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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1285: 217-231, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770409

RESUMO

Domestic cats (carnivores) require high amounts of dietary amino acids (AAs) for normal growth, development, and reproduction. Amino acids had been traditionally categorised as nutritionally essential (EAAs) or nonessential (NEAAs), depending on whether they are synthesized de novo in the body. This review will focus on AA nutrition and metabolism in cats. Like other mammals, cats do not synthesize the carbon skeletons of twelve proteinogenic AAs: Arg, Cys, His, Ile, Leu, Lys, Met, Phe, Thr, Trp, Tyr, and Val. Like other feline carnivores but unlike many mammals, cats do not synthesize citrulline and have a very limited ability to produce taurine from Cys. Except for Leu and Lys that are strictly ketogenic AAs, most EAAs are both glucogenic and ketogenic AAs. All the EAAs (including taurine) must be provided in diets for cats. These animals are sensitive to dietary deficiencies of Arg and taurine, which rapidly result in life-threatening hyperammonemia and retinal damage, respectively. Although the National Research Council (NCR, Nutrient requirements of dogs and cats. National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2006) does not recommend dietary requirements of cats for NEAAs, much attention should be directed to this critical issue of nutrition. Cats can synthesize de novo eight proteinogenic AAs: Ala, Asn, Asp, Gln, Glu, Gly, Pro, and Ser, as well as some nonproteinogenic AAs, such as γ-aminobutyrate, ornithine, and ß-alanine with important physiological functions. Some of these AAs (e.g., Gln, Glu, Pro, and Gly) are crucial for intestinal integrity and health. Except for Gln, AAs in the arterial blood of cats may not be available to the mucosa of the small intestine. Plant-source foodstuffs lack taurine and generally contain inadequate Met and Cys and, therefore, should not be fed to cats in any age group. Besides meat, animal-source foodstuffs (including ruminant meat & bone meal, poultry by-product meal, porcine mucosal protein, and chicken visceral digest) are good sources of proteinogenic AAs and taurine for cats. Meeting dietary requirements for both EAAs and NEAAs in proper amounts and balances is crucial for improving the health, wellbeing, longevity, and reproduction of cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aminoácidos , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Suínos
2.
Am J Vet Res ; 82(4): 286-291, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764829

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate stiffness of the liver parenchyma in healthy adult cats by means of point shear wave elastography (PSWE). ANIMALS: 18 client-owned adult (1- to 6-year-old) healthy cats. PROCEDURES: Echogenicity and echotexture of the liver parenchyma were assessed by means of conventional B-mode ultrasonography. The shear wave velocity (Vs) of the right and left portions of the liver were measured by means of PSWE. RESULTS: B-mode ultrasonography revealed no abnormalities in echotexture or echogenicity of the liver parenchyma in any cat. Mean (95% CI) Vs in the liver parenchyma was 1.46 m/s (1.36 to 1.55 m/s) for the right portion, 1.36 m/s (1.26 to 1.47 m/s) for the left portion, and 1.43 m/s (1.35 to 1.51 m/s) overall. The difference in mean Vs between the 2 portions of the liver was significant. No significant correlation was found between Vs and body weight or between Vs and the depth at which this variable was measured. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Quantitative PSWE of the liver was feasible in healthy adult cats. The obtained values for Vs may be useful for interpretation of and comparison with values measured in cats with liver disease. Additional research is needed to explore the potential usefulness of PSWE for diagnostic purposes.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Hepatopatias , Animais , Peso Corporal , Gatos , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/veterinária , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatopatias/veterinária , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e016320, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605387

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the intestinal parasites of road-killed wild felines in the North Central and North, Paraná state, southern Brazil. The animals were monitored by sampling previously established transects. The places where the felines were run over were mapped, the animals were identified, and the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated. The feces were submitted to coproparasitological techniques of spontaneous sedimentation, floating in hypersaturated NaCl solution and centrifugal floating in zinc sulfate. All the parasitic structures detected were photomicrographed. In the coproparasitological analyses were identified oocysts of Cystoisospora spp., eggs of Ancylostomatidae, and Capillaria spp.; eggs of Aelurostrongylus spp., Toxocara spp., Physaloptera spp., Taenia spp., and Spirometra spp.; Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae; and eggs and adults of Ancylostoma cati and Taenia spp. One of the cats was parasitized by a flea of Ctenocephalides felis felis. Based on these results, the animals analyzed in this study supplied important samples for the evaluation of parasitic diversity of North of Paraná and suggested that this region may have conditions that allow the maintenance of these parasites life cycles in the environment and among wildlife.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Doenças do Gato , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Animais , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Biodiversidade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Parasitos/fisiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Prevalência
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e025020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605389

RESUMO

Gurltia paralysans is the causal agent of gurltiosis in domestic cats in South America. Although the life cycle of G. paralysans is unknown, it is thought that gastropods could act as intermediate hosts (IHs), as is the case for several nematodes in the Angiostrongylidae family. The aim of this study was to search for G. paralysans larvae in terrestrial gastropods and determine their role in the life cycle of this nematode species. Terrestrial gastropod samples (n=835) were collected in Punucapa, Valdivia, southern Chile, where cases of gurltiosis had been reported before. The samples included species from the families Arionidae, Limacidae, Helicidae and Milacidae. All gastropods were subjected to enzymatic digestion to isolate G. paralysans larvae. Ten percent of the gastropod samples were analyzed using seminested PCR targeting the 28S rRNA gene, while 2.6% were analyzed by histopathological examination. The results indicated the absence of G. paralysans when using any of the three methods. In conclusion, further studies are needed to evaluate specific species of aquatic or native gastropods acting as possible IHs (in this geographic location).


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Gastrópodes , Metastrongyloidea , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Chile , Gastrópodes/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Metastrongyloidea/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/transmissão , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
5.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(2): e1009373, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635912

RESUMO

The evolutionary mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 viruses adapt to mammalian hosts and, potentially, undergo antigenic evolution depend on the ways genetic variation is generated and selected within and between individual hosts. Using domestic cats as a model, we show that SARS-CoV-2 consensus sequences remain largely unchanged over time within hosts, while dynamic sub-consensus diversity reveals processes of genetic drift and weak purifying selection. We further identify a notable variant at amino acid position 655 in Spike (H655Y), which was previously shown to confer escape from human monoclonal antibodies. This variant arises rapidly and persists at intermediate frequencies in index cats. It also becomes fixed following transmission in two of three pairs. These dynamics suggest this site may be under positive selection in this system and illustrate how a variant can quickly arise and become fixed in parallel across multiple transmission pairs. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in cats involved a narrow bottleneck, with new infections founded by fewer than ten viruses. In RNA virus evolution, stochastic processes like narrow transmission bottlenecks and genetic drift typically act to constrain the overall pace of adaptive evolution. Our data suggest that here, positive selection in index cats followed by a narrow transmission bottleneck may have instead accelerated the fixation of S H655Y, a potentially beneficial SARS-CoV-2 variant. Overall, our study suggests species- and context-specific adaptations are likely to continue to emerge. This underscores the importance of continued genomic surveillance for new SARS-CoV-2 variants as well as heightened scrutiny for signatures of SARS-CoV-2 positive selection in humans and mammalian model systems.


Assuntos
/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/virologia , /fisiologia , Adaptação Biológica , Animais , Evolução Biológica , /virologia , Gatos , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Seleção Genética
6.
Arch Virol ; 166(2): 427-438, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389172

RESUMO

The leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) was listed as an endangered species under the Wildlife Conservation Act in Taiwan in 2009. However, no study has evaluated the possible direct or indirect effects of pathogens on the Taiwanese leopard cat population. Here, we targeted viral pathogens, including carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (genus Protoparvovirus), feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), coronaviruses (CoVs), and canine distemper virus (CDV), through molecular screening. The spatial and temporal dynamics of the target pathogens were evaluated. Through sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, we clarified the phylogenetic relationship of viral pathogens isolated from leopard cats and domestic carnivores. Samples from 23 live-trapped leopard cats and 29 that were found dead were collected from 2015 to 2019 in Miaoli County in northwestern Taiwan. Protoparvoviruses and CoVs were detected in leopard cats, and their prevalence (95% confidence interval) was 63.5% (50.4%-76.6%) and 8.8% (0%-18.4%), respectively. Most of the protoparvovirus sequences amplified from Taiwanese leopard cats and domestic carnivores were identical. All of the CoV sequences amplified from leopard cats were identified as feline CoV. No spatial or temporal aggregation of protoparvovirus infection in leopard cats was found in the sampling area, indicating a wide distribution of protoparvoviruses in the leopard cat habitat. We consider sympatric domestic carnivores to be the probable primary reservoir for the identified pathogens. We strongly recommend management of protoparvoviruses and feline CoV in the leopard cat habitat, particularly vaccination programs and population control measures for free-roaming dogs and cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Panthera/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Coronavirus Felino/genética , Coronavirus Felino/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/genética , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/genética , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/genética , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Parvovirinae/genética , Parvovirinae/isolamento & purificação , Taiwan/epidemiologia
7.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499363

RESUMO

Felid herpesvirus-1 (FeHV-1) is an important respiratory and ocular pathogen of cats and current vaccines are limited in duration and efficacy because they do not prevent infection, viral nasal shedding and latency. To address these shortcomings, we have constructed FeHV-1 gE-TK- and FeHV-1 PK- deletion mutants (gE-TK- and PK-) using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) mutagenesis and shown safety and immunogenicity in vitro. Here, we compare the safety and efficacy of a prime boost FeHV-1 gE-TK- and FeHV-1 PK- vaccination regimen with commercial vaccination in cats. Cats in the vaccination groups were vaccinated at 3-week intervals and all cats were challenge infected 3 weeks after the last vaccination. Evaluations included clinical signs, nasal shedding, virus neutralizing antibodies (VN), cytokine mRNA gene expression, post-mortem histology and detection of latency establishment. Vaccination with gE-TK- and PK- mutants was safe and resulted in significantly reduced clinical disease scores, pathological changes, viral nasal shedding, and viral DNA in the trigeminal ganglia (the site of latency) following infection. Both mutants induced VN antibodies and interferons after immunization. In addition, after challenge infection, we observed a reduction of IL-1ß expression, and modulation of TNFα, TGFß and IL10 expression. In conclusion, this study shows the merits of using FeHV-1 deletion mutants for prevention of FeHV-1 infection in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Imunidade Inata , Varicellovirus/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Linhagem Celular , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Deleção de Genes , Infecções por Herpesviridae/prevenção & controle , Imunização Secundária/veterinária , Masculino , Varicellovirus/fisiologia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/genética , Virulência/genética , Replicação Viral , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 660-663, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496650

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 readily transmits between domestic cats. We found that domestic cats that recover from an initial infection might be protected from reinfection. However, we found long-term persistence of inflammation and other lung lesions after infection, despite a lack of clinical symptoms and limited viral replication in the lungs.


Assuntos
/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/imunologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Animais , /virologia , Gatos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/virologia , Replicação Viral/imunologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401653

RESUMO

A boy affected by autism spectrum disorder was admitted for persistent high fever, without shiver, for two weeks. The boy referred to abdominal pain, in the first week of fever, and to mild anorexia in the last days before admittance to our hospital centre. The father reported that the boy suffered by geophagia and coprophagia and he has been going to a didactical farm (where he has been exposed to several kinds of animals) to improve his neuropsychiatric condition. Blood analysis shows severe eosinophilia and high levels of total IgE, and abdominal echocardiography showed hepatic lesions. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB) confirmed the suspicion of toxocariasis, linked to the habit of the boy to ingest ground or animal faeces in a didactic farm frequented by the boy. Treatment with albendazole and prednisone was administered with a rapid improvement of the symptoms and the laboratory findings and significant reduction of the hepatic lesion.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Febre/etiologia , Toxocaríase/diagnóstico , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças do Gato , Gatos , Criança , Doenças do Cão , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Prednisona/uso terapêutico , Toxocaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Small Anim Pract ; 62(2): 114-122, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cytological biopsies are an integral additional test to an abdominal ultrasound when a lesion is identified, but there is little published on factors that that may impact achieving a clinically useful sample of gastrointestinal lesions obtained by ultrasound-guided fine-needle cytologic biopsy. This retrospective, descriptive study aimed to assess factors that may influence the clinical usefulness of submitted cytological samples collected from gastrointestinal lesions by ultrasound-guided percutaneous fine-needle cytologic biopsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gastrointestinal cytological samples obtained from 25 dogs and 19 cats over 2.5 years were reviewed and determined as clinically useful or clinically useless as per the cytology report. Variables dependent on the ultrasound exam that were used in the analysis included lesion location, lesion thickness, loss of gastrointestinal layering, and the number of slides submitted. RESULTS: Thirty (30/44) of the submitted cytological samples were considered clinically useful. Factors associated with achieving a clinically useful sample in univariable models included the number of slides submitted and the thickness of the lesion. However, these two variables appear inter-related, as a weak correlation existed between them. Where histologic biopsies were obtained, a clinically useful sample had a partial or complete agreement with histology in three of 12 and eight of 12 cases, respectively. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Ultrasound-guided fine-needle cytological biopsies of gastrointestinal masses provided a clinically useful sample in two-third of the cases, especially if more slides were provided to the cytologist and thicker lesions were sampled.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Biópsia por Agulha Fina/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico por imagem , Cães , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/veterinária
11.
Aust Vet J ; 99(4): 108-113, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33442882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe small animal transfusion practices in Australia, including access to blood products and frequency of pre-transfusion compatibility testing and medication administration. METHODS: An online survey was disseminated to target Australian veterinarians treating dogs and cats. Information collected included demographics, sources of blood products, blood storage, recipient compatibility testing and administration of medications pre-transfusion. Associations between the use of compatibility tests and premedications were assessed using the χ2 test. Significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 199 Australian veterinarians were included; however, there was some attrition of respondents over the course of the survey. The majority of respondents were in general practice (n = 133/199). Access to fresh whole blood was commonly reported for dogs (n = 179/199) and cats (n = 131/198), whereas blood components were less commonly available (canine red blood cells [RBC], n = 52/199 and plasma, n = 157/199; feline RBC, n = 9/198 and plasma, n = 21/198). Most blood was sourced from the pets of owners affiliated with the veterinary clinic (n = 179/196). The respondents who did not blood type or crossmatch dogs were significantly more likely to use premedication than those who did these tests (both comparisons: P < 0.001). Likewise, the respondents who did not blood-type cats were significantly more likely to use premedication (P = 0.003); however, there was no association between crossmatching and using premedication in cats (P = 0.183). CONCLUSION: This is the first survey to describe transfusion practices across a variety of practice types throughout Australia. Future work is needed to determine how representative these results are of current transfusion practices across Australia, and if so, what can be done to optimise them.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Animais , Austrália , Gatos , Cães , Internet , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
J Small Anim Pract ; 62(2): 97-106, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to estimate the incidence and prevalence of feline lymphoma in cats attending primary-care practices across the UK and to identify patient-based and environmental (radon and pesticide exposure) risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case records from the VetCompass programme from primary-care veterinary practices in the UK were searched for a diagnosis of lymphoma in cats in 2016. Cases were required to have had an external laboratory confirmed diagnosis based on cytology and/or histopathology. A nested case-control study design was used to identify risk factors for lymphoma using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: From a cohort of 562,446 cats under veterinary care at VetCompass participating practices in 2016, a total of 271 lymphoma cases were identified (prevalence: 48/100,000, 95% confidence interval (CI) 44 to 56/100,000; incidence 32/100,000, 95% CI 26 to 35/100,000). There were 180 incident lymphoma cases and 803 controls, all aged 2 years and older. Male (odds ratio (OR) 1.7, 95% CI 1.2 to 2.4), insured (OR 3.6, 95% CI 2.3 to 5.6) and older cats (compared to cats 2 to <5 years, OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.8 to 8.8) were associated with increased odds of lymphoma diagnosis. Vaccinated cats were associated with decreased odds (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.0) compared to unvaccinated cats, although the type of vaccination received was not statistically significant. Breed and environmental factors studied were not associated with a diagnosis of lymphoma. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to estimate the frequency and report risk factors for lymphoma in cats attending UK primary-care practice.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Linfoma , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/etiologia , Gatos , Incidência , Linfoma/epidemiologia , Linfoma/veterinária , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
13.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 51(1): 123-136, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131914

RESUMO

Nutrition can influence those functions of the gastrointestinal tract that can be adversely affected in chronic enteropathy, such as microbiota, mucosal immune system, intestinal permeability, and motility. Diet serves as a possible risk factor in disease pathogenesis and as a target for treatment in chronic enteropathy. Malnutrition is prevalent in people with inflammatory bowel disease and negatively affects outcome. Approximately two-thirds of dogs with protein-losing enteropathy due to chronic enteropathy or lymphangiectasia are underweight. Commercial diets and home-prepared diets have been used successfully in the management of chronic enteropathy. Fat restriction is the main dietary strategy for intestinal lymphangiectasia.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/dietoterapia , Dieta/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/dietoterapia , Enteropatias Perdedoras de Proteínas/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Necessidades Nutricionais , Enteropatias Perdedoras de Proteínas/dietoterapia
14.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 51(1): 155-169, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131916

RESUMO

The intestinal microbiome is an important immune and metabolic organ in health and disease. Recent molecular and metabolomic approaches have provided a better characterization of different types of dysbiosis, including mucosa-adherent bacteria and functional changes in the microbiome. This article summarizes recent advances in assessment of dysbiosis, the importance of the bile acid-converting Clostridium hiranonis as an important beneficial bacterium in the canine gut, and different therapeutic approaches to dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Disbiose/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Gatos , Diarreia/microbiologia , Cães , Disbiose/microbiologia
15.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 51(1): 1-15, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187619

RESUMO

Esophagitis in cats and dogs is a consequence of increased exposure of the esophageal mucosa to gastroduodenal reflux. Causes can include anesthesia-related reflux, frequent vomiting, or lodged foreign bodies. An exception is eosinophilic esophagitis, an emerging primary inflammatory disease of the esophagus with a presumed allergic etiology. Reflux esophagitis owing to lower esophageal sphincter incompetence is often suspected; a tentative diagnosis can be made by endoscopic assessment, wireless esophageal pH-monitoring, or histologic examination. Because it can be difficult to distinguish diet-responsive upper gastrointestinal disease from esophagitis, response to treatment with gastric acid suppressants is needed to confirm the tentative diagnosis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Esofagite Péptica/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Esofagite Péptica/diagnóstico
16.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 51(1): 171-217, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187621

RESUMO

Probiotics/or synbiotics products for small animals do not fulfill the criteria required to qualify as a probiotic. Studies explaining modes of action are lacking. Outcome measures are inconsistent, with some trials assessing only nonspecific routine diagnostic parameters or fecal scores. Preliminary evidence shows that specific preparations are beneficial in parvovirus infections and acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome in dogs and in Tritrichomonas fetus infection in cats. In dogs, inflammatory bowel disease specific probiotics can decrease clinical severity. More studies focusing on functional outcomes in dogs and cats with well-defined diseases to allow evidence-based clinical use of probiotics and synbiotics are needed.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/veterinária , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Gatos , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 51(1): 43-59, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187622

RESUMO

Gastric motility disorders present both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges and likely are under-recognized in small animal practice. This review includes a comparative overview of etiopathogenesis and clinical presentation of gastric motility disorders, suggests a practical approach to the diagnosis of these conditions, and provides an update on methods to evaluate gastric motor function. Furthermore, management of gastric dysmotility is discussed, including a review of the documented effect of gastric prokinetics.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Íleus/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Esvaziamento Gástrico , Íleus/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/veterinária
18.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 51(1): 93-109, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187624

RESUMO

Differentiation of feline inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal small cell lymphoma can be challenging, and some clinicians argue that it is unnecessary because prognosis and treatment are similar. Differentiation of feline inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal small cell lymphoma can be challenging and some clinicians argue that it is unnecessary since prognosis and treatment are similar. Altough the body of research on this topic has increased over time, we still know little about etiopathogenesis, progression, alternative treatment modalities and prognosis of the different forms of FCE. While differentiating IBD from SCL might not alter a single patients' disease course, further research efforts are required to alter the disease course for our feline patient population as a whole.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/veterinária , Linfoma/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Linfoma/diagnóstico
19.
J Parasitol ; 106(6): 835-842, 2020 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378530

RESUMO

Numerous arthropod taxa are important in human and veterinary medicine. The salivary secretions and feces of arthropods can cause allergic reactions in host vertebrates or harbor pathogens. Also, bites can be a risk factor for secondary infections. Documenting the diversity of arthropods of medical and veterinary importance remains an important aspect of disease control and prevention. We provide new records of ectoparasitic arthropods from Mexico that are of potential medical or veterinary relevance. Scanning electron microscopy along with amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the mitochondrial gene (16S rRNA) was used to confirm some species identities. We report the cat louse Felicola subrostratus from cats and the chewing louse Heterodoxus spiniger from dogs, which are common ectoparasites but largely not reported in Mexico. The chigger Eutrombicula alfreddugesi is common on wild lizards (Squamata). For the first time, E. alfreddugesi is reported on Hemidactylus frenatus (common house gecko). This reptile has a close relationship with humans and its chiggers can cause dermatitis (i.e., trombiculiasis) or transmit pathogens. In addition, the common bed bug Cimex lectularius is reported for the first time in the state of Yucatan, an atypical area for its natural distribution. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Cimex lectularius from Yucatan is closely related to genetic sequences of Cimex lectularius from China. Knowing the regional distribution of arthropods allows the design and implementation of prevention strategies for those that have potential roles as reservoirs or vectors.


Assuntos
Vetores Artrópodes/classificação , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Lagartos/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Animais , Vetores Artrópodes/ultraestrutura , Percevejos-de-Cama/classificação , Gatos , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Iscnóceros/ultraestrutura , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Masculino , México , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Infestações por Ácaros/parasitologia , Sifonápteros/ultraestrutura , Trombiculidae/ultraestrutura
20.
J Vet Med Educ ; 47(4): 482-487, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151116

RESUMO

Pain recognition and treatment in companion animals are important aspects of veterinary medicine, yet the teaching of these concepts may not be adequate at all academic institutions. This study was designed to evaluate veterinary students' ability to recall signs of pain and specific analgesic drugs in dogs and cats. We hypothesized that students in the fourth, or final, year of their veterinary curriculum would have a better understanding of pain recognition and be able to recall more analgesic options. A brief, voluntary, and anonymous open question survey was made available to all veterinary students, years 1 to 4, at our institution. The questions included, "How does a cat/dog show signs of pain?" and "What pain medications are used in cats/dogs?" Survey responses were collated according to the students' year in the curriculum, and the most common responses for signs of pain and analgesic medications recalled by the students in both the cat and dog were compared for significant differences. Results showed that students in the class of 2017 (seniors) had no superior recall of analgesic medications or recognition of pain in cats or dogs compared to the other classes. Vocalization was the most common sign of pain recalled with at least 50% responses from all classes. Carprofen was the most commonly recalled analgesic for dogs (the difference between classes, p = .04). Meloxicam was the most commonly recalled analgesic for cats (the difference among classes, p < .001). Based on these results, areas of improvement were identified for our analgesic curriculum.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Educação em Veterinária , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Cães , Humanos , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Dor/veterinária , Estudantes
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