ProHeart® 12 (PH 12; extended-release injectable suspension; 10% moxidectin in glyceryl tristearate microspheres) was evaluated in four studies using Beagle dogs and one study using ivermectin-sensitive Collies. The recommended dose is 0.5 mg/kg subcutaneously once yearly. METHODS: Study 1: safety margin was evaluated as 3 treatments of PH 12 (0× (control); 1× (recommended dose); 3× (3 times recommended dose) and 5× (5 times recommended dose) in 12 months via clinical observations, body weights, food consumption, injection site observations, physical examinations, moxidectin tissue assay, pharmacokinetics, and clinical and anatomic pathology. Study 2: safety in breeding-age males was demonstrated by semen testing at 14-day intervals from Day 7 to Day 91 post-treatment (0× or 3×). Study 3: reproductive safety in females was demonstrated by monitoring dams and litters following treatments (0× or 3×) administered during breeding, gestation, or lactation. Study 4: safety in dogs surgically implanted with adult heartworms was evaluated by clinical and laboratory monitoring following treatment with 0× or 3× administered 61 days post-implantation. Study 5: safety in ivermectin-sensitive dogs (120 µg/kg SC) was by clinical monitoring for 1 week after administering 1×, 3× or 5×. RESULTS: Study 1: slight swelling clinically detectable at some 3× and 5× injection sites was characterized microscopically as granulomatous inflammation, like tissue responses to medical implants, interpreted as non-adverse. Pharmacokinetics were dose-proportional and there was little or no systemic accumulation. Residual moxidectin mean (range) at 1× injection sites after 1 year was 16.0% (0.045-37.6%) of the administered mass. Studies 2 and 3: no effects were identified in reproductive indices (females) or semen quality characteristics (males). Study 4: PH 12 produced marked reductions in circulating microfilariae and lower numbers of adult heartworms, but no adverse clinical signs were identified. Study 5: there were no abnormal clinical signs at 1×, 3× or 5× overdoses of PH 12 in ivermectin-sensitive dogs. CONCLUSIONS: PH 12 has a > 5× safety margin in both normal and ivermectin-sensitive dogs, has no effects on canine reproduction, and is well tolerated in heartworm-positive dogs. The only treatment-related finding was non-adverse, granulomatous inflammation at the injection site.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/efeitos adversos , Preparações de Ação Retardada/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/patologia , Injeções/efeitos adversos , Macrolídeos/efeitos adversos , Suspensões/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antinematódeos/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Hidropericárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Suspensões/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Vet J ; 251: 105347, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492386

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with substantial morbidity and if untreated, mortality. The human classification of PH is based on pathological, hemodynamic characteristics, and therapeutic approaches. Despite being a leading cause of PH, little is known about dogs with respiratory disease and/or hypoxia (RD/H)-associated PH. Therefore, our objectives were to retrospectively describe clinical features, diagnostic evaluations, final diagnoses and identify prognostic variables in dogs with RD/H and PH. In 47 dogs identified with RD/H and PH, chronic airway obstructive disorders, bronchiectasis, bronchiolar disease, emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, neoplasia and other parenchymal disorders were identified using thoracic radiography, computed tomography, fluoroscopy, tracheobronchoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage, and histopathology. PH was diagnosed using transthoracic echocardiography. Overall median survival was 276.0 days (SE, 95% CI; 216, 0-699 days). Dogs with an estimated systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (sPAP) ≥47mmHg (n=21; 9 days; 95% CI, 0-85 days) had significantly shorter survival times than those <47mmHg (n=16; P=0.001). Estimated sPAP at a cutoff of ≥47mmHg was a fair predictor of non-survival with sensitivity of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.52-0.94) and specificity of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.38-0.84). Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) inhibitor administration was the sole independent predictor of survival in a multivariable analysis (hazard ratio: 4.0, P=0.02). Canine PH is present in a diverse spectrum of respiratory diseases, most commonly obstructive disorders. Similar to people, severity of PH is prognostic in dogs with RD/H and PDE5 inhibition could be a viable therapy to improve outcome.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/veterinária , Hipóxia/veterinária , Transtornos Respiratórios/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Cães , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Feminino , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 431, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The southern African yellow dog tick, Haemaphysalis elliptica, occurs in eastern and southern Africa and adults infest domestic and wild carnivores. This tick species is also a vector of the highly virulent Babesia rossi pathogen, the causative agent of canine babesiosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Sustained high levels of efficacy of a parasiticide are not only important in protecting dogs against the direct effects of tick infestation, but also in reducing the risk of tick-borne diseases. Sarolaner (Simparica™ chewable tablets) has been reported to be effective against the major tick species infesting dogs in Europe and the USA, including representatives from the genera Amblyomma, Ixodes, Rhipicephalus and Dermacentor. Until now no efficacy evaluations have been reported against species of the genus Haemaphysalis. The objective of the study was to confirm the efficacy of a single 2 mg sarolaner/kg oral dose of Simparica™ against induced infestations with H. (R.) elliptica, an important parasite of dogs in southern Africa. METHODS: This blinded, randomised, single centre, placebo controlled efficacy study followed a parallel group design and was conducted on two groups consisting of eight purpose-bred dogs each. Animals were treated orally, once on Day 0, with either a placebo compound (Group 1) or Simparica™ (Group 2). Simparica™ was administered orally at a dose rate of 2 mg sarolaner/kg body weight. The dogs were infested with ticks on Days - 7, - 2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33, with removal counts conducted on Days - 5, 2, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. RESULTS: A single oral administration of Simparica™ (sarolaner) at a minimum dose of 2 mg/kg resulted in a 100% efficacy against existing infestations of H. (R.) elliptica on dogs and a 100% reduction in live ticks following weekly re-infestations for 35 days. Moreover, the immediate and persistent high levels of efficacy observed in this study for 35 days is consistent with those observed in previous studies against ticks in other genera. CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica™), administered orally to dogs at the minimum label dose of 2.0 mg/kg, was demonstrated against existing and weekly re-infestations of H. (R.) elliptica for at least 5 weeks. Efficacy of 100% was achieved against existing infestations as well as weekly re-infestations.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Espiro/uso terapêutico , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , África Austral , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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