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1.
J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) ; 30(3): 302-307, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe a case series of systemic lime sulfur toxicosis secondary to topical administration in 2 cats. CASE SUMMARY: Two cats from the same household that were being previously treated for Microsporum canis were presented following topical administration of an incorrectly diluted lime sulfur dip. A 30% solution was used rather than the recommended 3% solution, resulting in a 10-fold concentration overdose. The cats presented to the emergency service 1 hour after dermal application of the lime sulfur product at home. The first cat, a 2-year-old female, intact Cornish Rex, had severe hypotension, bradycardia, and hypothermia. Chemical burns were also present on the ventrum and paws. Clinicopathological data revealed profound acid-base disturbances, hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and azotemia. After aggressive fluid resuscitation, electrolyte supplementation, and treatment, the patient was stabilized and discharged after 5 days of hospitalization; full recovery was later reported. The second littermate, also a 2-year-old female, intact Cornish Rex, presented the following day with similar clinical signs, physical examination findings, and clinicopathological findings. After supportive care and 2 days of hospitalization, the patient was also discharged and reported to fully recover. NEW OR UNIQUE INFORMATION PROVIDED: This case series is the first to report systemic toxicosis secondary to dermal exposure of lime sulfur. As lime sulfur is commonly used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ectoparasites, veterinary professionals should be aware of the significant signs of poisoning that can be seen as a result of iatrogenic dosing errors by pet owners or veterinary professionals.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Sulfetos/efeitos adversos , Administração Tópica , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Feminino , Microsporum , Sulfetos/administração & dosagem , Sulfetos/uso terapêutico
2.
J Vet Intern Med ; 34(1): 29-34, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Steroids administered PO and intramuscularly are associated with development of congestive heart failure in cats without prior signs of heart disease, but criteria to identify cats at increased risk for steroid-induced heart failure are not established. HYPOTHESIS: Cats administered steroids PO for 5 to 7 days will develop increased N terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration and heart size. ANIMALS: Ten client-owned cats. METHODS: Observational cohort study. Cats intended to initiate at least a 5-day course of steroids administered PO were consecutively recruited. RESULTS: Steroids administered PO to cats are not associated with differences in absolute concentration of NT-proBNP (baseline: 49 pmol/L [range, 24-1013]; after steroids: 85 pmol/L [range, 46-1367]; P = .23), blood pressure (baseline: 145 mm Hg [range, 116-163]; after steroids: 145 mm Hg [range, 115-230]; P = .94), nor blood glucose concentration (baseline: 125 mg/dL [range, 92-254]; after steroids: 144 mg/dL [range, 114-307]; P = .43), but are associated with increased median left atrial dimension (baseline: 1.26 cm [range, 0.96-2.03; after steroids: 1.38 [range, 1.03-2.20]; P = .02) and mean left ventricular internal diameter (baseline: 1.55 cm [standard deviation-SD, 0.28; after steroids: 1.72 cm [SD, 0.28]; P = .03). Six of 10 (60%) cats had a percentile change in NT-proBNP >60% after steroids, and 3 of 8 (38%) cats with baseline BNP <100 pmol/L had an NT-proBNP >100 pmol/L after steroids. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Increased heart size and percentage change in individual NT-proBNP concentration suggests plasma volume expansion secondary to steroids administered PO in cats. A serial assessment of an individual cat's change in NT-proBNP might be clinically useful for judging risk for volume expansion.


Assuntos
Budesonida/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Ecocardiografia/veterinária , Insuficiência Cardíaca/veterinária , Prednisolona/efeitos adversos , Administração Oral , Animais , Budesonida/administração & dosagem , Budesonida/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Gatos , Esquema de Medicação , Insuficiência Cardíaca/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico
3.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(4): 476-486, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190341

RESUMO

Repeated administration of meloxicam can cause kidney damage in cats by mechanisms that remain unclear. Metabolomics and lipidomics are powerful, noninvasive approaches used to investigate tissue response to drug exposure. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of meloxicam on the feline kidney using untargeted metabolomics and lipidomics approaches. Female young-adult purpose-breed cats were allocated into the control (n = 4) and meloxicam (n = 4) groups. Cats in the control and meloxicam groups were treated daily with saline and meloxicam at 0.3 mg/kg subcutaneously for 17 days, respectively. Renal cortices and medullas were collected at the end of the treatment period. Random forest and metabolic pathway analyses were used to identify metabolites that discriminate meloxicam-treated from saline-treated cats and to identify disturbed metabolic pathways in renal tissue. Our results revealed that the repeated administration of meloxicam to cats altered the kidney metabolome and lipidome and suggest that at least 40 metabolic pathways were altered in the renal cortex and medulla. These metabolic pathways included lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate, nucleotide and energy metabolisms, and metabolism of cofactors and vitamins. This is the first study using a pharmacometabonomics approach for studying the molecular effects of meloxicam on feline kidneys.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Córtex Renal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Renal/efeitos dos fármacos , Meloxicam/efeitos adversos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Meloxicam/administração & dosagem , Metabolômica
4.
Toxicol Mech Methods ; 29(7): 518-530, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099292

RESUMO

In this study, an analytical strategy to identify brucine, strychnine, methomyl, carbofuran (alkaline compounds), phenobarbital, and warfarin (acid compounds) using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) screening with ultraviolet (UV) detection at 254 nm in stomach content is shown. The optimum mobile phase was found to be a chloroform: ethyl acetate: diethylamine (0.5:8.5:1) mixture for alkaline substances while a mixture of chloroform: acetone (9:1) has given better results for acidic substances. As for extraction, an equal proportion between distillated water and crude material (1:1) is required. For alkaline compounds, a filtration system was created in order to avoid any interferences from the biological matrix while for acidic compounds only centrifugation (4000 rpm/10 minutes) was required to obtain an appropriate sample. After the respective pretreatments, a one-step liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) has been employed for alkaline substances using a 3 mL of chloroform: ethyl ether (2:1) mixture for 2 min while acidic analytes used 3 mL of chloroform only during 5 min. For both methodologies described, the respective organic layers were dried down and re-suspended with 50 µL of methanol for further TLC plate application. The methodologies have been developed, successfully validated and applied to gastric contents from real case samples of suspected animal poisoning. Positive results from TLC/UV screening were confronted with HPLC-UV and confirmed by GC-MS.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/análise , Carbamatos/análise , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal/química , Fenobarbital/análise , Envenenamento/veterinária , Varfarina/análise , Alcaloides/envenenamento , Animais , Carbamatos/envenenamento , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Gatos , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Cães , Fenobarbital/envenenamento , Envenenamento/etiologia , Varfarina/envenenamento
5.
J Am Anim Hosp Assoc ; 55(3): e55302, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870606

RESUMO

Two cats were presented with multifocal neurological signs. One cat's signs progressed over 2 wk; the other cat progressed over 5 days. Examinations were consistent with a process involving the prosencephalon, vestibular system, and general proprioceptive/upper motor neuron systems. MRI of the brain and cervical spinal cord reveal widespread T2 hyperintensity of the white matter. Affected areas included the cerebrum, cerebral peduncles, corticospinal tracts of the pons and medulla, and the cerebellum. T2 hyperintensity was present in all funiculi of the spinal cord. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were consistent with cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema. Differential diagnosis included toxic or metabolic/degenerative leukoencephalopathies. Necropsies revealed widespread spongy degeneration of the central nervous system white matter. Toxicologic assays of liver specimens revealed desmethylbromethalin, a metabolite of bromethalin. Bromethalin is a rodenticide that causes uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. Antemortem diagnosis is challenging. DWI and ADC maps were instrumental in narrowing the differential diagnosis and raised the index of suspicion for bromethalin. Bromethalin intoxication should be considered in all animals with a progressive course of multifocal neurologic deficits. MRI, specifically, DWI and ADC maps, may serve as a biomarker of cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema associated with spongiform leukoencephalomyelopathy.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/toxicidade , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Rodenticidas/toxicidade , Animais , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Gato/patologia , Gatos , Feminino , Masculino
6.
Gut Microbes ; 10(4): 521-539, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709324

RESUMO

Reduction in antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal signs (AAGS) in people co-administered probiotics is believed to result from shifts in the microbiome and metabolome. Amelioration of AAGS in cats secondary to synbiotic administration has recently been demonstrated. Thus, the aim of this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to characterize associated changes in the fecal microbiome and metabolome. Sixteen healthy research cats received clindamycin with food, followed 1 h later by either a placebo or synbiotic, daily for 21 days. Fecal samples were collected during baseline, antibiotic administration, and 6 weeks after antibiotic discontinuation. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes was performed, and mass spectrometry was used to determine fecal metabolomic profiles. Results were compared using mixed-model analyses, with P < 0.05 considered significant. Alpha and beta diversity were altered significantly during treatment, with persistent changes in the Shannon and dysbiosis indices. The relative abundance of Actinobacteria (Adlercreutzia, Bifidobacterium, Collinsella, Slackia), Bacteroidia (Bacteroides, Prevotella), Ruminococcaceae (Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus), Veillonellaceae (Megamonas, Megasphaera, Phascolarctobacterium) and Erysipelotrichaceae ([Eubacterium]) decreased and relative abundance of Clostridiaceae (Clostridium) and Proteobacteria (Enterobacteriaceae) increased during treatment, followed by variable return to baseline relative abundances. Derangements in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), bile acid, tryptophan, sphingolipid, polyamine, benzoic acid, and cinnaminic acid pathways occurred with significant group by time, group, and time interactions for 10, 5, and 106 metabolites, respectively. Of particular note were changes related to polyamine synthesis. Further investigation is warranted to elucidate the role of these alterations in prevention of AAGS in cats, people, and other animals treated with synbiotics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Clindamicina/toxicidade , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Simbióticos , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Clindamicina/administração & dosagem , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Disbiose/prevenção & controle , Disbiose/veterinária , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Masculino , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem
7.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(2): 862-867, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30663796

RESUMO

A 12-year-old, neutered female, domestic medium hair cat was evaluated for a nonhealing, oral mucosal ulceration. The cat had a history of idiopathic hypercalcemia that had been treated with a bisphosphonate for 41 months. Oral examination identified exposed maxillary bone adjacent to a previous extraction site. Histopathology of the exposed bone and associated mucosa was most consistent with medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. Treatment involved both medical and surgical interventions. Oral mucosal healing occurred after 6 months of treatment.


Assuntos
Alendronato/efeitos adversos , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Alendronato/uso terapêutico , Animais , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/patologia , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/terapia , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Hipercalcemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercalcemia/veterinária , Úlceras Orais/etiologia , Úlceras Orais/veterinária
8.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 253(10): 1328-1333, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30398424

RESUMO

CASE DESCRIPTION Three 21-week-old sexually intact female sibling domestic shorthair cats were brought to an emergency clinic because of signs of sudden respiratory distress that were noted by the owner after the cats had been confined for approximately 10 hours in a room with an operating ozone-generating air purifier. No other potential toxicant exposures were reported. CLINICAL FINDINGS On initial examination, the 3 cats were severely dyspneic and tachypneic. Pulmonary crackles were audible on thoracic auscultation. Thoracic radiography revealed a marked peribronchial, unstructured interstitial pulmonary pattern that coalesced to a patchy alveolar pattern, consistent with noncardiogenic pulmonary edema. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME A diuretic (furosemide, 2 mg/kg [0.9 mg/lb], IV) and bronchodilator (terbutaline sulfate, 0.01 mg/kg [0.005 mg/lb], IM) were administered, and supplemental oxygen was provided by placing the cats in an oxygen cage at 80% oxygen saturation. By 24 hours after placement in the oxygen cage, all cats had unremarkable respiratory rates and thoracic auscultation findings. Complete resolution of the respiratory signs and radiographic pulmonary lesions was achieved within 48 to 72 hours after initial evaluation. At a recheck examination performed 3 months after initial evaluation, the cats remained free of respiratory signs, and no radiographic pulmonary lesions were detected. CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this was the first reported case of pulmonary toxicosis believed to have been caused by ozone exposure in cats. Associated respiratory signs were successfully and rapidly reversed following oxygen supplementation and medical treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Ozônio/toxicidade , Edema Pulmonar/veterinária , Animais , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Furosemida/uso terapêutico , Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Edema Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Edema Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Terbutalina/uso terapêutico
9.
J Am Anim Hosp Assoc ; 54(6): 327-337, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272479

RESUMO

Opportunistic fungal infections have long been recognized as rare causes of disease in immunocompetent dogs and cats. Recently, the escalating use of multiagent immunosuppression protocols (especially those that include cyclosporine) has resulted in an increased number of patients with opportunistic fungal infection encountered by small animal practitioners and has altered the typical case phenotype. Based on histologic and cytologic features such as pigmentation, hyphal diameter, and distribution in tissue, these opportunistic mycoses can be placed into categories such as phaeohyphomycosis, hyalohyphomycosis, and eumycotic mycetoma. This review aims to summarize the clinical presentations, methods for diagnosis, treatment recommendations, and prognosis for both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients with opportunistic fungal infections. An example case description is included to illustrate the most common current clinical presentation.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Micoses/veterinária , Infecções Oportunistas/veterinária , Animais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Tamanho Corporal , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico
10.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 48(6): 1069-1079, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342563

RESUMO

This article provides a display table laying out the differential diagnosis of common acute toxicologic versus nontoxicologic illnesses in small animals. Major clinical abnormalities are listed, along with common toxicologic rule outs and nontoxicologic rule outs. Further readings are also provided.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Envenenamento/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Cães , Envenenamento/diagnóstico
11.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 48(6): 1081-1085, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342564

RESUMO

This article provides a quick source of information for practicing veterinarians for using various antidotes in small animal poisoning cases. For easy access, this information is included in the form of a table. The first column includes common names and/or brand names of different antidotes. In the second column, names of different toxicants or indications for which these antidotes can be used are described. The third column is the comment section that briefly describes salient points or cautions for using these antidotes.


Assuntos
Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Envenenamento/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Cães , Envenenamento/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 48(6): 1087-1102, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342565

RESUMO

Pet exposure to marijuana-containing products-both recreational and medicinal-along with exposure to extracts such as cannabidiol is increasing in conjunction with greater accessibility. Cannabis products are even sold for use in pets. In addition, exposure to illegal synthetic cannabinoids remains concerning. Veterinarians need to be able to recognize associated clinical signs and understand when cases have the potential for severity. This article provides a brief history of cannabis along with a review of the endocannabinoid system, common cannabis products, expected clinical signs, and medical treatment approaches associated with cannabis exposure in pets.


Assuntos
Canabidiol/toxicidade , Canabinoides/toxicidade , Cannabis/toxicidade , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Envenenamento/veterinária , Animais , Canabidiol/farmacologia , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Envenenamento/diagnóstico , Envenenamento/terapia , Estados Unidos
13.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 48(6): 917-931, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173926

RESUMO

Commercial pet foods are usually safe, but incidents of contamination can have a devastating impact on companion animals and their owners. There are numerous possible contaminants ranging from natural contaminants to nutrient imbalances to chemical adulteration, making it impossible to predict what will cause the next pet food recall. Veterinarians involvement with pet food recalls includes examining and treating affected animals, documentation and sample collection, and communicating with pet food manufacturers and regulatory agencies.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/toxicidade , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Contaminação de Alimentos , Recall e Retirada de Produto , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Autopsia/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Animais de Estimação , Papel Profissional , Controle Social Formal , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration , Médicos Veterinários
14.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 48(6): 1027-1038, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173927

RESUMO

This article focuses on the 3 most commonly used rodenticide types: anticoagulants, bromethalin, and cholecalciferol. It is important to verify the active ingredient in any rodenticide exposure. Many owners use the term D-con to refer to any rodenticide regardless of the brand or type of rodenticide. The Environmental Protection Agency released their final ruling on rodenticide risk mitigation measures in 2008 and all products sold had to be compliant by June 2011, changing to consumer products containing either first-generation anticoagulants or nonanticoagulants, including bromethalin and cholecalciferol. These regulations have caused an increase in the number of bromethalin and cholecalciferol cases.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/toxicidade , Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Rodenticidas/toxicidade , Compostos de Anilina/toxicidade , Animais , Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Colecalciferol/toxicidade , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Vitamina K/uso terapêutico
15.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 48(6): 959-968, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30172446

RESUMO

Amphetamines and the nonamphetamine atomoxetine are commonly used in the treatment of attention-deficit disorder/attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in humans. Because these medications are often found in homes, dog and cat exposure to these medications is a common intoxication. Amphetamine intoxication can cause life-threatening central nervous system and cardiovascular stimulation, even when small amounts are ingested.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Captação Adrenérgica/efeitos adversos , Anfetaminas/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Atomoxetina/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores da Captação Adrenérgica/farmacocinética , Anfetaminas/farmacocinética , Animais , Cloridrato de Atomoxetina/farmacocinética , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Humanos , Prognóstico
16.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 48(6): 943-957, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139544

RESUMO

The widespread use and availability of calcium channel blockers in human and veterinary medicine pose a risk for inadvertent pet exposure to these medications. Clinical signs of toxicosis can be delayed by many hours after exposure, with lethargy, hypotension, and cardiac rhythm changes as the predominant signs. Prompt decontamination and aggressive treatment using a variety of modalities may be necessary to treat patients exposed to calcium channel blockers. The prognosis of an exposed patient depends on the dose of the ingested calcium channel blockers, promptness of decontamination and other treatment measures, severity of clinical signs, and response to treatment.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Antídotos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Prognóstico
17.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 48(6): 991-1012, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30139545

RESUMO

Overdoses of macrocyclic lactones in dogs and cats can result in such signs as tremors, ataxia, seizures, coma, and blindness. Dogs with the ABCB1-1Δ gene defect are predisposed to macrocyclic lactone toxicosis at lower dosages than dogs without the defect. Intravenous lipid emulsion therapy has been suggested for treatment of macrocyclic lactone toxicosis but evidence of efficacy is limited. Initial decontamination and supportive care remain the mainstays of therapy for macrocyclic lactone toxicosis.


Assuntos
Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/farmacologia , Anti-Helmínticos/toxicidade , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Macrolídeos/toxicidade , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Animais , Doenças do Gato/genética , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/genética , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Genótipo , Ivermectina/farmacocinética , Ivermectina/toxicidade , Lactonas , Macrolídeos/farmacocinética , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/terapia , Convulsões/veterinária
18.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 48(6): 1053-1067, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30077439

RESUMO

Ingestion of poisonous mushrooms by small animals can lead to liver failure, neurotoxicity, or gastrointestinal irritation. Although amanita poisoning can be lethal, ingestion of other toxic mushrooms is generally self-limiting and not life threatening. Most cases are undiagnosed, as routine diagnostic tests only exist for amanitins and psilocin. Early detection of amanitin exposure can greatly aid in the therapeutic intervention by allowing veterinarians to make timely decisions regarding patient management. Treatment is generally supportive, but specific therapeutic measures exist for amanitin and psilocin exposures.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Gato/terapia , Gatos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Eméticos/uso terapêutico , Gastroenteropatias/induzido quimicamente , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias/veterinária , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/diagnóstico , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/fisiopatologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/terapia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/veterinária
20.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 48(6): 969-984, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149968

RESUMO

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used for their antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties. Although most NSAIDs consist of a range of pharmacologically active agents with diverse chemical structures and properties, they have similar therapeutic and adverse effects associated with their use. Each year, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Animal Poison Control Center (APCC) receives hundreds of cases involving acute accidental ingestion/overdose of NSAIDs in dogs and cats. This article provides an overview on the classification, uses, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms of action, and treatment of the most commonly encountered NSAIDs in dogs and cats.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Doenças do Gato/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacocinética , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/fisiopatologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães
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