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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248578, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765012

RESUMO

The epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel Betacoronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) became a public health emergency worldwide. Few reports indicate that owned pets from households with at least one human resident that was diagnosed with COVID-19 can be infected by SARS-CoV-2. However, the exposure to SARS-CoV-2 of pets from households with no COVID-19 cases or stray animals remains less assessed. Using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90), we investigated the infection and previous exposure of dogs and cats to SARS-CoV-2 during the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From June to August 2020, 96 animals were sampled, including 49 cats (40 owned and 9 stray) and 47 dogs (42 owned and 5 stray). Regarding owned pets, 75.6% (62/82) belonged to households with no COVID-19 cases. Samples included serum, and rectal and oropharyngeal swabs. All swabs were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, but serum samples of a stray cat and a stray dog presented neutralizing antibodies for SARS-CoV-2, with PRNT90 titer of 80 and 40, respectively. Serological data presented here suggest that not only owned pets from households with COVID19 cases, but also stray animals are being exposed to SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , /imunologia , Animais , /virologia , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Orofaringe/virologia , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Reto/virologia , /isolamento & purificação
2.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652764

RESUMO

Infection of hosts by morbilliviruses is facilitated by the interaction between viral hemagglutinin (H-protein) and the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM). Recently, the functional importance of the n-terminal region of human SLAM as a measles virus receptor was demonstrated. However, the functional roles of this region in the infection process by other morbilliviruses and host range determination remain unknown, partly because this region is highly flexible, which has hampered accurate structure determination of this region by X-ray crystallography. In this study, we analyzed the interaction between the H-protein from canine distemper virus (CDV-H) and SLAMs by a computational chemistry approach. Molecular dynamics simulations and fragment molecular orbital analysis demonstrated that the unique His28 in the N-terminal region of SLAM from Macaca is a key determinant that enables the formation of a stable interaction with CDV-H, providing a basis for CDV infection in Macaca. The computational chemistry approach presented should enable the determination of molecular interactions involving regions of proteins that are difficult to predict from crystal structures because of their high flexibility.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Cinomose/genética , Doenças do Cão/genética , Família de Moléculas de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Animais , Química Computacional , Cinomose/virologia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/patogenicidade , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Humanos , Macaca/virologia , Mutação Puntual/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética , Receptores Virais/genética , Família de Moléculas de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária/química , Família de Moléculas de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária/ultraestrutura , Especificidade da Espécie , Linfócitos T/virologia
3.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 22, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588935

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. Infections of animals with SARS-CoV-2 have recently been reported, and an increase of severe lung pathologies in domestic dogs has also been detected by veterinarians in Spain. Therefore, further descriptions of the pathological processes in those animals that show symptoms similar to those described in humans affected by COVID-19 would be highly valuable. The potential for companion animals to contribute to the continued transmission and community spread of this known human-to-human disease is an urgent issue to be considered. Forty animals with pulmonary pathologies were studied by chest X-ray, ultrasound analysis, and computed tomography. Nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs were analyzed to detect canine pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2. An additional twenty healthy dogs living in SARS-CoV-2-positive households were included. Immunoglobulin detection by several immunoassays was performed. Our findings show that sick dogs presented severe alveolar or interstitial patterns with pulmonary opacity, parenchymal abnormalities, and bilateral lesions. The forty sick dogs were negative for SARS-CoV-2 but Mycoplasma spp. was detected in 26 of 33 dogs. Five healthy and one pathological dog presented IgG against SARS-CoV-2. Here we report that despite detecting dogs with α-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, we never obtained a positive RT-qPCR for SARS-SoV-2, not even in dogs with severe pulmonary disease; suggesting that even in the case of canine infection, transmission would be unlikely. Moreover, dogs living in COVID-19-positive households could have been more highly exposed to infection with SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , /virologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Imunidade Humoral , Masculino , Espanha , Zoonoses/virologia
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 517-528, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496240

RESUMO

The lack of population health surveillance for companion animal populations leaves them vulnerable to the effects of novel diseases without means of early detection. We present evidence on the effectiveness of a system that enabled early detection and rapid response a canine gastroenteritis outbreak in the United Kingdom. In January 2020, prolific vomiting among dogs was sporadically reported in the United Kingdom. Electronic health records from a nationwide sentinel network of veterinary practices confirmed a significant increase in dogs with signs of gastroenteric disease. Male dogs and dogs living with other vomiting dogs were more likely to be affected. Diet and vaccination status were not associated with the disease; however, a canine enteric coronavirus was significantly associated with illness. The system we describe potentially fills a gap in surveillance in neglected populations and could provide a blueprint for other countries.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Canino , Surtos de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Vômito/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães/virologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
5.
Arch Virol ; 166(2): 427-438, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389172

RESUMO

The leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) was listed as an endangered species under the Wildlife Conservation Act in Taiwan in 2009. However, no study has evaluated the possible direct or indirect effects of pathogens on the Taiwanese leopard cat population. Here, we targeted viral pathogens, including carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (genus Protoparvovirus), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), coronaviruses (CoVs), and canine distemper virus (CDV), through molecular screening. The spatial and temporal dynamics of the target pathogens were evaluated. Through sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, we clarified the phylogenetic relationship of viral pathogens isolated from leopard cats and domestic carnivores. Samples from 23 live-trapped leopard cats and 29 that were found dead were collected from 2015 to 2019 in Miaoli County in northwestern Taiwan. Protoparvoviruses and CoVs were detected in leopard cats, and their prevalence (95% confidence interval) was 63.5% (50.4%-76.6%) and 8.8% (0%-18.4%), respectively. Most of the protoparvovirus sequences amplified from Taiwanese leopard cats and domestic carnivores were identical. All of the CoV sequences amplified from leopard cats were identified as feline CoV. No spatial or temporal aggregation of protoparvovirus infection in leopard cats was found in the sampling area, indicating a wide distribution of protoparvoviruses in the leopard cat habitat. We consider sympatric domestic carnivores to be the probable primary reservoir for the identified pathogens. We strongly recommend management of protoparvoviruses and feline CoV in the leopard cat habitat, particularly vaccination programs and population control measures for free-roaming dogs and cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Panthera/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Coronavirus Felino/genética , Coronavirus Felino/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/genética , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/genética , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Parvovirinae/genética , Parvovirinae/isolamento & purificação , Taiwan/epidemiologia
6.
Vet Res Commun ; 45(1): 31-40, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392909

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal disorders caused by enteric viruses are frequently reported in dogs worldwide, with significant mortality rates in unvaccinated individuals. This study reports the identification and molecular characterization of Canine parvovirus (CPV-2), Canine coronavirus (CcoV), Canine astrovirus (AstV), and Canine calicivirus (CcaV) in a panel of dogs showing severe enteric clinical signs sampled in a typical Mediterranean environment (Sardinia, Italy). At least one of these viral species was detected in 92.3% samples. CPV-2 was the most frequently detected virus (87.2%), followed by AsTv (20.5%), CCoV-IIa (18%), and CCoV-I (10.3%). CCoV-IIb and CaCV were not detected in any sample. Single infection was detected in 24 samples (66.7%), mainly related to CPV-2 (91.7%). Coinfections were present in 33.3% samples with constant detection of CPV-2. Canine coronavirus was present only in coinfected animals. The VP2 sequence analysis of CPV-2 positive samples confirmed the presence of all variants, with CPV-2b most frequently detected. Phylogeny based on the CcoV-IIa spike protein (S) gene allowed to identify 2 different clades among Sardinian isolates but failed to distinguish enteric from pantropic viruses. Study on presence and prevalence of enteroviruses in dogs increase our knowledge about the circulation of these pathogens in the Mediterranean area and highlight the need for dedicated routine vaccine prophylaxis. Molecular analyses of enteric viruses are fundamental to avoid failure of vaccines caused by frequent mutations observed in these enteroviruses.


Assuntos
Infecções por Astroviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Caliciviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Astroviridae/genética , Astroviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Astroviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Astroviridae/virologia , Caliciviridae/genética , Caliciviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus/genética , Parvovirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia
7.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(1): 104-107, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350347

RESUMO

Nanoparticle-assisted PCR (nanoPCR) is a novel method for the simple, rapid, and specific detection of viruses. We developed a nanoPCR method to detect and differentiate canine coronavirus I (CCoV I) and II (CCoV II). Primer pairs were designed against the M gene conserved region of CCoV I and CCoV II, producing specific fragments of 239 bp (CCoV I) and 105 bp (CCoV II). We optimized the annealing temperature and primer concentrations for the CCoV nanoPCR assay and assessed its sensitivity and specificity. Under optimized nanoPCR reaction conditions, the detection limits were 6.47 × 101 copies/µL for CCoV I and 6.91 × 102 copies/µL for CCoV II. No fragments were amplified using other canine viruses as templates. The sensitivity of the nanoPCR assay was 100-fold higher than that of a conventional RT-PCR assay. Among 60 clinical samples collected from Beijing, China, the assay detected 12% positive for CCoV I and 48% positive for CCoV II. Our nanoPCR method is an effective method to rapidly detect CCoV I and CCoV II alone, or as a mixed infection, in dogs.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Canino/genética , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Nanopartículas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Animais , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus Canino/classificação , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
8.
Arch Virol ; 165(12): 2945-2951, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030572

RESUMO

Minute virus of canines (MVC) belongs to the family Parvoviridae, genus Bocaparvovirus, and has been mainly described during enteritis episodes in young dogs. This study reports the characterization of four divergent MVC strains detected between 2012 and 2018, three of which were from dogs illegally imported into Italy, most probably from Eastern Europe, that cluster together phylogenetically but share low genetic similarity with the fourth MVC from an autochthonous dog and other available MVC sequences. Our data indicate that the introduction of genetically distinct MVC strains occurred through the illegal movement of dogs from a geographic area where a distinct MVC lineage was most likely circulating. Enforced surveillance of MVC in the dog population of Eastern Europe and its neighboring countries may shed light on, and eventually trace back to, illegal animal movements.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA Viral/química , DNA Viral/genética , Europa Oriental , Itália , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Filogenia , Viagem
9.
J Vet Sci ; 21(5): e64, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canine distemper virus (CDV) infection results in high morbidity and mortality in dogs. There has been no report about isolation of Korean CDV since 1980 in Korea. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the biological properties and the genetic characterization of Korean CDV. METHODS: Vero cells expressing dog signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (dSLAM) gene named as Vero/dSLAM were used to isolate CDV using 17 samples. Diagnostic methods such as cytopathic effects, immunofluorescence assay, peroxidase linked assay, electron microscopy, rapid immunodiagnostic assay, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to confirm the Korean CDV isolate as a CDV. The genetic analysis was performed through cloning and sequencing of hemagglutinin gene of CDV isolate. RESULTS: A virus propagated in Vero/dSLAM cell was confirmed as CDV (CD1901 strain) based on the above methods. The CD1901 strain showed the highest viral titer (105.5 50% tissue culture infectious dose [TCID50]/mL) in the Vero/dSLAM cells at 4 days post inoculation, but did not form a fork on chorioallantoic membrane of 7-day-old egg. Ribavirin, a nucleotide analogue anti-viral agent, inhibits moderately the Korean CDV propagation in the Vero/dSLAM cells. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the H gene of CD1901 strain were compared with those of other CDV strains. The CD1901 strain belonged to Asia 1 group and had the highest similarity (99.9%) with the BA134 strain, which was isolated in China in 2008. CONCLUSIONS: We constructed successfully Vero/dSLAM and isolated one Korean CDV isolate (CD1901 strain) from a naturally infected dog. The CD1901 strain belonged to Asia 1 genotype.


Assuntos
Vírus da Cinomose Canina/fisiologia , Membro 1 da Família de Moléculas de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária/química , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cinomose/virologia , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , República da Coreia , Células Vero
10.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 110, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883344

RESUMO

Canine parvovirus (CPV) can cause acute and highly contagious bloody enteritis in dog. To obtain antibodies against CPV, hens were immunized with virus-like particles (VLP) of CPV-VP2. The IgY single chain fragment variables (scFv) were generated by T7 phage display system and expressed in E. coli system. The titer of the primary scFv library reached to 1.5 × 106 pfu/mL, and 95% of the phages contained the target fragments. The CPV-VLP and CPV-VP2 protein showed similar reaction values to the purified scFv in the ELISA test, and the results of ELISA analysis using IgY-scFv toward CPV clinical samples were consistent with commercial immunochromatographic assay (ICA) and PCR detection, the scFv did not show cross reactivity with canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine coronavirus (CCV). IgY-scFv was successfully expressed in CRFK cells, and in the virus suppression assay, 55% of CPV infections were eliminated within 24 h. Docking results demonstrated that the number of amino acids of the binding sides between scFv and VP2 were AA37 and AA40, respectively. This study revealed the feasibility of a novel functional antibody fragment development strategy by generating diversified avian IgY-scFv libraries towards the pathogenic target of interest for both detection and therapeutic purposes in veterinary medicine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/imunologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/imunologia , Animais , Galinhas/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Infecções por Parvoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Parvoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/genética
11.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 51, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a zoonotic neurological disease caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a flavivirus endemic in parts of Europe and Asia. Seroconversion without signs of clinical disease is common in dogs and most of the cases previously described have been tentatively diagnosed by combining neurologic signs with serum antibody titres. Here, the first Scandinavian RT-qPCR-confirmed clinical case of TBE in a dog is reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 4-year old castrated male Pointer Labrador cross was presented with acute-onset ataxia. During hospitalisation, the dog developed seizures. Despite aggressive treatment with steroids, antimicrobials and sedation/anaesthesia, there was continued deterioration during the following 24 h after admission and the dog was euthanised and submitted for necropsy. Histopathological changes in the brain were consistent with lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic meningoencephalomyelitis. RT-qPCR examination of the brain was positive for TBEV, confirming infection. CONCLUSIONS: Meningoencephalomyelitis caused by TBEV should be a diagnostic consideration in dogs presenting with clinical signs of central nervous system disease such as acute-onset ataxia and seizures in areas where TBEV-positive ticks are endemic. Clinical TBE may be underdiagnosed in dogs due to lack of specific testing.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/veterinária , Animais , Encéfalo/virologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/isolamento & purificação , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/diagnóstico , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/virologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Suécia
12.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933150

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses capable of causing respiratory, enteric, or systemic diseases in a variety of mammalian hosts that vary in clinical severity from subclinical to fatal. The host range and tissue tropism are largely determined by the coronaviral spike protein, which initiates cellular infection by promoting fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. Companion animal coronaviruses responsible for causing enteric infection include feline enteric coronavirus, ferret enteric coronavirus, canine enteric coronavirus, equine coronavirus, and alpaca enteric coronavirus, while canine respiratory coronavirus and alpaca respiratory coronavirus result in respiratory infection. Ferret systemic coronavirus and feline infectious peritonitis virus, a mutated feline enteric coronavirus, can lead to lethal immuno-inflammatory systemic disease. Recent human viral pandemics, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and most recently, COVID-19, all thought to originate from bat coronaviruses, demonstrate the zoonotic potential of coronaviruses and their potential to have devastating impacts. A better understanding of the coronaviruses of companion animals, their capacity for cross-species transmission, and the sharing of genetic information may facilitate improved prevention and control strategies for future emerging zoonotic coronaviruses. This article reviews the clinical, epidemiologic, virologic, and pathologic characteristics of nine important coronaviruses of companion animals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Animais , Camelídeos Americanos/virologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos/virologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães/virologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/epidemiologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/virologia , Furões/virologia , Variação Genética , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , RNA Viral/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/fisiologia , Replicação Viral , Zoonoses
13.
Arch Virol ; 165(11): 2699-2702, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851431

RESUMO

Canine bufavirus (CBuV) is a novel protoparvovirus of dogs that was first reported in 2018 in Italy. The prevalence and genetic diversity of CBuV in China are not clear. In this study, a total of 115 canine fecal samples were collected from northern China in 2019, and two of the samples tested positive for CBuV DNA by PCR. These two field CBuV strains were designated Henan38 and Henan44. The complete genomic sequences of Henan38 and Henan44 were obtained by gap-filling PCR, sequenced, and assembled. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the two strains clustered together in a novel group that was distant from previously reported CBuV strains. This study will strengthen our understanding of the epidemiology and genetic diversity of CBuV in China.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral , Parvovirus Canino/isolamento & purificação
14.
Arch Virol ; 165(11): 2495-2501, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776176

RESUMO

Canine kobuvirus (CaKoV), a newly described virus, is the causative agent of gastroenteritis in dogs. In this study, 57 fecal samples from dogs with diarrhea in Anhui Province, eastern China, were collected. Among these, five samples were identified to be infected with CaKoV, by polymerase chain reaction targeting the CaKoV 3D gene. The five CaKoV strains were subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The sequences of VP1 from the five CaKoV strains were 93.6%-96.1% identical to each other and 91.75%-97.95% identical to other reported CaKoV VP1 sequences. In addition, the complete genome of one strain was successfully amplified and sequenced. The genome consisted of 8223 nucleotides and shared 94.6%-97.0% nucleotide and 93.1%-94.0% amino acid sequence identity with other CaKoV isolates. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the CaKoV strain from Anhui Province was similar to other Chinese strains, and it was more closely related to feline and mouse kobuviruses than to sheep and bovine kobuviruses. Interestingly, all of the CaKoV-positive samples were coinfected with canine parvovirus. The finding of CaKoV infection in dogs with diarrhea and coinfection with canine parvovirus are a cause for concern and highlight the need for management and preventive measures.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Kobuvirus/classificação , Kobuvirus/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/veterinária , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genes Virais , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Filogenia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 247: 108777, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768223

RESUMO

Coronaviruses (CoVs) cause disease in a range of agricultural and companion animal species, and can be important causes of zoonotic infections. In humans, several coronaviruses circulate seasonally. Recently, a novel zoonotic CoV named SARS-CoV-2 emerged from a bat reservoir, resulting in the COVID-19 pandemic. With a focus on felines, we review here the evidence for SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats, ferrets and dogs, describe the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and the natural coronaviruses known to infect these species, and provide a rationale for the relative susceptibility of these species to SARS-CoV-2 through comparative analysis of the ACE-2 receptor.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Pandemias/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Gatos/virologia , Cães/virologia , Furões/virologia , Humanos , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/genética , Zoonoses/virologia
16.
Virus Res ; 288: 198113, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771430

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is recognized as one of the life-threatening viruses causing the most destructive pandemic in this century. The genesis of this virus is still unknown. To elucidate its molecular evolution and regulation of gene expression, the knowledge of codon usage is a pre-requisite. In this study, an attempt was made to document the genome-wide codon usage profile and the various factors influencing the codon usage patterns of SARS-CoV-2 in human and dog. The SARS-CoV-2 genome showed relative abundance of A and U nucleotides and relative synonymous codon usage analysis revealed that the preferred synonymous codons mostly end with A/U. The analysis of ENc-GC3s, Neutrality and Parity rule 2 plots indicated that natural selection and other undefined factors dominate the overall codon usage bias in SARS-CoV-2 whereas the impact of mutation pressure is comparatively minor. The codon adaptation index and relative codon deoptimization index of SARS-CoV-2 deciphered that human is more favoured host for adaptation compared to dog. These results enhance our understanding of the factors involved in evolution of the novel human SARS-CoV-2 and its adaptability in dog.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Betacoronavirus/genética , Uso do Códon , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Genoma Viral , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Gatos , Bovinos , Quirópteros , Cães , Evolução Molecular , Cavalos , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Mutação , Pandemias , Seleção Genética , Suínos
17.
Arch Virol ; 165(10): 2317-2322, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643035

RESUMO

Canine kobuviruses (CaKoV) have been found in healthy and diarrheic dogs as well as asymptomatic wild carnivores in various countries. In order to investigate the prevalence and evolution of CaKoV in Tangshan, China, 82 dog fecal samples from pet hospitals in Tangshan were subjected to RT-PCR targeting a segment of the 3D gene of CaKoV. Using this method, we identified CaKoV in 14 samples (17.07%, 14/82). Of the CaKoV-positive samples, 78.57% (11/14) and 50% (7/14) were positive for canine parvovirus and canine coronavirus, respectively. The nucleotide sequences of the 14 strains 96.6%-100% identical to each other and 77.6%-99.2% identical to representative sequences from the NCBI GenBank database. We also amplified the 14 VP1 gene sequences and found that they were 93.3%-99.6% identical to each other and 73.3%-97.8% identical to representative sequences from the NCBI GenBank database. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 14 CaKoV strains from Tangshan are closely related to those identified in China and Thailand and display less similarity to those found in Africa, the United States, and Europe. Our data suggest that CaKoV circulated in young pet dogs in Tangshan and displays a high co-infection rate with CCoV and CPV. However, the relationship between the three viruses and their roles in the host requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Kobuvirus/classificação , Kobuvirus/genética , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus Canino/genética , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães/virologia , Feminino , Genes Virais , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Filogenia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Prevalência , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética
18.
Arch Virol ; 165(9): 2079-2082, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627058

RESUMO

We evaluated the seroprevalence of Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) in dogs and cats in Córdoba, Argentina. Monotypic and heterotypic serological patterns were differentiated by means of a neutralization test. The SLEV seroprevalence in dogs was 14.6% (44/302; 100% monotypic). Two out of 94 (2.1%, 100% monotypic) cats were positive for WNV only. Four dogs (1.3%) exhibited neutralizing antibody titers against SLEV and WNV. During the study, three dogs seroconverted to SLEV. Our study demonstrates that pets were useful for detecting viral activity and could be considered as sentinels in the local surveillance of SLEV and WNV.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças do Gato/sangue , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Vírus da Encefalite de St. Louis/imunologia , Encefalite de St. Louis/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/sangue , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/veterinária , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/imunologia , Animais , Argentina , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Vírus da Encefalite de St. Louis/isolamento & purificação , Encefalite de St. Louis/sangue , Encefalite de St. Louis/epidemiologia , Encefalite de St. Louis/virologia , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/sangue , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/virologia , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental/isolamento & purificação
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008478, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692739

RESUMO

A canine rabies epidemic started in early 2015 in Arequipa, Peru and the rabies virus continues to circulate in the dog population. Some city residents who suffer dog bites do not seek care or do not complete indicated post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens, increasing the risk of human rabies. The objectives of our study are to qualitatively assess knowledge about rabies, and preventive practices, such as rabies vaccine administration, following a dog bite. We conduct eight focus group discussions in peri-urban and urban communities with 70 total participants. In our results, we observe low awareness of rabies severity and fatality, and different practices following a dog bite, depending on the community type: for example, whereas participants in the urban communities report cleaning the wound with hydrogen peroxide rather than soap and water, participants in peri-urban areas cover the wound with herbs and hair from the dog that bit them. Misconceptions about rabies vaccines and mistreatment at health centers also commonly prevent initiating or completing PEP. We identify important behavioral and structural barriers and knowledge gaps that limit evidence-based preventive strategies against rabies and may threaten successful prevention of dog-mediated human rabies in this setting.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/virologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Vacinas Antirrábicas/imunologia , Raiva/veterinária , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Peru/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , População Urbana , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1247-1257, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32662391

RESUMO

Since its reintroduction in 2015, rabies has been established as an enzootic disease among the dog population of Arequipa, Peru. Given the unknown rate of dog bites, the risk of human rabies transmission is concerning. Our objective was to estimate the rate of dog bites in the city and to identify factors associated with seeking health care in a medical facility for wound care and rabies prevention follow-up. To this end, we conducted a door-to-door survey with 4,370 adults in 21 urban and 21 peri-urban communities. We then analyzed associations between seeking health care following dog bites and various socioeconomic factors, stratifying by urban and peri-urban localities. We found a high annual rate of dog bites in peri-urban communities (12.4%), which was 2.6 times higher than that in urban areas (4.8%). Among those who were bitten, the percentage of people who sought medical treatment was almost twice as high in urban areas (39.1%) as in peri-urban areas (21.4%).


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinas Antirrábicas/uso terapêutico , Raiva/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Animais , Mordeduras e Picadas/virologia , Demografia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru/epidemiologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Raiva/virologia , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana , Zoonoses
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