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1.
Vet Parasitol ; 277: 109008, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841945

RESUMO

Ownership of domestic cats in North America has been on the increase; however, there are only a few surveys conducted on the prevalence of parasitism in client-owned cats over years. Our study objective was to evaluate parasite prevalence through statistical analysis of fecal examination results for client-owned cats on samples submitted to the veterinary parasitology diagnostic laboratory of Oklahoma State University over a 12-year period. All results of centrifugal flotation, saline direct smear, sedimentation, and Baermann examinations on fecal samples submitted to the Boren Veterinary Medical Hospital and Oklahoma Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory of Oklahoma State University from 2007 through 2018 were included. The impacts of sex, age, and seasonality on the prevalence of infection were also analyzed. A total of 2586 client-owned cat cases were included for this study. Parasites, eggs, oocysts, larvae, or cysts were not detected in the majority of cases (75.5%; 1,953/2586). Approximately 18.8% (485/2586) of client-owned cats were infected by one parasite, and 5.7% (148/2586) of cats were infected by multiple parasites. The most common parasite stage observed was Cystoisospora oocysts (9.4%; 243/2586), followed by Toxocara cati eggs (7.8%; 202/2586), Giardia cysts (4.0%; 104/2586), Alaria eggs (3.5%; 91/2586), Ancylostoma eggs (1.2%; 32/2586), taeniid proglottids/eggs (1.2%; 30/2586), Dipylidium caninum proglottids/egg packets (1.1 %; 29/2586), and Eucoleus aerophilus eggs (0.7%; 18/2586). Less commonly, Physalopetra eggs (0.19%; 5/2586), Toxascaris leonina eggs (0.19%; 5/2586), Tritrichomonas blagburni trophozoites (0.15%; 4/2586), Ollulanus tricuspis larvae/adults (0.12%; 3/2586), Platynosomum fastosum eggs (0.12%; 3/2586), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae (0.08%; 2/2323), Sarcocystis sporocysts (0.08%; 2/2586), Spirometra eggs (0.08%; 2/2586), Mesocestoides proglottids/eggs (0.08%; 2/2586), Trichuris felis eggs (0.08%; 2/2586), Cryptosporidium oocysts (0.04%; 1/2586), and Toxoplasma-like small coccidian oocysts (0.04%; 1/2586) were detected. Additionally, fecal examinations revealed some ectoparasites: Demodex mites (0.9%; 24/2586), Cheyletiella mites (0.15%; 4/2586), and Otodectes cynotis mites (0.04%; 1/2586). There was no statistical significance between different sex groups (p = 0.3316). Age affected the prevalence of Cystoisospora, T. cati, Giardia, and Alaria infections with prevalence decreasing as age increased (p < 0.0001). Statistical analyses also revealed significant differences by months; the higher prevalence of infection occurred from summer through fall (p = 0.0004). Overall, as the number of submittals increased, the prevalence of infection increased over the last 12 years (p < 0.0001). This study supports continuing the current practice of routine broad-spectrum anthelmintic and ectoparasitic treatments for client-owned cats as well as annual/biannual fecal examination.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Oklahoma/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Fatores Sexuais
2.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 713-721, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721931

RESUMO

Rickettsia spp. bacteria are responsible for tick-borne diseases worldwide, mostly maintained by rickettsial amplifiers capybaras in Brazilian endemic areas. The campus of the University of São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil, is an area endemic for Brazilian spotted fever (BSF), with high density of capybaras and Amblyomma spp., along with confirmed human cases. Besides capybaras, the university has also an in-campus high population of sheltered and free-roaming cats. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics associated with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia felis exposure among cats in a BSF-endemic area. Out of 51 cats sampled, 23/35 shelter (65.7%) and 5/16 free-roaming (31.2%) were positive (titers ≥ 64) for at least one Rickettsia species. Ticks species were present in 3/16 free-roaming cats (18.8%), consisting of Amblyomma spp., nymphs of Amblyomma sculptum and adult Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Despite sharing the capybaras environment, the seropositivity among the free-roaming and shelter cats was lower than owned cats in other endemic areas. Whether equally or less exposed to rickettsial infection, compared with owned cats in endemic areas, free-roaming and shelter cats may be used as environmental sentinels for human exposure to rickettsiae in such areas.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/veterinária , Rickettsia/isolamento & purificação , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Feminino , Masculino , Rickettsia/classificação , Infecções por Rickettsia/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rickettsia/microbiologia , Febre Maculosa das Montanhas Rochosas/transmissão
3.
J Helminthol ; 94: e96, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679534

RESUMO

Toxocariasis is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Toxocara canis and T. cati. Toxocariasis and its etiological agents are of global public health importance, whose burden appears underestimated, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The diversity in the transmission routes of these parasites contributes to disease prevalence and often hinders disease control measures. This study aimed to review the epidemiological distribution of Toxocara infections in SSA region. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis). We identified 94 relevant, peer-reviewed articles, out of which, 75 articles were found eligible based on Toxocara infections in dogs, cats and humans. Overall, 27,102 samples were examined for T. canis in dogs, T. cati in cats and Toxocara serology in humans, out of which 6142 were positive for Toxocara infection: 3717 (13.7%) in dogs (faecal, 3487; necropsy, 180; hair, 50); 266 (1%) in cats (faecal, 101; necropsy, 165); and 2159 (8%) in humans (serology). Overall mean prevalences of 19% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14-23%), 9% (95% CI: 0-28%) and 36% (95% CI: 24-49%) were recorded in dogs, cats and humans, respectively. Substantial heterogeneity was observed between studies and subgroups (I2 = 99%, P < 0.01). Findings from the review showed that studies on the epidemiology of Toxocara infections in the SSA region are limited. We strongly recommend focused, collaborative and coordinated studies to determine Toxocara spp. prevalence in various hosts, including food animals and the environment, through a 'One Health' approach across SSA countries.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Toxocara/classificação , Toxocara/genética , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Toxocara/fisiologia , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia , Toxocaríase/transmissão , Zoonoses/parasitologia
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 790-796, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691733

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Leishmania spp. antibodies, and its association with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV), in domestic cats from an area endemic for canine and human leishmaniasis in Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. Ninety-one cats were subjected to a complete clinical exam, and blood samples were collected. An epidemiological questionnaire was used to investigate the risk factors. IgG anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were detected by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), with a cut-off value of 1:40. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect genetic material of Leishmania spp. in the blood samples. The presence of antibodies against FIV and antigens of FeLV was evaluated using an immunochromatographic test. Seropositivity for Leishmania spp., FIV, and FeLV was observed in 14/91 (15.38%), 26/91 (28.57%), and 3/91 (3.29%) cats, respectively. All samples gave negative results on PCR analysis. Based on these data, no significant statistical association was observed between seropositivity for Leishmania spp., and sex, age, presence of clinical signs, evaluated risk factors, and positivity for retroviruses. These findings demonstrated for the first time that cats from Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte, are being exposed to this zoonosis and might be part of the epidemiological chain of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Cães , Doenças Endêmicas , Técnica Direta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/imunologia , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Vírus da Leucemia Felina/imunologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Risco
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 480, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoparasites in dogs and cats are a concern related to pet health and zoonotic risks. Several determinants may affect the endoparasite transmission and infection of dogs and cats such as pet's lifestyle or regional parasite distribution. Although different zoonotic endoparasites, such as Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus spp., have been identified in France, little information exists about the deworming behaviors of owners or the frequency of occurrence of risk factors associated with endoparasite infection or transmission. Deworming guidelines, such as those created by the European Scientific Counsel Companion Animal Parasites (ESCCAP), recommend a deworming frequency according to the risk of infection of every pet and the potential risk for zoonotic transmission. The objectives of this study were to explore how lifestyles of dogs and cats from France were related to a particular risk of endoparasites and assess whether deworming frequencies complied with ESCCAP recommendations. METHODS: French data were extracted from a database created during a recent European pet owner survey regarding endoparasitic infection risk. Dogs and cats were grouped into risk categories based upon the ESCCAP guidelines. The compliance between the actual and recommended deworming frequencies were explored among the regions surveyed. RESULTS: The majority of dogs and cats were older than 6 months, had outdoor access, had contact with children or elderly people, and lived in rural and town areas. Most of the dogs were in contact with other dogs, snails or prey (83%), and ate slugs, snails, grass or dug in the garden (68%). Likewise, most of the cats hunted outside (57%) and caught prey animals (52%). Consequently, most of the dogs (89%) and cats (53%) were considered to be in the highest-risk category (D). However, independent of the region, the average deworming compliance for dogs was poor (6%). While deworming compliance for cats in category A (low-risk) was excellent (94%), for cats in category D it was poor (6%). CONCLUSIONS: Deworming compliance is needed to enhance pet health and reduce zoonotic risks. Future studies are warranted to thoroughly investigate the compliance and effectiveness of deworming protocols, and the risk factors associated with endoparasites in France.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
6.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 45, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581952

RESUMO

Feline hyperthyroidism is a rather new disease, first reported from the North American east coast in 1979. The prevalence is increasing, especially in older cats, and hyperthyroidism is now reported worldwide as the most common feline endocrinopathy. Several studies have been performed trying to identify important etiological factors such as exposure to persistent organic pollutants, and especially brominated flame retardants, have been suggested to be of importance for the development of the disease. Recent studies have shown higher concentrations of these contaminants in serum of hyperthyroid cats in comparison to cats with normal thyroid status. However, other still unknown factors are most probably of importance for the development of this disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Hipertireoidismo/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/sangue , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/etiologia , Gatos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/sangue , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/toxicidade , Hipertireoidismo/sangue , Hipertireoidismo/epidemiologia , Hipertireoidismo/etiologia
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 786-789, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576973

RESUMO

Platynosomiasis is a hepatopathy caused by Platynosomum illiciens(= P. fastosum) (Trematoda: Dicrocoelidae), which occurs mainly in domestic and wild cats in tropical and subtropical areas. The objective of this study was to verify the occurrence of P. illiciens infection in domestic cats in the city of Araguaína, Tocantins, Brazil, using necropsy and coproparasitological tests. Additionally, we aimed to evaluate the use of two different techniques to diagnose P. illiciens infection in domestic cats and verify whether this parasitism was associated with individual feline characteristics. For this, 54 cats of different ages were analyzed. The percentage of infection was 33.3% (CI = 21.1-47.5%), parasite load was 9-509, mean intensity was 151.7, and mean abundance was 50.5 trematodes per animal. The risk of infection was higher for females than for males (OR = 5.00; P = 0.017). The spontaneous sedimentation coproparasitological test demonstrated the greatest sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing P. illiciens. This study is the first to report the occurrence of P. illiciens in cats in the state of Tocantins, northern Brazil.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Trematódeos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/diagnóstico , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Trematódeos/classificação , Infecções por Trematódeos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 238: 108426, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648722

RESUMO

Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1), a novel gammaherpesvirus of domestic cats identified in 2014, has been detected in different countries demonstrating a worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of FcaGHV1 in Italy using a molecular epidemiological approach. FcaGHV1 DNA was detected with virus-specific real-time PCR in ≃1% of 2659 feline blood samples tested. Analysis of risk factors showed that being male and coinfection with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) increase the likelihood of FcaGHV1 detection. One-third of FcaGHV1-positive cats also tested positive for FIV provirus, whereas coinfections with feline panleukopenia virus were not demonstrated. Further studies are necessary to confirm the risk factors for FcaGHV1 detection and the pathobiology of the virus.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina/complicações , Feminino , Gammaherpesvirinae/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/complicações , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/genética , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
9.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(6): 801-808, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650906

RESUMO

Feline progressive histiocytosis (FPH) is an uncommon and infrequently reported cutaneous histiocytic proliferative disorder, whose clinical presentation is solitary or multiple cutaneous nodules and papules, with late-course internal metastasis. We describe herein the clinical, epidemiologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of this entity, and document the outcome of FPH based on a retrospective study of 26 cases. Female and male cats were affected equally. Lesions were evident either as solitary (16 of 26 cases) or multiple (10 of 26 cases) nonpruritic and alopecic nodules or plaques, preferentially located on the legs and extremities (73%). Follow-up was complete for 19 cats, and ranged from 41 to 1,449 d. Nine died of FPH with a median overall survival of 96 d (range: 41-238 d). The disease recurred in 14 cats after surgical excision of the nodules, and the median disease-free survival was 175 d (range: 21-1,449 d). Five of the 26 cats were alive at the end of the study, and 4 had no progression of the disease. Histologically, lesions were characterized by poorly circumscribed, unencapsulated histiocytic infiltration of dermis and subcutis. Epitheliotropism was observed in 11 (42%) cats. Atypical histiocytes diffusely and consistently expressed MHC II, CD18, and Iba1. Statistically significant higher E-cadherin expression was observed in epitheliotropic cases compared to non-epitheliotropic cases. A negative correlation between overall survival and proliferation index was evident, thus suggesting Ki67 as a promising prognostic marker.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Histiocitose/veterinária , Antígeno Ki-67/sangue , Dermatopatias/veterinária , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Feminino , Histiocitose/diagnóstico , Histiocitose/epidemiologia , Histiocitose/patologia , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias/patologia
10.
Vet Ital ; 55(3): 241-245, 2019 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599548

RESUMO

This study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats in the area of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We examined 200 serum samples collected from stray and household cats for T. gondii antibodies by ELISA. The overall seroprevalence was 26%. Seroprevalence was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in stray cats (39%) compared with household cats (13%). The prevalence in male and female cats was 31.4% and 20.4%, respectively. The seroprevalence increased with age and was higher in cats over 6 years of age (43%) as opposed to cats less than 4 years old (33%). Seropositivity varied according to the breed. The highest was recorded among cats of American breed (38.5%), followed by Persian (27%), Himalayan (21%), Bengali (11.5%), and Siamese (2%). Antibodies were not reported from the Turkish breed. Overall seroprevalence among cats did not vary significantly with season or with the localities within the Riyadh municipality. We also examined 100 faecal samples from stray and household cats by flotation technique, which revealed an overall prevalence of 12% of T. gondii oocycts.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 449, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii infections and cases of clinical toxoplasmosis have been recorded in zoo animals. Wild felids in human care can serve as definitive hosts that shed oocysts, but also as intermediate hosts for the parasite. Some felid species, such as the Pallas's cat (Otocolobus manul) or sand cat (Felis margarita), may suffer from clinically apparent toxoplasmosis. In the present study, our main aim was to assess risk factors for T. gondii infections in small exotic felids. METHODS: A seroepidemiological study was conducted using the reduviid bug Dipetalogaster maxima for blood sample collection, a method previously evaluated on domestic cats. A total of 336 samples from 17 felid species were collected in 51 institutions, 48 of which were within Europe and the remaining three in the Middle East (United Arabic Emirates and Qatar). These samples were analyzed for T. gondii antibodies by immunoblotting and an immunofluorescent antibody test. Potential risk factors in zoos for seropositivity regarding T. gondii among members of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) were evaluated using a questionnaire and individual data from the Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS). RESULTS: The sampled felids showed an overall seroprevalence for T. gondii of 63%. The risk factor study including data of 311 small exotic cats of 10 species resulted in a final generalized linear mixed model comprised of five variables: the likelihood of seropositivity increased statistically significantly with "Age", while feeding "Cattle: frozen" relative to "Cattle: fresh", "Outdoor housing fenced in on all sides", "Mesh size 2-5 cm" relative to "Mesh size > 5 cm" and "Wearing gloves: yes" had statistically significant protective effects. CONCLUSIONS: Wild felids, including endangered species, kept in human care in European and Middle Eastern institutions, are widely exposed to T. gondii. Risk factor analysis revealed that feeding previously frozen tissues, keeping animals in enclosures that are fenced on all sides using fences with small mesh sizes, and wearing gloves when working inside enclosures seem to be the most relevant protective measures to prevent T. gondii infections in these animals .


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/parasitologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Felidae/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Gatos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
12.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(3): 299-300, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544411

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand Clonorchis sinensis infections in cats in Nanning City, so as to provide evidence for the control of the reservoir host of C. sinensis. METHODS: The cat livers were purchased from cat slaughterhouses in Nanning City. The cat gallbladder and liver were dissected, and liver flukes were collected and counted. Then, the worms were subjected to morphological observation, amplification of the ITS2 gene and sequencing. The species of the worms were identified using BLAST. RESULTS: A total of 105 cat livers were collected from two cat slaughterhouses, and 68 were detected with C. sinensis infections, with an infection rate of 64.76%. The highest burden was 980 worms in a single liver, and the mean burden was 72 worms in a liver. There were 3 types of liver flukes with various size and morphology, and all were identified as C. sinensis by means of morphological observation, ITS2 gene amplification, sequencing and sequence alignment. CONCLUSIONS: There is a high infection rate of C. sinensi in marketed cats in Nanning City, and it is therefore suggested that targeted interventions should be intensified for the management of C. sinensis infections in cats.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Clonorquíase , Clonorchis sinensis , Reservatórios de Doenças , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , China/epidemiologia , Clonorquíase/epidemiologia , Clonorquíase/parasitologia , Clonorquíase/veterinária , Clonorchis sinensis/anatomia & histologia , Clonorchis sinensis/genética , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Carga Parasitária , Prevalência
13.
Aust Vet J ; 97(10): 418-421, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556108

RESUMO

This study reports the prevalence of potential faecal pathogens in the microbiome detected in a cohort of cats and dogs with diarrhoea in Perth, Western Australia. Records from a commercial diagnostic laboratory using faecal PCR testing between July 2014 and August 2015 were reviewed.Of 289 feline faecal samples reviewed, Salmonella spp. (1.7%), Campylobacter spp. (47.6%), Clostridium perfringens (81.3%), Giardia spp. (11.1%), Toxoplasma gondii (1.2%), Tritrichomonas foetus (4.8%), panleukopenia virus (6.5%) and coronavirus (39.5%) were detected. In dogs, Salmonella spp. (5.4%), Campylobacter spp. (36.3%), C. perfringens (85.4%), Giardia spp. (6.2%), parvovirus (9.4%), coronavirus (4.7%) and distemper virus (1.5%) were detected.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
14.
Vet Microbiol ; 236: 108382, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500720

RESUMO

Feline morbillivirus (FeMV), a novel virus from the family of Paramyxoviridae, was first identified in stray cat populations. The objectives of the current study were to (i) determine the molecular prevalence of FeMV in Malaysia; (ii) identify risk factors associated with FeMV infection; and (iii) characterise any FeMV isolates by phylogenetic analyses. Molecular analysis utilising nested RT-PCR assay targeting the L gene of FeMV performed on either urine, blood and/or kidney samples collected from 208 cats in this study revealed 82 (39.4%) positive cats. FeMV-positive samples were obtained from 63/124 (50.8%) urine and 20/25 (80.0%) kidneys while all blood samples were negative for FeMV. In addition, from the 35 cats that had more than one type of samples collected (blood and urine; blood and kidney; blood, urine and kidney), only one cat had FeMV RNA in the urine and kidney samples. Risk factors such as gender, presence of kidney-associated symptoms and cat source were also investigated. Male cats had a higher risk (p = 0.031) of FeMV infection than females. In addition, no significant association (p = 0.083) was observed between the presence of kidney-associated symptoms with FeMV status. From the 82 positive samples, FeMV RNA was detected from 48/82 (58.5%) pet cats and 34/126 (27.0%) shelter cats (p < 0.0001). Partial L and N gene sequencing of the RT-PCR-positive samples showed 85-99% identity to the published FeMV sequences and it was significantly different from all other morbilliviruses. A phylogenetic analysis of the identified Malaysian FeMVs was performed with isolates from Japan, Thailand and China. Molecular characterisation revealed high relatedness of the Malaysian isolates with other Asian FeMVs, indicating that the virus had been circulating only within the region. Therefore, this study confirmed the existence of FeMV among domestic cats in Malaysia. The findings suggest further characterisation of the local isolates, including the whole genome sequencing and that studies at determining the direct consequences of FeMV infection in domestic cats are needed.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/virologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Morbillivirus/classificação , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Feminino , Nefropatias/veterinária , Nefropatias/virologia , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Morbillivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Morbillivirus/virologia , Filogenia
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 236: 108346, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500732

RESUMO

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a recently discovered emerging infectious disease. A zoonotic disease with a high fatality rate in human beings, clinical information on SFTS virus (SFTSV) infection in animals is important. Since 2017, we have diagnosed 24 client-owned cats living in western Japan with SFTS, by genetic and serological testing. In this study, we characterized the clinical features of SFTS in cats and their associated risk factors, by evaluating the clinical parameters retrospectively. A phylogenetic analysis on SFTSV was also conducted. There were no obvious tendencies in age or sex, outdoor cats were commonly at risk of SFTSV infection. All infected cats showed acute onset of clinical signs including anorexia and lethargy, while 68.2% of the cats showed fever and 41.7% showed vomiting. The case fatality rate was 62.5%. Thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and elevated serum total bilirubin, serum amyloid A, and creatinine phosphokinase concentration were the characteristic findings in the first clinical blood examination. Phylogenic analysis revealed that regional clustered viruses infect both humans and cats. For pet owners and animal hospitals, SFTS in small animals could be an important public health issue.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Phlebovirus/genética , Animais , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/patologia , Infecções por Bunyaviridae/virologia , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/patologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Feminino , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Filogenia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Viral
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 272: 13-16, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395199

RESUMO

Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea) is a worldwide occurring lungworm causing verminous pneumonia in cats. To date the Baermann method is the most used procedure to diagnose A. abstrusus infection by isolating first stage larvae from faeces, though its sensitivity and specificity can be impaired by several factors. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies against A. abstrusus has been recently developed as a diagnostic alternative. The present study evaluated the seroprevalence for A. abstrusus infection in cats from two endemic areas of Italy. Overall, 250 sera were sampled and tested for the presence of antibodies against A. abstrusus. Based on the results obtained from 20 cats proven to be infected by A. abstrusus using Baermann technique and molecular methods, and from 20 negative cats (Subset A), a cut off value of 0.347 optical density (OD) was determined, leading to a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 100%. Two-hundred and ten cats (142 and 68 from Abruzzo and Umbria regions, respectively) were included in Subset B (i.e. 202 negative by Baermann examination and 8 positive for Troglostrongylus brevior). Antibodies against A. abstrusus were detected in forty-five (21.4%, 95% CI: 16.1-27.6%) samples. This study confirms the occurrence of A. abstrusus in endemic areas of Italy and indicates that one-fifth of randomly selected cats have or had a lungworm infection with production of antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Metastrongyloidea , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Infecções por Strongylida/sangue , Infecções por Strongylida/epidemiologia
17.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 80-85, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446257

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum for which dogs are the main reservoir. In South America, presence of this disease is expanding along with increasing dispersion of its principal vector, the sand-fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Feline leishmaniasis is an emerging disease in domestic cats, but epidemiological studies in endemic areas of the Amazon region of Brazil are scarce and the role of cats as reservoirs of L. infantum has been debated. The aim of this study was to investigate L. infantum infection in cats living in the Amazon biome region, using serological and molecular methods. A total of 105 cats were subjected to clinical examination and blood samples were taken for immunofluorescent-antibody (IFAT) serological evaluation, to determine anti-Leishmania antibody titers. Conventional PCR and Sanger's sequencing targeting L. infantum chitinase and Leishmania species ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) encoding genes were performed on conjunctival swabs from these cats. Seropositivity was detected in 32 animals (30.48%), thus confirming that contact between these cats and the parasite was occurring. PCR followed by amplicon sequencing showed that three samples (2.86%) were positive for a chitinase gene and six (5.71%) were positive for the ITS-1 gene. Parasite-positive diagnoses presented a statistically significant association with free access to the streets (p = 0.0111), cohabitation with dogs affected previously by VL (p = 0.0006) and absence of backyard cleaning and garbage collection (p = 0.00003). These results emphasize that cats should be included in epidemiological surveys of leishmaniasis, especially in endemic areas, if not as the reservoir host (unproven), at least as a "sentinel host" that is useful for revealing situations of endemic circulation of L. infantum. Moreover, in these areas, feline leishmaniasis needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis among domestic cats presenting alopecia, rarefied hair, lacerations and ulcerative dermatitis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Cães , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
18.
Parasitol Res ; 118(10): 2979-2987, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435764

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an obligate intracellular protist-like fungi parasite that infects numerous mammal hosts including humans, raising concerns of zoonotic transmission. There is little information available on the presence and diversity of E. bieneusi genotypes in companion animals. Here, we determined the occurrence and genetic diversity of E. bieneusi in domestic dogs and cats from Northern Spain. A total of 336 genomic DNA samples extracted from canine (n = 237) and feline (n = 99) faecal specimens were retrospectively investigated. The presence of E. bieneusi was assessed by PCR of the rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene. The parasite was detected in 3.0% (3/99) and 0.8% (2/237) of the cats and dogs examined, respectively. All three feline positive samples were from stray cats living in an urban setting, whereas the two canine samples were from owned dogs living in rural areas. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of two genotypes in dogs, BEB6 and PtEb IX, and two genotypes in cats, D and Peru11. The identification of Peru11 in a cat and BEB6 in a dog constitutes the first report of those genotypes in such hosts as well as first report in Spain. This is also the first evidence of genotype D in cats and PtEb IX in dogs in Spain. Three out of the four genotypes, BEB6, D and Peru11, have been previously reported as human pathogens and are potentially zoonotic indicating that dogs and cats need to be considered potential sources of human infection and environmental contamination.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Enterocytozoon/genética , Variação Genética , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/parasitologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
19.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 66: 101344, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437677

RESUMO

Zoonotic Vector-Borne Diseases (VBDs) represent a relevant health issue for pets and humans. Italy is a major epidemiological hub for feline VBDs, because of suitable conditions for vector biology and disease transmission patterns. The present study investigated the exposure to major zoonotic arthropod-borne pathogens of cats in Italy, along with the evaluation of clinic-pathological features and a risk factor analysis. Out of 167 examined cats, 52 (31.1%) were seropositive for at least one vector-borne pathogen, being positivity for Bartonella henselae the most recorded (18%). Also, various cats seroreacted for Rickettsia felis (10.8%) and Rickettisa typhi (4.2%), Leishmania infantum (3%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.4%) and Ehrlichia canis (2.4%). Forty-six cats were tested also for antibodies against D. immitis and two (4.3%) scored positive. The statistical analysis showed a positive association between flea infestation and seropositivity to B. henselae, other than an association between the administration of monthly ectoparasiticide treatments and seronegativity for Rickettsia spp.; seropositive cats were older than negative animals and the lifestyle (i.e. indoor vs outdoor) was not correlated with exposure to vector-borne pathogens. The majority of seropositive cats appeared clinically healthy or showed aspecific clinical signs. Around 80% of seropositive cats had one or more biochemical and/or complete blood count abnormalities. The present data confirm the endemicity of zoonotic feline VBDs in Italy and indicate that awareness on arthropod infections and transmitted pathogens should be kept high and possible implemented, towards the protection of animal and human health with adequate surveillance plans.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Vetores de Doenças , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Bartonella/patogenicidade , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Ehrlichia canis/patogenicidade , Infestações por Pulgas/transmissão , Itália/epidemiologia , Rickettsia/patogenicidade , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
20.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 66: 101331, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437680

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, the genotypic diversity, the antimicrobial resistance traits of canine and feline clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) isolates in a diagnostic laboratory in Italy during 2015-2016. All isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC)-mec typing and staphylococcal protein A (spa)-typing. The resistance profiles were assessed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing and confirmed genotypically by the detection of mecA gene and by microarray analyses. The prevalence of MRSP isolates was high (31.6%). All the strains were multidrug resistant and the most frequent clone was ST71-SCCmec type II-III. These results confirm a high prevalence of MRSP amongst clinical samples from pets in Italy. These isolates show multidrug resistance features that are of concern both in veterinary and human medicine for clinical and epidemiological reasons.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Resistência a Meticilina , Animais de Estimação/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/veterinária , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Itália/epidemiologia , Meticilina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Prevalência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus/classificação , Staphylococcus/genética
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